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Scilab Textbook Companion for

Principles Of Heat Transfer


by F. Kreith, R. M. Manglik And M. S. Bohn1
Created by
Tanmay Agrawal
Heat Transfer
Mechanical Engineering
National Institute of Technology Hamirpur
College Teacher
Dr. Varun Goel
Cross-Checked by
Mukul Kulkarni
January 17, 2014

1 Funded

by a grant from the National Mission on Education through ICT,


http://spoken-tutorial.org/NMEICT-Intro. This Textbook Companion and Scilab
codes written in it can be downloaded from the Textbook Companion Project
section at the website http://scilab.in

Book Description
Title: Principles Of Heat Transfer
Author: F. Kreith, R. M. Manglik And M. S. Bohn
Publisher: Cengage Learning
Edition: 7
Year: 2011
ISBN: 978-0-495-66770-4

Scilab numbering policy used in this document and the relation to the
above book.
Exa Example (Solved example)
Eqn Equation (Particular equation of the above book)
AP Appendix to Example(Scilab Code that is an Appednix to a particular
Example of the above book)
For example, Exa 3.51 means solved example 3.51 of this book. Sec 2.3 means
a scilab code whose theory is explained in Section 2.3 of the book.

Contents
List of Scilab Codes

1 Basic Modes of Heat Transfer

2 Heat Conduction

26

3 Numerical Analysis of Heat Conduction

47

4 Analysis of Convection Heat Transfer

65

5 Natural Convection

72

6 Forced Convection Inside Tubes and Ducts

85

7 Forced Convection Over Exterior Surfaces

99

8 Heat Exchangers

114

9 Heat Transfer by Radiation

125

10 Heat Transfer with Phase Change

152

List of Scilab Codes


Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa

1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
1.10
1.11
1.12
1.13
1.14
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
2.10
2.11
2.12
2.13
2.14

Heat Loss Through a Brick Wall . . . . .


Heat Transfer Through a Window Glass .
Natural Convection Between Air and Roof
Analysis of Electrically Heated Rod . . .
Heat Loss From a Composite Wall . . . .
Analysis of Aluminium Plates . . . . . . .
Heat flow in Firebrick Steel System . . . .
Heat Dissipation in Instrument Circuit . .
Heat Transfer Through Brick Wall . . . .
Heat Loss From Pipe . . . . . . . . . . .
Heat Exchanger Analysis . . . . . . . . .
Insulation in Gas Furnace . . . . . . . . .
Energy Balance at Roof . . . . . . . . . .
Theoretical example . . . . . . . . . . . .
Calculation of Heat Transfer Coeffcient .
Insulated vs Uninsulated Copper Pipe . .
Hot Fluid Flowing Through Pipe . . . . .
Boiling Off Of Nitrogen . . . . . . . . . .
Analysis of Nuclear Reactor . . . . . . . .
Analysis of Copper Pin Fin . . . . . . . .
Heat Loss From Circumferential Fin . . .
Heat Loss From Buried Pipe . . . . . . .
Heat Loss From Cubic Furnace . . . . . .
Transient Response of Thermocouple . . .
Minimum Depth of Water Mains . . . . .
Steel Component Fabrication Process . .
Analysis of Concrete Wall . . . . . . . . .
Cylinder Places in Hot Oven . . . . . . .
4

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8
9
10
11
13
14
15
17
18
20
21
22
23
24
26
27
29
30
31
32
34
35
36
37
40
41
43
45

Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
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Exa
Exa

3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.7
7.8
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
9.1

Temperature Distribution in Heating Element .


Critical Depth to Avoid Freezing . . . . . . . .
Time Required For Cooling of Sheet . . . . . .
Temperature Distribution in Rod Crosssection
Analysis of Alloy Bus Bar . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transient Behavior of Alloy Bar . . . . . . . .
Cooling of Long Cylinder . . . . . . . . . . . .
Computation of Heat Transfer Coefficient . . .
Theoretical Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Flat Plate Solar Collector . . . . . . . . . . . .
Heat Flow From Crankcase . . . . . . . . . . .
Convection Heat Loss From Room Heater . . .
Power Requirement of Heater . . . . . . . . . .
Heat Loss From Grill . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transition to Turbulent Flow in Pipe . . . . . .
Rate of Heat Transfer From Burner . . . . . . .
Convection Heat Transfer From Shaft . . . . .
Heating of Water in Tube . . . . . . . . . . . .
Recycling of Engine Oil . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Flow of n Butyl Alcohol . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cooling of Electronic Device . . . . . . . . . .
Water Flowing in an Annulus . . . . . . . . . .
Tube Length in Metal Flow . . . . . . . . . . .
Heat Transfer Coefficient in Circuit . . . . . . .
Heat Transfer Coefficient Over Wing . . . . . .
Current in Hot Wire Anemometer . . . . . . .
Heat Loss From Solar Collector . . . . . . . . .
Heat Transfer Coefficient in Pipe . . . . . . . .
Heating of Atmospheric Air . . . . . . . . . . .
Pre Heating of Methane . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Analysis in Water Jet Problem . . . . . . . . .
Analysis of Air Jet Problem . . . . . . . . . . .
Heat Transfer Surface Area Calculations . . . .
Oil Water Heat Exchanger Problem . . . . . .
Heating of Air From Gases . . . . . . . . . . .
Heating Seawater From Condenser . . . . . . .
Theoretical Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Analysis of Tungsten Filament . . . . . . . . .
5

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47
49
51
54
56
59
62
65
66
67
69
72
74
76
78
80
82
85
87
89
90
93
95
97
99
100
102
104
105
108
110
112
114
116
118
122
124
125

Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa
Exa

9.2
9.3
9.4
9.5
9.6
9.7
9.8
9.9
9.10
9.11
9.12
9.13
9.14
9.15
9.16
9.17
9.18
9.19
10.1
10.2
10.3
10.4
10.5
10.6
10.7

Transmission of Solar Radiation . . . . . . . .


Solid Angle Calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Emissivity of Aluminium Surface . . . . . . . .
Absorptivity of Aluminium Surface . . . . . . .
Analysis of Painted Surface . . . . . . . . . . .
Analysis of an Oxidised Surface . . . . . . . . .
Theoretical Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Shape Factor in Window Arrangement . . . . .
Shape Factor Computation . . . . . . . . . . .
Liquid Oxygen in Spherical Container . . . . .
Radiative Exchange Between Cone Surfaces . .
Temperature of Surface of Cone . . . . . . . . .
Heat Transfer Between Parallel Plates . . . . .
Emissivity of Gaseous Mixture . . . . . . . . .
Absorptivity of Gaseous Mixture . . . . . . . .
Heat Flow From Flue Gas . . . . . . . . . . . .
Estimation of True Gas Temperature . . . . . .
Gas Temperature Measurement With Shielding
Water Boiling on Steel Surface . . . . . . . . .
Water Boiling on Polished Surface . . . . . . .
Flow of n Butyl Alcohol . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Heat Transfer Coefficients For Tube . . . . . .
Condensate Flow Determination . . . . . . . .
Heat Transport Capability of Water . . . . . .
Forming of Ice Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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126
127
129
130
131
133
134
135
136
137
138
140
142
143
145
146
148
149
152
154
155
157
159
160
162

List of Figures
2.1

Transient Response of Thermocouple . . . . . . . . . . . . .

38

Chapter 1
Basic Modes of Heat Transfer

Scilab code Exa 1.1 Heat Loss Through a Brick Wall


1
2
3 // D i s p l a y mode
4 mode (0) ;
5
6 // D i s p l a y w a r n i n g f o r f l o a t i n g p o i n t e x c e p t i o n
7 ieee (1) ;
8
9 clc ;
10 disp ( P r i n c i p l e s o f Heat T r a n s f e r , 7 t h Ed . Frank

K r e i t h e t . a l C h a p t e r 1 Example # 1 . 1 )
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

// T e m p e r a t u r e I n s i d e i n F
Ti = 55;
// T e m p e r a t u r e o u t s i d e i n F
To = 45;
// T h i c k n e s s o f t h e w a l l i n f t
t = 1;
// Heat l o s s t h r o u g h t h e w a l l i n Btu /hf t 2
q = 3.4;

21
22
23
24
25
26
27

// C o n v e r t i n g Btu /hf t 2 t o W/m2


disp ( Heat l o s s t h r o u g h t h e w a l l i n W/m2 i s )
// Heat l o s s t h r o u g h t h e w a l l i n W/m2
qdash = ( q *0.2931) /0.0929

// Heat l o s s f o r
disp ( Heat l o s s
p e r i o d i n Btu
28 // Heat l o s s f o r
i n Btu
29 Q = ( q *100) *24

a 100 f t 2 s u r f a c e o v e r a 24h p e r i o d
f o r a 100 f t 2 s u r f a c e o v e r a 24h
i s )
a 100 f t 2 s u r f a c e o v e r a 24h p e r i o d

30
31 //Q i n S I u n i t s i . e . kWh
32 Q = ( Q *0.2931) /1000;
33
34 // At p r i c e o f 10 c /kWh, t h e t o t a l p r i c e
35 disp ( So , t h e t o t a l p r i c e i n c a r e )
36 // T o t a l p r i c e i n c
37 Price = 10* Q

s h a l l be

Scilab code Exa 1.2 Heat Transfer Through a Window Glass


1
2
3 // D i s p l a y mode
4 mode (0) ;
5
6 // D i s p l a y w a r n i n g f o r f l o a t i n g p o i n t e x c e p t i o n
7 ieee (1) ;
8
9 clc ;
10 disp ( P r i n c i p l e s o f Heat T r a n s f e r , 7 t h Ed . Frank

K r e i t h e t . a l C h a p t e r 1 Example # 1 . 2 )
11
12

// Thermal c o n d u c t i v i t y o f window g l a s s i n W/mK


9

13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25

k = 0.81;
// H e i g h t o f t h e g l a s s i n m
h = 1;
// Width o f t h e g l a s s i n m
w = 0.5;
// T h i c k n e s s o f t h e g l a s s i n m
t = 0.005;
// O u t s i d e t e m p e r a t u r e i n C
T2 = 24;
// I n s i d e t e m p e r a t u r e i n C
T1 = 24.5;
// Assume t h a t s t e a d y s t a t e e x i s t s and t h a t t h e
t e m p e r a t u r e i s u n i f o r m o v e r t h e i n n e r and o u t e r
surfaces

26
27 // C r o s s s e c t i o n a l a r e a i n m2
28 A = h * w ;
29
30 disp ( Thermal r e s i s t a n c e t o c o n d u c t i o n i n K/W i s )
31 // Thermal r e s i s t a n c e t o c o n d u c t i o n i n K/W
32 R = t /( k * A )
33
34 // The r a t e o f h e a t l o s s from t h e i n t e r i o r t o t h e
35

exterior surface is
// o b t a i n e d by d i v i d i n g t e m p e r a t u r e d i f f e r e n c e from
the thermal r e s i s t e n c e

36
37 disp ( Heat l o s s i n W from t h e window g l a s s
38 // Heat l o s s i n W
39 q = ( T1 - T2 ) / R

i s )

Scilab code Exa 1.3 Natural Convection Between Air and Roof
1

10

2
3 // D i s p l a y mode
4 mode (0) ;
5
6 // D i s p l a y w a r n i n g f o r f l o a t i n g p o i n t e x c e p t i o n
7 ieee (1) ;
8
9 clc ;
10 disp ( P r i n c i p l e s o f Heat T r a n s f e r , 7 t h Ed . Frank

K r e i t h e t . a l C h a p t e r 1 Example # 1 . 3 )
11
12 // Area o f room i n m2 i s g i v e n a s
13 A = 20*20;
14 // A i r t e m p e r a t u r e i n C
15 Tair = -3;
16 // Roof t e m p e r a t u r e i n C
17 Troof = 27;
18 // Heat t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t i n W/m2K
19 h = 10;
20
21 // Assume t h a t s t e a d y s t a t e e x i s t s and t h e
22

direction

o f h e a t f l o w i s from t h e
// r o o f t o t h e a i r i . e h i g h e r t o l o w e r t e m p e r a t u r e (
a s i t s h o u l d be ) .

23
24

disp ( The r a t e o f h e a t t r a n s f e r by c o n v e c t i o n from


t h e r o o f t o t h e a i r i n W )
25 // The r a t e o f h e a t t r a n s f e r by c o n v e c t i o n from t h e
r o o f to the a i r in W
26 q = ( h * A ) *( Troof - Tair )

Scilab code Exa 1.4 Analysis of Electrically Heated Rod


1
2

11

3 // D i s p l a y mode
4 mode (0) ;
5
6 // D i s p l a y w a r n i n g f o r f l o a t i n g p o i n t e x c e p t i o n
7 ieee (1) ;
8
9 clc ;
10 disp ( P r i n c i p l e s o f Heat T r a n s f e r , 7 t h Ed . Frank

K r e i t h e t . a l C h a p t e r 1 Example # 1 . 4 )
11
12 // D i a m e t e r o f r o d i n m
13 d = 0.02;
14 // E m i s s i v i t y and t e m p e r a u t r e o f r o d i n K
15 epsilon = 0.9;
16 T1 = 1000;
17 // T e m p e r a t u r e o f w a l l s o f f u r n a c e
18 T2 = 800;
19
20 // Assuming s t e a d y s t a t e h a s b e e n r e a c h e d .
21 // S i n c e t h e w a l l s o f t h e f u r n a c e c o m p l e t e l y

enclose
t h e h e a t i n g rod , a l l t h e r a d i a n t e n e r g y e m i t t e d
by t h e s u r f a c e o f t h e r o d i s i n t e r c e p t e d by t h e
furnace walls

22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33

// From eq . 1 . 1 7 , n e t h e a t l o s s can be g i v e n
disp ( Net h e a t l o s s p e r u n i t l e n g t h c o n s i d e r i n g 1m
l e n g t h i n W )
// Area i n m2
A = ( %pi * d ) *1;
// C o n s t a n t s i g m a i n W/m2K4
sigma = 0.0000000567;
// Net h e a t l o s s p e r u n i t l e n g t h c o n s i d e r i n g 1m
length in W
q = (( A * sigma ) * epsilon ) *( T1 ^4 - T2 ^4)
// From eq . 1 . 2 1 r a d i a t i o n h e a t t r a n s f e r
i n W/m2K i s
12

coefficient

disp ( R a d i a t i o n h e a t t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t i n W/m2K
i s )
35 // R a d i a t i o n h e a t t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t i n W/m2K
36 hr = (( epsilon * sigma ) *( T1 ^4 - T2 ^4) ) /( T1 - T2 )

34

Scilab code Exa 1.5 Heat Loss From a Composite Wall


1
2
3 // D i s p l a y mode
4 mode (0) ;
5
6 // D i s p l a y w a r n i n g f o r f l o a t i n g p o i n t e x c e p t i o n
7 ieee (1) ;
8
9 clc ;
10 disp ( P r i n c i p l e s o f Heat T r a n s f e r , 7 t h Ed . Frank

K r e i t h e t . a l C h a p t e r 1 Example # 1 . 5 )
11
12
13
14
15

// T h i c k n e s s o f
conductivity
t1 = 0.005;
k1 = 40;
// T h i c k n e s s o f
conductivity
t2 = 0.1;
k2 = 2.5;

i n s i d e s t e e l i n m and t h e r m a l
i n W/mk

o u t s i d e b r i c k i n m and t h e r m a l
i n W/mk

16
17
18
19 // I n s i d e t e m p e r a t u r e i n C
20 T1 = 900;
21 // O u t s i d e t e m p e r a t u r e i n C
22 To = 460;
23
24 // Assuming t h e c o n d i t i o n o f s t e a d y

Eq . 1 . 2 4
13

s t a t e and u s i n g

disp ( The r a t e o f h e a t l o s s p e r u n i t a r e a
i n W/m2
i s )
26 // The r a t e o f h e a t l o s s p e r u n i t a r e a
i n W/m2
27 qk = ( T1 - To ) /( t1 / k1 + t2 / k2 )
25

28
29

disp ( T e m p e r a t u r e a t t h e i n t e r f a c e i n K i s g i v e n a s
)
30 // T e m p e r a t u r e a t t h e i n t e r f a c e i n K
31 T2 = T1 -( qk * t1 ) / k1

Scilab code Exa 1.6 Analysis of Aluminium Plates


1
2
3 // D i s p l a y mode
4 mode (0) ;
5
6 // D i s p l a y w a r n i n g f o r f l o a t i n g p o i n t e x c e p t i o n
7 ieee (1) ;
8
9 clc ;
10 disp ( P r i n c i p l e s o f Heat T r a n s f e r , 7 t h Ed . Frank

K r e i t h e t . a l C h a p t e r 1 Example # 1 . 6 )
11
12 // Thermal c o n d u c t i v i t y o f aluminium i n W/mK
13 k = 240;
14 // T h i c k n e s s o f e a c h p l a t e i n m
15 t = 0.01;
16 // T e m p e r a t u r e a t t h e s u r f a c e s o f p l a t e s i n C i s
17
18
19
20

given as
Ts1 = 395;
Ts3 = 405;
// From T a b l e 1 . 6 t h e c o n t a c t r e s i s t a n c e a t t h e
i n t e r f a c e i n K/W i s
R2 = 0.000275;
14

21 // Thermal r e s i s t a n c e o f t h e p l a t e s i n K/W i s
22 R1 = t / k ;
23 R3 = t / k ;
24
25 disp ( Heat f l u x i n W/m2K i s )
26 // Heat f l u x i n W/m2K
27 q = ( Ts3 - Ts1 ) /( R1 + R2 + R3 )
28
29 // S i n c e t h e t e m p e r a t u r e d r o p i n e a c h s e c t i o n

of this
oned i m e n s i o n a l s y s t e m i s p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e
resistance .

30
31

disp ( T e m p e r a t u r e d r o p due t o c o n t a c t r e s i s t a n c e i n
degree C i s )
32 // T e m p e r a t u r e d r o p due t o c o n t a c t r e s i s t a n c e i n
degree C
33 deltaT = ( R2 /( R1 + R2 + R3 ) ) *( Ts3 - Ts1 )

Scilab code Exa 1.7 Heat flow in Firebrick Steel System


1
2
3 // D i s p l a y mode
4 mode (0) ;
5
6 // D i s p l a y w a r n i n g f o r f l o a t i n g p o i n t e x c e p t i o n
7 ieee (1) ;
8
9 clc ;
10 disp ( P r i n c i p l e s o f Heat T r a n s f e r , 7 t h Ed . Frank

K r e i t h e t . a l C h a p t e r 1 Example # 1 . 7 )
11
12

// B e c a u s e o f symmetry , we n e e d t o c a l c u l a t e f o r o n l y
one h a l f o f t h e s y s t e m

13

15

// T h i c k n e s s o f f i r e b r i c k i n i n c h e s
L1 = 1;
// Thermal c o n d u c t i v i t y o f f i r e b r i c k i n Btu /hf t F
kb = 1;
// T h i c k n e s s o f s t e e l p l a t e i n i n c h e s
L3 = 1/4;
// Thermal c o n d u c t i v i t y o f s t e e l i n Btu /hf t F
ks = 30;
// A v e r a g e h e i g h t o f a s p e r i t i e s i n i n c h e s i s g i v e n a s
L2 = 1/32;
// T e m p e r a t u r e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e s t e e l p l a t e s i n
F is
25 deltaT = 600;

14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24

26
27
28

// The t h e r m a l r e s i s t a n c e o f t h e s t e e l p l a t e i s , on
the b a s i s o f a u n it wa l l area , equal to
29 R3 = L3 /(12* ks ) ; // 12 i s added t o c o n v e r t f t t o i n
30
31

// The t h e r m a l r e s i s t a n c e o f t h e b r i c k a s p e r i t i e s i s ,
on t h e b a s i s o f a u n i t w a l l a r e a , e q u a l t o
32 R4 = L2 /((0.3*12) * kb ) ; // C o n s i d e r i n g t h e 30 p e r c e n t
area
33
34

// At t e m p e r a t u r e o f 300F , t h e r m a l c o n d u c t i v i t y o f
a i r i n Btu /hf t F i s
35 ka = 0.02;
36
37

// Thermal r e s i s t a n c e o f t h e a i r t r a p p e d b e t w e e n t h e
a s p e r i t i e s , i s , on t h e b a s i s o f a u n i t a r e a ,
equal to
38 R5 = L2 /((0.7*12) * ka ) ; // C o n s i d e r i n g t h e o t h e r 70
percent area
39
40

// S i n c e R4 and R5 a r e i n p a r a l l e l , s o t h e r e combined
resistance is
41 R2 = ( R4 * R5 ) /( R4 + R5 ) ;
42

16

// The t h e r m a l r e s i s t a n c e o f h a l f o f t h e s o l i d b r i c k
is
44 R1 = L1 /(12* kb ) ;
43

45
46

// The o v e r a l l u n i t c o n d u c t a n c e f o r h a l f t h e
c o m p o s i t e w a l l i n Btu /hf t 2 F i s t h e n
47 kk = 0.5/( R1 + R2 + R3 ) ;
48
49

disp ( The r a t e o f h e a t f l o w p e r u n i t a r e a i n Btu /h


f t 2 i s )
50 // The r a t e o f h e a t f l o w p e r u n i t a r e a i n Btu /hf t 2
51 q = kk * deltaT

Scilab code Exa 1.8 Heat Dissipation in Instrument Circuit


1
2
3 // D i s p l a y mode
4 mode (0) ;
5
6 // D i s p l a y w a r n i n g f o r f l o a t i n g p o i n t e x c e p t i o n
7 ieee (1) ;
8
9 clc ;
10 disp ( P r i n c i p l e s o f Heat T r a n s f e r , 7 t h Ed . Frank

K r e i t h e t . a l C h a p t e r 1 Example # 1 . 8 )
11
12 // Length f o r h e a t t r a n s f e r f o r s t a i n l e s s s t e e l i n m
13 Lss = 0.1;
14
15 // Area f o r h e a t t r a n s f e r f o r s t a i n l e s s s t e e l i n m2
16 A = 0.01;
17
18 // Thermal c o n d u c t i v i t y f o r s t a i n l e s s s t e e l i n W/mK
19 kss = 144;

17

20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45

// Length f o r h e a t t r a n s f e r f o r Duralumin i n m
La1 = 0.02;
// Area f o r h e a t t r a n s f e r f o r Duralumin i n m2
A = 0.01;
// Thermal c o n d u c t i v i t y f o r Duralumin i n W/mK
ka1 = 164;
// R e s i s t a n c e i n c a s e o f s t e e l
Rk1 = Lss /( A * kss ) ;

i n K/W

// R e s i s t a n c e i n c a s e o f Duralumin
Rk2 = La1 /( A * ka1 ) ;

i n K/W

// From F i g . 1 . 2 0 , c o n t a c t r e s i s t a n c e i n K/W
Ri = 0.05;
// T o t a l r e s i s t a n c e t o h e a t t r a n s f e r i n K/W
Rtotal = Rk1 + Rk2 + Ri ;
// T e m p e r a t u r e d i f f . i s g i v e n i n K
deltaT = 40;

disp ( Maximum a l l o w a b l e r a t e o f h e a t d i s s i p a t i o n i n
W i s )
46 //Maximum a l l o w a b l e r a t e o f h e a t d i s s i p a t i o n i n W
47 q = deltaT / Rtotal

Scilab code Exa 1.9 Heat Transfer Through Brick Wall


1
2
3

// D i s p l a y mode
18

4 mode (0) ;
5
6 // D i s p l a y w a r n i n g f o r f l o a t i n g p o i n t e x c e p t i o n
7 ieee (1) ;
8
9 clc ;
10 disp ( P r i n c i p l e s o f Heat T r a n s f e r , 7 t h Ed . Frank

K r e i t h e t . a l C h a p t e r 1 Example # 1 . 9 )
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39

// C r o s s s e c t i o n a l a r e a i n m2
A = 1;
// Heat t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t on h o t s i d e i n W/m2K
hchot = 10;
// Heat t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t on c o l d s i d e i n W/m2K
hccold = 40;
// Length f o r h e a t t r a n s f e r i n m
L = 0.1;
// Thermal c o n d u c t i v i t y i n W/mK
k = 0.7;
// R e s i s t a n c e s i n K/w
R1 = 1/( hchot * A ) ;
R2 = L /( k * A ) ;
R3 = 1/( hccold * A ) ;
// T o t a l r e s i s t a n c e
Rtotal = R1 + R2 + R3 ;
// T e m p e r a t u r e on h o t s i d e i n K
T1 = 330;
// T e m p e r a t u r e on c o l d s i d e i n K
T2 = 270;
disp ( Rate o f h e a t t r a n s f e r p e r u n i t a r e a i n W i s )
// Rate o f h e a t t r a n s f e r p e r u n i t a r e a i n W
q = ( T1 - T2 ) /( R1 + R2 + R3 )

19

Scilab code Exa 1.10 Heat Loss From Pipe


1
2
3 // D i s p l a y mode
4 mode (0) ;
5
6 // D i s p l a y w a r n i n g f o r f l o a t i n g p o i n t e x c e p t i o n
7 ieee (1) ;
8
9 clc ;
10 disp ( P r i n c i p l e s o f Heat T r a n s f e r , 7 t h Ed . Frank

K r e i t h e t . a l C h a p t e r 1 Example # 1 . 1 0 )
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31

// d i a m e t e r o f p i p e i n m
d = 0.5;
// E p s i l o n i s g i v e n a s
epsilon = 0.9;
// s i g m a ( c o n s t a n t ) i n S I u n i t s i s
sigma = 0.0000000567;
// T e m p e r a t u r e s i n K a r e g i v e n a s
T1 = 500;
T2 = 300;
// R a d i a t i o n h e a t t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t i n W/m2K
hr = (( sigma * epsilon ) *( T1 * T1 + T2 * T2 ) ) *( T1 + T2 ) ;
// C o n v e c t i o n h e a t t r a n s f e r
hc = 20;
// t o t a l h e a t t r a n s f e r
h = hc + hr ;

c o e f f i c i e n t i n W/m2K

c o e f f i c i e n t i n W/m2K

disp ( Rate o f h e a t l o s s p e r m e t e r i n W/m i s )


20

32 // Rate o f h e a t l o s s p e r m e t e r i n W/m
33 q = (( %pi * d ) * h ) *( T1 - T2 )

Scilab code Exa 1.11 Heat Exchanger Analysis


1
2
3
4 // D i s p l a y mode
5 mode (0) ;
6
7 // D i s p l a y w a r n i n g f o r f l o a t i n g p o i n t e x c e p t i o n
8 ieee (1) ;
9
10 clc ;
11 disp ( P r i n c i p l e s o f Heat T r a n s f e r , 7 t h Ed . Frank

K r e i t h e t . a l C h a p t e r 1 Example # 1 . 1 1 )
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23

// Hotg a s t e m p e r a t u r e i n K
Tgh = 1300;
// Heat t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t on h o t s i d e i n W/m2K
h1 = 200;
// Heat t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t on c o l d s i d e i n W/m2K
h3 = 400;
// C o o l a n t t e m p e r a t u r e i n K
Tgc = 300;
//Max temp . i n C
Tsg = 800;
//Maximum p e r m i s s i b l e u n i t t h e r m a l r e s i s t a n c e p e r
s q u a r e m e t e r o f t h e m e t a l w a l l i n K/W
24 R2 = ( Tgh - Tgc ) /(( Tgh - Tsg ) /(1/ h1 ) ) -1/ h1 -1/ h3 ;
25 disp ( Maximum p e r m i s s i b l e u n i t t h e r m a l r e s i s t a n c e
p e r s q u a r e m e t e r o f t h e m e t a l w a l l i n m2 . K/W i s )
26 R2

21

Scilab code Exa 1.12 Insulation in Gas Furnace


1
2
3 // D i s p l a y mode
4 mode (0) ;
5
6 // D i s p l a y w a r n i n g f o r f l o a t i n g p o i n t e x c e p t i o n
7 ieee (1) ;
8
9 clc ;
10 disp ( P r i n c i p l e s o f Heat T r a n s f e r , 7 t h Ed . Frank

K r e i t h e t . a l C h a p t e r 1 Example # 1 . 1 2 )
11
12 // t o t a l l e n g t h o f m e t a l s h e e t i n m
13 L = 0.625/39.4;
14 // we e s t i m a t e t h e t h e r m a l c o n d u c t i v i t y

of the
m e t a l s h e e t s t o be a p p r o x i m a t e l y 43 W/m K
15 k = 43;
16 // t h e r e f o r e t h e r e s i s t a n c e i n K/W o f f e r e d by m e t a l
sheey
17 R = L / k ;
18
19 // h e a t l o s s i n W/m2 i s g i v e n a s
20 q = 1200;
21 // o v e r a l l h e a t t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t
22
23
24

25
26

between the gas

and t h e d o o r i s g i v e n
// i n W/m2K
U = 20;
// The t e m p e r a t u r e d r o p b e t w e e n t h e g a s and t h e
i n t e r i o r s u r f a c e o f the door at the s p e c i f i e d
heat f l u x i s
deltaT1 = q / U ;
// Hence , t h e t e m p e r a t u r e o f t h e I n c o n e l w i l l be i n
22

degree C
27 T = 1200 - deltaT1 ;
28
29
30
31
32
33
34

// The h e a t t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t b e t w e e n t h e o u t e r
s u r f a c e o f t h e d o o r and
// t h e s u r r o u n d i n g s a t 20 C i n W/m2K
h = 5;
// The t e m p e r a t u r e d r o p a t t h e o u t e r s u r f a c e i n
degree C i s
deltaT2 = q / h ;
// S e l e c t i n g m i l l e d alumina s i l i c a c h i p s a s i n s u l a t o r
( F i g 1 . 3 1 on p a g e 4 8 )

35
36

// Hence , t e m p e r a t u r e d i f f e r e n c e a c r o s s t h e
insulation is
37 deltaT3 = T - deltaT1 - deltaT2 ;
38
39

// t h e r m a l c o n d u c t i v i t y f o r m i l l e d alumina s i l i c a
c h i p s i n W/mK i s
40 k = 0.27;
41
42 disp ( The i n s u l a t i o n t h i c k n e s s i n m i s )
43 // The i n s u l a t i o n t h i c k n e s s i n m
44 L = ( k * deltaT3 ) / q

Scilab code Exa 1.13 Energy Balance at Roof


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

// D i s p l a y mode
mode (0) ;
// D i s p l a y w a r n i n g f o r f l o a t i n g p o i n t e x c e p t i o n
ieee (1) ;

23

9 clc ;
10 disp ( P r i n c i p l e s

o f Heat T r a n s f e r , 7 t h Ed . Frank
K r e i t h e t . a l C h a p t e r 1 Example # 1 . 1 3 )

11
12 // T e m p e r a t u r e o f a i r i n d e g r e e K
13 Tair = 300;
14 // Heat t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t i n W/m2K
15 h = 10;
16
17 disp ( P a r t a )
18 // R a d i a t i o n s o l a r f l u x i n W/m2
19 q = 500;
20 // Ambient t e m p e r a t u r e i n K
21 Tsurr = 50;
22
23 disp ( S o l v i n g e n e r g y b a l a n c e e q u a i t o n by t r i a l and

e r r o r f o r t h e r o o f t e m p e r a t u r e , we g e t temp . i n
d e g r e e K )
24 //Room t e m p e r a t u r e i n d e g r e e K
25 Troof = 303
26
27
28
29
30
31
32

disp ( P a r t b )
//No h e a t f l u x , e n e r g y b a l a n c e e q u a i t o n i s m o d i f i e d
disp ( Room t e m p e r a t u r e i n d e g r e e K )
//Room t e m p e r a t u r e i n d e g r e e K
Troof = 270

Scilab code Exa 1.14 Theoretical example


1
2
3
4
5

// D i s p l a y mode
mode (0) ;

24

6 // D i s p l a y w a r n i n g f o r f l o a t i n g p o i n t e x c e p t i o n
7 ieee (1) ;
8
9 clc ;
10 disp ( P r i n c i p l e s o f Heat T r a n s f e r , 7 t h Ed . Frank

K r e i t h e t . a l C h a p t e r 1 Example # 1 . 1 4 )
11
12

disp ( The g i v e n e x a m p l e i s t h e o r e t i c a l and d o e s n o t


i n v o l v e any n u m e r i c a l c o m p u t a t i o n )

25

Chapter 2
Heat Conduction

Scilab code Exa 2.1 Calculation of Heat Transfer Coeffcient


1
2
3 // D i s p l a y mode
4 mode (0) ;
5
6 // D i s p l a y w a r n i n g f o r f l o a t i n g p o i n t e x c e p t i o n
7 ieee (1) ;
8
9 clc ;
10 disp ( P r i n c i p l e s o f Heat T r a n s f e r , 7 t h Ed . Frank

K r e i t h e t . a l C h a p t e r 2 Example # 2 . 1 )
11
12 // Heat g e n e r a t i o n r a t e i n W/m3
13 qg = 1000000;
14 // Length a l o n g which h e a t w i l l be d i s s i p a t e d

in m (
thickness )
15 L = 0.01;
16 // Thermal c o n d u c t i v i t y a t t h e r e q u i r e d t e m p e r a t u r e
i n W/mK
17 k = 64;
18

26

19 // T e m p e r a t u r e o f s u r r o u n d i n g o i l i n d e g r e e C
20 Tinfinity = 80;
21 // T e m p e r a t u r e o f h e a t e r i n d e g r e e C t o be m a i n t a i n e d
22 T1 = 200;
23
24 disp ( h e a t t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t i n W/m2K from a h e a t

balance )
25 // Heat t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t i n W/m2K
26 h = (( qg * L ) /2) /( T1 - Tinfinity )

Scilab code Exa 2.2 Insulated vs Uninsulated Copper Pipe


1
2
3 // D i s p l a y mode
4 mode (0) ;
5
6 // D i s p l a y w a r n i n g f o r f l o a t i n g p o i n t e x c e p t i o n
7 ieee (1) ;
8
9 clc ;
10 disp ( P r i n c i p l e s o f Heat T r a n s f e r , 7 t h Ed . Frank

K r e i t h e t . a l C h a p t e r 2 Example # 2 . 2 )
11
12
13

disp ( Case o f U n i n s u a l t e d p i p e )
// C a l c u l a t i n g r e s i s t a n c e t o h e a t f l o w a t i n t e r n a l
surface

14
15 // I n t e r n a l r a d i u s i n m
16 ri = 0.05;
17 // Heat t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t

steam c o n d e n s i n g i n W/m2K
18 hci = 10000;
19 // R e s i s t a n c e i n mK/W
20 R1 = 1/(((2* %pi ) * ri ) * hci ) ;
27

at inner s u r f a c e f o r

21
22

// C a l c u l a t i n g r e s i s t a n c e t o h e a t f l o w a t e x t e r n a l
surface

23
24 // E x t e r n a l r a d i u s i n m
25 ro = 0.06;
26 // Heat t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t

a t o u t e r s u r f a c e i n W/

m2K
27 hco = 15;
28 // R e s i s t a n c e i n mK/W
29 R3 = 1/(((2* %pi ) * ro ) * hco ) ;
30
31 // C a l c u a l t i n g r e s i s t a n c e t o h e a t f l o w due t o p i p e
32
33 // Thermal c o n d u c t i v i t y o f p i p e i n W/mK
34 kpipe = 400;
35 // R e s i s t a n c e i n mK/W
36 R2 = log ( ro / ri ) /((2* %pi ) * kpipe ) ;
37
38 // T e m p e r a t u r e s o f steam ( p i p e ) and s u r r o u n d i n g ( a i r )

in degree C
39 Ts = 110;
40 Tinfinity = 30;
41
42

disp ( Heat l o s s from u n i n s u l a t e d p i p e i n W/m i s


t h e r e f o r e )
43 // Heat l o s s from u n i n s u l a t e d p i p e i n W/m
44 q = ( Ts - Tinfinity ) /( R1 + R2 + R3 )
45
46
47
48

disp ( Case o f i n s u l a t e d p i p e )
// C a l c u l a t i n g a d d i t i o n a l r e s i s t a n c e b e t w e e n o u t e r
r a d i u s and new o u t e r
49 // r a d i u s
50
51 // Thermal c o n d u c t i v i t y o f
52 k = 0.2;
53 //New o u t e r r a d i u s i n m

i n s u l a t i o n i n W/mK

28

54 r3 = 0.11;
55 // R e s i s t a n c e i n mK/W
56 R4 = log ( r3 / ro ) /((2* %pi ) * k ) ;
57
58 // C a l c u l a t i n g new o u t e r r e s i s t a n c e
59 R0 = 1/(((2* %pi ) * r3 ) * hco ) ;
60
61
62 disp ( Heat l o s s from i n s u l a t e d p i p e i n W/m i s

t h e r e f o r e )
63 // Heat l o s s from i n s u l a t e d p i p e i n W/m
64 q = ( Ts - Tinfinity ) /( R1 + R2 + R4 + R0 )

Scilab code Exa 2.3 Hot Fluid Flowing Through Pipe


1
2
3 // D i s p l a y mode
4 mode (0) ;
5
6 // D i s p l a y w a r n i n g f o r f l o a t i n g p o i n t e x c e p t i o n
7 ieee (1) ;
8
9 clc ;
10 disp ( P r i n c i p l e s o f Heat T r a n s f e r , 7 t h Ed . Frank

K r e i t h e t . a l C h a p t e r 2 Example # 2 . 3 )
11
12 // Outer r a d i u s i n m
13 ro = 0.02;
14 // I n n e r r a d i u s i n m
15 ri = 0.015;
16 // Thermal c o n d u c t i v i t y o f p l a s t i c i n W/mK
17 k = 0.5;
18 // I n t e r n a l c o n v e c t i o n h e a t t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t

/m2K
29

in W

19 hc1 = 300;
20 // T e m p e r a t u r e o f f l u i d i n p i p e i n d e g r e e C
21 Thot = 200;
22 // T e m p e r a t u r e o f o u t s i d e i n d e g r e e C
23 Tcold = 30;
24 // E x t e r n a l c o n v e c t i o n h e a t t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t

in W

/m2K
25 hc0 = 10;
26
27 disp ( O v e r a l l h e a t

transfer

c o e f f i c i e n t i n W/m2K i s

)
28 // O v e r a l l h e a t t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t i n W/m2K
29 U0 = 1/( ro /( ri * hc1 ) +( ro * log ( ro / ri ) ) / k +1/ hc0 )
30
31 disp ( The h e a t l o s s p e r u n i t l e n g t h i n W/m i s )
32 // The h e a t l o s s p e r u n i t l e n g t h i n W/m
33 q = ((( U0 *2) * %pi ) * ro ) *( Thot - Tcold )

Scilab code Exa 2.4 Boiling Off Of Nitrogen


1
2
3 // D i s p l a y mode
4 mode (0) ;
5
6 // D i s p l a y w a r n i n g f o r f l o a t i n g p o i n t e x c e p t i o n
7 ieee (1) ;
8
9 clc ;
10 disp ( P r i n c i p l e s o f Heat T r a n s f e r , 7 t h Ed . Frank

K r e i t h e t . a l C h a p t e r 2 Example # 2 . 4 )
11
12
13
14

// T e m p e r a t u r e o f l i q u i d n i t r o g e n i n d e g r e e K
Tnitrogen = 77;
// R a d i u s o f c o n t a i n e r i n m
30

15 ri = 0.25;
16 // T e m p e r a t u r e o f s u r r o u n d i n g a i r i n d e g r e e K
17 Tinfinity = 300;
18 // Thermal c o n d u c t i v i t y o f i n s u l a t i n g s i l i c a powder
19
20
21
22

i n W/mK
k = 0.0017;
// Outer r a d i u s o f c o n t a i n e r w i t h i n s u l a t i o n i n m
ro = 0.275;
// L a t e n t h e a t o f v a p o r i z a t i o n o f l i q u i d n i t r o g e n i n
J / kg
hgf = 200000;
// c o n v e c t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t a t o u t e r s u r f a c e i n W/m2K
hco = 20;

23
24
25
26
27 // C a l c a u l t i n g h e a t t r a n s f e r t o n i t r o g e n
28 q = ( Tinfinity - Tnitrogen ) /(1/((((4* %pi ) * ro ) * ro ) * hco )

+( ro - ri ) /((((4* %pi ) * k ) * ro ) * ri ) ) ;
29
30

disp ( r a t e o f l i q u i d b o i l o f f o f n i t r o g e n p e r h o u r
i s )
31 // r a t e o f l i q u i d b o i l o f f o f n i t r o g e n p e r h o u r
32 m = (3600* q ) / hgf

Scilab code Exa 2.5 Analysis of Nuclear Reactor


1
2
3 // D i s p l a y mode
4 mode (0) ;
5
6 // D i s p l a y w a r n i n g f o r f l o a t i n g p o i n t e x c e p t i o n
7 ieee (1) ;
8
9 clc ;
10 disp ( P r i n c i p l e s o f Heat T r a n s f e r , 7 t h Ed . Frank

31

K r e i t h e t . a l C h a p t e r 2 Example # 2 . 5 )
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23

// Heat g e n e r a t i o n r a t e i n W/m3
qg = 75000000;
// Outer r a d i u s o f r o d s i n m
ro = 0.025;
// T e m p e r a t u r e o f w a t e r i n d e g r e e C
Twater = 120;
// Thermal c i n d u c t i v i t y i n W/mk
k = 29.5
// Heat t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t i n W/m2K
hco = 55000;

// S i n c e r a t e o f f l o w t h r o u g h t h e s u r f a c e o f t h e r o d
equals the rate of i n t e r n a l heat generation
24 // and
25 // The r a t e o f h e a t f l o w by c o n d u c t i o n a t t h e o u t e r
s u r f a c e equals the rate
26 // o f h e a t f l o w by c o n v e c t i o n from t h e s u r f a c e t o t h e
water
27
28 // S u r f a c e T e m p e r a t u r e i n d e g r e e C
29 T0 = ( qg * ro ) /(2* hco ) + Twater ;
30
31 disp ( Maximum t e m p e r a t u r e i n d e g r e e C )
32 //Maximum t e m p e r a t u r e i n d e g r e e C
33 Tmax = T0 +(( qg * ro ) * ro ) /(4* k )

Scilab code Exa 2.6 Analysis of Copper Pin Fin


1
2
3
4
5

// D i s p l a y mode
mode (0) ;

32

6 // D i s p l a y w a r n i n g f o r f l o a t i n g p o i n t e x c e p t i o n
7 ieee (1) ;
8
9 clc ;
10 disp ( P r i n c i p l e s o f Heat T r a n s f e r , 7 t h Ed . Frank

K r e i t h e t . a l C h a p t e r 2 Example # 2 . 6 )
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24

// d i a m e t e r o f f i n i n m
d = 0.0025;
// P e r i m e t e r i n m
P = %pi * d ;
// Area i n m2
A = (( %pi * d ) * d ) /4;
// S u r f a c e t e m p e r a t u r e i n d e g r e e C
Ts = 95;
// Ambient t e m p e r a t u r e i n d e g r e e c
Tinfinity = 25;
// Heat t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t i n W/m2K
hc = 10;
// From t a b l e 1 2 , v a l u e o f t h e r m a l c o n d u c t i v i t y i n W/
mK
25 k = 396;
26
27
28

disp ( Case o f an i n f i n i t e l y l o n g f i n )
disp ( Heat l o s s f o r t h e
infintely long
f i n in
W i s )
29 // Heat l o s s f o r t h e
infintely long
f i n in W
30 qfin = (((( hc * P ) * k ) * A ) ^0.5) *( Ts - Tinfinity )
31
32 disp ( Case 2 : Fin l e n g t h o f 2 . 5 cm )
33 // Length i n cm
34 L = 2.5/100;
35 // P a r a m e t e r m
36 m = (( hc * P ) /( k * A ) ) ^0.5;
37 disp ( Heat l o s s i n t h i s c a s e i n W i s )
38 // Heat l o s s i n t h i s c a s e i n W
39 qfin = qfin *(( sinh ( m * L ) +( hc /( m * k ) ) * cosh ( m * L ) ) /( cosh (

m * L ) +( hc /( m * k ) ) * sinh ( m * L ) ) )
33

40
41
42

disp ( For t h e two s o l u t i o n s t o be w i t h i n 5% )


// ( ( s i n h (mL ) +( hc / (m k ) ) c o s h (mL ) ) / ( c o s h (mL ) +( hc / (
m k ) ) s i n h (mL ) ) ) must
43 // be l e s s t h a n 0 . 9 5
44 disp ( L must be g r e a t e r t h a n 2 8 . 3 cm )

Scilab code Exa 2.7 Heat Loss From Circumferential Fin


1
2
3 // D i s p l a y mode
4 mode (0) ;
5
6 // D i s p l a y w a r n i n g f o r f l o a t i n g p o i n t e x c e p t i o n
7 ieee (1) ;
8
9 clc ;
10 disp ( P r i n c i p l e s o f Heat T r a n s f e r , 7 t h Ed . Frank

K r e i t h e t . a l C h a p t e r 2 Example # 2 . 7 )
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25

// Thermal c o n d u c t i v i t y o f alumunium i n W/mK


k = 200;
// Outer r a d i u s o f s y s t e m i n m
ro = 5.5/200;
// I n n e r r a d i u s o f s y s t e m i n m
ri = 2.5/200;
// T h i c k n e s s o f f i n i n m
t = 0.1/100;
// T e m p e r a t u r e o f p i p e i n
degree C
Ts = 100;
// T e m p e r a t u r e o f s u r r o u n d i n g i n d e g r e e C
Tinfinity = 25;
// Heat t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t i n W/m2K
34

26 h = 65;
27
28 // c a l c u l a t i n g f i n e f f i c i e n c y
29 // From F i g . 2 . 2 2 on p a g e 1 0 3 , t h e

fin

efficiency

is

f o u n d t o be 91%.
30
31 // Area o f f i n
32 A = (2* %pi ) *(( ro + t /2) ^2 - ri * ri ) ;
33
34 disp ( The r a t e o f h e a t l o s s from a s i n g l e

f i n in W

i s )
35 // The r a t e o f h e a t l o s s from a s i n g l e f i n i n W
36 q = ((0.91* h ) * A ) *( Ts - Tinfinity )

Scilab code Exa 2.8 Heat Loss From Buried Pipe


1
2
3 // D i s p l a y mode
4 mode (0) ;
5
6 // D i s p l a y w a r n i n g f o r f l o a t i n g p o i n t e x c e p t i o n
7 ieee (1) ;
8
9 clc ;
10 disp ( P r i n c i p l e s o f Heat T r a n s f e r , 7 t h Ed . Frank

K r e i t h e t . a l C h a p t e r 2 Example # 2 . 8 )
11
12 // D i a m e t e r o f
13 D = 0.1;
14 // Depth u n d e r
15 z = 0.6;
16 // T e m p e r a t u r e
17 Tpipe = 100;
18 // T e m p e r a t u r e

pipe in m
which i t

i s sunk i n m

of pipe in degree C
of s o i l in degree C
35

19 Tsoil = 20;
20 // Thermal c o n d u c t i v i t y i n W/mK
21 k = 0.4;
22
23
24 // From t a b l e 2 . 2 on p a g e 1 1 2 , c a l c u l a t i n g

shape

factor
25 // Shape f a c t o r
26 S = (2* %pi ) / acosh ((2* z ) / D ) ;
27 disp ( r a t e o f h e a t l o s s p e r m e t e r l e n g t h i n W/m i s

)
28 // r a t e o f h e a t l o s s p e r m e t e r l e n g t h i n W/m
29 q = ( k * S ) *( Tpipe - Tsoil )

Scilab code Exa 2.9 Heat Loss From Cubic Furnace


1
2
3 // D i s p l a y mode
4 mode (0) ;
5
6 // D i s p l a y w a r n i n g f o r f l o a t i n g p o i n t e x c e p t i o n
7 ieee (1) ;
8
9 clc ;
10 disp ( P r i n c i p l e s o f Heat T r a n s f e r , 7 t h Ed . Frank

K r e i t h e t . a l C h a p t e r 2 Example # 2 . 9 )
11
12 // Thermal c o n d u c t i v i t y i n W/mC
13 k = 1.04;
14 // For s q u a r e l e n g t h and b r e a d t h a r e e q u a l and a r e i n

m
15 D = 0.5;
16 // Area i n m2
17 A = D * D ;
36

18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32

// T h i c k n e s s i n m
L = 0.1;
// I n s i d e t e m p e r a t u r e i n d e g r e e C
Ti = 500;
// O u t s i d e t e m p e r a t u r e i n d e g r e e C
To = 50;
// Shape f a c t o r f o r w a l l s
Sw = A / L ;
// Shape f a c t o r f o r c o r n e r s
Sc = 0.15* L ;
// Shape f a c t o r f o r e d g e s
Se = 0.54* D ;

// There a r e 6 w a l l s e c t i o n s , 12 e d g e s , and 8 c o r n e r s
, so that the t o t a l
33 // s h a p e f a c t o r i s
34 S = 6* Sw +12* Se +8* Sc ;
35
36 disp ( Heat f l o w i n W i s )
37 // Heat f l o w i n W
38 q = ( k * S ) *( Ti - To )

Scilab code Exa 2.10 Transient Response of Thermocouple


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

// D i s p l a y mode
mode (0) ;
// D i s p l a y w a r n i n g f o r f l o a t i n g p o i n t e x c e p t i o n
ieee (1) ;

37

Figure 2.1: Transient Response of Thermocouple

38

9 clc ;
10 disp ( P r i n c i p l e s

o f Heat T r a n s f e r , 7 t h Ed . Frank
K r e i t h e t . a l C h a p t e r 2 Example # 2 . 1 0 )

11
12 // D i a m e t e r o f c o p p e r w i r e i n m
13 D = 0.1/100;
14 // I n i t i a l t e m p e r a t u r e i n d e g r e e C
15 To = 150;
16 // F i n a l s u r r o u n d i n g t e m p e r a t u r e i n d e g r e e C o f

air

and w a t e r
17 Tinfinity = 40;
18
19

// From t a b l e 1 2 , a p p e n d i x 2 , we g e t t h e f o l l o w i n g
data v a l u e s f o r copper
// Thermal c o n d u c t i v i t y i n W/mK
k = 391;
// S p e c i f i c h e a t i n J /kgK
c = 383;
// D e n s i t y i n kg /m3
rho = 8930;

20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27 // S u r f a c e a r e a o f w i r e p e r u n i t l e n g t h i n m
28 A = %pi * D ;
29 // Volume o f w i r e p e r u n i t l e n g t h i n m2
30 V = (( %pi * D ) * D ) /4;
31
32 // Heat t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t i n t h e c a s e o f w a t e r i n

W/m2K
h = 80;
// B i o t number i n w a t e r
bi = ( h * D ) /(4* k ) ;
// The t e m p e r a t u r e r e s p o n s e i s g i v e n by Eq . ( 2 . 8 4 )

33
34
35
36
37
38 // For w a t e r Bi Fo i s 0 . 0 9 3 6 t
39 // For a i r Bi Fo i s 0 . 0 1 1 7 t
40
41 for i = 1:130
42
// P o s i t i o n o f g r i d

39

43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57

x (1 , i ) = i ;
// T e m p e r a t u r e o f w a t e r i n d e g r e e C
Twater (1 , i ) = Tinfinity +( To - Tinfinity ) * exp
( -0.0936* i ) ;
// T e m p e r a t u r e o f a i r i n d e g r e e C
Tair (1 , i ) = Tinfinity +( To - Tinfinity ) * exp ( -0.0117* i
);
end ;
// P l o t t i n g c u r v e
plot (x , Twater , r )
set ( gca () , a u t o c l e a r , o f f )
// P l o t t i n g c u r v e
plot (x , Tair )
// L a b e l l i n g a x i s
xlabel ( t i m e )
ylabel ( t e m p e r a t u r e )
disp ( T e m p e r a t u r e d r o p i n w a t e r i s more t h a n t h a t o f
a i r )

Scilab code Exa 2.11 Minimum Depth of Water Mains


1
2
3 // D i s p l a y mode
4 mode (0) ;
5
6 // D i s p l a y w a r n i n g f o r f l o a t i n g p o i n t e x c e p t i o n
7 ieee (1) ;
8
9 clc ;
10 disp ( P r i n c i p l e s o f Heat T r a n s f e r , 7 t h Ed . Frank

K r e i t h e t . a l C h a p t e r 2 Example # 2 . 1 1 )
11
12 // I n i t i a l
13 Ti = 20;

temperature of s o i l in degree C

40

14 // S u r f a c e t e m p e r a t u r e o f s o i l
15 Ts = -15;
16 // C r i t i c a l t e m p e r a t u r e ( F r e e z i n g t e m p e r a t u r e ) i n
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33

degree C
Tc = 0;
// Time i n d a y s
t = 60;
// D e n s i t y o f s o i l i n kg /m3
rho = 2050;
// Thermal c o n d u c t i v i t y o f s o i l i n W/mK
k = 0.52;
// S p e c i f i c h e a t i n J /kgK
c = 1840;
// D i f f u s i v i t y i n m2/ s e c
alpha = k /( rho * c ) ;
// F i n d i n g t h e v a l u e o f f o l l o w i n g t o p r o c e e d f u r t h e r
//Z v a l u e
z = ( Tc - Ts ) /( Ti - Ts ) ;

// From t a b l e 4 3 , i t c o r r e s p o n d s t o an e r r o r f u n c t i o n
value of 0.4 ,
34 // p r o c e e d i n g
35
36

disp ( Minimum d e p t h a t which one must p l a c e a w a t e r


main b e l o w t h e s u r f a c e t o a v o i d f r e e z i n g i n m i s
)
37 // Minimum d e p t h a t which one must p l a c e a w a t e r main
below the s u r f a c e to avoid f r e e z i n g i n m
38 xm = (0.4*2) *(((( alpha * t ) *24) *3600) ^0.5)

Scilab code Exa 2.12 Steel Component Fabrication Process


1
2

41

3 // D i s p l a y mode
4 mode (0) ;
5
6 // D i s p l a y w a r n i n g f o r f l o a t i n g p o i n t e x c e p t i o n
7 ieee (1) ;
8
9 clc ;
10 disp ( P r i n c i p l e s o f Heat T r a n s f e r , 7 t h Ed . Frank

K r e i t h e t . a l C h a p t e r 2 Example # 2 . 1 2 )
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29

// Length o f s t e e l component i n m
L = 2;
// R a d i u s o f s t e e l component i n m
ro = 0.1;
// Thermal c o n d u c t i v i t y o f s t e e l i n W/mK
k = 40;
// Thermal d i f f u s i v i t y i n m2/ s
alpha = 0.00001;
// I n i t i t a l t e m p e r a t u r e i n d e g r e e C
Ti = 400;
// S u r r o u n d i n g t e m p e r a t u r e i n d e g r e e C
Tinfinity = 50;
// Heat t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t i n W/m2K
h = 200;
// t i m e o f i m m e r s i o n i n mins
t = 20;

// S i n c e t h e c y l i n d e r h a s a l e n g t h 10 t i m e s t h e
d i a m e t e r , we can n e g l e c t end
30 // e f f e c t s .
31
32 // C a l c u l a t i n g b i o t number
33 bi = ( h * ro ) / k ;
34 if bi >0.1 then
35
// C a l c u l a t i n g f o u r i e r number
36
fo = (( alpha * t ) *60) /( ro * ro ) ;
37
// The i n i t i a l amount o f i n t e r n a l

the c y l i n d e r per unit


42

energy stored in

38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47

48
49
50
51
52

53
54
55
56

// l e n g t h i n Ws/m
Q = (((( k * %pi ) * ro ) * ro ) *( Ti - Tinfinity ) ) / alpha ;
// The d i m e n s i o n l e s s c e n t e r l i n e t e m p e r a t u r e f o r 1/
Bi= 2 . 0 and Fo= 1 . 2 from
// F i g . 2 . 4 3 ( a )
// C e n t r e l i n e t e m p e r a t u r e i n d e g r e e C
T = Tinfinity +0.35*( Ti - Tinfinity ) ;
disp ( C e n t r e l i n e t e m p e r a t u r e i n d e g r e e C i s )
T
// The s u r f a c e t e m p e r a t u r e a t r / r 0= 1 . 0 and t= 1 2 0 0
s i s o b t a i n e d from F i g . 2 . 4 3 ( b ) i n t e r m s o f
the c e n t e r l i n e temperature
// S u r f a c e t e m p e r a t u r e i n d e g r e e C
Tr = Tinfinity +0.8*( T - Tinfinity ) ;
disp ( S u r f a c e t e m p e r a t u r e i n d e g r e e C i s )
Tr
// Then t h e amount o f h e a t t r a n s f e r r e d from t h e
s t e e l r o d t o t h e w a t e r can be o b t a i n e d from F i g
. 2 . 4 3 ( c ) . S i n c e Q( t ) / Qi= 0 . 6 1 ,
disp ( The h e a t t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e w a t e r d u r i n g t h e
i n i t i a l 20 min i n Wh i s )
// The h e a t t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e w a t e r d u r i n g t h e
i n i t i a l 20 min i n Wh
Q = ((0.61* L ) * Q ) /3600
end ;

Scilab code Exa 2.13 Analysis of Concrete Wall


1
2
3
4
5
6

// D i s p l a y mode
mode (0) ;
// D i s p l a y w a r n i n g f o r f l o a t i n g p o i n t e x c e p t i o n
43

7 ieee (1) ;
8
9 clc ;
10 disp ( P r i n c i p l e s

o f Heat T r a n s f e r , 7 t h Ed . Frank
K r e i t h e t . a l C h a p t e r 2 Example # 2 . 1 3 )

11
12 // T h i c k n e s s o f w a l l i n m
13 L = 0.5;
14 // I n i t i a l t e m p e r a t u r e i n d e g r e e C
15 Ti = 60;
16 // Combustion g a s ( S u r r o u n d i n g ) t e m p e r a t u r e i n d e g r e e
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37

C
Tinfinity = 900;
// Heat t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t i n W/m2K
h = 25;
// Thermal c o n d u c t i v i t y i n W/mk
k = 1.25;
// S p e c i f i c h e a t i n J /KgK
c = 837;
// D e n s i t y i n kg /m3
rho = 500;
// Thermal d i f f u s i v i t y i n m2/ s
alpha = 0.000003;
// R e q u i r e d t e m p e r a t u r e t o a c h i e v e i n d e g r e e C
Ts = 600;
// C a l c u l a t i n g t e m p e r a t u r e r a t i o
z = ( Ts - Tinfinity ) /( Ti - Tinfinity ) ;
// R e c i p r o c a l b i o t number
bi = k /( h * L ) ;

// From F i g . 2 . 4 2 ( a ) we f i n d t h a t f o r t h e a b o v e
c o n d i t i o n s t h e F o u r i e r number= 0 . 7 0 a t t h e
midplane .
38 // Time i n h o u r s
39 t = ((0.7* L ) * L ) / alpha ;
40 disp ( Time i n h o u r s i s )
44

41 // Time i n h o u r s
42 t = t /3600
43
44 // The t e m p e r a t u r e

d i s t r i b u t i o n i n t h e w a l l 16 h
a f t e r t h e t r a n s i e n t was
45 // i n i t i a t e d can be o b t a i n e d from F i g . 2 . 4 2 ( b ) f o r
v a r i o u s v a l u e s o f x /L

46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55

disp ( T e m p e r a t u r e d i s t r i b u t i o n i n d e g r e e C i s )
disp ( ( x / l ) = 1 . 0 0 0 . 8 0 0 . 6 0 0 . 4 0 0 . 2 0 )
disp ( F r a c t i o n = 0 . 1 3 0 . 4 1 0 . 6 4 0 . 8 3 0 . 9 6 )
// The h e a t t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e w a l l p e r s q u a r e m e t e r
of surface area during
// t h e t r a n s i e n t can be o b t a i n e d from F i g . 2 . 4 2 ( c ) .
disp ( Heat t r a n s f e r i n J /m2 i s )
// Heat t r a n s f e r i n J /m2
Q = (( c * rho ) * L ) *( Ti - Tinfinity )

Scilab code Exa 2.14 Cylinder Places in Hot Oven


1
2
3 // D i s p l a y mode
4 mode (0) ;
5
6 // D i s p l a y w a r n i n g f o r f l o a t i n g p o i n t e x c e p t i o n
7 ieee (1) ;
8
9 clc ;
10 disp ( P r i n c i p l e s o f Heat T r a n s f e r , 7 t h Ed . Frank

K r e i t h e t . a l C h a p t e r 2 Example # 2 . 1 4 )
11
12 // R a d i u s o f
13 ro = 0.05;

cylinder in m

45

14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48

// Length o f c y l i n d e r i n m
L = 0.16;
// Thermal c o n d u c t i v i t y i n W/mK
k = 0.5;
// Thermal d i f f u s i v i t y i n m2/ s
alpha = 0.0000005;
// I n i t i a l t e m p e r a t u r e i n d e g r e e C
Ti = 20;
// S u r r o u n d i n g t e m p e r a t u r e i n d e g r e e C
Tinfinity = 500;
// Heat t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t i n W/m2K
h = 30;
// Time i n mins
t = 30;
// B i o t number
bi = ( h * ro ) / k ;
// F o u r i e r number
fo = (( alpha * t ) *60) /(( L * L ) /4) ;
// From f i g . 2 . 4 2 ( a )
// Po
P0 = 0.9;
// From f i g . 2 . 4 2 ( a ) and ( b )
// Pl
PL = 0.243;
// From f i g . 2 . 4 3 ( a )
//Co
C0 = 0.47;
// From f i g . 2 . 4 3 ( a ) and ( b )
// Cr
CR = 0.155;
disp ( Minimum t e m p e r a t u r e i n d e g r e e C )
// Minimum t e m p e r a t u r e i n d e g r e e C
Tmin = Tinfinity +(( Ti - Tinfinity ) * P0 ) * C0

46

Chapter 3
Numerical Analysis of Heat
Conduction

Scilab code Exa 3.1 Temperature Distribution in Heating Element


1
2
3 // D i s p l a y mode
4 mode (0) ;
5
6 // D i s p l a y w a r n i n g f o r f l o a t i n g p o i n t e x c e p t i o n
7 ieee (1) ;
8
9 clc ;
10 disp ( P r i n c i p l e s o f Heat T r a n s f e r , 7 t h Ed . Frank

K r e i t h e t . a l C h a p t e r 3 Example # 3 . 1 )
11
12 // C r o s s s e c t i o n o f t h e e l e m e n t i n m i s g i v e n a s
13 b = 0.1; // b r e a d t h i n m
14 H = 0.01; // h e i g h t i n m
15 // T e m p e r a t u r e o f s u r r r o u n d i n g o i l i n C i s g i v e n a s
16 Tinfinity = 80;
17 // C o r r e s p o d i n g h e a t t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t i n W/m2K

i s given as :
47

18 h = 42;
19 // Heat g e n e r a t i o n r a t e i s g i v e n i n W/m3 a s
20 qg = 10^6;
21 // T e m p e r a t u r e b e l o w which e l e m e n t n e e d e d t o m a i n t a i n

in C i s
22 T = 200;
23 // Thermal c o n d u c t i v i t y o f i r o n i n W/mK i s t a k e n a s
24 k = 64;
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36

37
38
39
40
41
42
43

// B e c a u s e o f symmetry we n e e d t o c o n s i d e r o n l y h a l f
of the t h i c k n e s s of the heating element
L = H /2; // Length i n m
//We a r e d e f i n i n g f i v e n o d e s a t a d i s t a n c e o f ( i 1)
dx , where i = 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5
N = 5; // T o t a l number o f g r i d p o i n t s
dx = L /( N -1) ; // dx i n m
// S i n c e no h e a t f l o w s a c r o s s t h e t o p f a c e , i t
c o r r e s p o n d s t o a z e r o h e a t
// f l u x boundary c o n d i t i o n .
// A p p l y i n g Eq . ( 2 . 1 ) t o a c o n t r o l volume e x t e n d i n g
from x=Ldx /2 t o x=L
//We g e t TN=TN1 +qg dx dx / ( 2 k )
// At t h e l e f t f a c e , , we have a s u r f a c e c o n v e c t i o n
boundary c o n d i t i o n t o which Eq . ( 3 . 7 ) can be
applied
// D e t e r m i n i n g a l l t h e m a t r i x c o e f f i c i e n t s i n Eq .
(3.11)
a1 = 1; // M a t r i x c o e f f i c i e n t a1 i n S I u n i t s
b1 = 1/(1+( h * dx ) / k ) ; // M a t r i x c o e f f i c i e n t b1 i n S I
units
c1 = 0; // M a t r i x c o e f f i c i e n t c 1 i n S I u n i t s
d1 = ( dx / k ) *(( h * Tinfinity +( qg * dx ) /2) /(1+( h * dx ) / k ) ) ;
// M a t r i x c o e f f i c i e n t d1 i n S I u n i t s
a2 = 2; a3 = a2 ; a4 = a3 ; // M a t r i x c o e f f i c i e n t a2 i n S I
units
b2 = 1; b3 = b2 ; b4 = b3 ; // M a t r i x c o e f f i c i e n t b2 i n S I
units
48

44 c2 = 1; c3 = c2 ; c4 = c3 ; // M a t r i x

c o e f f i c i e n t c2 i n SI

units
45 d2 = (( dx * dx ) * qg ) / k ; d3 = d2 ; d4 = d2 ; // M a t r i x

c o e f f i c i e n t d2 i n S I u n i t s
46 a5 = 1; b5 = 0; c5 = 1; d5 = (( dx * dx ) * qg ) /(2* k ) ; //

M a t r i x c o e f f i c i e n t a5 i n S I u n i t s
47
48

49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60

// U s i n g t h e a l g o r i t h m g i v e n i n Appendix 3 f o r
s o l v i n g t h e t r i d i a g o n a l system , we f i n d t h e
temperature d i s t r i b u t i o n given as :
disp ( F i n a l t e m p e r a t u r e d i s t r i b u t i o n i n C i s t h e
f o l l o w i n g )
// From e q u a t i o n 3 . 1 1
// M a t r i x A i n t h e Appendix 3
A = [ a1 , - b1 ,0 ,0 ,0;
-c2 , a2 , - b2 ,0 ,0;
0 , - c3 , a3 , - b3 ,0;
0 ,0 , - c4 , a4 , - b4 ;
0 ,0 ,0 , - c5 , a5 ];
// M a t r i x D i n t h e Appendix 3
D = [ d1 ; d2 ; d3 ; d4 ; d5 ];
// T e m p e r a t u r e m a t r i x where temp a r e i n d e g r e e C a s
g i v e n by a p p n e d i x 3
T = ( A ^( -1) ) * D

Scilab code Exa 3.2 Critical Depth to Avoid Freezing


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

// D i s p l a y mode
mode (0) ;
// D i s p l a y w a r n i n g f o r f l o a t i n g p o i n t e x c e p t i o n
ieee (1) ;

49

9 clc ;
10 disp ( P r i n c i p l e s

o f Heat T r a n s f e r , 7 t h Ed . Frank
K r e i t h e t . a l C h a p t e r 3 Example # 3 . 2 )

11
12

// we have t o d e t e r m i n e minimum d e p t h xm a t which a


w a t e r main must be b u r i e d t o a v o i d f r e e z i n g

13
14 // I n i t i a l t e m p e r a t u r e o f s o i l
15 Ts = 20;
16 // Under t h e w o r s t c o n d i t i o n s
17
18
19
20
21
22

in C i s given as :
a n t i c i p a t e d i t would

be s u b j e c t e d t o a s u r f a c e
// t e m p e r a t u r e o f 15C f o r a p e r i o d o f 60 d a y s
//Max t e m p e r a t u r e i n d e g r e e C
Tmax = -15;
// Time p e r i o d i n d a y s
dt = 60;
//We w i l l u s e t h e f o l l o w i n g p r o p e r t i e s f o r s o i l ( a t
300 K)
rho = 2050; // d e n s i t y i n kg /m3
k = 0.52; // t h e r m a l c o n d u c t i v i t y i n W/mK
c = 1840; // s p e c i f i c h e a t i n J / kgK
alpha = 0.138*(10^( -6) ) ; // d i f f u s i v i t y i n m2/ s e c

23
24
25
26
27
28 // F o u r i e r number i s d e f i n e d a s :
29 // Fo=d t a l p h a / ( dx dx ) ;
30
31 // L e t u s s e l e c t a maximum d e p t h o f 6 m
32 // F i r s t , l e t u s c h o o s e , g i v i n g dx =1.2m
33
34 dx = 1.2; // dx i n m
35 dt = (30*24) *3600; // Days c o n v e r t e d i n s e c o n d s
36
37 // T e m p e r a t u r e a r r a y f o r t h e o l d t e m p e r a t u r e i n

degree C
38 Tnew = [ -15 ,20 ,20 ,20 ,20 ,20];
39
40

// T e m p e r a t u r e a r r a y f o r t h e new t e m p e r a t u r e i n
degree C
50

41 Told = [ -15 ,20 ,20 ,20 ,20 ,20];


42 // F o u r i e r number i s d e f i n e d a s :
43 Fo = ( dt * alpha ) /( dx * dx ) ;
44
45 // U s i n g eq . 3 . 1 5
46 // I n i t i a l s i n g t i m e s t e p f o r l o o p i n g
47 timestep = 0;
48 for timestep = 0:100
49
for N = 2:4
50
//New temp i n d e g r e e C
51
Tnew ( N ) = Told ( N ) + Fo *( Told ( N +1) -2* Told ( N ) + Told (N

-1) ) ;
52
// I n c r e m e n t i n g t i m e s t e p
53
timestep = timestep +1;
54
end ;
55 end ;
56 disp ( With dx =1.2m, we have t h e

following

d i s t r i b u t i o n )
57 //New temp i n d e g r e e C
58 Tnew
59
60

disp ( Depth i n m a t which t e m p e r a t u r e would be 0


d e g r e e C would be )
61 // Depth i n m
62 xm = (0 - Tnew (1) /( Tnew (2) - Tnew (1) ) ) * dx

Scilab code Exa 3.3 Time Required For Cooling of Sheet


1
2
3
4
5
6
7

// D i s p l a y mode
mode (0) ;
// D i s p l a y w a r n i n g f o r f l o a t i n g p o i n t e x c e p t i o n
ieee (1) ;
51

8
9 clc ;
10 disp ( P r i n c i p l e s

o f Heat T r a n s f e r , 7 t h Ed . Frank
K r e i t h e t . a l C h a p t e r 3 Example # 3 . 3 )

11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35

// i n i t i a l t e m p e r a t u r e o f t h e s h e e t i n C i s g i v e n a s :
Tinitial = 500;
// t h i c k n e s s o f t h e s h e e t i n m i s g i v e n a s
th = 0.02;
// d e n s i t y i n kg /m3 i s g i v e n f o r s t e e l a s
rho = 8500;
// s p e c i f i c h e a t i n J / kgK i s g i v e n a s
c = 460;
// t h e r m a l c o n d u c t i v i t y i n W/mK i s g i v e n a s
k = 20;
// The h e a t t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t i n W/m2K t o t h e a i r
i s given as
h = 80;
// t h e a m b i e n t a i r t e m p e r a t u r e i n d e g r e e C i s
Tinfinity = 20;
// F i n a l t e m p e r a t u r e r e q u i r e d t o a c h i e v e i n C i s
Tfinal = 250;
// The t r a n s i e n t c o o l i n g o f s t a i n l e s s s t e e l s h e e t can
be modeled a s a semi i n f i n i t e s l a b
// b e c a u s e t h e t h i c k n e s s o f t h e s h e e t i s much s m a l l e r
t h a n i t s w i d t h and l e n g t h .
L = th /2; // Length i n m
// F i n d i n g c h a r t s o l u t i o n
// B i o t number s h a l l be
Bi = ( h * L ) / k ;
// S i n c e Bi <0.1 and h e n c e t h e s h e e t can be t r e a t e d a s
a lumped c a p a c i t a n c e .

36
37

//To u s e f i g . 2 . 4 2 on p a g e 1 3 5 , we n e e d t o c a l c u l a t e
the f o l l o w i n g value :
38 value = ( Tfinal - Tinfinity ) /( Tinitial - Tinfinity ) ; //
value required
52

39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48

// So , now u s i n g f i g . 2 . 4 2 , we have a l p h a d t / ( LL ) =19


//BY t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e r m a l d i f f u s i v i t y , i n S I
u n i t s we have
alpha = k /( rho * c ) ;
disp ( By c h a r t s o l u t i o n , t i m e r e q u i r e d i n s e c o n d s
comes o u t t o be )
// t i m e r e q u i r e d i n s e c o n d s
t = ((19* L ) * L ) / alpha

// P r o c e e d i n g t o t h e n u m e r i c a l s o l u t i o n
// c o n s i d e r h a l f t h e s h e e t t h i c k n e s s , w i t h x=0 b e i n g
t h e e x p o s e d l e f t f a c e and
49 // x=L b e i n g t h e s h e e t c e n t e r l i n e
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73

// U s i n g 20 c o n t r o l v o l u m e s
N = 21; // T o t a l number o f g r i d p o i n t s
dx = L /20; // dx i n m
// Old t e m p e r a t u r e a r r a y
for N = 1:21
// Old temp i n d e g r e e C
Told (1 , N ) = Tinitial ;
//New temp i n d e g r e e C
Tnew (1 , N ) = Tinitial ;
end ;
// I n i t i a l i s a t i o n Time i n s e c
t = 0;
// I n c r e m e n t o f Time i n s e c
dt = 0.02;
// C o n d i t i o n o f l o o p i n g
while Told (21) >250
//C1 o f g o v e r n i n g e q u a t i o n i n S I u n i t s
C1 = ( alpha * dt ) /( dx * dx ) ;
//C2 o f g o v e r n i n g e q u a t i o n i n S I u n i t s
C2 = ((2* h ) * dt ) /(( rho * c ) * dx ) ;
//C3 o f g o v e r n i n g e q u a t i o n i n S I u n i t s
C3 = 2* C1 ;
53

74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91

//New temp i n C a s g i v e n by t h e e q u a t i o n s o f
f i n i t e d i f f e r e n c e method
Tnew = mtlb_i ( Tnew ,1 , Told (1) + C2 *( Tinfinity - Told (1)
) + C3 *( Told (2) - Told (1) ) ) ;
Tnew = mtlb_i ( Tnew ,21 , Told (21) + C3 *( Told (20) - Told
(21) ) ) ;
for N = 2:20
//New temp i n C a s g i v e n by t h e e q u a t i o n s o f
f i n i t e d i f f e r e n c e method
Tnew = mtlb_i ( Tnew ,N , Told ( N ) + C1 *( Told ( N +1) -2*
Told ( N ) + Told (N -1) ) ) ;
end ;
for N = 1:21
// A s s i g n i n g o l d temp=new temp
Told = mtlb_i ( Told ,N , Tnew ( N ) ) ;
end ;
// M o d i f i e d t i m e f o r new l o o p
t = t + dt ;
end ;
// L . 6 7 : No s i m p l e e q u i v a l e n t , s o m t l b f p r i n t f ( ) i s
called .
mtlb_fprintf ( As p e r n u m e r i c a l s o l u t i o n t i m e comes
o u t t o be %5 . 2 f s e c o n d s \n ,t )
disp ( T h i s t i m e i s a b o u t 1 . 5% l e s s t h a n t h e c h a r t
s o l u t i o n )

Scilab code Exa 3.4 Temperature Distribution in Rod Crosssection


1
2
3
4
5
6

// D i s p l a y mode
mode (0) ;

54

7 // D i s p l a y w a r n i n g f o r f l o a t i n g p o i n t e x c e p t i o n
8 ieee (1) ;
9
10 clc ;
11 disp ( P r i n c i p l e s o f Heat T r a n s f e r , 7 t h Ed . Frank

K r e i t h e t . a l C h a p t e r 3 Example # 3 . 4 )
12
13 // D i m e n s i o n s o f t h e c r o s s s e c t i o n i n i n c h e s
14 l = 1;
15 b = 1;
16
17 // D i v i d i n g domain s u c h t h a t t h e r e a r e f o u r n o d e s i n

x and y d i r e c t i o n
18 dx = 1/3; // dx i n i n c h e s
19 dy = 1/3; // dy i n i n c h e s
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41

// A s s i g n i n g T e m p e r a t u r e i n C f o r t o p and bottom
surface
for i = 1:4
T (1 , i ) = 0;
T (4 , i ) = 0;
end ;
// A s s i g n i n g T e m p e r a t u r e i n C f o r s i d e s u r f a c e s
for j = 1:4
T (j ,1) = 50;
T (j ,4) = 100;
end ;
// A s s i g n i n g T e m p e r a t u r e i n C f o r i n t e r i o r n o d e s
for i = 2:3
for j = 2:3
T (i , j ) = 0;
end ;
end ;
// D e f i n i n g l o o p i n g p a r a m e t e r
step = 0;
for step = 0:50
// U s i n g g o v e r n i n g e q u a t i o n s o f f i n i t e d i f f e r e n c e
T (3 ,2) = 0.25*(50+0+ T (2 ,2) + T (3 ,3) ) ;
55

42
T (2 ,2) =
43
T (2 ,3) =
44
T (3 ,3) =
45 end ;
46
47 // d i s p ( At
48
49
50
51
52

0.25*(50+0+ T (3 ,2) + T (2 ,3) ) ;


0.25*(100+0+ T (3 ,2) + T (2 ,3) ) ;
0.25*(100+0+ T (2 ,2) + T (3 ,3) ) ;

steady state , Final temperature of the


c r o s s s e c t i o n i n C would be )
//New temp d i s t r i b u t i o n i n d e g r e e C
printf ( T e m p e r a t u r e T ( 2 , 2 ) i n d e g r e e C i s %5 . 2 f \n ,T
(2 ,2) )
printf ( T e m p e r a t u r e T ( 2 , 3 ) i n d e g r e e C i s %5 . 2 f \n ,T
(3 ,2) )
printf ( T e m p e r a t u r e T ( 3 , 2 ) i n d e g r e e C i s %5 . 2 f \n ,T
(2 ,3) )
printf ( T e m p e r a t u r e T ( 3 , 3 ) i n d e g r e e C i s %5 . 2 f ,T
(3 ,3) )

Scilab code Exa 3.5 Analysis of Alloy Bus Bar


1
2
3 // D i s p l a y mode
4 mode (0) ;
5
6 // D i s p l a y w a r n i n g f o r f l o a t i n g p o i n t e x c e p t i o n
7 ieee (1) ;
8
9 clc ;
10 disp ( P r i n c i p l e s o f Heat T r a n s f e r , 7 t h Ed . Frank

K r e i t h e t . a l C h a p t e r 3 Example # 3 . 5 )
11
12

// Thermal c o n d u c t i v i t y o f a l l o y bus b a r i n W/mK i s


given as
13 k = 20;
14 // Heat g e n e r a t i o n r a t e i n W/m3 i s g i v e n a s
56

15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49

qg = 10^6;
// d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e b a r i n m i s g i v e n a s
L = 0.1; // Length i n m
b = 0.05; // Width i n m
d = 0.01; // T h i c k n e s s i n m
// For t o p edge , h e a t t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t i n W/m2K
and a m b i e n t t e m p e r a t u r e
// i n C a r e
h = 75;
Tinfinity = 0;
//We a r e t a k i n g a t o t a l o f 11 n o d e s i n t h e d i r e c t i o n
o f l e n g t h and 6 n o d e s
// i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f w i d t h
dx = 0.01; // dx i n m
dy = 0.01; // dy i n m
// A s s i g n i n g a g u e s s t e m p e r a t u r e o f 25C t o a l l n o d e s
for i = 1:6
for j = 1:11
// Old temp . i n d e g r e e C
Told (i , j ) = 25;
end ;
end ;
// A s s i g n i n g t e m p e r a t u r e on t h e l e f t and r i g h t hand
side
for i = 1:6
// Old temp . i n d e g r e e C
Told (i ,1) = 40;
Told (i ,11) = 10;
//New temp . i n d e g r e e C
Tnew (i ,1) = 40;
Tnew (i ,11) = 10;
end ;
// I n t i t a l i s a t i o n o f l o o p i n g p a r a m e t e r
p = 0;
// I t e r a t i o n t o f i n d t e m p e r a t u r e d i s t r i b u t i o n
while p <500
57

50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61

62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82

// E q u a t i o n f o r a l l i n t e r i o r n o d e s
for i = 2:5
for j = 2:10
//New temp . i n d e g r e e C
Tnew (i , j ) = 0.25*( Told (i -1 , j ) + Told ( i +1 , j ) + Told
(i ,j -1) + Told (i , j +1) +(( qg * dx ) * dx ) / k ) ;
end ;
end ;
// E q u a t i o n f o r t o p w a l l
for j = 2:10
//New temp . i n d e g r e e C
Tnew (1 , j ) = ( h * Tinfinity +( qg * dx ) /2+( k *(0.5*( Told
(1 ,j -1) + Told (1 , j +1) ) + Told (2 , j ) ) ) / dx ) /( h +(2* k )
/ dx ) ;
end ;
// E q u a t i o n f o r bottom w a l l
for j = 2:10
//New temp . i n d e g r e e C
Tnew (6 , j ) = 0.25*( Told (6 ,j -1) + Told (6 , j +1) ) +0.5*
Told (5 , j ) +(( qg * dx ) * dx ) /(4* k ) ;
end ;
for i = 1:6
for j = 1:11
// A s s i g n i n g Old Temp=New Temp
Told (i , j ) = Tnew (i , j ) ;
end ;
end ;
//New l o o p i n g p a r a m e t e r i n c r e m e n t e d
p = p +1;
end ;
disp ( The t e m p e r a t u r e d i s t r i b u t i o n i n t h e b a r i n C
i s the f o l l o w i n g )
// Old temp . i n d e g r e e C
Told
// F i n d i n g maximum t e m p e r a t u r e
58

83 Tmax = Told (1 ,1) ;


84 for i = 1:6
85
for j = 1:11
86
if Told (i , j ) > Tmax then
87
Tmax = Told (i , j ) ;
88
else
89
Tmax = Tmax ;
90
end ;
91
end ;
92 end ;
93 disp ( The maximum t e m p e r a t u r e i n C i n t h e
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109

a l l o y bus

bar i s )
//maximum t e m p e r a t u r e i n C
Tmax

// F i n d i n g h e a t t r a n s f e r r a t e
dz = 0.01; // dz i n m
// D e f i n i n g a r e a s
for i = 2:10
A (1 , i ) = dx * dz ; // Area i n m2
end ;
A = mtlb_i (A ,1 ,( dx * dz ) /2) ;
A = mtlb_i (A ,11 , A (1) ) ;
for i = 1:11
// h e a t t r a n s f e r r a t e i n W
q (1 , i ) = ( h * A ( i ) ) *( Tnew (1 , i ) - Tinfinity ) ;
end ;
disp ( The h e a t t r a n s f e r r a t e from t h e t o p e d g e i n W
i s g i v e n by )
110 // h e a t t r a n s f e r r a t e i n W
111 q

Scilab code Exa 3.6 Transient Behavior of Alloy Bar


1

59

2
3 // D i s p l a y mode
4 mode (0) ;
5
6 // D i s p l a y w a r n i n g f o r f l o a t i n g p o i n t e x c e p t i o n
7 ieee (1) ;
8
9 clc ;
10 disp ( P r i n c i p l e s o f Heat T r a n s f e r , 7 t h Ed . Frank

K r e i t h e t . a l C h a p t e r 3 Example # 3 . 6 )
11
12
13
14

// Thermal d i f f u s i v i t y i n m2/ s
alpha = 0.000008;
// %Thermal c o n d u c t i v i t y o f a l l o y bus b a r i n W/mK i s
given as
15 k = 20;
16 // d e n s i t y s p e c i f i c h e a t p r o d u c t i n S I u n i t s
17 pc = k / alpha ;

18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36

// d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e b a r i n m i s g i v e n a s
L = 0.1; // Length i n m
b = 0.05; // Width i n m
d = 0.01; // T h i c k n e s s i n m
// Heat g e n e r a t i o n r a t e i n W/m3 i s g i v e n a s
qg = 10^6;
// A s s i g n i n g t e m p e r a t u r e on t h e l e f t and r i g h t hand
side
for i = 1:6 // i i s t h e l o o p i n g p a r a m e t e r
// Old temp . i n d e g r e e C
Told (i ,1) = 40;
Told (i ,11) = 10;
//New temp . i n d e g r e e C
Tnew (i ,1) = 40;
Tnew (i ,11) = 10;
end ;

60

37 // A s s i g n i n g a g u e s s t e m p e r a t u r e o f 20C t o a l l n o d e s
38 for i = 1:6 // i i s t h e l o o p i n g p a r a m e t e r
39
for j = 1:11 // j i s t h e l o o p i n g p a r a m e t e r
40
// Guess temp . i n d e g r e e C
41
Told (i , j ) = 20;
42
Tnew (i , j ) = 20;
43
end ;
44 end ;
45
46 // I n i t i a l i s i n g t i m e
47 m = 0;
48
49 // For t o p edge , h e a t t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t i n W/m2K

and a m b i e n t t e m p e r a t u r e
50 // i n C a r e
51 h = 75;
52 Tinfinity = 0;
53
54 //We a r e t a k i n g a t o t a l

o f 11 n o d e s i n t h e d i r e c t i o n
o f l e n g t h and 6 n o d e s
55 // i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f w i d t h
56 dx = 0.01; // dx i n m
57 dy = 0.01; // dy i n m
58
59 // L a r g e s t p e r m i s s i b l e t i m e s t e p i n s e c i s
60 tmax = 1/((2* alpha ) *(1/( dx * dx ) +1/( dy * dy ) ) ) ;
61 // Rounding i t o f f t o n e a r e s t i n t e g e r
62 t = 3; // t i m e s t e p i n s e c o n d s
63
64 // C o n d i t i o n f o r c o n v e r g e n c e
65 while abs ( Tnew (5 ,6) - Told (5 ,6) ) <0.0001
66
67
// E q u a t i o n f o r a l l i n t e r i o r n o d e s
68
for i = 2:5
69
for j = 2:10
70
//New temp . i n d e g r e e C
71
Tnew (i , j ) = ( Told (i , j ) +( alpha * t ) *(( Tnew ( i +1 , j )

+ Tnew (i -1 , j ) ) /( dx * dx ) +( Tnew (i , j +1) + Tnew (i ,j


61

-1) ) /( dy * dy ) + qg / k ) ) /(1+((2* alpha ) * t ) *(1/( dx


* dx ) +1/( dy * dy ) ) ) ;
72
73
74
75
76
77
78

79
80
81
82
83
84

85
86
87
88
89
90
91

end ;
end ;
// E q u a t i o n f o r t o p w a l l
for j = 2:10
//New temp . i n d e g r e e C
Tnew (1 , j ) = ( Told (1 , j ) +((2* t ) /(( dx * dx ) * pc ) ) *( k
*(( Tnew (1 , j +1) + Tnew (1 ,j -1) ) /2+ Tnew (2 , j ) ) ) +((
qg * dx ) * dx ) /2+( h * dx ) * Tinfinity ) /(1+((2* t ) /(( dx
* dx ) * pc ) ) *(2* k + h * dx ) ) ;
end ;
// E q u a t i o n f o r bottom w a l l
for j = 2:10
//New temp . i n d e g r e e C
Tnew (6 , j ) = ( Told (6 , j ) +((2* t ) /(( dx * dx ) * pc ) ) *( k
*(( Tnew (6 , j +1) + Tnew (6 ,j -1) ) /2+ Tnew (5 , j ) ) ) +((
qg * dx ) * dx ) /2) /(1+((2* t ) /(( dx * dx ) * pc ) ) *(2* k ) ) ;
end ;
//New t i m e i n s e c
m = m+t;
end ;

disp ( Time r e q u i r e d t o r e a c h s t e a d y s t a t e u s i n g
d e l t a T =0.3 s e c i s 1 1 4 0 s e c o n d s )

Scilab code Exa 3.7 Cooling of Long Cylinder


1
2
3
4

// D i s p l a y mode
mode (0) ;
62

5
6 // D i s p l a y w a r n i n g f o r f l o a t i n g p o i n t e x c e p t i o n
7 ieee (1) ;
8
9 clc ;
10 disp ( P r i n c i p l e s o f Heat T r a n s f e r , 7 t h Ed . Frank

K r e i t h e t . a l C h a p t e r 3 Example # 3 . 7 )
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

// Heat T r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t i s g i v e n i n W/m2K a s :
h = 200;
// R a d i u s o f c y l i n d e r i n m i s g i v e n a s :
R0 = 0.05;
// Thermal c o n d u c t i v i t y i n W/mK i s g i v e n a s :
k = 20;
// Thermal d i f f u s i v i t y t i n m2/ s e c i s g i v e n a s :
alpha = 10^( -5) ;
// T h e r e f o r e t h e b i o t number i s g i v e n a s :
Bi = ( h * R0 ) / k ;
// Ambient w a t e r b a t h t e m p e r a t u r e i n C i s g i v e n a s :
Tinfinity = 0;
// I n i t i a l t e m p e r a t u r e o f c e n t r e l i n e i s g i v e n a s :
T0 = 500;
// F i n a l T e m p e r a t u r e o f c e n t r e l i n e i s g i v e n a s :
Tr = 100;

// T h e r e f o r e t h e v a l u e o f ( TrT i n f i n i t y ) / ( T0
Tinfinity ) is :
31 value = ( Tr - Tinfinity ) /( T0 - Tinfinity ) ; // R e q u i r e d
value
32
33

// U s i n g a b o v e v a l u e and b i o t number , from F i g u r e


2 . 4 3 ( a ) on p a g e 1 3 7 , we have
34 // a l p h a t / ( R0R0 ) =1.8
35
36

disp ( T h e r e f o r e from c h a r t s o l u t i o n , t i m e t a k e n i n
s e c o n d s s h a l l be )
37 // Time t a k e n i n s e c o n d s
63

38 t = ((1.8* R0 ) * R0 ) / alpha
39
40 // P r o c e e d i n g t o t h e n u m e r i c a l s o l u t i o n
41 // B e c a u s e o f symmetry we n e e d t o c o n s i d e r o n l y one

quarter of the c i r c u l a r c r o s s s e c t i o n
42 // The v e r t i c a l and h o r i z o n t a l r a d i i a r e t h e n
adiabatic surfaces .
43
44

//We w i l l have a t o t a l o f n i n e t y p e s o f c o n t r o l
volume
45 // Each o f t h e c o n t r o l volume e n e r g y b a l a n c e
e q u a t i o n s can be s o l v e d
46
47
48
49
50
51

// The c o e f f i c i e n t on T f o r c o n t r o l volume t y p e 7 i s :
// ( dx dx / ( a l p h a d t ) ) 2 2h dx /5
// and f o r i t t o be p o s i t i v e

// v a l u e o f t we u s e i n t h e n u m e r i c a l s o l u t i o n must
be s m a l l e r t h a n t h i s
52 // maximum v a l u e . The c a l c u l a t i o n i s c o n t i n u e d u n t i l
t h e t e m p e r a t u r e f o r t h e c o n t r o l v o l ume n e a r e s t
t h e c y l i n d e r a x i s i s l e s s t h a n 100 C

53
54

disp ( And u s i n g n u m e r i c a l s o l u t i o n t h e t i m e i n
s e c o n d s comes o u t t o be )
55 // Time t a k e n i n s e c o n d s
56 tfinal = 431
57 disp ( which i s a b o u t 4% l e s s t h a n t h e c h a r t s o l u t i o n
o f 450 s . )

64

Chapter 4
Analysis of Convection Heat
Transfer

Scilab code Exa 4.1 Computation of Heat Transfer Coefficient


1
2
3 // D i s p l a y mode
4 mode (0) ;
5
6 // D i s p l a y w a r n i n g f o r f l o a t i n g p o i n t e x c e p t i o n
7 ieee (1) ;
8
9 clc ;
10 disp ( P r i n c i p l e s o f Heat T r a n s f e r , 7 t h Ed . Frank

K r e i t h e t . a l C h a p t e r 4 Example # 4 . 1 )
11
12 // T e m p e r a t u r e o f a i r i n C i s g i v e n a s :
13 Tinfinity = 20;
14 // T e m p e r a t u r e o f s u r f a c e i n C i s g i v e n a s :
15 Ts = 100;
16 // T h e r e f o r e a v a e r a g e t e m p e r a t u r e i n d e g r e e C would

be :
17 Ta = ( Ts + Tinfinity ) /2;
65

18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25

// From f i g . 4 . 2 on p a g e 2 3 2 , i t can be e a s i l y s e e n
that ( deltaT / deltaY ) at
// y=0 i s 66.7 K/mm
// From T a b l e 28 i n Appendix 2 , a t a v e r a g e
temperature of air , thermal
// c o n d u c t i v i t y i n W/mK i s
k = 0.028;

// T h e r e f o r e from eq . 4 . 1
disp ( The h e a t t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t i s g i v e n by , a s
p e r Eq . 4 . 1 , i n W/m2K )
26 // 1 0 0 0 i s added t o c o n v e r t from mm t o m
27 // h e a t t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t i n W/m2K
28 hc = (( - k *( -66.7) ) /( Ts - Tinfinity ) ) *1000

Scilab code Exa 4.2 Theoretical Problem


1
2
3 // D i s p l a y mode
4 mode (0) ;
5
6 // D i s p l a y w a r n i n g f o r f l o a t i n g p o i n t e x c e p t i o n
7 ieee (1) ;
8
9 clc ;
10 disp ( P r i n c i p l e s o f Heat T r a n s f e r , 7 t h Ed . Frank

K r e i t h e t . a l C h a p t e r 4 Example # 4 . 2 )
11
12
13
14
15
16

disp ( The g i v e n e x a m p l e i s t h e o r e t i c a l and d o e s n o t


i n v o l v e any n u m e r i c a l c o m p u t a t i o n )
// L o c a l s h e a r s t r e s s i s g i v e n a s :
// t a u = 0 . 3 ( ( r h o mu/ x ) 0 . 5 ) ( U i n f i n i t y 1 . 5 )

66

// U s i n g L o c a l f r i c t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t = l o c a l s h e a r
stress /
18 // ( 0 . 5 r h o U i n f i n i t y U i n f i n i t y ) , we g e t l o c a l
f r i c t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t as :
17

19
20
21
22

// d i s p ( Cfx = 0 . 6 / ( ( ReL x s t a r ) ) 0 . 5 )

// I n t e g r a t i n g t h e l o c a l v a l u e o f s h e a r s t r e s s o v e r
l e n g t h L and d i v i d i n g by
23 // a r e a i . e . A=L 1 , we g e t a v e r a g e f r i c t i o n
c o e f f i c i e n t as :
24
25

// d i s p ( C f b a r = 1 . 2 / ( ReL 0 . 5 ) )

Scilab code Exa 4.3 Flat Plate Solar Collector


1
2
3 // D i s p l a y mode
4 mode (0) ;
5
6 // D i s p l a y w a r n i n g f o r f l o a t i n g p o i n t e x c e p t i o n
7 ieee (1) ;
8
9 clc ;
10 disp ( P r i n c i p l e s o f Heat T r a n s f e r , 7 t h Ed . Frank

K r e i t h e t . a l C h a p t e r 4 Example # 4 . 3 )
11
12 // Width o f t h e c o l l e c t o r p l a t e i n f t i s
13 b = 1;
14 // S u r f a c e t e m p e r a t u r e i n F i s g i v e n :
15 Ts = 140;
16 // A i r t e m p e r a t u r e i n F i s g i v e n :
17 Tinfinity = 60;
18 // A i r v e l o c i t y i n f t / s e c i s g i v e n a s :

67

given :

19 Uinfinity = 10;
20 // A v e r a g e t e m p e r a t u r e i n d e g r e e F i s g i v e n a s :
21 T = ( Ts + Tinfinity ) /2;
22 // P r o p e r t i e s o f a i r a t a v e r a g e t e m p e r a t u r e a r e a s

follows
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40

Pr = 0.72; // P r a n d t l number
k = 0.0154; // Thermal c o n d u c t i v i t y i n Btu / h f t
mu = 1.285*10 -5; // V i s c o s i t y i n lbm / f t s
cp = 0.24; // S p e c i f i c h e a t i n Btu / lbm
F
rho = 0.071; // D e n s i t y i n lbm / f t 3

// Reynold s number a t x=1 f t i s


Re1 = (( Uinfinity * rho ) *1) / mu ;
// Reynold s number a t x=9 f t i s
Re9 = (( Uinfinity * rho ) *1) / mu ;
// Assuming t h a t t h e c r i t i c a l R e y n o l d s number i s
5105 , the c r i t i c a l d i s t a n c e i s
// C r i t i c a l R e y n o l d s number
Rec = 5*(10^5) ;
// C r i t i c a l d i s t a n c e i n f t
xc = ( Rec * mu ) /( Uinfinity * rho ) ;

// From Eq . 4 . 2 8 , and u s i n g t h e d a t a o b t a i n e d , we
get for part a :
41 disp ( D e l t a a t x=1 f t t o be 0 . 0 2 1 3 f t and a t x=9 f t t o
be 0 . 0 6 3 8 f t )
42
43

// From Eq . 4 . 3 0 , and u s i n g t h e d a t a o b t a i n e d , we
get for part b :
44 disp ( Cfx a t x=1 f t t o be 0 . 0 0 2 8 3 and a t x=9 f t t o be
0.000942 )
45
46

// From Eq . 4 . 3 1 , and u s i n g t h e d a t a o b t a i n e d , we
get for part c :
47 disp ( C f b a r a t x=1 f t t o be 0 . 0 0 5 6 6 and a t x=9 f t t o
be 0 . 0 0 1 8 9 )
48

68

// From Eq . 4 . 2 9 , and u s i n g t h e d a t a o b t a i n e d , we
get for part d :
50 disp ( Tau a t x=1 f t t o be 3.1210 4 l b / f t 2 and a t x
=9 f t t o be 1.04 10 4 l b / f t 2 )

49

51
52

// From Eq . 4 . 3 2 , and u s i n g t h e d a t a o b t a i n e d , we
get for part e :
53 disp ( DeltaTH a t x=1 f t t o be 0 . 0 2 3 7 f t and a t x=9 f t
t o be 0 . 0 7 1 2 f t )
54
55

// From Eq . 4 . 3 6 , and u s i n g t h e d a t a o b t a i n e d , we
get for part f :
56 disp ( hcx a t x=1 f t t o be 1 . 0 8 Btu / h f t 2 F and a t x=9
f t t o be 0 . 3 5 9 Btu / h f t 2 F )
57
58

// From Eq . 4 . 3 9 , and u s i n g t h e d a t a o b t a i n e d , we
get for part g :
59 disp ( h c b a r a t x=1 f t t o be 2 . 1 8 Btu / h f t 2 F and a t x
=9 f t t o be 0 . 7 1 8 Btu / h f t 2 F )

60
61

// From Eq . 4 . 3 5 , and u s i n g t h e d a t a o b t a i n e d , we
get for part h :
62 disp ( q a t x=1 f t t o be 172 Btu / h and a t x=9 f t t o be
517 Btu /h )

Scilab code Exa 4.4 Heat Flow From Crankcase


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

// D i s p l a y mode
mode (0) ;
// D i s p l a y w a r n i n g f o r f l o a t i n g p o i n t e x c e p t i o n
ieee (1) ;

69

9 clc ;
10 disp ( P r i n c i p l e s

o f Heat T r a n s f e r , 7 t h Ed . Frank
K r e i t h e t . a l C h a p t e r 4 Example # 4 . 4 )

11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24

// Length o f t h e c r a n k c a s e i n m i s g i v e n a s
L = 0.6;
// Width o f t h e c r a n k c a s e i n m i s g i v e n a s
b = 0.2;
// Depth o f t h e c r a n k c a s e i n m i s g i v e n a s
d = 0.1;
// S u r f a c e t e m p e r a t u r e i n K i s g i v e n a s
Ts = 350;
// A i r t e m p e r a t u r e i n K i s g i v e n a s
Tinfinity = 276;
// A i r v e l o c i t y i n m/ s e c i s g i v e n a s
Uinfinity = 30;
// I t i s s t a t e d t h a t boundary l a y e r i s t u r b u l e n t
over the e n t i r e s u r f a c e

25
26 // A v e r a g e a i r t e m p e r a t u r e i n d e g r e e K i s
27 T = ( Ts + Tinfinity ) /2;
28 // At t h i s a v e r a g e t e m p e r a t u r e , we g e t t h e f o l l o w i n g

for air
rho = 1.092; // d e n s i t y i n kg /m3
mu = 0.000019123; // v i s c o s i t y i n S I u n i t s
Pr = 0.71; // P r a n d t l number
k = 0.0265; // Thermal c o n d u c t i v i t y i n W/mK

29
30
31
32
33
34 // Reynold s number i s t h e r e f o r e g i v e n a s
35 ReL = (( rho * Uinfinity ) * L ) / mu ;
36
37 // From eq . 4 . 8 2 , a v e r a g e n u s s e l t number c o u l d be

given as
38 Nu = (0.036*( Pr ^(1/3) ) ) *( ReL ^0.8) ;
39
40 //We can w r i t e from t h e b a s i c e x p r e s s i o n , Nu=hc L/k ,

that
41 // Heat t r a n s f e r

c o e f f i c i e n t i n W/m2K
70

42 hc = ( Nu * k ) / L ;
43
44 // The s u r f a c e a r e a t h a t d i s s i p a t e s h e a t i s 0 . 2 8 m2
45 disp ( T o t a l h e a t l o s s from t h e s u r f a c e i n W i s

t h e r e f o r e )
46 // Heat l o s s from t h e s u r f a c e i n W
47 q = ( hc *0.28) *( Ts - Tinfinity )

71

Chapter 5
Natural Convection

Scilab code Exa 5.1 Convection Heat Loss From Room Heater
1
2
3 // D i s p l a y mode
4 mode (0) ;
5
6 // D i s p l a y w a r n i n g f o r f l o a t i n g p o i n t e x c e p t i o n
7 ieee (1) ;
8
9 clc ;
10 disp ( P r i n c i p l e s o f Heat T r a n s f e r , 7 t h Ed . Frank

K r e i t h e t . a l C h a p t e r 5 Example # 5 . 1 ) ;
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

// Body temp i n d e g r e e C
Tb = 127;
// Body temp i n d e g r e e K
TbK = Tb +273;
// Ambient temp i n d e g r e e C
Ta = 27;
// Ambient temp i n d e g r e e K
TaK = Ta +273;
// Film t e m p e r a t u r e = ( Body T e m p e r a t u r e + Ambient
72

21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49

Temperature ) / 2
// Film temp i n d e g r e e K
TfK = ( TbK + TaK ) /2;
// V a l u e o f c o e f f i c i e n t o f e x p a n s i o n a t t h i s f i l m
temp i n d e g r e e K i n v e r s e
B = 1/ TfK ;
// V a l u e o f P r a n d t l number a t t h i s f i l m temp
Pr = 0.71;
// V a l u e o f k i n e m a t i c v i s c o s i t y a t t h i s f i l m temp
i n m2/ s
v = 0.0000212;
// V a l u e o f t h e r m a l c o n d u c t i v i t y a t t h i s f i l m temp
i n W/mK
k = 0.0291;
// a c c e l e r a t i o n due t o g r a v i t y i n m/ s2
g = 9.81;
// t e m p e r a t u r e d i f f . b e t w e e n body and a m b i e n t i n
d e g r e e K
deltaT = TbK - TaK ;
// d i a m e t e r o f h e a t e r w i r e i n m
d = 0.001;
// T h e r e f o r e u s i n g R a y l e i g h number = ( ( Pr g B
d e l t a T d 3 ) / v 2 )
Ra = (((( Pr * g ) * B ) * deltaT ) *( d ^3) ) /( v ^2) ;
// From F i g . 5 . 3 on Page 3 0 3 , we g e t
// l o g ( Nu ) = 0 . 1 2 , where Nu i s n u s s e l t number ,
therefore
Nu = 1.32;
// U s i n g Nu = hc d /k , we g e t h e a t t r a n s f e r
c o e f f i c i e n t i n W/m2K
hc = ( Nu * k ) / d ;
disp ( The r a t e o f h e a t l o s s p e r m e t e r l e n g t h i n a i r
i n W/m i s g i v e n by hc (A/ l ) d e l t a T )
// h e a t l o s s p e r m e t e r l e n g t h i n a i r i n W/m
q = (( hc * deltaT ) * %pi ) * d
// For Co2 , we e v a l u a t e t h e p r o p e r t i e s a t f i l m
73

50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58

temperature
// F o l l o w i n g a r e t h e v a l u e s o f d i m e n s i o n l e s s
numbers s o o b t a i n e d
// R a y l e i g h number , Ra = 1 6 . 9 0
// N u s s e l t number , Nu = 1 . 6 2
// U s i n g Nu = hc d /k , we g e t
// hc = 3 3 . 2 W/m2K
disp ( The r a t e o f h e a t l o s s p e r m e t e r l e n g t h i n CO2
i s g i v e n by hc (A/ l ) d e l t a T )
disp ( q = 1 0 . 4 W/m )

disp ( D i s c u s s i o n For same a r e a and t e m p e r a t u r e


d i f f e r e n c e : )
59 disp ( Heat t r a n s f e r by c o n v e c t i o n w i l l be more , i f
heat t r a n s f e r c o e f f . i s high )

Scilab code Exa 5.2 Power Requirement of Heater


1
2
3 // D i s p l a y mode
4 mode (0) ;
5
6 // D i s p l a y w a r n i n g f o r f l o a t i n g p o i n t e x c e p t i o n
7 ieee (1) ;
8
9 clc ;
10 disp ( P r i n c i p l e s o f Heat T r a n s f e r , 7 t h Ed . Frank

K r e i t h e t . a l C h a p t e r 5 Example # 5 . 2 ) ;
11
12 // S u r f a c e temp i n d e g r e e C
13 TsC = 130;
14 // Body temp i n d e g r e e K
15 Ts = TsC +273;
16 // Ambient temp i n d e g r e e C

74

17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39

TinfinityC = 20;
// Ambient temp i n d e g r e e K
Tinfinity = TinfinityC +273;
// Film t e m p e r a t u r e = ( S u r f a c e T e m p e r a t u r e +
Ambient T e m p e r a t u r e ) / 2
// Film temp i n d e g r e e K
Tf = ( Ts + Tinfinity ) /2;
// H e i g h t o f p l a t e i n cms
L = 15;
// Width o f p l a t e i n cms
b = 10;
// V a l u e o f G r a s h o f number a t t h i s f i l m temp i s
g i v e n by
// 6 5 ( L 3 ) ( TsT i n f i n i t y )
// G r a s h o f number
Gr = (65*( L ^3) ) *( Ts - Tinfinity ) ;
// S i n c e t h e g r a s h o f number i s l e s s t h a n 1 0 9 ,
t h e r e f o r e flow i s laminar
// For a i r a t f i l m temp = 75C ( 3 4 8K) , P r a n d t l
number i s
Pr = 0.71;
// And t h e p r o d u c t Gr Pr i s
// P r o d e c t o f Gr and Pr
GrPr = Gr * Pr ;
// From F i g 5 . 5 on p a g e 3 0 5 , a t t h i s v a l u e o f GrPr ,
N u s s e l t number i s
Nu = 35.7;
// V a l u e o f t h e r m a l c o n d u c t i v i t y a t t h i s f i l m temp
i n W/mK
k = 0.029;

40
41
42 // U s i n g Nu = hc L/k , we g e t
43 // Heat t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t f o r c o n v e c t i o n i n W/m2K
44 hc = ( Nu * k ) /( L /100) ;
45
46 // Heat t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t f o r r a d i a t i o n , h r i n W

/m2K
47 hr = 8.5;
75

48
49 // T o t a l a r e a i n m2 i s g i v e n by 2 ( b / 1 0 0 ) ( L / 1 0 0 )
50 A = (2*( b /100) ) *( L /100) ;
51
52
53 disp ( T h e r e f o r e t o t a l h e a t t r a n s f e r i n W i s g i v e n by

A ( hc+h r ) ( TsT i n f i n i t y ) )
54 // t o t a l h e a t t r a n s f e r i n W
55 q = ( A *( hc + hr ) ) *( Ts - Tinfinity )
56
57 // For p l a t e t o be 450cm i n h e i g h t ,

R a y l e i g h number

becomes 4 . 6 2 1 0 1 1
// which i m p l i e s t h a t t h e f l o w i s t u r b u l e n t
// From F i g 5 . 5 on p a g e 3 0 5 , a t t h i s v a l u e o f GrPr ,
N u s s e l t number i s
973
60 // U s i n g Nu = hc d /k , we g e t i n W/m2K, h c b a r
=6.3
61 // New T o t a l a r e a i n m2 , A bar = 2 ( 0 . 1 ) ( 4 . 5 )
58
59

62
63

disp ( T h e r e f o r e i n new c a s e , t o t a l h e a t t r a n s f e r i n
W i s g i v e n by A bar ( h c b a r+h r ) ( TsT i n f i n i t y ) )
64 disp ( we g e t q =1465W )
65
66
67

disp ( D i s c u s s i o n For same t e m p e r a t u r e d i f f e r e n c e :


)
68 disp ( Heat t r a n s f e r w i l l be more , i f a r e a e x p o s e d
f o r c o n v e c t i o n and r a d i a t i o n i s more )

Scilab code Exa 5.3 Heat Loss From Grill


1
2
3
4

// D i s p l a y mode
mode (0) ;
76

5
6 // D i s p l a y w a r n i n g f o r f l o a t i n g p o i n t e x c e p t i o n
7 ieee (1) ;
8
9 clc ;
10 disp ( P r i n c i p l e s o f Heat T r a n s f e r , 7 t h Ed . Frank

K r e i t h e t . a l C h a p t e r 5 Example # 5 . 3 )
11
12 // S u r f a c e temp i n d e g r e e C
13 TsC = 227;
14 // Body temp i n d e g r e e K )
15 Ts = TsC +273;
16 // Ambient temp i n d e g r e e C
17 TinfinityC = 27;
18 // Ambient temp i n d e g r e e K
19 Tinfinity = TinfinityC +273;
20 // Film t e m p e r a t u r e = ( S u r f a c e T e m p e r a t u r e +
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35

Ambient T e m p e r a t u r e ) / 2
// Film temp i n d e g r e e K )
Tf = ( Ts + Tinfinity ) /2;
// For a s q u a r e p l a t e , H e i g h t and w i d t h o f p l a t e i n
m
L = 1;
b = 1;
// For a s q u a r e p l a t e , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c l e n g t h =
s u r f a c e a r e a / p a r a m e t e r i n m
L_bar = ( L * L ) /(4* L ) ;
// V a l u e o f c o e f f i c i e n t o f e x p a n s i o n a t t h i s f i l m
temp i n d e g r e e K i n v e r s e
B = 1/ Tf ;
// V a l u e o f P r a n d t l number a t t h i s f i l m temp
Pr = 0.71;
// V a l u e o f t h e r m a l c o n d u c t i v i t y a t t h i s f i l m temp
i n W/mK
k = 0.032;
// V a l u e o f k i n e m a t i c v i s c o s i t y a t t h i s f i l m temp
i n m2/ s
v = 0.000027;
77

36 // a c c e l e r a t i o n due t o g r a v i t y i n m/ s2
37 g = 9.81;
38 // t e m p e r a t u r e d i f f . b e t w e e n body and a m b i e n t i n

d e g r e e K
deltaT = Ts - Tinfinity ;
// T h e r e f o r e u s i n g R a y l e i g h number = ( ( Pr g B
deltaT ( L bar ) 3) /v 2)
41 // R a y l e i g h number
42 Ra = (((( Pr * g ) * B ) * deltaT ) *( L_bar ^3) ) /( v ^2) ;
39
40

43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51

// From eq . 5 . 1 7 on p a g e 3 1 1 , we have n u s s e l t
number f o r bottom p l a t e a s 0 . 2 7 Pr 0 . 2 5
NuBottom = 25.2;
// From eq . 5 . 1 6 on p a g e 3 1 1 , we have n u s s e l t
number f o r t o p p l a t e a s 0 . 2 7 Pr 0 . 2 5
NuTop = 63.4;
// And t h e r e f o r e c o r r e s p o n d i n g h e a t t r a n s f e r
c o e e f i c i e n t s a r e i n W/m2K
hcBottom = ( NuBottom * k ) / L_bar ; // h e a t t r a n s f e r
c o e e f i c i e n t s a r e i n W/m2K a t bottom
hcTop = ( NuTop * k ) / L_bar ; // h e a t t r a n s f e r
c o e e f i c i e n t s a r e i n W/m2K a t t o p

52
53
54

disp ( T h e r e f o r e t o t a l h e a t t r a n s f e r i n W i s g i v e n by
A ( hcTop+hcBottom ) ( d e l t a T ) )
55 // h e a t t r a n s f e r i n W
56 q = (( L * b ) *( hcTop + hcBottom ) ) * deltaT

Scilab code Exa 5.4 Transition to Turbulent Flow in Pipe


1
2
3

// D i s p l a y mode
78

4 mode (0) ;
5
6 // D i s p l a y w a r n i n g f o r f l o a t i n g p o i n t e x c e p t i o n
7 ieee (1) ;
8
9 clc ;
10 disp ( P r i n c i p l e s o f Heat T r a n s f e r , 7 t h Ed . Frank

K r e i t h e t . a l C h a p t e r 5 Example # 5 . 4 ) ;
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35

// Ambient temp i n d e g r e e C
TinfinityC = 27;
// Ambient temp i n d e g r e e K
Tinfinity = TinfinityC +273;
// The c r i t e r i o n f o r t r a n s i t i o n i s r a y l e i g h number
t o be 1 0 9

// V a l u e o f c o e f f i c i e n t o f e x p a n s i o n a t t h i s temp
in degree K inverse
B = 1/ Tinfinity ;
// V a l u e o f P r a n d t l number a t t h i s a m b i e n t temp
Pr = 0.71;
// D i a m e t e r o f p i p e i n m
D = 1;
// V a l u e o f k i n e m a t i c v i s c o s i t y a t t h i s temp i n m2/
s
v = 0.0000164;
// a c c e l e r a t i o n due t o g r a v i t y i n m/ s2
g = 9.81;
// T h e r e f o r e u s i n g R a y l e i g h number = ( ( Pr g B
d e l t a T (D) 3 ) / v 2 ) = 1 0 9
// we g e t t h e t e m p e r a t u r e d i f f e r e n c e i n c e n t r i g r a d e
t o be
deltaT = 12;
disp ( t h e r e f o r e t h e t e m p e r a t u r e o f p i p e i n C i s )
// t e m p e r a t u r e o f p i p e i n C
Tpipe = TinfinityC + deltaT
79

36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46

// From t a b l e 13 i n Appendix 2 , f o r t h e c a s e o f
w a t e r and u s i n g t h e same p r o c e d u r e we g e t
// t e m p e r a t u r e d i f f e r e n c e i n C
deltaTw = 0.05;
disp ( t h e r e f o r e t h e t e m p e r a t u r e o f p i p e i n C i s )
// t e m p e r a t u r e o f p i p e i n C
Tpipew = TinfinityC + deltaTw
disp ( D i s c u s s i o n For a i r and w a t e r : )
disp ( T e m p e r a t u r e r e q u i r e d t o i n d u c e t u r b u l e n c e i s
higher in a i r )

Scilab code Exa 5.5 Rate of Heat Transfer From Burner


1
2
3 // D i s p l a y mode
4 mode (0) ;
5
6 // D i s p l a y w a r n i n g f o r f l o a t i n g p o i n t e x c e p t i o n
7 ieee (1) ;
8
9 clc ;
10 disp ( P r i n c i p l e s o f Heat T r a n s f e r , 7 t h Ed . Frank

K r e i t h e t . a l C h a p t e r 5 Example # 5 . 5 ) ;
11
12 // Top s u r f a c e temp i n d e g r e e C
13 Tt = 20;
14 // Body temp i n d e g r e e K
15 TtK = Tt +273;
16 // Bottom temp i n d e g r e e C
17 Tb = 100;
18 // Ambient temp i n d e g r e e K

80

19 TbK = Tb +273;
20 // A v e r a g e temp = ( Bottom T e m p e r a t u r e + t o p
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35

Temperature ) / 2
// a v e r a g e temp i n d e g r e e K
T = ( TbK + TtK ) /2;
// V a l u e o f c o e f f i c i e n t o f e x p a n s i o n a t t h i s temp
in degree K inverse
B = 0.000518;
// V a l u e o f P r a n d t l number a t t h i s temp
Pr = 3.02;
// V a l u e o f k i n e m a t i c v i s c o s i t y a t t h i s temp i n m2/
s
v = 0.000000478;
// a c c e l e r a t i o n due t o g r a v i t y i n m/ s2
g = 9.8;
// t e m p e r a t u r e d i f f . b e t w e e n body and a m b i e n t i n
d e g r e e K
deltaT = TbK - TtK ;
// d e p t h o f w a t e r i n m
h = 0.08;
// T h e r e f o r e u s i n g R a y l e i g h number = ( ( Pr g B
d e l t a T h 3 ) / v 2 )
Ra = (((( Pr * g ) * B ) * deltaT ) *( h ^3) ) /( v ^2) ;

36
37
38 // From Eq . ( 5 . 3 0 b ) on p a g e 3 1 8 , we f i n d
39 // N u s s e l t number
40 Nu = 79.3;
41 // V a l u e o f t h e r m a l c o n d u c t i v i t y a t t h i s f i l m temp
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49

i n W/mK
k = 0.657;
// U s i n g Nu = hc d /k , we g e t h e a t t r a n s f e r
c o e f f i c i e n t i n W/m2K
hc = ( Nu * k ) / h ;
// d i a m e t e r o f pan i n m
d = 0.15;
// a r e a = p i dd / 4
a = (( %pi * d ) * d ) /4;
disp ( The r a t e o f h e a t l o s s i n W i s g i v e n by hc (A)
81

deltaT )
50 // h e a t l o s s i n W
51 q = ( hc * deltaT ) * a

Scilab code Exa 5.6 Convection Heat Transfer From Shaft


1
2
3
4 // D i s p l a y mode
5 mode (0) ;
6
7 // D i s p l a y w a r n i n g f o r f l o a t i n g p o i n t e x c e p t i o n
8 ieee (1) ;
9
10 clc ;
11 disp ( P r i n c i p l e s o f Heat T r a n s f e r , 7 t h Ed . Frank

K r e i t h e t . a l C h a p t e r 5 Example # 5 . 6 ) ;
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25

// RPM o f s h a f t
N = 3;
// A n g u l a r v e l o c i t y , omega=2 p i N/60 i n r a d / s
omega = 0.31;
// Ambient temp i n d e g r e e C
Ta = 20;
// Ambient temp i n d e g r e e K
TaK = Ta +273;
// S h a f t temp i n d e g r e e C
Ts = 100;
// S h a f t temp i n d e g r e e K
TsK = Ts +273;
// Film t e m p e r a t u r e = ( S h a f t T e m p e r a t u r e + Ambient
Temperature ) / 2
26 // Film temp i n d e g r e e K
27 TfK = ( TsK + TaK ) /2;
82

28 // d i a m e t e r o f s h a f t i n m
29 d = 0.2;
30 // V a l u e o f k i n e m a t i c v i s c o s i t y

a t t h i s f i l m temp

i n m2/ s
31 v = 0.0000194;
32 // V a l u e o f r e y n o l d s number
33 Re = ((( %pi * d ) * d ) * omega ) / v ;
34
35
36 // a c c e l e r a t i o n due t o g r a v i t y i n m/ s2
37 g = 9.81;
38 // t e m p e r a t u r e d i f f . b e t w e e n body and a m b i e n t i n
39
40
41
42
43
44

d e g r e e K
deltaT = TsK - TaK ;
// V a l u e o f P r a n d t l number a t t h i s f i l m temp
Pr = 0.71;
// V a l u e o f c o e f f i c i e n t o f e x p a n s i o n a t t h i s f i l m
temp i n d e g r e e K i n v e r s e
B = 1/ TfK ;
// T h e r e f o r e u s i n g R a y l e i g h number = ( ( Pr g B
d e l t a T d 3 ) / v 2 )
// R a y l e i g h number
Ra = (((( Pr * g ) * B ) * deltaT ) *( d ^3) ) /( v ^2) ;

45
46
47
48 // From Eq . 5 . 3 5 on Page 3 2 2 , we g e t
49 // N u s s e l t number
50 Nu = 49.2;
51 // V a l u e o f t h e r m a l c o n d u c t i v i t y a t t h i s
52
53
54
55
56
57
58

f i l m temp

i n W/mK
k = 0.0279;
// U s i n g Nu = hc d /k , we g e t i n W/m2K
hc = ( Nu * k ) / d ;
// l e t t h e l e n g t h e x p o s e d t o h e a t t r a n s f e r i s l =1m

// t h e n a r e a i n m2 = p i d l
a = %pi * d ;
disp ( The r a t e o f h e a t l o s s i n a i r i n W i s g i v e n by
hc ( a ) d e l t a T )
83

59 // h e a t l o s s i n a i r
60 q = ( hc * deltaT ) * a

in W

84

Chapter 6
Forced Convection Inside
Tubes and Ducts

Scilab code Exa 6.1 Heating of Water in Tube


1
2
3 // D i s p l a y mode
4 mode (0) ;
5
6 // D i s p l a y w a r n i n g f o r f l o a t i n g p o i n t e x c e p t i o n
7 ieee (1) ;
8
9 clc ;
10 disp ( P r i n c i p l e s o f Heat T r a n s f e r , 7 t h Ed . Frank

K r e i t h e t . a l C h a p t e r 6 Example # 6 . 1 )
11
12 // I n l e t t e m p e r a t u r e i n d e g r e e C
13 Tin = 10;
14 // O u t l e t t e m p e r a t u r e i n d e g r e e C
15 Tout = 40;
16 // D i a m e t e r i n m
17 D = 0.02;
18 // M a s s f l o w r a t e i n kg / s

85

19 m = 0.01;
20 // Heat f l u x i n W/m2
21 q = 15000;
22
23 // From T a b l e 13 i n Appendix 2 , t h e a p p r o p r i a t e

p r o p e r t i e s o f w a t e r a t an
24 // a v e r a g e t e m p e r a t u r e b e t w e e n i n l e t and o u t l e t o f 25
C are
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47

// D e n s i t y i n kg /m3
rho = 997;
// S p e c i f i c h e a t i n J /kgK
c = 4180;
// Thermal c o n d u c t i v i t y i n W/mK
k = 0.608;
// Dynamic v i s c o s i t y i n Ns /m2
mu = 0.00091;
disp ( R e y n o l d s Number i s )
// R e y n o l d s number
Re = (4* m ) /(( %pi * D ) * mu )
disp ( Flow i s Laminar )
// S i n c e t h e t h e r m a l boundary c o n d i t i o n i s one o f
u n i f o r m h e a t f l u x , Nu= 4 . 3 6 from Eq . ( 6 . 3 1 )
// N u s s e l t number
Nu = 4.36;
disp ( Heat t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t i n W/m2K )
// Heat t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t i n W/m2K
hc = ( Nu * k ) / D

// The l e n g t h o f p i p e n e e d e d f o r a 30 C
r i s e i s o b t a i n e d from a h e a t b a l a n c e
48 disp ( Length o f p i p e i n m )
49 // Length o f p i p e i n m
50 L = (( m * c ) *( Tout - Tin ) ) /(( %pi * D ) * q )
51
52

temperature

disp ( I n n e r s u r f a c e t e m p e r a t u r e a t o u t l e t i n d e g r e e
86

C )
53 // I n n e r s u r f a c e t e m p e r a t u r e a t o u t l e t i n d e g r e e C
54 Ts = q / hc + Tout
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72

// The f r i c t i o n f a c t o r i s f o u n d from Eq . ( 6 . 1 8 )
disp ( F r i c t i o n f a c t o r i s )
// F r i c t i o n f a c t o r i s
f = 64/ Re
// A v e r a g e v e l o c i t y i n m/ s
U = (4* m ) /((( rho * %pi ) * D ) * D ) ;
disp ( The p r e s s u r e d r o p i n t h e p i p e i n N/m2 )
// The p r e s s u r e d r o p i n t h e p i p e i n N/m2
deltaP = (((( f * L ) * rho ) * U ) * U ) /( D *2)
// E f f i c i e n c y
n = 0.5;
// The pumping power P i s o b t a i n e d from Eq . 6 . 1 9
disp ( Pumping power i n W i s )
// Pumping power i n W
P = ( m * deltaP ) /( rho * n )

Scilab code Exa 6.2 Recycling of Engine Oil


1
2
3 // D i s p l a y mode
4 mode (0) ;
5
6 // D i s p l a y w a r n i n g f o r f l o a t i n g p o i n t e x c e p t i o n
7 ieee (1) ;
8
9 clc ;
10 disp ( P r i n c i p l e s o f Heat T r a n s f e r , 7 t h Ed . Frank

K r e i t h e t . a l C h a p t e r 6 Example # 6 . 2 )
87

11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25

// D i a m e t e r i n m
D = 0.01;
// Wall t h i c k n e s s i n m
t = 0.02/100;
// M a s s f l o w r a t e i n kg / s
m = 0.05;
// I n l e t t e m p e r a t u r e i n d e g r e e C
Tin = 35;
// O u t l e t t e m p e r a t u r e i n d e g r e e C
Tout = 45;
// Assuming a c o n s t a n t t u b e temp . i n d e g r e e C
T = 100;

// From T a b l e 16 i n Appendix 2 , we g e t t h e f o l l o w i n g
p r o p e r t i e s f o r o i l at
26 // 40 C
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46

// D e n s i t y i n kg /m3
rho = 876;
// S p e c i f i c h e a t i n J /kgK
c = 1964;
// Thermal c o n d u c t i v i t y i n W/mK
k = 0.144;
// Dynamic v i s c o s i t y i n Ns /m2
mu = 0.21;
// P r a n d t l number
Pr = 2870;
// R e y n o l d s Number i s
Re = (4* m ) /(( %pi * D ) * mu ) ;
// For l a m i n a r f l o w and c o n s t a n t t e m p e r a t u r e
assumption
// N u s s e l t number
Nu = 3.66;
// Heat t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t i n W/m2K
hc = ( Nu * k ) / D ;
88

47 // Heat t r a n s f e r r a t e i n W
48 q = ( m * c ) *( Tout - Tin ) ;
49 //LMTD i n d e g r e e K
50 LMTD = (T - Tout -( T - Tin ) ) / log (( T - Tout ) /( T - Tin ) ) ;
51
52 disp ( Length o f p i p e i n m i s )
53 // Length o f p i p e i n m
54 L = q /((( %pi * D ) * hc ) * LMTD )

Scilab code Exa 6.3 Flow of n Butyl Alcohol


1
2
3 // D i s p l a y mode
4 mode (0) ;
5
6 // D i s p l a y w a r n i n g f o r f l o a t i n g p o i n t e x c e p t i o n
7 ieee (1) ;
8
9 clc ;
10 disp ( P r i n c i p l e s o f Heat T r a n s f e r , 7 t h Ed . Frank

K r e i t h e t . a l C h a p t e r 6 Example # 6 . 3 )
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23

// Bulk t e m p e r a t u r e i n d e g r e e K
T = 293;
// S i d e o f s q u a r e d u c t i n m
b = 0.1;
// Length o f s q u a r e d u c t i n m
L = 5;
// Wall t e m p e r a t u r e i n d e g r e e K
Tw = 300;
// V e l o c i t y i n m/ s
U = 0.03;
// H y d r a u l i c d i a m e t e r i n m
89

24 D = 4*(( b * b ) /(4* b ) ) ;
25
26 // P h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s

a t 293 K from T a b l e 19 i n

Appendix 2 a r e
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42

// D e n s i t y i n kg /m3
rho = 810;
// S p e c i f i c h e a t i n J /kgK
c = 2366;
// Thermal c o n d u c t i v i t y i n W/mK
k = 0.167;
// Dynamic v i s c o s i t y i n Ns /m2
mu = 0.00295;
// P r a n d t l number
Pr = 50.8;
// R e y n o l d s Number i s
Re = (( U * D ) * rho ) / mu ;

// Hence , t h e f l o w i s l a m i n a r . Assuming f u l l y
d e v e l o p e d f l o w , we g e t t h e
43 // N u s s e l t number f o r a u n i f o r m w a l l t e m p e r a t u r e from
Table 6 . 1

44
45 Nu = 2.98;
46 // Heat t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t i n W/m2K
47 hc = ( Nu * k ) / D ;
48
49 // S i m i l a r l y , from T a b l e 6 . 1 , t h e p r o d u c t Re f = 5 6 . 9 1
50
51 disp ( F r i c t i o n f a c t o r i s )
52 // F r i c t i o n f a c t o r
53 f = 56.91/ Re

Scilab code Exa 6.4 Cooling of Electronic Device


90

1
2
3 // D i s p l a y mode
4 mode (0) ;
5
6 // D i s p l a y w a r n i n g f o r f l o a t i n g p o i n t e x c e p t i o n
7 ieee (1) ;
8
9 clc ;
10 disp ( P r i n c i p l e s o f Heat T r a n s f e r , 7 t h Ed . Frank

K r e i t h e t . a l C h a p t e r 6 Example # 6 . 4 )
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36

// T e m p e r a t u r e o f d e v i c e c a s i n g i n d e g r e e K
Ts = 353;
// Length o f h o l e s i n m
L = 0.3;
// D i a m e t e r o f h o l e s i n m
D = 0.00254;
// I n l e t t e m p e r a t u r e i n d e g r e e K
Tin = 333;
// V e l o c i t y i n m/ s
U = 0.2;
// The p r o p e r t i e s o f w a t e r a t 333 K, from T a b l e 13 i n
Appendix 2 , a r e
// D e n s i t y i n kg /m3
rho = 983;
// S p e c i f i c h e a t i n J /kgK
c = 4181;
// Thermal c o n d u c t i v i t y i n W/mK
k = 0.658;
// Dynamic v i s c o s i t y i n Ns /m2
mu = 0.000472;
// P r a n d t l number
Pr = 3;
// R e y n o l d s Number i s
91

37 Re = (( U * D ) * rho ) / mu ;
38
39 if ((( Re * Pr ) * D ) / L ) >10 then
40
// Eq . ( 6 . 4 2 ) can be u s e d t o e v a l u a t e t h e h e a t
41

42

43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55

56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64

transfer coefficient .
// But s i n c e t h e mean b u l k t e m p e r a t u r e i s
, we s h a l l e v a l u a t e a l l t h e p r o p e r t i e s
t h e i n l e t b u l k t e m p e r a t u r e Tb1 ,
// t h e n d e t e r m i n e an e x i t b u l k t e m p e r a t u r e
t h e n make a s e c o n d i t e r a t i o n t o o b t a i n
pre cise value .

n o t known
f i r s t at
, and
a more

// At t h e w a l l t e m p e r a t u r e o f 353 K
// V i s c o s i t y i n S I u n i t s
mus = 0.000352;
// From Eq . ( 6 . 4 2 )
// N u s s e l t number
Nu = (1.86*(((( Re * Pr ) * D ) / L ) ^0.33) ) *(( mu / mus ) ^0.14)
;
// Heat t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t i n W/m2K
hc = ( Nu * k ) / D ;
// mass f l o w r a t e i n kg / s
m = (((( rho * %pi ) * D ) * D ) * U ) /4;
// I n s e r t i n g t h e c a l c u l a t e d v a l u e s f o r hc and m
i n t o Energy b a l a n c e e q u a t i o n , a l o n g w i t h Tb1
and Ts and
// g i v e s Tb2=345K
// For t h e s e c o n d i t e r a t i o n , we s h a l l e v a l u a t e a l l
p r o p e r t i e s a t t h e new a v e r a g e b u l k t e m p e r a t u r e
// Bulk temp . i n d e g r e e C
Tb = (345+ Tin ) /2;
// At t h i s t e m p e r a t u r e , we g e t from T a b l e 13 i n
Appendix 2 :
// D e n s i t y i n kg /m3
rho = 980;
92

65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83

// S p e c i f i c h e a t i n J /kgK
c = 4185;
// Thermal c o n d u c t i v i t y i n W/mK
k = 0.662;
// Dynamic v i s c o s i t y i n Ns /m2
mu = 0.000436;
// P r a n d t l number
Pr = 2.78;
//New r e y n o l d s Number i s
Re = (( U * D ) * rho ) / mu ;
// With t h i s v a l u e o f Re , t h e h e a t t r a n s f e r
c o e f f i c i e n t can now be c a l c u l a t e d .
//We o b t a i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s i m i l a r l y
// N u s s e l t number
Nu = 5.67;
// Heat t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t i n W/m2K
hc = ( Nu * k ) / D ;
// S i m i l a r l y p u t t i n g t h i s v a l u e i n e n e r g y b a l a n c e
yields
// Bulk t e m p e r a t u r e i n d e g r e e K
Tb2 = 345;

84
85
86
87
disp ( O u t l e t t e m p e r a t u r e i n d e g r e e K )
88
// O u t l e t t e m p e r a t u r e i n d e g r e e K
89
Tb2
90 end ;

Scilab code Exa 6.5 Water Flowing in an Annulus


1
2
3
4

// D i s p l a y mode
93

5 mode (0) ;
6
7 // D i s p l a y w a r n i n g f o r f l o a t i n g p o i n t e x c e p t i o n
8 ieee (1) ;
9
10 clc ;
11 disp ( P r i n c i p l e s o f Heat T r a n s f e r , 7 t h Ed . Frank

K r e i t h e t . a l C h a p t e r 6 Example # 6 . 5 )
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24

// V e l o c i t y i n f t / s
U = 10;
// Outer d i a m e t e r i n i n c h e s
D = 1.5;
// I n n e r d i a m e t e r i n i n c h e s
d = 1;
// T e m p e r a t u r e o f w a t e r i n d e g r e e F
Tw = 180;
// T e m p e r a t u r e o f w a l l i n d e g r e e F
Twall = 100;

// The h y d r a u l i c d i a m e t e r D f o r t h i s g e o m e t r y i s 0 . 5
in .
25 D = 0.5;

26
27 // U s i n g p r o p e r t i e s g i v e n i n t h e t a b l e p r o v i d e d
28
29 // R e y n o l d s number
30 Re = ((( U * D ) *3600) *60.8) /(12*0.75) ;
31 // P r a n d t l number
32 Pr = (1*0.75) /0.39;
33 // The N u s s e l t number a c c o r d i n g t o t h e D i t t u s B o e l t e r

c o r r e l a t i o n [ Eq . ( 6 . 6 0 ) ]
34 Nu = (0.023*(125000^0.8) ) *( Pr ^0.3) ;
35 printf ( The N u s s e l t number a c c o r d i n g t o t h e D i t t u s
B o e l t e r c o r r e l a t i o n comes o u t t o be %5 . 2 f \n , Nu )
36
37
38

// U s i n g t h e S i e d e r Tate c o r r e l a t i o n [ Eq . ( 6 . 6 1 ) ]
// N u s s e l t number
94

39 Nu = 358;
40 printf ( The N u s s e l t number a c c o r d i n g t o t h e S i e d e r

Tate c o r r e l a t i o n comes o u t t o be %5 . 2 f \n , Nu )
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61

// The PetukhovPopov c o r r e l a t i o n [ Eq . ( 6 . 6 3 ) ] g i v e s
// F r i c t i o n f a c t o r
f = (1.82* log10 (125000) -1.64) ^( -2) ;
//K1 o f Eq . 6 . 6 3
K1 = 1+3.4* f ;
//K2 o f Eq . 6 . 6 3
K2 = 11.7+1.8/( Pr ^0.33) ;
// N u s s e l t number
Nu = 370;
// The S l e i c h e r Rouse c o r r e l a t i o n [ Eq . ( 6 . 6 4 ) ] y i e l d s
// a o f Eq . 6 . 6 4
a = 0.852;
// b o f Eq . 6 . 6 4
b = 1/3+0.5/ exp (0.6*4.64) ;
// R e y n o l d s number
Re = 82237;
// N u s s e l t number
Nu = 5+(0.015*( Re ^ a ) ) *(4.64^ b ) ;
printf ( N u s s e l t number a c c o r d i n g t o The S l e i c h e r
Rouse c o r r e l a t i o n comes o u t t o be %5 . 2 f \n , Nu )

62
63
64

disp ( Assuming t h a t t h e c o r r e c t a n s w e r i s Nu=370 )


disp ( The f i r s t two c o r r e l a t i o n s u n d e r p r e d i c t by
a b o u t 10% and 3 . 5%, r e s p e c t i v e l y )
65 disp ( w h i l e t h e S l e i c h e r Rouse method o v e r p r e d i c t s
by a b o u t 1 0 . 5%. )

Scilab code Exa 6.6 Tube Length in Metal Flow


1

95

2
3 // D i s p l a y mode
4 mode (0) ;
5
6 // D i s p l a y w a r n i n g f o r f l o a t i n g p o i n t e x c e p t i o n
7 ieee (1) ;
8
9 clc ;
10 disp ( P r i n c i p l e s o f Heat T r a n s f e r , 7 t h Ed . Frank

K r e i t h e t . a l C h a p t e r 6 Example # 6 . 6 )
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32

// Mass f l o w r a t e i n kg / s
m = 3;
// D i a m e t e r o f t u b e i n m
D = 5/100;
// T e m p e r a t u r e o f f l u i d i n d e g r e e K
Tb = 473;
// T e m p e r a t u r e o f w a l l i n d e g r e e K
Ts = 503;
// D e n s i t y i n kg /m3
rho = 7700;
// S p e c i f i c h e a t i n J /kgK
c = 130;
// Thermal c o n d u c t i v i t y i n W/mK
k = 12;
// K i n e m a t i c v i s c o s i t y i n m2/ s
nu = 0.00000008;
// P r a n d t l number
Pr = 0.011;

// The r a t e o f h e a t t r a n s f e r p e r u n i t t e m p e r a t u r e
r i s e in W i s
33 q = ( m * c ) *1;
34
35 // R e y n o l d s Number i s
36 Re = ( D * m ) /((((( rho * %pi ) * D ) * D ) * nu ) /4) ;
37

96

// The h e a t t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t i n W/m2K i s o b t a i n e d
from Eq . ( 6 . 6 7 )
39 hc = (( k *0.625) *(( Re * Pr ) ^0.4) ) / D ;
38

40
41 // S u r f a c e a r e a i n m2
42 A = q /( hc *( Ts - Tb ) ) ;
43
44 disp ( R e q u i r e d l e n g t h o f t u b e i n m i s )
45 // R e q u i r e d l e n g t h o f t u b e i n m
46 L = A /( %pi * D )

Scilab code Exa 6.7 Heat Transfer Coefficient in Circuit


1
2
3 // D i s p l a y mode
4 mode (0) ;
5
6 // D i s p l a y w a r n i n g f o r f l o a t i n g p o i n t e x c e p t i o n
7 ieee (1) ;
8
9 clc ;
10 disp ( P r i n c i p l e s o f Heat T r a n s f e r , 7 t h Ed . Frank

K r e i t h e t . a l C h a p t e r 6 Example # 6 . 7 )
11
12 // T e m p e r a t u r e o f a i r s t r e a m i n d e g r e e C
13 Tair = 20;
14 // V e l o c i t y o f a i r i n m/ s
15 U = 1.8;
16 // S i d e o f c i r c u i t i n m
17 L = 27/1000;
18 // S p a c i n g i n t h e c i r c u i t i n m
19 H = 17/1000;
20
21 // At 20 C , t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f a i r from T a b l e 2 8 ,

97

Appendix 2 , a r e
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37

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39
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46
47
48
49

// D e n s i t y i n kg /m3
rho = 7700;
// S p e c i f i c h e a t i n J /kgK
c = 130;
// Thermal c o n d u c t i v i t y i n W/mK
k = 0.0251;
// K i n e m a t i c v i s c o s i t y i n m2/ s
nu = 0.0000157;
// P r a n d t l number
Pr = 0.011;
// R e y n o l d s number
Re = ( U * H ) / nu ;
// From F i g . ( 6 . 2 7 ) , we s e e t h a t t h e s e c o n d
i n t e g r a t e d c i r c u i t i s i n t h e i n l e t r e g i o n and
e s t i m a t e Nu2 =29.
// N u s s e l t number i n s e c o n d c i r c u i t
Nu2 = 29;
disp ( Heat t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t a l o n g 2 nd c i r c u i t i n
W/m2K )
// Heat t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t i n W/m2K
hc2 = ( Nu2 * k ) / L
// The s i x t h i n t e g r a t e d c i r c u i t i s i n t h e d e v e l o p e d
r e g i o n and from Eq . ( 6 . 7 9 )
// N u s s e l t number i n s i x t h c i r c u i t
Nu6 = 21.7;
disp ( Heat t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t a l o n g 6 t h c i r c u i t i n
W/m2K )
// // Heat t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t i n W/m2K
hc6 = ( Nu6 * k ) / L

98

Chapter 7
Forced Convection Over
Exterior Surfaces

Scilab code Exa 7.1 Heat Transfer Coefficient Over Wing


1
2
3 // D i s p l a y mode
4 mode (0) ;
5
6 // D i s p l a y w a r n i n g f o r f l o a t i n g p o i n t e x c e p t i o n
7 ieee (1) ;
8
9 clc ;
10 disp ( P r i n c i p l e s o f Heat T r a n s f e r , 7 t h Ed . Frank

K r e i t h e t . a l C h a p t e r 7 Example # 7 . 1 )
11
12 // D i a m e t e r i n m
13 D = 0.3;
14 // C r u i s i n g s p e e d i n m/ s
15 Uinfinity = 150;
16
17 // At an a l t i t u d e o f 7 5 0 0 m t h e s t a n d a r d a t m o s p h e r i c

a i r p r e s s u r e i s 3 8 . 9 kPa and t h e d e n s i t y o f t h e
99

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26

a i r i s 0 . 5 6 6 kg /m3 ( From T a b l e 38 i n Appendix 2 ) .


rho = 0.566;
// Dynamic v i s c o s i t y i n kgm/ s
mu = 0.0000174;
// P r a n d t l number
Pr = 0.72;
// Thermal c o n d u c t i v i t y i n W/mK
k = 0.024;
// The h e a t t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t a t t h e s t a g n a t i o n
p o i n t ( 0 ) i s , a c c o r d i n g t o Eq . ( 7 . 2 )

27
28

disp ( Heat t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t a t s t a g n a t i o n p o i n t
i n W/m2K )
29 // Heat t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t a t s t a g n a t i o n p o i n t i n W
/m2K
30 h = ((( k *1.14) *(((( rho * Uinfinity ) * D ) / mu ) ^0.5) ) *( Pr
^0.4) ) / D
31
32

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37
38

disp ( D i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e c o n v e c t i o n h e a t t r a n s f e r
c o e f f i c i e n t o v e r t h e f o r w a r d p o r t i o n o f t h e wing
)
for o = 0:15:75 // o i s t h e p a r a m e t e r u s e d i n t h e
loop
// c o n v e c t i o n h e a t t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t s i n W/
m2K
ho = h *(1 -( o /90) ^3) ;
// L . 2 6 : No s i m p l e e q u i v a l e n t , s o m t l b f p r i n t f ( )
is called .
mtlb_fprintf ( At an a n g l e o f %5 . 2 f d e g r e e , h e a t
t r a n s f e r c o e f f c i e n t i s %5 . 2 f \n ,o , ho )
end ;

Scilab code Exa 7.2 Current in Hot Wire Anemometer

100

1
2
3 // D i s p l a y mode
4 mode (0) ;
5
6 // D i s p l a y w a r n i n g f o r f l o a t i n g p o i n t e x c e p t i o n
7 ieee (1) ;
8
9 clc ;
10 disp ( P r i n c i p l e s o f Heat T r a n s f e r , 7 t h Ed . Frank

K r e i t h e t . a l C h a p t e r 7 Example # 7 . 2 )
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23

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34

// D i a m e t e r o f w i r e i n m
D = 0.000025;
// Length o f w i r e i n m
L = 0.006;
// F r e e s t r e a m t e m p e r a t u r e o f a i r i n d e g e e e C
T = 20;
// Wire t e m p e r a t u r e t o be m a i n t a i n i n d e g r e e C
Tw = 230;
// R e s i s t i v i t y o f p l a t i n u m i n ohmcm
Re = 0.0000171;
// S i n c e t h e w i r e i s v e r y t h i n , c o n d u c t i o n a l o n g i t
can be n e g l e c t e d ; a l s o , t h e t e m p e r a t u r e g r a d i e n t
i n t h e w i r e a t any c r o s s s e c t i o n can be
disregarded .
// At f r e e s t r e a m t e m p e r a t u r e , f o r a i r :
// Thermal c o n d u c t i v i t y i n W/mC
k = 0.0251;
// K i n e m a t i c v i s c o s i t y i n m2/ s
nu = 0.0000157;
// R e y n o l d s number a t v e l o c i t y = 2m/ s
Rey = (2* D ) / nu ;
if Re <40 then
101

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39
40

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42
43
44

45
46

// U s i n g t h e c o r r e l a t i o n equat i o n from Eq . ( 7 . 3 )
and T a b l e 7 . 1
// A v e r a g e c o n v e c t i o n h e a t t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t a s
a function of velocity
// i s
// hc =799U 0 . 4 W/m2C
// At t h i s p o i n t , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o e s t i m a t e t h e
heat t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t f o r radiant heat flow
.
// A c c o r d i n g t o Eq . ( 1 . 2 1 ) , we have a p p r o x i m a t e l y
// h r=s i g m a e p s i l o n ( ( Ts+ T i n f i n i t y ) 3 ) /4
// The e m i s s i v i t y o f p o l i s h e d p l a t i n u m from
Appendix 2 , T a b l e 7 i s a b o u t 0 . 0 5 , s o h r i s
a b o u t 0 . 0 5 W/m2C .
// The r a t e a t which h e a t i s t r a n s f e r r e d from t h e
wire i s t h e r e f o r e
// 0 . 0 7 9 0U4 W.

47
48
49
// The e l e c t r i c a l r e s i s t a n c e o f t h e w i r e i n ohm i s
50
R = (( Re * L ) *4) /(((100* %pi ) * D ) * D ) ;
51 end ;
52
53 //A h e a t b a l a n c e w i t h t h e c u r r e n t i g i v e s
54 disp ( C u r r e n t i n ampere a s a f u n c t i o n o f v e l o c i t y i s

)
55 disp ( i =0 .19 U 0 . 2 )

Scilab code Exa 7.3 Heat Loss From Solar Collector


1
2
3

// D i s p l a y mode
102

4 mode (0) ;
5
6 // D i s p l a y w a r n i n g f o r f l o a t i n g p o i n t e x c e p t i o n
7 ieee (1) ;
8
9 clc ;
10 disp ( P r i n c i p l e s o f Heat T r a n s f e r , 7 t h Ed . Frank

K r e i t h e t . a l C h a p t e r 7 Example # 7 . 3 )
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40

// V e l o c i t y o f a i r i n m/ s
Uinfinity = 0.5;
// Length and b r e a d t h o f s q u a r e s h a p e d a r r a y i n m
L = 2.5;
// S u r f a c e t e m p e r a t u r e i n d e g r e e C
Ts = 70;
// Ambient t e m p e r a t u r e i n d e g r e e C
Ta = 20;
// At f r e e s t r e a m t e m p e r a t u r e o f a i r
// K i n e m a t i c v i s c o s i t y i n m2/ s
nu = 0.0000157;
// D e n s i t y i n kg /m3
rho = 1.16;
// S p e c i f i c h e e a t i n Ws/kgC
c = 1012;
// P r a n d t l number
Pr = 0.71;
// R e y n o l d s number
Re = ( Uinfinity * L ) / nu ;
// From e q u a t i o n 7 . 1 8
// The a v e r a g e h e a t t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t i n W/m2C i s
// Heat t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t i n W/m2C
h = (((0.0033*( Pr ^( -2/3) ) ) * c ) * rho ) * Uinfinity ;
disp ( Heat l o s s from a r r a y i n W i s )
// Heat l o s s i n W
q = (( h * L ) * L ) *( Ts - Ta )
103

Scilab code Exa 7.4 Heat Transfer Coefficient in Pipe


1
2
3 // D i s p l a y mode
4 mode (0) ;
5
6 // D i s p l a y w a r n i n g f o r f l o a t i n g p o i n t e x c e p t i o n
7 ieee (1) ;
8
9 clc ;
10 disp ( P r i n c i p l e s o f Heat T r a n s f e r , 7 t h Ed . Frank

K r e i t h e t . a l C h a p t e r 7 Example # 7 . 4 )
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27
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30
31

// D i a m e t e r o f p i p e i n m
D = 7.62/100;
// D i a m e t e r and l e n g t h o f c y l i n d e r i n m
d = 0.93/100;
l = 1.17/100;
// I n i t i a l t e m p e r a t u r e i n d e g r e e C
Ti = 50;
// F i n a l t e m p e r a t u r e i n d e g r e e C
Tf = 350;
// T e m p e r a t u r e o f p i p e s u r f a c e i n d e g r e e C
Tp = 400;
// T h e r e f o r e f i l m temp . a t i n l e t i n d e g r e e C
Tfi = ( Ti + Tp ) /2;
// T h e r e f o r e f i l m temp . a t o u t l e t i n d e g r e e C
Tfo = ( Tf + Tp ) /2;
// A v e r a g e f i l m temp . i n d e g r e e C
Tf = ( Tfi + Tfo ) /2;
// At t h i s f i l m t e m p e r a t u r e
// K i n e m a t i c v i s c o s i t y i n m2/ s
104

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58

nu = 0.0000482;
// Thermal c o n d u c t i v i t y i n W/mC
k = 0.042;
// D e n s i t y i n kg /m3
rho = 0.6;
// S p e c i f i c h e a t i n J /kgC
c = 1081;
// P r a n d t l number
Pr = 0.71;
// Flow r t e o f g a s i n kg / h i s
m = 5;
// S u p e r f i c i a l v e l o c i t y i n m/h
Us = m /(((( rho * %pi ) * D ) * D ) /4) ;
// C y l i n d e r p a c k a g i n g volume i n m3
V = ((( %pi * d ) * d ) * l ) /4;
// S u r f a c e a r e a i n m2
A = (((2* %pi ) * d ) * d ) /4+( %pi * d ) * l ;
// E q u i v a l e n t p a c k a g i n g d i a i n m e t e r
Dp = (6* V ) / A ;
// REynolds number b a s e d on t h i s d i a
Re = (( Us *3600) * Dp ) / nu ;
// From eq . 7 . 2 3
disp ( Heat t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t i n W/m2C i s )
// Heat t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t i n W/m2C
h = (14.3* k ) / Dp

Scilab code Exa 7.5 Heating of Atmospheric Air


1
2
3
4
5

// D i s p l a y mode
mode (0) ;

105

6 // D i s p l a y w a r n i n g f o r f l o a t i n g p o i n t e x c e p t i o n
7 ieee (1) ;
8
9 clc ;
10 disp ( P r i n c i p l e s o f Heat T r a n s f e r , 7 t h Ed . Frank

K r e i t h e t . a l C h a p t e r 7 Example # 7 . 5 )
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36

// I n i t i a l t e m p e r a t u r e i n d e g r e e F
Ti = 58;
// F i n a l t e m p e r a t u r e i n d e g r e e F
Tf = 86;
// Film t e m p e r a t u r e o f a i r i n d e g r e e F
Tair = ( Ti + Tf ) /2;
// T e m p e r a t u r e o f c o n d e n s i n g steam i n d e g r e e F
Tsteam = 212;
// Heat t r a n s f e r c o e f f c i e n t i n Btuh / f t 2 F
ho = 1000;
// Length o f t u b e i n f t
L = 2;
// D i a m e t e r o f t u b e i n i n
d = 0.5;
// Wall t h i c k n e s s i n i n c h e s
t = 0.049;
// P i t c h i n i n c h e s
p = 3/4;
// Width i n f t and h e i g h t i n i n c h e s o f r e c t a n g u l a r
shell
H = 15;
W = 2;
// Mass f l o w r a t e o f a i r i n l b / h
m = 32000;

// Appendix 2 , T a b l e 28 t h e n g i v e s f o r t h e p r o p e r t i e s
o f a i r a t t h i s mean
37 // b u l k t e m p e r a t u r e
38
39 // D e n s i t y i n l b / f t 3
40 rho = 0.072;

106

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53
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55

// Thermal c o n d u c t i v i t y i n Btu / h F f t
k = 0.0146;
// Dynamic v i s c o s i t y i n l b / f t h
mu = 0.0444;
// P r a n d t l number f o r a i r and steam
Pr = 0.71;
// C a l c a u l a t i n g minimum f r e e a r e a i n f t 2
A = (( H / p ) * W ) *(( p - d ) /12) ;
//Maximum g a s v e l o c i t y i n l b / h . f t 2
Gmax = m / A ;
// Hence t h e r e y n o l d s number i s
Re = ( Gmax * d ) /(12* mu ) ;
// Assuming t h a t more t h a n 10 r o w s w i l l be r e q u i r e d ,
t h e h e a t t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t i s c a l c u l a t e d from
Eq . ( 7 . 2 9 )

56
57 // h v a l u e i n Btu /h f t 2 F
58 h = (((( k *12) / d ) *( Pr ^0.36) ) *0.27) *( Re ^0.63) ;
59
60 // The r e s i s t a n c e a t t h e steam s i d e p e r t u b e i n h F/

Btu
61 R1 = 12/((( ho * %pi ) *( d -2* t ) ) * L ) ;
62
63 // The r e s i s t a n c e o f t h e p i p e w a l l i n h F/ Btu
64 R2 = 0.049/(((60* %pi ) * L ) *( d - t ) ) ;
65
66 // The r e s i s t a n c e a t t h e o u t s i d e o f t h e t u b e i n h F/

Btu
67 R3 = 1/(((( h * %pi ) * d ) * L ) /12) ;
68
69 // T o t a l r e s i s t a n c e i n h F/ Btu
70 R = R1 + R2 + R3 ;
71
72 // Mean t e m p e r a t u r e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n a i r and steam

in degree F i s
73 deltaT = Tsteam - Tair ;
107

74
75 // S p e c i f i c h e a t o f a i r i n Btu / l b F
76 c = 0.241;
77
78 // E q u a t i n g t h e r a t e o f h e a t f l o w from t h e steam t o

the a i r to the rate of enthalpy r i s e of the a i r


79
80 // S o l v i n g f o r N g i v e s
81 disp ( T o t a l number o f t r a n s v e r s e t u b e s n e e d e d a r e )
82 // T o t a l number o f t r a n s v e r s e t u b e s
83 N = ((( m * c ) *( Tf - Ti ) ) * R ) /(20* deltaT )
84 disp ( Rounding o f f = 5 t u b e s )
85
86 if N <10 then
87
// C o r r e c t i o n f o r h v a l u e , a g a i n i n Btu / h f t 2 F
88
h = 0.92* h ;
89 end ;
90
91 // The p r e s s u r e d r o p i s o b t a i n e d from Eq . ( 7 . 3 7 ) and

Fig . 7 . 2 5 .
92
93 // V e l o c i t y i n f t / s
94 Umax = Gmax /(3600* rho ) ;
95 // A c c e l e r a t i o n due t o g r a v i t y i n f t / s 2
96 g = 32.2;
97 disp ( C o r r e s p o n d i n g p r e s s u r e d r o p i n l b / f t 2 )
98 // C o r r e s p o n d i n g p r e s s u r e d r o p i n l b / f t 2
99 P = ((((6*0.75) * rho ) * Umax ) * Umax ) /(2* g )

Scilab code Exa 7.6 Pre Heating of Methane


1
2
3
4

// D i s p l a y mode
mode (0) ;
108

5
6 // D i s p l a y w a r n i n g f o r f l o a t i n g p o i n t e x c e p t i o n
7 ieee (1) ;
8
9 clc ;
10 disp ( P r i n c i p l e s o f Heat T r a n s f e r , 7 t h Ed . Frank

K r e i t h e t . a l C h a p t e r 7 Example # 7 . 6 )
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28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36

// T e m p e r a t u r e o f methane i n d e g r e e C
T = 20;
// Outer d i a o f t u b e i n m
D = 4/100;
// L o n g i t u d i n a l s p a c i n g i n m
SL = 6/100;
// T r a n s v e r s e s p a c i n g i n m
ST = 8/100;
// Wall t e m p e r a t u r e i n d e g r e e C
Tw = 50;
// Methane f l o w v e l o c i t y i n m/ s
v = 10;
// For methane a t 20 C , T a b l e 3 6 , Appendix 2 g i v e s
// D e n s i t y i n kg /m3
rho = 0.668;
// Thermal c o n d u c t i v i t y i n W/mK
k = 0.0332;
// K i n e m a t i c v i s c o s i t y i n m2/ s
nu = 0.00001627;
// P r a n d t l number
Pr = 0.73;

// From t h e g e o m e t r y o f t h e t u b e b u n d l e , we s e e t h a t
t h e minimum f l o w
37 // a r e a i s b e t w e e n a d j a c e n t t u b e s i n a row and t h a t
t h i s area i s half
38 // t h e f r o n t a l a r e a o f t h e t u b e b u n d l e . Thus ,
39 // V e l o c i t y i n m/ s
109

40 Umax = 2* v ;
41
42 // R e y n o l d s number
43 Re = ( Umax * D ) / nu ;
44
45 // S i n c e ST/SL <2 , we u s e Eq . ( 7 . 3 0 )
46
47 // N u s s e l t number
48 Nu = ((0.35*(( ST / SL ) ^0.2) ) *( Re ^0.6) ) *( Pr ^0.36) ;
49
50 // Heat t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t i n W/m2K
51 h = ( Nu * k ) / D ;
52
53 // S i n c e t h e r e a r e f e w e r t h a n 10 rows , t h e

c o r r e l a t i o n f a c t o r i n Table 7 . 3 g i v e s
54 disp ( Heat t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t i n W/m2K )
55 // Heat t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t i n W/m2K
56 h = 0.92* h
57
58

// Tubeb u n d l e p r e s s u r e d r o p i s g i v e n by Eq . ( 7 . 3 7 ) .
The i n s e r t i n F i g . ( 7 . 2 6 ) g i v e s t h e c o r r e c t i o n
factor x.

59
60 disp ( C o r r e s p o n d i n g p r e s s u r e d r o p i n N/m2 )
61 // C o r r e s p o n d i n g p r e s s u r e d r o p i n N/m2
62 P = ((((5*0.25) * rho ) * Umax ) * Umax ) /2

Scilab code Exa 7.7 Analysis in Water Jet Problem


1
2
3
4
5
6

// D i s p l a y mode
mode (0) ;
// D i s p l a y w a r n i n g f o r f l o a t i n g p o i n t e x c e p t i o n
110

7 ieee (1) ;
8
9 clc ;
10 disp ( P r i n c i p l e s

o f Heat T r a n s f e r , 7 t h Ed . Frank
K r e i t h e t . a l C h a p t e r 7 Example # 7 . 7 )

11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43

// T e m p e r a t u r e o f j e t i n d e g r e e C
T = 20;
// Thermal c o n d u c t i v i t y i n W/mK
k = 0.597;
// Dynamic v i s c o s i t y i n Ns /m2
mu = 0.000993;
// P r a n d t l number
Pr = 7;
// Mass f l o w r a t e i n kg / s
m = 0.008;
// D i a m e t e r o f j e t i n m
d = 6/1000;
// T o t a l h e a t f l u x i n W/m2
q = 70000;
// R e y n o l d s number
Re = (4* m ) /(( %pi * d ) * mu ) ;
disp ( For r =3mm )
// From Eq . ( 7 . 4 5 )
// Heat t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t i n W/m2K
h = (63* k ) / d ;
disp ( S u r f a c e t e m p e r a t u r e a t r =3mm i n d e g r e e C i s )
// S u r f a c e t e m p e r a t u r e i n d e g r e e C
Ts = T + q / h
disp ( For r =12mm )
// From Eq . ( 7 . 4 8 )
// Heat t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t i n W/m2K
h = (35.3* k ) / d ;
disp ( S u r f a c e t e m p e r a t u r e a t r =12mm i n d e g r e e C i s )
111

44 // S u r f a c e t e m p e r a t u r e i n d e g r e e C
45 Ts = T + q / h

Scilab code Exa 7.8 Analysis of Air Jet Problem


1
2
3 // D i s p l a y mode
4 mode (0) ;
5
6 // D i s p l a y w a r n i n g f o r f l o a t i n g p o i n t e x c e p t i o n
7 ieee (1) ;
8
9 clc ;
10 disp ( P r i n c i p l e s o f Heat T r a n s f e r , 7 t h Ed . Frank

K r e i t h e t . a l C h a p t e r 7 Example # 7 . 8 )
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29

// T e m p e r a t u r e o f p l a t e i n d e g r e e C
Tplate = 60;
// T e m p e r a t u r e o f j e t i n d e g r e e C
T = 20;
// Thermal c o n d u c t i v i t y i n W/mK
k = 0.0265;
// Dynamic v i s c o s i t y i n Ns /m2
mu = 0.00001912;
// P r a n d t l number
Pr = 0.71;
// D e n s i t y i n kg /m3
rho = 1.092;
// Mass f l o w r a t e i n kg / s
m = 0.008;
// Width o f j e t i n m
w = 3/1000;
// Length o f j e t i n m
l = 20/1000;
112

30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42

// V e l o c i t y o f j e t i n m/ s
v = 10;
// E x i t d i s t a n c e i n m
z = 0.01;
// Width g i v e n f o r p l a t e i n m
L = 0.04;
// R e y n o l d s number
Re = (( rho * v ) * w ) / mu ;
// From Eq . ( 7 . 6 8 ) w i t h x= 0 . 0 2 m, z =0.01 m, and w=
0.003 m
// N u s s e l t number
Nu = 11.2;
// ! L . 3 3 : mtlb ( d ) can be r e p l a c e d by d ( ) o r d
w h e t h e r d i s an M f i l e o r n o t .
// Heat t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t i n W/m2K
h = ( Nu * k ) / mtlb ( w ) ;

43
44
45
46 disp ( Heat t r a n s f e r r a t e from t h e p l a t e i n W i s )
47 // Heat t r a n s f e r r a t e from t h e p l a t e i n W
48 q = (( h * L ) * l ) *( Tplate - T )

113

Chapter 8
Heat Exchangers

Scilab code Exa 8.1 Heat Transfer Surface Area Calculations


1
2
3 // D i s p l a y mode
4 mode (0) ;
5
6 // D i s p l a y w a r n i n g f o r f l o a t i n g p o i n t e x c e p t i o n
7 ieee (1) ;
8
9 clc ;
10 disp ( P r i n c i p l e s o f Heat T r a n s f e r , 7 t h Ed . Frank

K r e i t h e t . a l C h a p t e r 8 Example # 8 . 1 )
11
12 // Outer d i a i n m
13 d = 0.0254;
14 // mass f l o w r a t e o f h o t f l u i d i n kg / s
15 mh = 6.93;
16 // S p e c i f i c h e a t o f h o t f l u i d n J /kgK
17 ch = 3810;
18 // I n l e t t e m p e r a t u r e o f h o t f l u i d i n d e g r e e C
19 Thin = 65.6;
20 // O u t l e t t e m p e r a t u r e o f h o t f l u i d i n d e g r e e C

114

21 Thout = 39.4;
22 // mass f l o w r a t e o f c o l d f l u i d i n kg / s
23 mc = 6.3;
24 // S p e c i f i c h e a t o f c o l d f l u i d n J /kgK
25 cc = 4187;
26 // I n l e t t e m p e r a t u r e o f c o l d f l u i d i n d e g r e e C
27 Tcin = 10;
28 // O v e r a l l h e a t t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t i n W/m2K
29 U = 568;
30
31 // U s i n g e n e r g y b a l a n c e , o u t l e t temp . o f c o l d f l u i d

in degree C
32 Tcout = Tcin +(( mh * ch ) *( Thin - Thout ) ) /( mc * cc ) ;
33
34 // The r a t e o f h e a t f l o w i n W
35 q = ( mh * ch ) *( Thin - Thout ) ;
36
37 disp ( P a r a l l e l f l o w t u b e and s h e l l )
38 // From Eq . ( 8 . 1 8 ) t h e LMTD f o r p a r a l l e l f l o w
39 // T e m p e r a t u r e d i f f e r e n c e a t i n l e t i n d e g r e e K
40 deltaTa = Thin - Tcin ;
41 // T e m p e r a t u r e d i f f e r e n c e a t o u t l e t i n d e g r e e K
42 deltaTb = Thout - Tcout ;
43 //LMTD i n d e g r e e K
44 LMTD = ( deltaTa - deltaTb ) / log ( deltaTa / deltaTb ) ;
45
46 // From Eq . ( 8 . 1 6 )
47 disp ( Heat t r a n s f e r s u r f a c e a r e a i n m2 i s )
48 // Heat t r a n s f e r s u r f a c e a r e a i n m2
49 A = q /( U * LMTD )
50
51 disp ( C o u n t e r f l o w t u b e and s h e l l )
52 //LMTD i n d e g r e e K
53 LMTD = 29.4;
54
55 disp ( Heat t r a n s f e r s u r f a c e a r e a i n m2 i s )
56 // Heat t r a n s f e r s u r f a c e a r e a i n m2
57 A = q /( U * LMTD )

115

58
59 A1 = A ; //To be u s e d f u r t h e r a s a copy o f
60
61 disp ( C o u n t e r f l o w e x c h a n g e r w i t h 2 s h e l l

t h i s area
p a s s e s and

72 t u b e p a s s e s )
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78

// C o r r e c t i o n f a c t o r f o u n d from F i g . 8 . 1 5 t o t h e mean
temperature f o r counterflow
P = ( Tcout - Tcin ) /( Thin - Tcin ) ;
// Heat c a p a c i t y r a t i o
Z = ( mh * ch ) /( mc * cc ) ;
// From t h e c h a r t o f F i g . 8 . 1 5 , F= 0 . 9 7
F = 0.97; //FF a c t o r
disp ( Heat t r a n s f e r s u r f a c e a r e a i n m2 i s )
// Heat t r a n s f e r s u r f a c e a r e a i n m2 i s
A = A1 / F
disp ( C r o s s f l o w , w i t h one t u b e p a s s and one s h e l l
p a s s , s h e l l s i d e f l u i d mixed )
// U s i n g same p r o c e d u r e , we g e t from c h a r t s
F = 0.88; //FF a c t o r
disp ( Heat t r a n s f e r s u r f a c e a r e a i n m2 i s )
// Heat t r a n s f e r s u r f a c e a r e a i n m2 i s
A = A1 / F

Scilab code Exa 8.2 Oil Water Heat Exchanger Problem


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

// D i s p l a y mode
mode (0) ;
// D i s p l a y w a r n i n g f o r f l o a t i n g p o i n t e x c e p t i o n
ieee (1) ;

116

9 clc ;
10 disp ( P r i n c i p l e s

o f Heat T r a n s f e r , 7 t h Ed . Frank
K r e i t h e t . a l C h a p t e r 8 Example # 8 . 2 )

11
12 // mass f l o w r a t e o f h o t f l u i d i n kg / s
13 mh = 1;
14 // S p e c i f i c h e a t o f h o t f l u i d n J /kgK
15 ch = 2100;
16 // I n l e t t e m p e r a t u r e o f h o t f l u i d i n d e g r e e C
17 Thin = 340;
18 // O u t l e t t e m p e r a t u r e o f h o t f l u i d i n d e g r e e C
19 Thout = 310;
20 // S p e c i f i c h e a t o f c o l d f l u i d n J /kgK
21 cc = 4187;
22 // I n l e t t e m p e r a t u r e o f c o l d f l u i d i n d e g r e e C
23 Tcin = 290;
24 // O u t l e t t e m p e r a t u r e o f c o l d f l u i d i n d e g r e e C
25 Tcout = 300;
26
27 // The h e a t c a p a c i t y r a t e o f t h e w a t e r i n J /kgK i s ,

from Eq . ( 8 . 1 4 )
28 cc = ch *(( Thin - Thout ) /( Tcout - Tcin ) ) ;
29
30 // T e m p e r a t u r e r a t i o P and Z i s , from Eq . ( 8 . 2 0 )
31 P = ( Thin - Thout ) /( Thin - Tcin ) ; // P T e m p e r a t u r e r a t i o
32 Z = ( Tcout - Tcin ) /( Thin - Thout ) ; // Z T e m p e r a t u r e

ratio
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42

// From F i g . 8 . 1 4 , F0 . 9 4 and t h e mean t e m p e r a t u r e


d i f f e r e n c e in degree K i s
//F V a l u e
F = 0.94;
// T e m p e r a t u r e d i f f e r e n c e a t i n l e t i n d e g r e e K
deltaTa = Thin - Tcout ;
// T e m p e r a t u r e d i f f e r e n c e a t o u t l e t i n d e g r e e K
deltaTb = Thout - Tcin ;
//LMTD i n d e g r e e K
LMTD = ( deltaTa - deltaTb ) / log ( deltaTa / deltaTb ) ;
117

43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65

// Mean t e m p e r a t u r e d i f f e r e n c e i n d e g r e e K
deltaTmean = F * LMTD ;
// From Eq . ( 8 . 1 7 ) t h e o v e r a l l c o n d u c t a n c e i n W/K i s
UA = (( mh * ch ) *( Thin - Thout ) ) / deltaTmean ;
// With r e f e r e n c e t o t h e new c o n d i t i o n s and Eq . 6 . 6 2
// C o n d u c t a n c e i n W/K
UA = UA *((3/4) ^0.8) ;
// Number o f t r a n s f e r u n i t s (NTU) v a l u e
NTU = UA /(((3/4) * mh ) * ch ) ;
// Heat c a p a c i t y r a t i o
K = (((3/4) * mh ) * ch ) / cc ;
// From F i g . 8 . 2 0 t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s i s e q u a l t o 0 . 6 1
// E f f e c t i v e n e s s
E = 0.61;
//New i n l e t t e m p e r a t u r r e o f o i l i n d e g r e e K
Toilin = 370;
// From eq . 8 . 2 2 a
disp ( O u t l e t t e m p e r a t u r e o f o i l i n d e g r e e K )
// O u t l e t t e m p e r a t u r e o f o i l i n d e g r e e K
Toilout = Toilin - E *( Toilin - Tcin )

Scilab code Exa 8.3 Heating of Air From Gases


1
2
3 // D i s p l a y mode
4 mode (0) ;
5
6 // D i s p l a y w a r n i n g f o r
7 ieee (1) ;
8
9 clc ;

f l o a t i n g point exception

118

10

disp ( P r i n c i p l e s o f Heat T r a n s f e r , 7 t h Ed . Frank


K r e i t h e t . a l C h a p t e r 8 Example # 8 . 3 )

11
12 // A i r f l o w r a t e i n kg / s
13 mair = 0.75;
14 // I n l e t t e m p e r a t u r e o f a i r i n d e g r e e K
15 Tairin = 290;
16 // Hot g a s f l o w r a t e i n kg / s
17 mgas = 0.6;
18 // I n l e t t e m p e r a t u r e o f h o t g a s e s i n d e g r e e K
19 Tgasin = 1150;
20 // w e t t e d p e r i m e t e r on a i r s i d e i n m
21 Pa = 0.703;
22 // w e t t e d p e r i m e t e r on g a s s i d e i n m
23 Pg = 0.416;
24 // c r o s s s e c t i o n a l a r e a o f g a s p a s s a g e ( p e r p a s s a g e )

i n m2
25 Ag = 0.0016;
26 // c r o s s s e c t i o n a l

area of a i r passage ( per passage )

i n m2
27 Aa = 0.002275;
28 // h e a t t r a n s f e r s u r f a c e a r e a i n m2
29 A = 2.52;
30
31 // Given t h a t u n i t i s o f t h e c r o s s f l o w type , w i t h

b o t h f l u i d s unmixed .
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42

// l e n g t h o f a i r d u c t
La = 0.178;
// h y d r a u l i c d i a m e t e r
Dha = (4* Aa ) / Pa ;
// l e n g t h o f g a s d u c t
Lg = 0.343;
// h y d r a u l i c d i a m e t e r
Dhg = (4* Ag ) / Pg ;

in m
o f a i r duct in m
in m
o f gas duct in m

// The h e a t t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t s can be e v a l u a t e d
from Eq . ( 6 . 6 3 ) f o r f l o w
119

43 // i n d u c t s .
44 // Heat t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t f o r a i r i n W/m2K
45 ha = La / Dha ;
46 // Heat t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t f o r g a s i n W/m2K
47 hg = Lg / Dhg ;
48
49 // Assuming t h e a v e r a g e a i r s i d e b u l k t e m p e r a t u r e t o

be 573 K and t h e a v e r a g e
50 // gas s i d e b u l k t e m p e r a t u r e t o be 973 K, t h e
p r o p e r t i e s a t t h o s e t e m p e r a t u r e s a r e , from
Appendix 2 , T a b l e 2 8 .
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77

// S p e c i f i c h e a t o f a i r i n J /kgK
cair = 1047;
// Thermal c o n d u c t i v i t y o f a i r i n W/mK
kair = 0.0429;
// Dynamic v i s c o s i t y o f a i r i n Ns /m2
muair = 0.0000293;
// P r a n d t l number o f a i r
Prair = 0.71;
// S p e c i f i c h e a t o f h o t g a s i n J /kgK
cgas = 1101;
// Thermal c o n d u c t i v i t y o f h o t g a s i n W/mK
kgas = 0.0623;
// Dynamic v i s c o s i t y o f h o t g a s i n Ns /m2
mugas = 0.00004085;
// P r a n d t l number o f h o t g a s
Prgas = 0.73;
// The mass f l o w r a t e s p e r u n i t a r e a i n kg / m2s
// mass f l o w r a t e o f a i r i n kg / m2s
mdotair = mair /(19* Aa ) ;
// mass f l o w r a t e o f g a s i n kg / m2s
mdotgas = mgas /(18* Ag ) ;
// The R e y n o l d s numbers a r e
// R e y n o l d s number f o r a i r
120

78
79
80
81
82

Reair = ( mdotair * Dha ) / muair ;


// R e y n o l d s number f o r g a s
Regas = ( mdotgas * Dhg ) / mugas ;

// U s i n g Eq . ( 6 . 6 3 ) , t h e a v e r a g e h e a t t r a n s f e r
c o e f f i c i e n t s i n W/m2K
83 hair = (((0.023* kair ) *( Reair ^0.8) ) *( Prair ^0.4) ) / Dha ;
84
85

// S i n c e La /DHa= 1 3 . 8 , we must c o r r e c t t h i s h e a t
transfer coefficient for
86 // e n t r a n c e e f f e c t s , p e r Eq . ( 6 . 6 8 ) . The c o r r e c t i o n
factor is 1.377.
87 // C o r r e c t e d h e a t t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t o f a i r i n W/
m2K
88 hair = 1.377* hair ;
89
90
91
92
93
94

// S i m i l a r l y f o r h o t g a s
// Heat t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t i n W/m2K
hgas = (((0.023* kgas ) *( Regas ^0.8) ) *( Prgas ^0.4) ) / Dhg ;
// C o r r e c t i o n f a c t o r = 1 . 2 7 ;
// C o r r e c t e d h e a t t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t o f g a s i n W/
m2K
95 hgas = 1.27* hgas ;
96
97 // O v e r a l l c o n d u c t a n c e i n W/K
98 UA = 1/(1/( hair * A ) +1/( hgas * A ) ) ;
99
100 // The number o f t r a n s f e r u n i t s , b a s e d on t h e gas ,

which h a s t h e s m a l l e r h e a t c a p a c i t y r a t e
101 NTU = UA /( mgas * cgas ) ;
102
103 // The h e a t c a p a c i t y r a t e r a t i o
104 Z = ( mgas * cgas ) /( mair * cair ) ;
105
106 // and from F i g . 8 . 2 1 , t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s

approximately 0 . 1 3 .
107 // E f f e c t i v e n e s s
108 E = 0.13;
121

is

109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116

disp ( Gas o u t l e t t e m p e r a t u r e i n d e g r e e K )
// Gas o u t l e t t e m p e r a t u r e i n d e g r e e K
Tgasout = Tgasin - E *( Tgasin - Tairin )
disp ( A i r o u t l e t t e m p e r a t u r e i n d e g r e e K )
// Gas o u t l e t t e m p e r a t u r e i n d e g r e e K
Tairout = Tairin +( Z * E ) *( Tgasin - Tairin )

Scilab code Exa 8.4 Heating Seawater From Condenser


1
2
3 // D i s p l a y mode
4 mode (0) ;
5
6 // D i s p l a y w a r n i n g f o r f l o a t i n g p o i n t e x c e p t i o n
7 ieee (1) ;
8
9 clc ;
10 disp ( P r i n c i p l e s o f Heat T r a n s f e r , 7 t h Ed . Frank

K r e i t h e t . a l C h a p t e r 8 Example # 8 . 4 )
11
12 // P r e s s u r e o f steam i n i n c h e s o f Hg
13 P = 4;
14 // At t h i s p r e s s u r e , t e m p e r t u r e o f c o n d e n s i n g steam

in degree F
15 Thin = 125.4;
16
17 // Flow r a t e o f s e a w a t e r i n l b / s
18 mw = 25000;
19 // S p e c i f i c h e a t o f w a t e r i n Btu / l b F
20 c = 0.95;
21 // I n l e t and o u t l e t t e m p e r a t u r e o f s e a w a t e r i n d e g r e e

F
122

22 Tcin = 60;
23 Tcout = 110;
24 // Heat t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t o f steam i n Btu /h f t 2 F
25 hsteam = 600;
26 // Heat t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t o f w a t e r i n Btu /h f t 2 F
27 hwater = 300;
28 // Outer d i a m e t e r i n i n c h e s
29 OD = 1.125;
30 // I n n e r d i a m e t e r s i n i n c h e s
31 ID = 0.995;
32
33 // r e q u i r e d e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e e x c h a n g e r
34 E = ( Tcout - Tcin ) /( Thin - Tcin ) ;
35
36 // For a c o n d e n s e r , Cmin/Cmax=0 , and from F i g . 8 . 2 0 ,

NTU = 1 . 4 .
37 NTU = 1.4;
38
39

// The f o u l i n g f a c t o r s from T a b l e 8 . 2 a r e 0 . 0 0 0 5 h
f t 2 F / Btu f o r b o t h s i d e s o f t h e t u b e s .
40 //FF a c t o r
41 F = 0.0005;
42
43

// The o v e r a l l d e s i g n h e a t t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t i n
Btu /h f t 2 F p e r u n i t o u t s i d e a r e a o f t u b e i s ,
from Eq . ( 8 . 6 )
44 U = 1/(1/ hsteam + F +( OD /((2*12) *60) ) * log ( OD / ID ) +( F * OD )
/ ID + OD /( hwater * ID ) ) ;

45
46

// The t o t a l a r e a A i s 20 p i DL , and s i n c e UA/Cmin


=1.4

47
48 disp ( The l e n g t h o f t h e t u b e i n f t i s )
49 // The l e n g t h o f t h e t u b e i n f t
50 L = (((1.4* mw ) * c ) *12) /((( Tcin * %pi ) * OD ) * U )

123

Scilab code Exa 8.5 Theoretical Problem


1
2
3 // D i s p l a y mode
4 mode (0) ;
5
6 // D i s p l a y w a r n i n g f o r f l o a t i n g p o i n t e x c e p t i o n
7 ieee (1) ;
8
9 clc ;
10 disp ( P r i n c i p l e s o f Heat T r a n s f e r , 7 t h Ed . Frank

K r e i t h e t . a l C h a p t e r 8 Example # 8 . 5 )
11
12
13

disp ( There i s no c o m p u t a t i o n s i n t h i s e x a m p l e . )
disp ( I t i s t h e o r e t i c a l )

124

Chapter 9
Heat Transfer by Radiation

Scilab code Exa 9.1 Analysis of Tungsten Filament


1
2 // D i s p l a y mode
3 mode (0) ;
4
5 // D i s p l a y w a r n i n g f o r f l o a t i n g p o i n t e x c e p t i o n
6 ieee (1) ;
7
8 clc ;
9 disp ( P r i n c i p l e s o f Heat t r a n s f e r , S e v e n t h E d i t i o n ,

Frank K r e i t h , Raj M M a n g l i k and Mark S Bohn ,


C h a p t e r 9 , Example 1 )
10 // T e m p e r a t u r e o f t h e t u n g s t e n f i l a m e n t i n K e l v i n
11 T =1400;
12
13

disp ( a ) Wavelength a t which t h e m o n o c h r o m a t i c


e m i s s i v e power o f t h e g i v e n t u n g s t e n f i l a m e n t i s
maximum i n m e t e r s )
14 // Wavelength i n m
15 lamda_max =2.898 e -3/ T
16
17

disp ( b ) Monochromatic e m i s s i v e power a t c a l c u l a t e d


125

maximum w a v e l e n g t h i n W/m3 )
18 // E m i s s i v e power i n W/m3
19 Eb_max =12.87 e -6*( T ^5)
20
21
22
23
24
25
26

// Given w a v e l e n g t h i n m e t e r s
lamda =5 e -6;
// P r o d u c t o f w a v e l e n g t h and t e m p e r a t u r e i n mK
lamda_T = lamda * T ;

disp ( c ) Monochromatic e m i s s i v e power a t g i v e n


w a v e l e n g t h i n W/m3 )
27 // E m i s s i v e power i n W/m3
28 Eb_lamda = Eb_max *(2.898 e -3/( lamda_T ) ) ^5*((( %e ^4.965)
-1) /(( %e ^(0.014388/ lamda_T ) -1) ) )
29 disp ( Thus , Monochromatic e m i s s i v e power a t 5 e 6 m
w a v e l e n g t h i s 2 5 . 4% o f t h e Monochromatic e m i s s i v e
power a t maximum w a v e l e n g t h )

Scilab code Exa 9.2 Transmission of Solar Radiation


1
2 // D i s p l a y mode
3 mode (0) ;
4
5 // D i s p l a y w a r n i n g f o r f l o a t i n g p o i n t e x c e p t i o n
6 ieee (1) ;
7
8 clc ;
9 disp ( P r i n c i p l e s o f Heat t r a n s f e r , S e v e n t h E d i t i o n ,

Frank K r e i t h , Raj M M a n g l i k and Mark S Bohn ,


C h a p t e r 9 , Example 2 )
10 // T e m p e r a t u r e a t which sun i s r a d i a t i n g a s a
blackbody in K
11 T =5800;
12

126

13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22

// Lower l i m i t o f w a v e l e n g t h
transparent in microns
lamda_l =0.35;
// l o w e r l i m i t o f p r o d u c t o f
t e m p e r a t u r e i n micron K
lamda_l_T = lamda_l * T ;
// Lower l i m i t o f w a v e l e n g t h
transparent in microns
lamda_u =2.7;
// l o w e r l i m i t o f p r o d u c t o f
t e m p e r a t u r e i n micron K
lamda_u_T = lamda_u * T ;

f o r which g l a s s i s

w a v e l e n g t h and

f o r which g l a s s i s

w a v e l e n g t h and

// For lamda T= 2 0 3 0 , r a t i o o f b l a c k b o d y e m i s s i o n
b e t w e e n z e r o and l a m d a l t o t h e t o t a l e m i s s i o n i n
terms o f percentage
23 r_l =6.7;
24 // For lamda T= 1 5 6 6 0 , r a t i o o f b l a c k b o d y e m i s s i o n
b e t w e e n z e r o and l a m d a u t o t h e t o t a l e m i s s i o n i n
terms o f percentage
25 r_u =97;
26
27

// T o t a l r a d i a n t e n e r g y i n c i d e n t upon t h e g l a s s from
t h e sun i n t h e w a v e l e n g t h r a n g e b e t w e e n l a m d a l
and l a m d a u
28 total_rad = r_u - r_l ;
29 disp ( P e r c e n t a g e o f s o l a r r a d i a t i o n t r a n s m i t t e d
through the g l a s s in terms o f percentage )
30 rad_trans = total_rad *0.92
// S i n c e i t i s g i v e n t h a t
s i l i c a g l a s s t r a n s m i t s 92% o f t h e i n c i d e n t
radiation

Scilab code Exa 9.3 Solid Angle Calculation


1

127

2 // D i s p l a y mode
3 mode (0) ;
4
5 // D i s p l a y w a r n i n g f o r f l o a t i n g p o i n t e x c e p t i o n
6 ieee (1) ;
7
8 clc ;
9 disp ( P r i n c i p l e s o f Heat t r a n s f e r , S e v e n t h E d i t i o n ,

10
11
12
13
14

15
16
17
18

19

Frank K r e i t h , Raj M M a n g l i k and Mark S Bohn ,


C h a p t e r 9 , Example 3 )
// Area o f t h e f l a t b l a c k s u r f a c e i n m2
A_1 =10 e -4;
// R a d i a t i o n e m i t t e d by t h e f l a t b l a c k s u r f a c e i n W/m
sr
I_1 =1000;
// A n o t h e r s u r f a c e h a v i n g same a r e a a s A1 i s p l a c e d
r e l a t i v e t o A1 s u c h t h a t l e n g t h o f r a d i a t i o n r a y
c o n n e c t i n g dA 1 and dA 2 i n m e t e r s
r =0.5;
// Area i n m2
A_2 =10 e -4;
// S i n c e b o t h a r e a s a r e q u i t e s m a l l , t h e y can be
a p p r o x i m a t e d a s d i f f e r e n t i a l s u r f a c e a r e a s and
t h e s o l i d a n g l e can be c a l c u l a t e d a s
// d omega21=dA n2 / r 2 where dA n2 i s t h e p r o j e c t i o n
o f A2 i n t h e d i r e c t i o n n o r m a l t o t h e i n c i d e n t
r a d i a t i o n f o r dA 1 , t h u s

20
21

// A n g l e b e t w e e n t h e n o r m a l n 2 a n t t h e r a d i a t i o n r a y
c o n n e c t i n g dA 1 and dA 2
22 theta_2 =30;

23
24
25
26
27
28
29

// T h e r e f o r e s o l i d a n g l e i n s r
d_omega21 =( A_2 * cosd ( theta_2 ) /( r ^2) ) ;
disp ( I r r a d i a t i o n o f A 2 by A 1 i n w a t t )
// I r r a d i a t i o n i n W
q_r12 = I_1 * A_1 * cosd (90 - theta_2 ) * d_omega21
128

Scilab code Exa 9.4 Emissivity of Aluminium Surface


1
2 // D i s p l a y mode
3 mode (0) ;
4
5 // D i s p l a y w a r n i n g f o r f l o a t i n g p o i n t e x c e p t i o n
6 ieee (1) ;
7
8 clc ;
9 disp ( P r i n c i p l e s o f Heat t r a n s f e r , S e v e n t h E d i t i o n ,

10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24

Frank K r e i t h , Raj M M a n g l i k and Mark S Bohn ,


C h a p t e r 9 , Example 4 )
// H e m i s p h e r i c a l e m i s s i v i t y o f an aluminum p a i n t a t
wavelengths below 3 microns
epsilon_lamda_1 =0.4;
// H e m i s p h e r i c a l e m i s s i v i t y o f an aluminum p a i n t a t
longer wavelengths
epsilon_lamda_2 =0.8;
// At room t e m p e r a t u r e 27 d e g r e e c e l c i u s , p r o d u c t o f
lamda and T i n micron K
lamda_T_1 =3*(27+273) ;
// At e l e v a t e d t e m p e r a t u r e 527 d e g r e e c e l c i u s ,
p r o d u c t o f lamda and T i n micron K
lamda_T_2 =3*(527+273) ;
// From T a b l e 9 . 1
// For lamda T 1 , r a t i o o f b l a c k b o d y e m i s s i o n
b e t w e e n z e r o and l a m d a l t o t h e t o t a l e m i s s i o n
r_1 =0.00016;
// For lamda T 2 , r a t i o o f b l a c k b o d y e m i s s i o n
b e t w e e n z e r o and l a m d a u t o t h e t o t a l e m i s s i o n
r_2 =0.14;
disp ( Thus , t h e e m i s s i v i t y a t 27 C )
// E m i s s i v i t y
129

25
26
27
28
29

epsilon =0.8
disp ( e m i s s i v i t y a t 527 C )
// E m i s s i v i t y a t h i g h e r temp .
epsilon =( r_2 * epsilon_lamda_1 ) +( epsilon_lamda_2 *0.86)
disp ( The r e a s o n f o r t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e t o t a l
e m i s s i v i t y i s that at the higher temperature , the
p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e t o t a l e m i s s i v e power i n t h e low
e m i t t a n c e r e g i o n o f t h e p a i n t i s a p p r e c i a b l e ,
while at the lower temperature p r a c t i c a l l y a l l
the r a d i a t i o n i s e m i t t e d a t w av e le n gt h s above 3
microns )

Scilab code Exa 9.5 Absorptivity of Aluminium Surface


1
2 // D i s p l a y mode
3 mode (0) ;
4
5 // D i s p l a y w a r n i n g f o r f l o a t i n g p o i n t e x c e p t i o n
6 ieee (1) ;
7
8 clc ;
9 disp ( P r i n c i p l e s o f Heat t r a n s f e r , S e v e n t h E d i t i o n ,

10
11
12
13
14
15
16

Frank K r e i t h , Raj M M a n g l i k and Mark S Bohn ,


C h a p t e r 9 , Example 5 )
// T e m p e r a t u r e o f t h e sun i n K
T =5800;
// For t h e c a s e o f S o l a r i r r a d i a t i o n , v a l u e o f t h e
p r o d u c t o f lamda and T i n micron K
lamda_T_1 =3* T ; // v a l u e o f lamda i s t a k e n from
Example 9 . 4
// From t a b l e 9 . 1
// For lamda T 1 , r a t i o o f b l a c k b o d y e m i s s i o n
b e t w e e n z e r o and l a m d a l t o t h e t o t a l e m i s s i o n
r_1 =0.98;
130

17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31

// T h i s means t h a t 98% o f t h e s o l a r r a d i a t i o n f a l l s
below 3 microns
// H e m i s p h e r i c a l e m i s s i v i t y o f an aluminum p a i n t a t
wavelengths below 3 microns
epsilon_lamda_1 =0.4;
// H e m i s p h e r i c a l e m i s s i v i t y o f an aluminum p a i n t a t
longer wavelengths
epsilon_lamda_2 =0.8;
disp ( E f f e c t i v e a b s o r p t i v i t y f o r f i r s t c a s e )
// E f f e c t i v e a b s o r p t i v i t y
alpha_1 =( r_1 * epsilon_lamda_1 ) +( epsilon_lamda_2 *0.02)
// For t h e c a s e s e c o n d w i t h s o u r c e a t 800 K, v a l u e o f
t h e p r o d u c t o f lamda and T i n micron K
lamda_T_2 =3*800;
// For lamda T 2 , r a t i o o f b l a c k b o d y e m i s s i o n
b e t w e e n z e r o and l a m d a l t o t h e t o t a l e m i s s i o n
r_2 =0.14;
disp ( E f f e c t i v e a b s o r p t i v i t y f o r s e c o n d c a s e )
// E f f e c t i v e a b s o r p t i v i t y
alpha_2 =( r_2 * epsilon_lamda_1 ) +( epsilon_lamda_2 *0.86)

Scilab code Exa 9.6 Analysis of Painted Surface


1
2 // D i s p l a y mode
3 mode (0) ;
4
5 // D i s p l a y w a r n i n g f o r f l o a t i n g p o i n t e x c e p t i o n
6 ieee (1) ;
7
8 clc ;
9 disp ( P r i n c i p l e s o f Heat t r a n s f e r , S e v e n t h E d i t i o n ,

Frank K r e i t h , Raj M M a n g l i k and Mark S Bohn ,


C h a p t e r 9 , Example 6 )
10 // S t e f a n B o l t z m a n n c o n s t a n t i n W/m2 K4
131

11 sigma =5.67 e -8;


12 // T e m p e r a t u r e o f t h e p a i n t e d s u r f a c e i n K
13 T =1000;
14 // T e m p e r a t u r e o f t h e sun i n K
15 T_s =5800;
16 // Given , b e l o w 2 m i c r o n s t h e e m i s s i v i t y
of the
17
18
19
20

s u r f a c e i s 0 . 3 , so
lamda_1 =2; // w a v e l e n g t h i n m i c r o n s
epsilon_1 =0.3; // e m i s s i v i t y

// Given , b e t w e e n 2 and 4 m i c r o n s e m m i s i v i t y i s 0 . 9 ,
so
21 lamda_2 =4; // w a v e l e n g t h i n m i c r o n s
22 epsilon_2 =0.9; // e m i s s i v i t y
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31

// Given , a b o v e 4 m i c r o n s e m m i s i v i t y i s 0 . 5 , s o
epsilon_3 =0.5; // e m i s s i v i t y
// v a l u e o f t h e p r o d u c t o f l a m d a 1 and T i n micron K
lamda_1_T =2 e -3* T ;

// From t a b l e 9 . 1
// For lamda 1 T , r a t i o o f b l a c k b o d y e m i s s i o n
b e t w e e n z e r o and l a m d a l t o t h e t o t a l e m i s s i o n
32 r_1 =0.0667; // 1 s t r a t i o
33
34
35
36
37

// v a l u e o f t h e p r o d u c t o f l a m d a 2 and T i n micron K
lamda_2_T =2 e -3* T ;
// From t a b l e 9 . 1
// For lamda 2 T , r a t i o o f b l a c k b o d y e m i s s i o n
b e t w e e n z e r o and l a m d a l t o t h e t o t a l e m i s s i o n
38 r_2 =0.4809; // 2 nd r a t i o

39
40

disp ( a ) E f f e c t i v e e m i s s i v i t y o v e r t h e e n t i r e
spectrum )
41 // E f f e c t i v e e m i s s i v i t y
42 epsilon_bar = epsilon_1 * r_1 + epsilon_2 *( r_2 - r_1 ) +
epsilon_3 *(1 - r_2 )
132

43
44 disp ( b ) E m i s s i v e power i n W/m2 )
45 // E m i s s i v e power i n W/m2
46 E = epsilon_bar * sigma * T ^4
47
48 // v a l u e o f t h e p r o d u c t o f l a m d a 1 and T s i n micron
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60

K
lamda_1_T_s =2 e -3* T_s ;
// From t a b l e 9 . 1
// For l a m d a 1 T s , r a t i o o f b l a c k b o d y e m i s s i o n
b e t w e e n z e r o and l a m d a l t o t h e t o t a l e m i s s i o n
r_1_s =0.941;
// v a l u e o f t h e p r o d u c t o f l a m d a 2 and T s i n micron
K
lamda_2_T_s =2 e -3* T_s ;
// From t a b l e 9 . 1
// For l a m d a 2 T s , r a t i o o f b l a c k b o d y e m i s s i o n
b e t w e e n z e r o and l a m d a l t o t h e t o t a l e m i s s i o n
r_2_s =0.99;
disp ( c ) A v e r a g e s o l a r a b s o r p t i v i t y )
// A v e r a g e s o l a r a b s o r p t i v i t y
alpha_s = epsilon_1 * r_1_s + epsilon_2 *( r_2_s - r_1_s ) +
epsilon_3 *(1 - r_2_s )

Scilab code Exa 9.7 Analysis of an Oxidised Surface


1
2 // D i s p l a y mode
3 mode (0) ;
4
5 // D i s p l a y w a r n i n g f o r f l o a t i n g p o i n t e x c e p t i o n
6 ieee (1) ;
7
8 clc ;
9 disp ( P r i n c i p l e s o f Heat t r a n s f e r , S e v e n t h E d i t i o n ,

133

10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24

Frank K r e i t h , Raj M M a n g l i k and Mark S Bohn ,


C h a p t e r 9 , Example 7 )
// T e m p e r a t u r e o f t h e o x i d i s e d s u r f a c e i n K e l v i n
T =1800;
// Area o f t h e o x i d i s e d s u r f a c e i n m2
A =5 e -3;
// S t e f a n B o l t z m a n n c o n s t a n t i n W/m2 K4
sigma =5.67 e -8;
disp ( a ) E m i s s i v i t y p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o t h e s u r f a c e )
// E m i s s i v i t y
epsilon_zero =0.70* cosd (0)
disp ( b ) H e m i s p h e r i c a l e m i s s i v i t y )
// H e m i s p h e r i c a l e m i s s i v i t y
epsilon_bar =(( -1.4) /3) *(( cosd (90) ) ^3 -( cosd (0) ) ^3)
disp ( c ) E m i s s i v e Power i n Watt )
// E m i s s i v e Power i n W
E = epsilon_bar * A * sigma * T ^4

Scilab code Exa 9.8 Theoretical Problem


1
2 // D i s p l a y mode
3 mode (0) ;
4
5 // D i s p l a y w a r n i n g f o r f l o a t i n g p o i n t e x c e p t i o n
6 ieee (1) ;
7
8 clc ;
9 disp ( P r i n c i p l e s o f Heat t r a n s f e r , S e v e n t h E d i t i o n ,

Frank K r e i t h , Raj M M a n g l i k and Mark S Bohn ,


C h a p t e r 9 , Example 8 )
10
11
12

// T h e o r e t i c a l P r o o f
disp ( The g i v e n e x a m p l e i s t h e o r e t i c a l and d o e s n o t
i n v o l v e any n u m e r i c a l c o m p u t a t i o n )
134

Scilab code Exa 9.9 Shape Factor in Window Arrangement


1
2 // D i s p l a y mode
3 mode (0) ;
4
5 // D i s p l a y w a r n i n g f o r f l o a t i n g p o i n t e x c e p t i o n
6 ieee (1) ;
7
8 clc ;
9 disp ( P r i n c i p l e s o f Heat t r a n s f e r , S e v e n t h E d i t i o n ,

10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27

Frank K r e i t h , Raj M M a n g l i k and Mark S Bohn ,


C h a p t e r 9 , Example 9 )
// Window a r r a n g e m e n t c o n s i s t s o f a l o n g o p e n i n g w i t h
dimensions
// H e i g h t i n m e t e r s
h =1;
// Length i n m e t e r s
l =5;
// w i d t h o f t a b l e i n m e t e r s
w =2;
// Assuming t h a t window and t a b l e a r e s u f f i c i e n t l y
l o n g and a p p l y i n g c r o s s e d s t r i n g method , we g e t
// D i s t a n c e ab i n m
ab =0;
// D i s t a n c e cb i n m
cb = w ;
// D i s t a n c e ad i n m
ad = h ;
// D i s t a n c e cd i n m
cd = sqrt ( l ) ;
disp ( Shape f a c t o r b e t w e e n t h e window and t h e t a b l e
)
135

28
29

// Shape f a c t o r b e t w e e n t h e window and t h e t a b l e


F_12 =0.5*( ad + cb - cd )

Scilab code Exa 9.10 Shape Factor Computation


1
2 // D i s p l a y mode
3 mode (0) ;
4
5 // D i s p l a y w a r n i n g f o r f l o a t i n g p o i n t e x c e p t i o n
6 ieee (1) ;
7
8 clc ;
9 disp ( P r i n c i p l e s o f Heat t r a n s f e r , S e v e n t h E d i t i o n ,

10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28

Frank K r e i t h , Raj M M a n g l i k and Mark S Bohn ,


C h a p t e r 9 , Example 8 )
// Window a r e a i n f t 2
A1 =6*20;
// S e c o n d a r e a i n f t 2
A2 =4*20;
// Assuming A5=A1+A2
// Area i n f t 2
A5 = A1 + A2 ;
// From F i g . 9 . 2 7
// Shape F a c t o r s r e q u i r e d
F56 =0.19;
F26 =0.32;
F53 =0.08;
F23 =0.19;
disp ( Shape f a c t o r )
// Shape f a c t o r
F14 =( A5 * F56 - A2 * F26 - A5 * F53 + A2 * F23 ) / A1
disp ( Thus , o n l y a b o u t 10% o f t h e l i g h t p a s s i n g
136

t h r o u g h t h e window w i l l i m p i n g e on t h e f l o o r a r e a
A4 )

Scilab code Exa 9.11 Liquid Oxygen in Spherical Container


1
2
3 // D i s p l a y mode
4 mode (0) ;
5
6 // D i s p l a y w a r n i n g f o r f l o a t i n g p o i n t e x c e p t i o n
7 ieee (1) ;
8
9 clc ;
10 disp ( P r i n c i p l e s o f Heat T r a n s f e r , 7 t h Ed . Frank

K r e i t h e t . a l C h a p t e r 9 Example # 9 . 1 1 )
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
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23
24
25
26
27
28
29

// A b s o l u t e b o i l i n g t e m p e r a t u r e o f l i q u i d o x y g e n i n R
T1 = 460 -297;
// A b s o l u t e t e m p e r a t u r e o f s p h e r e i n R
T2 = 460+30;
// D i a m e t e r o f i n n e r s p h e r e i n f t
D1 = 1;
// Area o f i n n e r s p h e r e i n f t 2
A1 = ( %pi * D1 ) * D1 ;
// D i a m e t e r o f o u t e r s p h e r e i n f t
D2 = 1.5;
// Area o f o u t e r s p h e r e i n f t 2
A2 = ( %pi * D2 ) * D2 ;
// S t e f a n s c o n s t a n t
sigma = 0.1714;
// E m i s s i v i t y o f Aluminium
epsilon1 = 0.03; // S p h e r e 1
epsilon2 = 0.03; // S p h e r e 2

137

// U s i n g Eq . 9 . 7 4
disp ( Rate o f h e a t f l o w by r a d i a t i o n t o t h e o x y g e n
i n Btu / h i s )
32 // Rate o f h e a t f l o w by r a d i a t i o n t o t h e o x y g e n i n
Btu /h
33 q = (( A1 * sigma ) *(( T1 /100) ^4 -( T2 /100) ^4) ) /(1/ epsilon1
+( A1 / A2 ) *((1 - epsilon2 ) / epsilon2 ) )
30
31

Scilab code Exa 9.12 Radiative Exchange Between Cone Surfaces


1
2
3 // D i s p l a y mode
4 mode (0) ;
5
6 // D i s p l a y w a r n i n g f o r f l o a t i n g p o i n t e x c e p t i o n
7 ieee (1) ;
8
9 clc ;
10 disp ( P r i n c i p l e s o f Heat T r a n s f e r , 7 t h Ed . Frank

K r e i t h e t . a l C h a p t e r 9 Example # 9 . 1 2 )
11
12

// P r o v i d e a l l g i v e n i n p u t s and c o n s t a n t s o f t h e
problem

13
14 // S t e f a n B o l t z m a n n c o n s t a n t (W/m2/K 4 )
15 SIGMA = 0.0000000567;
16
17 // Area ( 1 )=R1 2 p i i n m2
18 AR (1 ,1) = 9* %pi ;
19
20 // The p h y s i c a l p a r a m e t e r s , e . g . , s h a p e f a c t o r and

emissivity , are evaluated .


21
22

// A l l F ( i , j ) a r e s h a p e f a c t o r s .
138

23
24
25
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31
32
33
34
35
36
37
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39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59

F (1 ,1)
F (1 ,2)
F (1 ,3)
F (2 ,1)
F (2 ,2)
F (2 ,3)
F (3 ,1)
F (3 ,2)
F (3 ,3)

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

0;
0.853;
0.147;
0.372;
0.498;
0.13;
0.333;
0.667;
0;

//ESP a r e e m i s s i v i t y g i v e n i n t h e p r o b l e m
ESP (1 ,1) = 0.6;
ESP (1 ,3) = 0.9;
// T e m p e r a t u r e i n d e g r e e K
T (1 ,1) = 1200;
// T e m p e r a t u r e i n d e g r e e K
T (1 ,3) = 600;
// E m i s s i v e Power o f b l a c k b o d y i n W/m2
EB (1 ,1) = SIGMA *( T (1) ^4) ;
// E m i s s i v e Power o f b l a c k b o d y i n W/m2
EB (1 ,3) = SIGMA *( T (3) ^4) ;
// The v a l u e s o f t h e e l e m e n t s o f t h e c o e f f i c i e n t
matrix A in the equation
// [ A ] [ X] = [B ] a r e s p e c i f i e d
A (1 ,1) = 1 - F (1 ,1) + ESP (1) /(1 - ESP (1) ) ;
A (1 ,2) = -F (1 ,2) ;
A (1 ,3) = -F (1 ,3) ;
A (2 ,1) = -F (2 ,1) ;
A (2 ,2) = 1 - F (2 ,2) ;
A (2 ,3) = -F (2 ,3) ;
A (3 ,1) = -F (3 ,1) ;
A (3 ,2) = -F (3 ,2) ;
A (3 ,3) = 1 - F (3 ,3) + ESP (3) /(1 - ESP (3) ) ;
// The v a l u e s o f t h e r i g h t hand s i d e v e c t o r B a r e
139

specified .
60 B (1 ,1) = ( EB (1) * ESP (1) ) /(1 - ESP (1) ) ;
61 B (1 ,2) = 0;
62 B (3) = ( EB (3) * ESP (3) ) /(1 - ESP (3) ) ;
63
64
65

// The i n v e r s i o n r o u t i n e i s u s e d t o s o l v e f o r X
disp ( Net r a d i a t i v e e x c h a n g e b e t w e e n t h e t o p and
bottom s u r f a c e i n W )
66 // Net r a d i a t i v e e x c h a n g e b e t w e e n t h e t o p and bottom
surface in W
67 X = inv ( A ) *B // s o l u t i o n s f o r J

Scilab code Exa 9.13 Temperature of Surface of Cone


1
2
3 // D i s p l a y mode
4 mode (0) ;
5
6 // D i s p l a y w a r n i n g f o r f l o a t i n g p o i n t e x c e p t i o n
7 ieee (1) ;
8
9 clc ;
10 disp ( P r i n c i p l e s o f Heat T r a n s f e r , 7 t h Ed . Frank

K r e i t h e t . a l C h a p t e r 9 Example # 9 . 1 3 )
11
12

// P r o v i d e a l l g i v e n i n p u t s and c o n s t a n t s o f t h e
problem
13 SIGMA = 0.0000000567; // S t e f a n Boltzmann c o n s t a n t (W
m2 K 4 )
14
15 // a l l F ( I , J ) a r e s h a p e f a c t o r
16 F (1 ,1) = 0;
17 F (1 ,2) = 0.853;
18 F (1 ,3) = 0.147;

140

19
20
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25
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31
32
33
34
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36
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46
47
48
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52
53
54
55
56

F (2 ,1)
F (2 ,2)
F (2 ,3)
F (3 ,1)
F (3 ,2)
F (3 ,3)

=
=
=
=
=
=

0.372;
0.498;
0.13;
0.333;
0.667;
0;

// Area ( 1 )=R1 2 p i i n m2
AR (1 ,1) = 9* %pi ;
//ESP a r e t o t a l h e m i s p h e r i c e m i s s i v i t y i n W/m2
ESP (1 ,1) = 0.6;
ESP (1 ,3) = 0.9;
// Heat e x c h a n g e i n W
Q1 = 300000;
// T e m p e r a t u r e i n d e g r e e K
T (1 ,3) = 600;
//EB b l a c k b o d y e m i s s i v e p o w e r s i n W/m2
EB (1 ,3) = SIGMA *( T (3) ^4) ;
// E v a l u a t e e l e m e n t s o f c o e f f i c i e n t m a t r i x
A (1 ,1) = 1 - F (1 ,1) ;
A (1 ,2) = -F (1 ,2) ;
A (1 ,3) = -F (1 ,3) ;
A (2 ,1) = -F (2 ,1) ;
A (2 ,2) = 1 - F (2 ,2) ;
A (2 ,3) = -F (2 ,3) ;
A (3 ,1) = 0;
A (3 ,2) = 0;
A (3 ,3) = 1;
// E v a l u a t e e l e m e n t s o f r i g h t hand s i d e m a t r i x
B (1 ,1) = Q1 / AR (1) ;
B (1 ,2) = 0;
B (3) = EB (3) ;
141

57
58 // s o l v e t h e s y s t e m o f e q u a t i o n s f o r X
59 X = inv ( A ) *B ;
60
61 // R e q u i r e d t e m p e r a t u r e i n d e g r e e K
62 T (1) = (( X (1) +( Q1 *(1 - ESP (1) ) ) /( AR (1) * ESP (1) ) ) / SIGMA )

^0.25;
// s o l u t i o n f o r t e m p e r a t u r e s
disp ( T e m p e r a t u r e o f s u r f a c e 1 f o r t h e c o n e i n
d e g r e e K )
65 T1 = T (1) // V a l u e f o r t h e r e q u i r e d t e m p e r a t u r e i n K

63
64

Scilab code Exa 9.14 Heat Transfer Between Parallel Plates


1
2
3 // D i s p l a y mode
4 mode (0) ;
5
6 // D i s p l a y w a r n i n g f o r f l o a t i n g p o i n t e x c e p t i o n
7 ieee (1) ;
8
9 clc ;
10 disp ( P r i n c i p l e s o f Heat T r a n s f e r , 7 t h Ed . Frank

K r e i t h e t . a l C h a p t e r 9 Example # 9 . 1 4 )
11
12 // A b s o l u t e t e m p e r a t u r e o f f i r s t p l a t e i n d e g r e e R
13 Ta = 2040+460;
14 // A b s o l u t e t e m p e r a t u r e o f s e c o n d p l a t e i n d e g r e e R
15 Tb = 540+460;
16 // S t e f a n s c o n s t a n t
17 sigma = 0.1718;
18
19 // For f i r s t r a d i a t i o n band , h e a t t r a n s f e r i s

calculated
142

20 // E m i s s i v i t y o f A
21 epsilonA = 0.1;
22 // E m i s s i v i t y o f B
23 epsilonB = 0.9;
24 // Shape f a c t o r
25 Fab = 1/(1/ epsilonA +1/ epsilonB -1) ;
26 // The p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e t o t a l r a d i a t i o n

within a
g i v e n band i s o b t a i n e d from T a b l e 9 . 1 .
// C o e f f i c i e n t s o f T4
A = 0.375;
// C o e f f i c i e n t s o f T4
B = 0.004;

27
28
29
30
31
32 // Rate o f h e a t t r a n s f e r i n f i r s t band i n Btu /h f t 2
33 q1 = ( Fab * sigma ) *( A *(( Ta /100) ^4) -B *(( Tb /100) ^4) ) ;
34
35 // S i m i l a r l y f o r o t h e r two bands , h e a t t r a n s f e r i n

Btu /h f t 2
36 q2 = 23000;
37 // h e a t t r a n s f e r i n Btu / h f t 2
38 q3 = 1240;
39
40

disp ( T o t a l r a t e o f r a d i a t i o n h e a t t r a n s f e r i n Btu / h
f t 2 )
41 // h e a t t r a n s f e r i n Btu / h f t 2
42 q = q1 + q2 + q3

Scilab code Exa 9.15 Emissivity of Gaseous Mixture


1
2
3
4
5
6

// D i s p l a y mode
mode (0) ;
// D i s p l a y w a r n i n g f o r f l o a t i n g p o i n t e x c e p t i o n
143

7 ieee (1) ;
8
9 clc ;
10 disp ( P r i n c i p l e s

o f Heat T r a n s f e r , 7 t h Ed . Frank
K r e i t h e t . a l C h a p t e r 9 Example # 9 . 1 5 )

11
12 // T e m p e r a t u r e i n d e g r e e K
13 T = 800;
14 // D i a m e t e r o f s p h e r e i n m
15 D = 0.4;
16 // P a r t i a l p r e s s u r e o f n i t r o g e n i n atm
17 PN2 = 1;
18 // P a r t i a l p r e s s u r e o f H2O i n atm
19 PH2O = 0.4;
20 // P a r t i a l p r e s s u r e o f CO2 i n atm
21 PCO2 = 0.6;
22
23 // The mean beam l e n g t h f o r a s p h e r i c a l mass o f g a s

i s o b t a i n e d from T a b l e 9 . 7
24 //Beam l e n g t h i n m
25 L = (2/3) * D ;
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39

// The e m i s s i v i t i e s a r e g i v e n i n F i g s . 9 . 4 6 and 9 . 4 7
// E m i s s i v i t y o f H2O
epsilonH2O = 0.15;
// E m i s s i v i t y o f CO2
epsilonCO2 = 0.125;
//N2 d o e s n o t r a d i a t e a p p r e c i a b l y a t 800 K, but
s i n c e the t o t a l gas p r e s s u r e
// i s 2 atm , we must c o r r e c t t h e 1atm v a l u e s f o r
epsilon .
// From F i g s . 9 . 4 8 and 9 . 4 9 t h e p r e s s u r e c o r r e c t i o n
f a c t o r s are
// P r e s s u r e c o r r e c t i o n f a c t o r f o r H2O
CH2O = 1.62;
// P r e s s u r e c o r r e c t i o n f a c t o r f o r CO2
CCO2 = 1.12;
144

40
41
42
43
44
45

// From f i g . 9 . 5 0
// Chnage i n e m i s s i v i t y
deltaEpsilon = 0.014;

// F i n a l l y , t h e e m i s s i v i t y o f t h e m i x t u r e can be
o b t a i n e d from Eq . ( 9 . 1 1 4 ) :
46 disp ( E m i s s i v i t y o f t h e m i x t u r e i s )
47 // E m i s s i v i t y o f t h e m i x t u r e
48 epsilonMix = CH2O * epsilonH2O + CCO2 * epsilonCO2 deltaEpsilon

Scilab code Exa 9.16 Absorptivity of Gaseous Mixture


1
2
3 // D i s p l a y mode
4 mode (0) ;
5
6 // D i s p l a y w a r n i n g f o r f l o a t i n g p o i n t e x c e p t i o n
7 ieee (1) ;
8
9 clc ;
10 disp ( P r i n c i p l e s o f Heat T r a n s f e r , 7 t h Ed . Frank

K r e i t h e t . a l C h a p t e r 9 Example # 9 . 1 6 )
11
12 // T o t a l p r e s s u r e i n atm
13 Pt = 2;
14 // T e m p e r a t u r e i n d e g r e e K
15 TH2O = 500;
16 // Mean beam l e n g t h i n m
17 L = 0.75;
18 // P a r t i a l p r e s s u r e o f w a t e r v a p o r i n atm
19 PH2O = 0.4;
20 // S o u r c e t e m p e r a t u r e i n d e g r e e K

145

21 Ts = 1000;
22
23 // S i n c e n i t r o g e n

i s transparent , the absorption in


t h e m i x t u r e i s due t o t h e w a t e r v a p o r a l o n e .

24
25 // P a r a m e t e r s r e q u i r e d
26 //A P a r a m e t e r i n atmm
27 A = PH2O * L ;
28 //B P a r a m e t e r i n atm
29 B = ( Pt + PH2O ) /2;
30
31 // From F i g s . 9 . 4 6 and 9 . 4 8 we f i n d
32 // For water , C f a c t o r i n S I u n i t s
33 CH2O = 1.4;
34 // E m i s s i v i t y o f w a t e r
35 epsilonH2O = 0.29;
36
37
38 // From Eq . ( 9 . 1 1 5 ) t h e a b s o r p t i v i t y o f H2O i s
39 disp ( A b s o r p t i v i t y o f H2O i s )
40 alphaH2O = ( CH2O * epsilonH2O ) *(( TH2O / Ts ) ^0.45)

Scilab code Exa 9.17 Heat Flow From Flue Gas


1
2
3 // D i s p l a y mode
4 mode (0) ;
5
6 // D i s p l a y w a r n i n g f o r f l o a t i n g p o i n t e x c e p t i o n
7 ieee (1) ;
8
9 clc ;
10 disp ( P r i n c i p l e s o f Heat T r a n s f e r , 7 t h Ed . Frank

K r e i t h e t . a l C h a p t e r 9 Example # 9 . 1 7 )
146

11
12 // T e m p e r a t u r e o f f l u e g a s i n d e g r e e F
13 Tgas = 2000;
14 // I n n e r w a l l s u r f a c e t e m p e r a t u r e i n d e g r e e F
15 Tsurface = 1850;
16 // P a r t i a l p r e s s u r e o f w a t e r i n atm
17 p = 0.05;
18 // C o n v e c t i o n h e a t t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t i n Btu /h f t 2
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27

F
h = 1;
// Length o f s q u a r e d u c t i n f t
L = 2;
// Volume i n f t 3
V = L*L;
// S u r f a c e a r e a i n f t 2
A = 4* L ;

// The r a t e o f h e a t f l o w from t h e g a s t o t h e w a l l by
convection per unit
28 // l e n g t h i n Btu / h f t i s
29 qc = ( h * A ) *( Tgas - Tsurface ) ;
30
31 // E f f e c t i v e beam l e n g t h i n m
32 L = ((0.3058*3.4) * V ) / A ;
33
34 // P r o d u c t o f p a r t i a l p r e s s u r e and L
35 k = p * L ;
36
37 // From F i g . 9 . 4 6 , f o r pL = 0 . 0 2 6 and T=2000F , we f i n d
38
39 // E m i s s i v i t y
40 epsilon = 0.035;
41 // A b s o r p t i v i t y
42 alpha = 0.039;
43 // s t e f a n s c o n s t a n t
44 sigma = 0.171;
45
46 // Assuming t h a t t h e b r i c k s u r f a c e i s b l a c k , t h e n e t

147

r a t e o f h e a t f l o w from t h e g a s t o t h e w a l l by
r a d i a t i o n i s , a c c o r d i n g t o Eq . ( 9 . 1 1 7 )
47 qr = ( sigma * A ) *( epsilon *((( Tgas +460) /100) ^4) - alpha
*((( Tsurface +460) /100) ^4) ) ; // Btu / h
48
49

disp ( T o t a l h e a t f l o w from t h e g a s t o t h e d u c t i n
Btu /h )
50 // T o t a l h e a t f l o w from t h e g a s t o t h e d u c t i n Btu /h
51 q = qc + qr

Scilab code Exa 9.18 Estimation of True Gas Temperature


1
2
3 // D i s p l a y mode
4 mode (0) ;
5
6 // D i s p l a y w a r n i n g f o r f l o a t i n g p o i n t e x c e p t i o n
7 ieee (1) ;
8
9 clc ;
10 disp ( P r i n c i p l e s o f Heat T r a n s f e r , 7 t h Ed . Frank

K r e i t h e t . a l C h a p t e r 9 Example # 9 . 1 8 )
11
12 // E m i s s i v i t y
13 epsilon = 0.8;
14 // S t e f a n s c o n s t a n t
15 sigma = 0.1714;
16 // T e m p e r a t u r e o f w a l l s i n d e g r e e F
17 Twall = 440;
18 // T e m p e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e d ny t h e r m o c o u p l e i n d e g r e e F
19 Tt = 940;
20 // Heat t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t i n Btu /h f t 2 F
21 h = 25;
22

148

23

24
25

// The t e m p e r a t u r e o f t h e t h e r m o c o u p l e i s b e l o w t h e
g a s t e m p e r a t u r e b e c a u s e t h e c o u p l e l o s e s h e a t by
r a d i a t i o n to the wall .
// Under s t e a d y s t a t e c o n d i t i o n s t h e r a t e o f h e a t
f l o w by r a d i a t i o n from t h e t h e r m o c o u p l e j u n c t i o n
t o t h e w a l l e q u a l s t h e r a t e o f h e a t f l o w by
c o n v e c t i o n from t h e g a s t o t h e c o u p l e .

26
27 // U s i n g t h i s h e a t b a l a n c e , q /A i n Btu /h f t 2
28 q = ( epsilon * sigma ) *((( Tt +460) /100) ^4 -(( Twall +460)

/100) ^4) ;
29
30 disp ( True g a s t e m p e r a t u r e i n d e g r e e F )
31 // True g a s t e m p e r a t u r e i n d e g r e e F
32 Tg = Tt + q / h

Scilab code Exa 9.19 Gas Temperature Measurement With Shielding


1
2
3 // D i s p l a y mode
4 mode (0) ;
5
6 // D i s p l a y w a r n i n g f o r f l o a t i n g p o i n t e x c e p t i o n
7 ieee (1) ;
8
9 clc ;
10 disp ( P r i n c i p l e s o f Heat T r a n s f e r , 7 t h Ed . Frank

K r e i t h e t . a l C h a p t e r 9 Example # 9 . 1 9 )
11
12
13
14
15

// E m i s s i v i t y o f t h e r m o c o u p l e
epsilonT = 0.8;
// E m i s s i v i t y o f s h i e l d
epsilonS = 0.3;
149

16 // S t e f a n s c o n s t a n t
17 sigma = 0.1714;
18 // T e m p e r a t u r e o f w a l l s i n d e g r e e F
19 Tw = 440;
20 // T e m p e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e d ny t h e r m o c o u p l e i n d e g r e e F
21 Tt = 940;
22 // Heat t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t o f t h e r m o c o u p l e i n Btu / h

ft2 F
23 hrt = 25;
24 // Heat t r a n s f e r
25 hrs = 20;

c o e f f i c i e n t o f s h i e l d i n Btu / h f t 2 F

26
27 // Area f o r t h e r m o c o u p l e be u n i t y f t 2
28 At = 1;
29 // C o r r e s p o n d i n g a r e a o f s h i e l d i n f t 2
30 As = 4; // I n s i d e d i a =4 d i a o f t h e r m o c o u p l e
31
32 // From Eq . ( 9 . 7 6 )
33 // View f a c t o r s F t s and Fsw
34 Fts = 1/((1 - epsilonT ) /( At * epsilonT ) +1/ At +(1 - epsilonS

) /( As * epsilonS ) ) ;
35 Fsw = As * epsilonS ;
36
37

// Assuming a s h i e l d t e m p e r a t u r e o f 900 F , we have ,


a c c o r d i n g t o Eq . ( 9 . 1 1 8 )
38 // T e m p e r a t u r e i n d e g r e e F
39 Ts = 923;

40
41 // C o e f f c i e n t s f o r h e a t b a l a n c e a r e a s f o l l o w i n g
42 //A p a r a m e t e r Btu /hF
43 A = 9.85; //A=h r t At
44 //B p a r a m e t e r Btu /hF
45 B = 13.7; //B=h r s As
46
47 // U s i n g h e a t b a l a n c e
48 disp ( C o r r e c t t e m p e r a t u r e o f g a s i n d e g r e e F )
49 // C o r r e c t t e m p e r a t u r e o f g a s i n d e g r e e F
50 Tg = Ts +( B *( Ts - Tw ) -A *( Tt - Ts ) ) /(( hrs *2) * As )

150

151

Chapter 10
Heat Transfer with Phase
Change

Scilab code Exa 10.1 Water Boiling on Steel Surface


1
2 // D i s p l a y mode
3 mode (0) ;
4
5 // D i s p l a y w a r n i n g f o r f l o a t i n g p o i n t e x c e p t i o n
6 ieee (1) ;
7
8 clc ;
9 disp ( P r i n c i p l e s o f Heat t r a n s f e r , S e v e n t h E d i t i o n ,

10
11
12
13
14
15

Frank K r e i t h , Raj M M a n g l i k and Mark S Bohn ,


C h a p t e r 1 0 , Example 1 )
// S u r f a c e t e m p e r a t u r e o f p o l i s h e d s t a i n l e s s s t e e l
surface in degree c e l c i u s
T_s =106;
// B o i l i n g p o i n t o f w a t e r u n d e r a t a t m o s p h e r i c
pressure in degree c e l c i u s
T_b =100;
// V a l u e o f e m p i r i c a l c o n s t a n t
C_sf =0.0132;
152

16 // l a t e n t h e a t o f v a p o r i z a t i o n i n J / kg
17 h_fg =2.25 e6 ;
18 // g r a v i t a t i o n a l a c c e l e r a t i o n i n m/ s 2
19 g =9.81;
20 // V a l u e o f p r o p o r t i o n a l i t y f a c t o r i n B r i t i s h
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37

G r a v i t a t i o n a l system
g_c =1;
// d e n s i t y o f s a t u r a t e d l i q u i d i n kg /m3
rho_l =962;
// d e n s i t y o f s a t u r a t e d v a p o r i n kg /m3
rho_v =0.60;
// s p e c i f i c h e a t o f s a t u r a t e d l i q u i d i n J / kg K
c_l =4211;
// p r a n d t l number o f s a t u r a t e d l i q u i d
Pr_l =1.75;
// s u r f a c e t e n s i o n o f t h e l i q u i d to v a p o r i n t e r f a c e
i n N/m
sigma =58.8 e -3;
// v i s c o s i t y o f t h e l i q u i d i n kg /ms
mu_l =2.77 e -4;
// E x c e s s t e m p e r a t u r e i n d e g r e e C e l c i u s
delta_Tx = T_s - T_b ;

disp ( Heat f l u x from t h e s u r f a c e t o t h e w a t e r i n W/m


2 )
38 // Heat f l u x i n W. / m2
39 q =( c_l * delta_Tx /( C_sf * h_fg * Pr_l ) ) ^3* mu_l * h_fg * sqrt ((
g *( rho_l - rho_v ) ) /( g_c * sigma ) )

40
41
42
43

disp ( C r i t i c a l h e a t f l u x i n W/m2 )
// Heat f l u x i n W. / m2
q_maxZ =( %pi /24) * sqrt ( rho_v ) * h_fg *( sigma * g *( rho_l rho_v ) * g_c ) ^0.25

44
45

disp ( At 6 C e x c e s s t e m p e r a t u r e t h e h e a t f l u x i s
l e s s than the c r i t i c a l v a l u e ; t h e r e f o r e n u c l e a t e
pool b o i l i n g e x i s t s )
46 disp ( For t h e T e f l o n c o a t e d s t a i n l e s s s t e e l s u r f a c e ,
153

h e a t f l u x i n W/m2 )
47 // Heat f l u x i n W. / m2
48 q =29669*( C_sf /0.0058) ^3
49 disp ( Thus f o r T e f l o n c o a t e d s t a i n l e s s s t e e l s u r f a c e
there i s a remarkable i n c r e a s e in heat f l u x ;
however , i t i s s t i l l b e l o w t h e c r i t i c a l v a l u e . )

Scilab code Exa 10.2 Water Boiling on Polished Surface


1
2 // D i s p l a y mode
3 mode (0) ;
4
5 // D i s p l a y w a r n i n g f o r f l o a t i n g p o i n t e x c e p t i o n
6 ieee (1) ;
7
8 clc ;
9 disp ( P r i n c i p l e s o f Heat t r a n s f e r , S e v e n t h E d i t i o n ,

10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22

Frank K r e i t h , Raj M M a n g l i k and Mark S Bohn ,


C h a p t e r 1 0 , Example 2 )
// d e n s i t y o f s a t u r a t e d l i q u i d i n kg /m3
rho_l =962;
// g r a v i t a t i o n a l a c c e l e r a t i o n i n m/ s 2
g =9.8;
// l a t e n t h e a t o f v a p o r i z a t i o n i n J / kg
h_fg =2250000;
// d e n s i t y o f s a t u r a t e d v a p o r i n kg /m3
rho_v =0.60;
// S u r f a c e t e m p e r a t u r e o f p o l i s h e d s t a i n l e s s s t e e l
surface in degree c e l c i u s
T_s =400;
// V a l u e o f p r o p o r t i o n a l i t y f a c t o r i n B r i t i s h
G r a v i t a t i o n a l system
g_c =1;
// B o i l i n g p o i n t o f w a t e r u n d e r a t a t m o s p h e r i c
154

23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37

38
39

40
41
42

pressure in degree c e l c i u s
T_b =100;
// s u r f a c e t e n s i o n o f t h e l i q u i d to v a p o r i n t e r f a c e
i n N/m
sigma =58.8 e -3;
// E x c e s s t e m p e r a t u r e i n d e g r e e C e l c i u s
delta_Tx = T_s - T_b ;
// Wavelength i n m from eq . 1 0 . 7
lamda =2* %pi * sqrt ( g_c * sigma /( g *( rho_l - rho_v ) ) ) ;
// Thermal c o n d u c t i v i t y i n W/mK
k_c =0.0249;
// A b s o l u t e v i s c o s i t y i n Ns /m2
mu_c =12.1 e -6;
// S p e c i f i c h e a t i n J / kg K
c_pc =2034;
// Heat t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t due t o c o n d u c t i o n a l o n e
i n W/m2 K
h_c =(0.59) *((( g *( rho_l - rho_v ) * rho_v *( k_c ^3) *( h_fg
+(0.68* c_pc * delta_Tx ) ) ) /( lamda * mu_c * delta_Tx ) )
^0.25) ; // e x p r e s s i o n o b t a i n e d a s s u m i n g d i a m e t e r
D tending to i n f i n i t y
// E m i s s i v i t y
epsilon_s = 0.05; // s i n c e s u r f a c e i s p o l i s h e d and
h e n c e h e a t t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t due t o r a d i a t i o n
is negligible
disp ( Heat f l u x i n W/m2 )
// Heat f l u x i n W/m2
q = h_c * delta_Tx

Scilab code Exa 10.3 Flow of n Butyl Alcohol


1
2
3
4

// D i s p l a y mode
mode (0) ;
155

5
6 // D i s p l a y w a r n i n g f o r f l o a t i n g p o i n t e x c e p t i o n
7 ieee (1) ;
8
9 clc ;
10 disp ( P r i n c i p l e s o f Heat t r a n s f e r , S e v e n t h E d i t i o n ,

11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38

Frank K r e i t h , Raj M M a n g l i k and Mark S Bohn ,


C h a p t e r 1 0 , Example 3 )
// Flow r a t e o f nb u t y l a l c o h o l i n kg / h r
m =161;
// I n t e r n a l d i a m e t e r o f c o p p e r t u b e i n m e t e r s
D =0.01;
// Tube w a l l t e m p e r a t u r e i n d e g r e e C
T =140;
// s u r f a c e t e n s i o n i n N/m
sigma =0.0183;
// Heat o f v a p o r i z a t i o n i n J / kg
h_fg =591500;
// a t m o s p h e r i c p r e s s u r e b o i l i n g p o i n t i n d e g r e e C
T_sat =117.5;
// s a t u r a t i o n p r e s s u r e c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o a s a t u r a t i o n
t e m p e r a t u r e o f 140 C i n atm
P_sat =2;
// D e n s i t y o f v a p o r i n kg /m3
rho_v =2.3;
// V i s c o s i t y o f v a p o r i n kg /m s
mu_v =.0143 e -3;
// P r o p e r t y v a l u e s f o r nb u t y l a l c o h o l a r e t a k e n from
Appendix 2 , T a b l e 19
// D e n s i t y i n kg /m3
rho_l =737;
// A b s o l u t e v i s c o s i t y i n Ns /m2
mu_l =0.39 e -3;
// S p e c i f i c h e a t i n J / kg K
c_l =3429;
// P r a n d t l number
Pr_l =8.2;
// Thermal c o n d u c t i v i t y i n W/m K
156

39 k_l =0.13;
40 // E m p i r i c a l c o n s t a n t
41 C_sf =0.00305; // V a l u e t a k e n from t a b l e 1 0 . 1
42 // Mass v e l o c i t y i n kg /m2 s
43 G =( m /3600) *(4/( %pi *0.01^2) ) ;
44 // R e y n o l d s number f o r l i q u i d f l o w
45 Re_D =( G * D ) / mu_l ;
46 // The c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e h e a t t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t

47

48
49
50

51
52
53
54

55

due t o t h e twop h a s e a n n u l a r f l o w i s [ ( 0 . 0 2 3 )
(14590) 0 . 8 ( 8 . 2 ) 0.416.3(1 x ) 0.8F]
// S i n c e t h e v a p o r p r e s s u r e c h a n g e s by 1 atm o v e r t h e
t e m p e r a t u r e r a n g e from s a t u r a t i o n t e m p e r a t u r e t o
140 C , s o s a t u r a t i o n p r e s s u r e i n N/m2
delta_p_sat =101300;
// T h e r e f o r e t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e h e a t t r a n s f e r
c o e f f i c i e n t from n u c l e a t e b o i l i n g i s
// h b=
0.00122[(0.1630.7934290.457370.4910.25)
/(0.01830.50.39 e 30.295913000.242.30.24)
](140 117.5) 0.24(101300) 0.75 S
// o r h b= 8 3 9 3 S
//Now 1/ Xtt w i l l be c a l c u l a t e d by
// 1/ Xtt = 1 2 . 8 6 ( x /(1 x ) ) 0 . 9
//Now a t a b l e i s p r e p a r e d s h o w i n g s t e p w i s e
c a l c u l a t i o n s that track the i n c r e a s e in quality ,
from x=0 t o x = 0 . 5 , a s s u m i n g t h a t t h e s t e p s d e l t a x
a r e s m a l l enough t h a t t h e h e a t f l u x and o t h e r
parameters are reasonably constant in that step
disp ( The t u b e l e n g t h r e q u i r e d t o r e a c h 50% q u a l i t y
i s 1 . 3 5 m )

Scilab code Exa 10.4 Heat Transfer Coefficients For Tube


1
2

// D i s p l a y mode
157

3 mode (0) ;
4
5 // D i s p l a y w a r n i n g f o r f l o a t i n g p o i n t e x c e p t i o n
6 ieee (1) ;
7
8 clc ;
9 disp ( P r i n c i p l e s o f Heat t r a n s f e r , S e v e n t h E d i t i o n ,

10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37

Frank K r e i t h , Raj M M a n g l i k and Mark S Bohn ,


C h a p t e r 1 0 , Example 4 )
// Outer d i a m e t e r o f t h e t u b e i n m e t e r s
D =0.013;
// A c c e l e r a t i o n due t o g r a v i t y i n m/ s 2
g =9.81;
// Length o f t h e t u b e i n m e t e r s
L =1.5;
// T e m p e r a t u r e o f s a t u r a t e d v a p o u r i n K e l v i n
T_sv =349;
// A v e r a g e t u b e w a l l t e m p e r a t u r e i n K e l v i n
T_s =325;
// A v e r a g e t e m p e r a t u r e o f t h e c o n d e n s a t e f i l m i n
degree K
Tf =( T_sv + T_s ) /2;
// Thermal c o n d u c t i v i t y o f l i q u i d i n W/mK
k_l =0.661;
// V i s c o s i t y o f l i q u i d i n N s /m2
mu_l =4.48 e -4;
// D e n d i t y o f l i q u i d i n kg /m3
rho_l =980.9;
// S p e c i f i c h e a t o f l i q u i d i n J / kg K
c_pl =4184;
// L a t e n t h e a t o f c o n d e n s a t i o n i n J / kg
h_fg =2.349 e6 ;
// D e n s i t y o f v a p o r i n kg /m3
rho_v =0.25;
// M o d i f i e d l a t e n t h e a t o f c o n d e n s a t i o n i n J / kg
h_fg_dash = h_fg +(3/8) * c_pl *( T_sv - T_s ) ;
disp ( Heat t r a n s f e r

c o e f f i c i e n t f o r tube in
158

38
39
40
41
42

h o r i z o n t a l p o s i t i o n i n W/m2 K )
// Heat t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t i n W/m2K
h_c_bar =0.725*((( rho_l *( rho_l - rho_v ) * g * h_fg_dash * k_l
^3) /( D * mu_l *( T_sv - T_s ) ) ) ^0.25)
disp ( Heat t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t f o r t u b e i n v e r t i c a l
p o s i t i o n i n W/m2 K )
// // Heat t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t i n W/m2K
h_c_bar =0.943*((( rho_l *( rho_l - rho_v ) * g * h_fg_dash * k_l
^3) /( mu_l *( T_sv - T_s ) ) ) ^0.25)

Scilab code Exa 10.5 Condensate Flow Determination


1
2 // D i s p l a y mode
3 mode (0) ;
4
5 // D i s p l a y w a r n i n g f o r f l o a t i n g p o i n t e x c e p t i o n
6 ieee (1) ;
7
8 clc ;
9 disp ( P r i n c i p l e s o f Heat t r a n s f e r , S e v e n t h E d i t i o n ,

10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

Frank K r e i t h , Raj M M a n g l i k and Mark S Bohn ,


C h a p t e r 1 0 , Example 5 )
// A c c e l e r a t i o n due t o g r a v i t y i n m/ s 2
g =9.81;
// Length o f t h e t u b e i n m e t e r s
L =1.5;
// T e m p e r a t u r e o f s a t u r a t e d v a p o u r i n K e l v i n
T_sv =349;
// A v e r a g e t u b e w a l l t e m p e r a t u r e i n K e l v i n
T_s =325;
// A v e r a g e t e m p e r a t u r e o f t h e c o n d e n s a t e f i l m i n
Kelvin
Tf =( T_sv + T_s ) /2;
// Thermal c o n d u c t i v i t y o f l i q u i d i n W/mK
159

21 k_l =0.661;
22 // V i s c o s i t y o f l i q u i d i n N s /m2
23 mu_l =4.48 e -4;
24 // D e n d i t y o f l i q u i d i n kg /m3
25 rho_l =980.9;
26 // S p e c i f i c h e a t o f l i q u i d i n J / kg K
27 c_pl =4184;
28 // L a t e n t h e a t o f c o n d e n s a t i o n i n J / kg
29 h_fg =2.349 e6 ;
30 // D e n s i t y o f v a p o r i n kg /m3
31 rho_v =0.25;
32 // M o d i f i e d l a t e n t h e a t o f c o n d e n s a t i o n i n J / kg
33 h_fg_dash = h_fg +(3/8) * c_pl *( T_sv - T_s ) ;
34
35 disp ( R e y n o l d s number a t t h e l o w e r e d g e )
36 // R e y n o l d s number
37 Re =(4/3) *(((4* k_l * L *( T_sv - T_s ) * rho_l ^(2/3) * g ^(1/3) )

/( mu_l ^(5/3) * h_fg_dash ) ) ^0.75)


38 disp ( S i n c e t h e R e y n o l d s number a t t h e l o w e r e d g e o f
the tube i s below 2000 , the f l o w o f the
condensate i s laminar )

Scilab code Exa 10.6 Heat Transport Capability of Water


1
2 // D i s p l a y mode
3 mode (0) ;
4
5 // D i s p l a y w a r n i n g f o r f l o a t i n g p o i n t e x c e p t i o n
6 ieee (1) ;
7
8 clc ;
9 disp ( P r i n c i p l e s o f Heat t r a n s f e r , S e v e n t h E d i t i o n ,

Frank K r e i t h , Raj M M a n g l i k and Mark S Bohn ,


C h a p t e r 1 0 , Example 6 )
160

10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43

// Length o f Heat p i p e i n m e t e r s
L_eff =0.30;
// T e m p e r a t u r e o f t h e h e a t p i p e i n d e g r e e c e l c i u s
T =100;
// D i a m e t e r o f t h e h e a t p i p e i n m e t e r s
D =1 e -2;
// D e n s i t y o f w a t e r a t 100 d e g r e e c e l c i u s i n k /m3
rho =958;
// V i s c o s i t y o f w a t e r i n N s /m2
mu =279 e -6;
// s u r f a c e t e n s i o n o f t h e l i q u i d to v a p o r i n t e r f a c e
i n N/m
sigma =58.9 e -3;
// l a t e n t h e a t o f v a p o r i z a t i o n i n J / kg
h_fg =2.26 e6 ;
// I n c l i n a t i o n a n g l e i n d e g r e e
theta =30;
// A c c e l e r a t i o n due t o g r a v i t y i n m e t e r / s e c 2
g =9.81;
// Wire d i a m e t e r f o r w i c k i n m e t r e s
d =0.0045 e -2;
// So t h i c k n e s s o f f o u r l a y e r s o f w i r e mesh
t =4* d ;
// Area o f t h e w i c k i n m2
Aw = %pi * D * t ;
// For p h o s p h o r u s b r o n z e , h e a t p i p e w i c k p o r e s i z e i n
meters
r =0.002 e -2;
// For p h o s p h o r u s b r o n z e , h e a t p i p e w i c k p e r m e a b i l i t y
i n m2
K =0.3 e -10;
disp ( Maximum l i q u i d f l o w r a t e i n kg / s e c )
// f l o w r a t e i n kg / s e c
m_max =((2* sigma / r ) - rho * g * L_eff * sind ( theta ) ) *(( rho * Aw
* K ) /( mu * L_eff ) )
disp ( Maximum h e a t t r a n s p o r t c a p a b i l i t y i n Watt )
// h e a t t r a n s p o r t c a p a b i l i t y i n W
q_max = m_max * h_fg
161

Scilab code Exa 10.7 Forming of Ice Layer


1
2 // D i s p l a y mode
3 mode (0) ;
4
5 // D i s p l a y w a r n i n g f o r f l o a t i n g p o i n t e x c e p t i o n
6 ieee (1) ;
7
8 clc ;
9 disp ( P r i n c i p l e s o f Heat t r a n s f e r , S e v e n t h E d i t i o n ,

10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28

Frank K r e i t h , Raj M M a n g l i k and Mark S Bohn ,


C h a p t e r 1 0 , Example 7 )
// T e m p e r a t u r e o f t h e b r i n e s p r a y u s e d f o r i n t e r n a l
r e f r i g e r a t i o n in degree c e l c i u s
T_inf = -11;
// R e q u i r e d t h i c k n e s s o f i c e l a y e r i n m e t e r s
epsilon = 0.0025;
// Water l i q u i d t e m p e r a t u r e i n d e g r e e c e l c i u s
T1 =4.4;
// L i q u i d s u r f a c e c o n d u c t a n c e i n W/m2 K
h_epsilon =57;
// C o n d u c t a n c e b e t w e e n b r i n e and i c e ( i n c l u d i n g m e t a l
w a l l ) i n W/m2 K
h_not =570;
// L a t e n t h e a t o f f u s i o n f o r i c e i n J /Kg
Lf =333700;
// D e n s i t y f o r i c e i n Kg/m3
rho =918;
// Thermal c o n d u c t i v i t y f o r i c e i n W/m K
k =2.32;
// F r e e z i n g p o i n t t e m p e r a t u r e i n d e g r e e K
Tfr =0;
// D i m e n s i o n l e s s R , T , e p s i l o n and t a r e a s f o l l o w s
162

29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36

//R p l u s p a r a m e t e r
R_plus = h_epsilon / h_not ;
//T p l u s p a r a m e t e r
T_plus = ( T1 - Tfr ) /( Tfr - T_inf ) ;
// E p s i l o n p l u s p a r a m e t e r
Epsilon_plus = h_not * epsilon / k ;
// t p l u s p a r a m e t e r
t_plus =( Epsilon_plus /( R_plus * T_plus ) ) -((1/( R_plus *
T_plus ) ^2) * log (1+( R_plus * T_plus * Epsilon_plus /(1+
R_plus * T_plus ) ) ) )

37
38

disp ( Time t a k e n f o r 0 . 2 5 cm t h i c k i c e l a y e r
d e p o s i t i o n in sec )
39 // t i m e i n s e c o n d s
40 t = t_plus * rho * Lf * k /(( h_not ) ^2*( Tfr - T_inf ) )

163