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2(1)

2014

ISSN 1829-3980

2(1), 2014
Journal of Genocide Studies

2013

2(1), 2014

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. (+374 10) 39 09 81, . handes@genocide-museum.am

, 2014

2(1), 2014



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:


1878-1914.
,
,
,
1,5 ,
1:
2 18781914.
, .
, , : , ,
-
:


. h 1913-14.
,
3
:

1
, McCarthy Justin, Armenian Terrorism: History as a Poison and Antidote, Louisville University, Kentucky, USA, Proceedings of Symposium on International Terrorism, Ankara University Press, 1984,
91:
2
:
( ),
(), (), ():

, , , , , ,
, ,
:
,

( , . 2, -, ,
., 1995, 239-242):
3


( .,
1914-1915
, , , 2000, 207-224):

31

. 1878-1914.
16- 4: 19- 30-60- .
: 1875.
, -, , , () 5:
1877-78. -
,
:
1880- . 4 , 20
142 : 1) . 7
, , , , , , 2) ,
, , , 3)
. , , (), , 4)
, , ,
6:
1888. , ,
,
(1890- . ):
7:

. 1) . 9
, , , , , , ,
. 2) , 5- , , (
), . 3) , ,
, 8:
8 , 1)
( , , ,
). 2) (
, , ). 3)
( ). 4)
( ). 5)
( ). 6) (
). 7) () (
). 8) (
)9:

4
1533. , 1864 .
:
5
Krikorian Mesrob K, Armenians in the Service of the Ottoman Empire: 1860-1908, Routledge &
Kegan Paul, London, 1977 39:
6
., , , 1891, 13:
7
Birken A., Die Provinzen des Osmanischen Reiches, Wiesbaden, Reichert, 1976, 147:
8
., , . , ,
, 1913, 11:
9
., , , ,
, , , . ,
. . -, 1911, 261:

32

2(1), 2014

.

1878-1914.
.
1. 1880. 49,599 ( )10:
2. 1887. 106,768 11:
3. 1881/82-1893. 109,808 12:
4. 1906. 118,169 13:
5. 1914. 136,618 14:
1.
1878-1914.15
1887.
.

1881/82-1893.
.

h.

1906.
.

1914.
.

67,792

44,591 36,342 80,933 39,926 37,788

77,714

97,744

31,091

9,926

9,334

19,260 12,161 11,481

23,642

25,462

7,885

5,228

4,387

9,615

4,183

3,740

7,923

13,412

5,002

3,888

8,890

106,768

109,808

118,169

136,618


: ,
,
20%-16:
British Documents on Ottoman Armenians, vol. 2, Ankara, Trk Tarih kurumu,1983, 129:
1887 . British Consular Trade Report ,
. , 7%- ( ..., .
, .2, , . , 1910, 532):
12
Karpat Kemal H., Ottoman population 1830-1914: Demographic and Social Characteristics, Wisconsin, The University of Wisconsin Press, 1985, 124: 6,730 ,
1,940 ( ):
13
, 162. 6,870 , 1,989:
14
, 170. 8,720 , 2,241:
15
:
16
, ,
1914. 163,218-
( McCarthy Justin, Muslims and Minorities. The Population of Ottoman Anatolia and the End of the Empire,
N.Y. University Press, 1983, 77): , :
10
11

33

,


: 1914.
1915. 30-
17:
2.

,%

1915.

1914.

10,046

12,914

28,5

556

655

17,8

904

1,111

22,8

3,195

6,034

88,8

4,202

7,732

84,0

18,903

28,446

50,4

, ,

,
50%- ,
:
.

1. .

1878-1914.
:
, . 1878-80.
, 1880.
17
, , (, , .) 1914-1915., , "", 1915, 68:

34

2(1), 2014


, 134,000 18
(1881. ` 136,147
)19:
1902.

20:
203,400 21:
1912.


, 1882
1912. :
1882. 280,00022, 1912.
215,000 23:

1913-14.:
24 202,389 25:
110,000, 10,000, 1,000,
10,000, 3,000 ( British documents..., 83): .
1878-80.

: . 31,200, 3,000,
8,350, 12,000, 18,000, 13,000, 6,500,
() 1,100 ( ., , .2, , .,
1982, 479-514):
19
118,763, 9,056, 659, (
) 7,669 ( ,
( . i (26 1912 .-10 1914
.), , , 1915, 273):
20
1906.
( van den Steen de Jehay F., De
La Situation Legale des Sujets Ottomans Non-Musulmans, Bruxelles, Oscar Schepens & Co, 1906, 51 (
)), 1910 . :
21
190,000, 9,500, 3,900 (
., . ., 261):
22
( Population Armenienne
da la Turquie avant la Guerre. Statistics etablies par le Patriarcat Armenien de Constantinople, 1920, 9):
23
, , ., . , 1922, 261 (
3):
24
1913-14.
:
( Kevorkian Raymond H., Paboudjian Paul B., Les Armeniens dans lEmpire Ottoman a la veille du genocide. Editions dArt et dHistoire ARHIS, Paris, 1992):
25
, 59, 417-460: 1913 .
( 12-31), ( .,
, , , , , 1925, 86):
1914.
. :
1914 . , -
: . 196,230,
18

35

3.
, 1878-1914.

1880.

1882.

1902-10.

1912.

1914.

152,500

163,000

138,526

35,700

32,000

37,612

15,200

20,000

26,251

136,147

280,000

203,400

215,000

202,389


(203,000-215,000 )
1,5 (136,618 )
,
,
26:
2.



, , . , -
:
` 1879.
170,000 27:
1880. 15-
, 17,900
28: ,

5,723- ( ., . 1914 , . i . . , 1914, 68).


.
(2,821 ) - 200,278 :
. .
1913-14. ( ., . ., 221):
26
,
,
1878-80. 1913-14. :
:
27
., , ., . .. , 1911, 49 (
4):
28
, , 1880., 15/27 ( 4):

36

2(1), 2014

29:

,
,
:
8, 5-6 , 7
30:
. 1880.
176,490 31:
32 ,
, 33
:
1890. ,

. , ` 420,000
34:
1912. , - ,
,
1909.
: -

: -
159,593 35:

:
, 1881., 5/17: 1880- .


: ,
(1881.) 17,200 , 10,600,
5,100 1,500 : ,

,
( ., , , 1882, h. 40,
291: British documents..., 131):
31
., , , .
. . , 1881, 29-35 ( 4):
32
:
33
,
, ,
, :
34
.., , , . . , 1890,
44 ( 4): ,
, ,
1878 1889 ,
,

( , ):
35
-, , , , . , 1912, 226-227
( 4):
29
30

37

4. 1878-1914.

1879.,
.

120,000

50,000

170,000

1880.,
.

12,800
()36

1,500
()37

3,600
()38

17,900
()

1880.,
.

89,916

10,354

76,220

176,490

30,000

420,000

16,681

159,593

1890.,
.
1909., -

390,000
117,817

25,095



- ,
37:
,
,
:
.




() , :

:
.
134,967 40:
(, , , ) 84 , 7000 ,
22 , 900 , 34 , 1500 , 43 , 1200 ,
64 , 2200 :
37
33 :
38
35 , 2500 , 26 , 1100 :
39
, , - ,
( ,
, ), ,
:
40
Cuinet V., La Turquie d Asie, v.1, Paris, Ernest Leroux editeur, 1892, 137 (
5).
( Documents diplomatiques: affaires armniennes; projets de reforme dans lEmpire
ottoman 1893-1897, Paris, Imprimerie nationale, 1897, 1-8):
36

38

2(1), 2014


1880-90- .

1895.
41: , ,
134,902 , 10,000-
, 905- 42:


: ,
. 1912. 19- ,

210,000 43:
1914. 200,000 44:
5.
(1878-1914.)

1892.

1895.

1912.

1914.

89,944

104,006

34,51845

24,896

10,505

6,000

134,967

134,902

210,000

200,000

. .
,
,

: ,

30100%-:
CAB 37/38/26 (Report on the population of Asia Minor and the Turkish Provinces to the eastward,
compiled by Colonel William Everett, C.M.G., Assistant Adjutant-General, Intelligence Division, War Office,
formerly Her Majestys Consul for Kurdistan, May 11, 1895):
42
29,272
( , 23):
43
..., 275:
44
. . , . , , . ., .
., . - , 1915, 5:
45
:
41

39

.


` 1914.
,
, ,

1916.
1917. 46:
1.
1.1.
` 1913-14. `
43 37,480 (6,355 )47:
,
: ,
48 1916.
37
( ) 35,578 49:


1917.

50
:


1913-14. ,

:
46
1916. 1917. ,

,
/ :

:
47
Kevorkian, Paboudjian, . ., 429, 2,470 , 11,735
: 1913-14.
( ., . ., 86-90) - ( -,
. , , , 1957, 3):
48
1916
: 1917 . :
( , . ., 499):
49
, . 57, . 5, . 142, . 36-41: ,


: ,
,
230,000 , 1917- 32,000- ( , . 28):
50
, 1916-17.


:

, ,
, (
: : ,
. , I, , ., , 2012, 4):

40

2(1), 2014

6.

1913-14.

51

1916.

1917.
52

27

170

200

25

235

45

350

550

48

500

74

704

700

76

650

75

637

800

75

840

45

660

1,000

695

66

635

800

85

1,080

317

2,600

5,000

300

5,000

30

240

300

26

350

120

1,210

2,000

196

2,225

10

148

1,160

1,900

180

2,050

11

25

170

240

25

240

12

56

449

715

75

700

13

200

1,625

3,000

250

2,700

14

40

403

600

40

520

15

27

180

250

35

260

16

90

900

1,000

80

750

17

200

1,580

4,000

300

3,000

1,585

13,673

23,055

1,816

21,795


, 20%-
, () 60, (
Kevorkian, Paboudjian, . ., 429-433:
: :
, . , III, , , ,
, , , ., , 2012,
414-419:
51

52

41

) 68%-: , ,
8.6 , 12 53:
,
53,000 , 18,000-
54, 35,000- 55:
1.2.
1913-14. 25
2,732 21,382 56:


:
1. 34 25,000 57,
2. 1915. . .
27 2,915 58,
3. . ` 34 , 2,991 22,344 59:

, 22,000 60:
1.3.
1913-14.
51 19,859 61:
.

(
)
: , ,
300 , 3,000 ( ., , , , 1972, 68),
` 1913-14. 230 , 2,066 :
54
., , ,
., 1967, 342:
55
, , 1914.
34,542 ( Karpat, . ., 170):
- (1909.) 51 5,268
34,376 ( -, . ., 173, 226):
. :
6-, 7-:
56
Kevorkian, Paboudjian, . ., 434: ,
1915 , , 1985, 546-547:
57
., () , New York, Yeprad press, 1943, 11, 14-15:
58
, 1915, , 463: - 5-
1915. 28- 3,222
( ., , - ,
1965, N1, 89):
59
-, 1916, N 15, 9:
60
1914. 7,779 (Karpat, .
., 170):
61
Kevorkian, Paboudjian, . ., 435-437: , . ., 545-546:
53

42

2(1), 2014

( 1902.) 56 (
) 25,000 62:
- (1909.) 50 2,676
, 18,705 63:

191617. .
1.
1917.
, 1908. 27,000
64:
2. ,
4,537 33,177 65:
3. ,
49 33,336
, 4,981 (28,963 ) 752
(4,373 )66:
4. 1916. 5- 51
3,535 25,685
67:
,
25,500 68:
1.4.
1913-14. 41
11,690 69:
. (1902.) (
) 38
15,000 70:
, 1913-14.
,
:
1917.
1000- ( ., . ., 261):
-, . ., 192: :
7 :
64
, . 57, . 5, . 126, . 8: ( ) , 1908-

( ):
65
..., h. III, 123-148: .,
19- , ,
N1 (101), 2003, 178:
66
, 157-158: :
67
, . 57, . 5, . 161, . 8-9 ( ):
,
25,500 ( -, . ., 3):
68
1914. 13,621 (
Karpat, . ., 170):
69
Kevorkian, Paboudjian, . ., 437-438: . , . ., 546-547:
70
., . ., 261:
62

63

43


71: ,
1.
2,004 20,272 72.
2. 37
23,519 73:
,

1,5-2 ,
1913-14. :

,
18,000 74:
1.5.
1913-14. 30
2,685 75 17,914 76:
. (1902.) (
) 30
17,000 77:
1913-14.
, , :
1917. .
1. 30
18,296 78:
2. 1917.


20,365 (2,600 )79:

18,000 80:
( , . 57, . 5, . 159):
, . 11-12: :
73
, . 5-10: :
74
1914. 7,401 ( Karpat, .
., 170):
- (1909.) 31 1,304 `
9,128 ( -, . ., 190): -
:
75
, . ., 546:
76
, . ., 68: 2,102 ( -),
17,060 ( Kevorkian, Paboudjian, . ., 439):
77
., . ., 261:
78
, . 57, . 5, . 165,. 4-5:
:
79
450 , 2,500 ( , .57, .5, .146, .2):
:
80
., , , ., 1954, 15:
71
72

44

2(1), 2014


, 18,500
81:
1.6.
1913-14. 17
459 , 2,602 82:
1913-14.
83, :
, , , 5,6 ,
(6-8 ):


7-,
3,200 :
1.7.
- 13 405 2,829
84:
1913-14.
3,520 85:

, , 1913-14.
,
3,500 86:
1.8.
1913-14. 13
8,136 (1,597 )87:

81
1914-
12,025 ( Karpat, . ., 170):
- (1909.) 2,102 ` 14,314 ( -,
. ., 190): - :
82
Kevorkian, Paboudjian, . ., 442: .
- 2,624 ( , . ., 68):
83
1914 .
2,920 ( Karpat, . ., 170):
- (1909.) 18 446 3,122
. ( -, .
., 197):
84
, 226: - .
- (.1-2, , 1903-1905): .
- ( Kevorkian, Paboudjian, . ., 439):
85
, . ., 68:
86
1914- 1,223 ,
507- , 716- ( Karpat, . ., 170):
87
Kevorkian, Paboudjian, . ., 446-447, ` , . ., 68:

45

,
, ()
88:
,
( ,
)` 9 1915-
978 ` 6,906 ( 850 , 6,293)89,
250 , 1,750 ( 70 , 350 )90,
170 , 1,190 ( 120 , 600 )91:
, 1913-14.

10,00092:
, 1916.
1-

, 2-3 :
7.

1913-14.

1917.

93

37

432

900

12

57

195

550

` ,
11,000-12,000 94:
1913-14.
,
,
:
89
. ., . ., , ,
. , 1964, 17-64 (
):
90
, 83:
91
, 89:
92
, . ., 545:
93
, . 57, . 5, . 139, . 39:
94
1914.
6,193 , 908- , 5,285- ( Karpat, . ., 170):
- (1909.) 6 13 (9-
) 1,092
7,644 ( -, . ., 199, 226):
:
88

46

2(1), 2014

1.9. ()
1913-14.
748 (103 )95:

( 750 )96:
1.10.
. (1902.) 30 , 10,500 97:
- (1909.) 57 1,772
12,404 98:
1913-14.
57 16,740 99:

,
,
:
25%, 1,5-2
( 8)100:
8.

1913-14.

101

1,075

1,434

1,298

1,308

978

1,149

29

35

Kevorkian, Paboudjian, . ., 449, , . ., 68, , . ., 546:


1914. 556 ( Karpat, . .,
170):
97
., . ., 261:
98
-, . ., 179-180, 226: - ( )
: 7 :
99
Kevorkian, Paboudjian, . ., 449-451, , . ., 68:
100
1913-14. 1915.

. ( ., . ., 216):
101
..., 44-45:
95

96

47

()

810

1,076

312

480

390

446

608

777

456

815

10

540

680

6,496

8,200

,
21,000:
1913-14. 25%- 102:
2.
2.1.
1913-14.
38 25,795 103:



:
1. .
30 4,140
, 8 33,120
104:
2. 1916.
30 1,775 17,200
, 3,000 15,000 105:
3. 1917.
4,631 , 34,994 106:

102
1914.
10,046 ( Karpat, . ., 170):
103
2,021 , 13,109 ( Kevorkian, Paboudjian, . .,
59): . - 23,902 (, . ., 68):
, . ., 545:
104
., , , . -, 1947, 72-73:
105
, . 57, . 5, . 123, . 40-67:
:

:
106
30 ( , . 57, . 5, . 164, . 9-12):

48

2(1), 2014

,
31,000-32,000 107:
2.2.
1913-14. 4
85 , 862 108:
,
900 109:
2.3.
` 1913-14. 15
693 , 6,396 110:
. (1902.) 111 (19
) 10,000 112:
, . 1913-14.
, 1913-14.
:


1917. 14- ,
12 683 ` 7,069 113:
114 ( 1,000 )
, 8,000 (
9)115:

1914.
16,144 ( Karpat, . ., 170):
- 2,524 , 16,168 ,
1,500 , 9,000 (1 6 ), 31 1,024
, 7,168 (1 7 ): -
, . (1903-1905.),
1880. ( -,
. ., 223, 226):
( , ()
() ) 37 25,000
( ., . ., 260):
108
Kevorkian, Paboudjian, . ., 455: , . ., 545: .
568 (, . ., 68): - :
109
1914- 511 (
Karpat, . ., 170):
110
Kevorkian, Paboudjian, . ., 456, , . ., 545: .
5,609 (, . ., 68):
111
:
112
., . ., 261:
113
, . 57, . 5, . 163, . 1-2:
114
:
115
1914 . 4,741
, 144- ( Karpat, . ., 170):
- ( ) 12
, 630 , 4,781 ( -, . ., 225):
107

49

9.

1913-14.

1917.

116

50

248

52

500

64

25

240

20

116

58

438

10

85

12

89

42

462

50

450

46

430

48

450

39

312

30

300

82

627

105

735

10

75

856

110

1560

11

150

1538

196

2175

12

20

240

30

425

13

()

500

14

26

210

24

205

623

6,186

683

7,069

2.4. ()
1913-14. 3
1,570 (150 )117:
3
450 118:

1913-14.
300 8-
2,500 119:
, . 57, .5, .163, . 1-2:
Kevorkian, Paboudjian, . ., 456: . 1,566 (,
. ., 68):
118
, . ., 545:
119
1914- 1,270
( Karpat, . ., 170):
116
117

50

2(1), 2014

2.5. ()
1913-14.
2,989 (489 )120:

1913-14.
1917.
121,
1919. 6- 122 (
10):
10.

1913-14.

1909.
-

1917.

(
)

1919.

(
)

46

226

44

50

236

80

320

25

119

21

25

250

20

70

70

95

688

93

90

600

241

1,307

350

246

300

1,650

350

2,800

10

60

74

579

150

76

80

1,430

120

700

489

2,989

506

487

455

3,566

670

4,550

1917. 123
( 100 , 750 )
4,200 124:
-, , 3
139 , 1,421 ( -, . ., 224):
120
Kevorkian, Paboudjian, . ., 456: . 2,989
( , . ., 68): 3
506 ( , . ., 545):
121
, , . 57, . 5, . 162, . 4-5:
122
, . 1388, .1, .1, .19:
123
, , :
124
1914- 2,649
( Karpat, . ., 170):
- 6 487 2,725 (
-, . ., 225):
:

51

3.
3.1.
1913-14. 5
477 , 4,886 125:
1914-15.
.
1. . 126 6 498 `
4,582 127:
2. . 128 510 129:
, ,
5,000 130:
3.2.
1913-14. 8
1,649 131:
. 11
212 , 1,798 132: . 8 , 510 133:
,
1,750 134:
Kevorkian, Paboudjian, . ., 458, , . ., 547 ( ):
. 3,450 (, . ., 68):
126
,
, 20 , , ,
, :
127
. . ( ., . ., 217):
128
. ,
1913-14. :
129
, 1915. -, 168-169:
130
1914- 2,619
( Karpat, . ., 170):
- 560 3,920 ,
350 , 2,450 (1 6 ), 3
210 , 1,470 (1 7 ) ( -, . ., 206, 226):
. :
, 1913-14. .
, 4,735-4,805
( ., . ., 217):
131
Kevorkian, Paboudjian, . ., 459, , . ., 547 ( ): .
1,229 ( , . ., 68):
132
., . ., 218:
133
, 1915. -, 168-169 ( , (510 )
):
134
1914- 904 ( Karpat, .
., 170):
- ( )
7 156 1,092 (1 7
) ( -, . ., 210, 226):
. 1,880 (
., . ., 217):
125

52

2(1), 2014

3.3.
1913-14. 12
960 , 9,914 135:
,
. .
: . 1914-
11 1,489 , 12,577
136: 1,178137:
,
11,000-12,000 138:
3.4.
1913-14. 12
763 , 8,180 139:
. 15
830 , 6,828 140, . 510
141:
,
,
8,000 142:
3.5. ()
1913-14. 20
1,624 143:

Kevorkian, Paboudjian, . ., 460, , . ., 547: .


( ) 6,765 ( , . ., 68):
136
., . ., 219:
137
, 1915. -, 168-169:
138
1914. ` 5,624 , 1,393 , 29- (
Karpat, . ., 170):
- (1909.) 12 840 ` 5,880
, ( ) 200 , 1,400 , 11
` 640 , 4,480 ( -, . ., 226):
. 12,013-12,015 :
139
320 , 2,250 ( Kevorkian, Paboudjian, . .,
459, , . ., 547 ( ):
140
., . ., 218:
141
, 1915. -, 168-169:
142
1914 . 3,195
, 18 ( Karpat, . ., 170):
- ( , 1909.)` 10
624 4,368 , 350
, 2,450 (1 6 ), 9 274 , 1,918
(1 7 ) ( -, . ., 212, 226):
.
7,540-7,580 :
143
- .
8 ( Kevorkian, Paboudjian, . ., 460):
. 1,274 ( , . ., 68):
135

53

. 1914- 18
287 1,938 144:
,
1,800 145:
, ,
28,000 :
:
: ,
.
,
2,879 : ,
, 12 ,
34,548
146:
: ,

251,600
( 11)147:
1914. 25%-`
1913-14. 148:

1912- 215,000,
230,000 :
., . ., 218:
1914- 1,070 ( Karpat, .
., 1 70):
- (1909.)` 22 203 ` 1,421
( -, . ., 217, 226): - ,
:
.
2,580-2,665 ( ):
146
, 1915. -, 169:
, 1913-14. (26,251 )
(2,736) 9 ,
:
147
+/-3%:
148
,
: ,
, .
. , ,
199,568 ( 135,068,
48,500, 16,000 ( Karajian Sarkis J., An Inquiry Into the
Statistics of the Turkish Genocide of the Armenians 1915-1918, The Armenian Review, 25, Winter 1972,
13):
1914- 251,050 :
1015 1914-15 (
., 1914-1972, , .
, 1975, 891)
144

145

54

2(1), 2014

11.

1914.

1914.

1914.

34,545

37,480

53,000

8,229

21,382

22,000

14,609

19,859

25,500

7,401

11,690

18,000

12,025

17,060

18,500

2,920

2,602

3,200

1,223

2,829

3,500

6,190

8,136

11,000

556

748

750

10,046

16,740

21,000

97,744

138,526

176,450

16,291

25,795

32,000

511

862

900

4,741

6,396

8,000

2,649

2,989

4,200

1,270

1,570

2,500

25,462

37,612

47,600

2,619

4,884

5,000

904

1,649

1,750

3,195

8,180

8,000

5,624

9,914

11,000

1,070

1,624

1,800

13,412

26,251

27,550

136,618

202,391

251,600

55


( )

` 18781914.
, .
, , : , ,
-
:

.
1913-14.
,

:
` , , ,
, :
The Number of Armenian Population of the Erzurum Province of the Ottoman
Empire on the Eve of the Armenian Genocide (An Attempt at
Comparative Analysis of Sources)
Robert Tatoyan
Summary
This article presents and analyzes the main statistical sources on the Armenian population of
the Erzurum province of the Ottoman Empire for the period of 1878-1914. The data is grouped
by the source origin: Ottoman official, of the Armenian Patriarchate of Constantinople, data
from other Armenian, Russian and Western sources. Comparative statistical tables of data
provided by the Ottoman, Armenian, Russian and Western sources are compiled.
An attempt was made to estimate the number of the Armenian population of the Erzurum
province by districts and sub-districts on the eve of the Armenian genocide. The calculations
are based on the Armenian Patriarchate of Constantinoples 1913-14 census data, which are
adjusted with figures found in Genocide survivors accounts, refugees registration data and
other auxiliary sources.
Keywords: Armenian genocide, Erzurum vilayet, statistics, Armenian population,
demography.

56

2(1), 2014



( )


1878 1914 . :
, , , .
.

() , 1913-14 .
,
.
: , , , , .

57