Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 28

ABSTRACT.

This experiment demonstrated the general operation of vapor compression heat pump.
In order to determine the power input and coefficient of performance of the heat pump, the
temperature and pressure of water and refrigerant are observed. The process cycle of heat
pump is clearly illustrated in pressure enthalpy diagram. The compressor pressure ratio and
volumetric efficiency are also calculated. The objectives of this experiment successfully
achieved. This experiment is successful achieved although the experiment do not produce a
good result since the execution of the procedure is not fully accurate.
.
INTRODUCTION.
A refrigeration unit is a unit composed of several machineries that can transfer heat
from a low-temperature region to a high-temperature region. Normally heat can only be
transfer from a high temperature region to low, so to reverse this process, a refrigerator is
needed. Refrigerator consists of four main components which are; compressor, evaporator,
expansion valve and condenser. Each component works together to perform a series of
process. The process includes a cycle of refrigerant and a flow of cooling water.
In the experiment, the refrigeration unit used is SOLTEQ Mechanical Heap Pump
(Model: EH165). The device is design to give understanding to the user on how refrigeration
process worked.
The SOLTEQ Mechanical Heat Pump (Model: HE165) is a bench top unit with all
components and instrumentations mounted on the sturdy base. The heat pump consists of a
hermetic compressor, a water-cooled plate heat exchanger, a thermostatic expansion valve
and a water heated plate heat exchanger. The arrangements of the components are in a
manner similar to many domestic air- water heat pumps where they are visible from the front
of the unit.
During the operation, slightly superheated refrigerant (R-134a) vapor enters the
compressor from the evaporator and its pressure is increased. Thus, the temperature rises
and the hot vapor then enters the water cooled condenser. Heat is given up to the cooling
water and the refrigerant condenses to liquid before passing to the expansion valve. Upon
passing through the expansion valve, the pressure of the liquid refrigerant is reduced. This
causes the saturation temperature to fell to below that the atmospheric. Thus, as it flows
through the evaporator, there is a temperature difference between the refrigerant and the
water being drawn across the coils. The resulting heat transfer causes the refrigerant to boil,

and upon leaving the evaporator it has become slightly superheated vapor, ready to return to
the compressor.
The temperature at which heat is delivered in the condenser and the evaporator is
controlled by the water flow rate and its inlet temperature. Instrumentations are all provided
for the measurement of flow rates of both refrigerant and cooling water, power input to the
compressor and all relevant temperatures.

AIMS/OBKECTIVES.
i.

Experiment 1
The objectives of this experiment is to determine the power input, heat output and coefficient
of perfomance.

ii.

Experiment 2
The objectives of this experiment is to determine the production of heat pump perfomance
curves over a range of source and delivery temperatures.

iii.

Experiment 3
The experiment is to determine the production of vapor compression cycle on p-h diagram
nd energy balance study

iv.

Experiment 4
The experiment is to study determine the production of heat pump perfomance curves over a
range of evaporating and condensation temperature.

v.

Experiment 5
The objectives of this experiment is to estimate the effect of compressor pressure ratio on
volumetric efficiency.

THEORY.
A heat pump is a mechanism that absorbs heat from waste source or surrounding to

produce valuable heat on a higher temperature level than that of the heat source. The
fundamental idea of all heat pumps is that heat is absorbed by a medium, which releases
the heat at a required temperature which is higher after a physical or chemical
transformation.

Heat pump technology has attracted increasing attention as one of the most
promising technologies to save energy. Areas of interest include heating of buildings,
recovery of industrial waste heat for steam production and heating of process water for e.g.
cleaning, sanitation.

Generally, there are three types of heat pump systems:


i)
ii)

Closed cycle vapor compression heat pumps (electric and engine driven)
Heat transformers (a type of absorption heat pump)

iii)

Mechanical vapor recompression heat pumps operating at about at 200C

Closed Cycle Vapor Compression Heat Pump


Most of the heat pumps operate on the principle of the vapor compression cycle. In this
cycle, the circulating substance is physically separated from the heat source and heat
delivery, and is cycling in a close stream, therefore called closed cycle. In the heat pump
process, the following processes take place:

i)

In the evaporator the heat is extracted from the heat source to boil the circulating

ii)

substance
The circulating substance is compressed by the compressor, raising its pressure

iii)

and temperature
The heat is delivered to the condenser

iv)

The pressure of the circulating substance (working fluid) is reduced back to the
evaporator condition in the throttling valve.

Figure 1: The closed loop compression cycle

Vapor Compression Heat Pump System Principles

Figure 2: Vapor compression heat pump cycle


The components are;
1)
2)
3)
4)

Condenser
Compressor
Expansion Valve
Evaporator

Four basic processes or changes in the condition of the refrigerant occur in a Vapor

Compression Heat Pump Cycle. These four processes shall be illustrated in the most
simplistic way with the aid of above figure.
i)

Compression Process (

t1 t2 )

The refrigerant at the pump suction is in gas at low temperature and low
Pressure. In order to be able to use it to achieve the heat pump effect
continuously, it must be brought to the liquid form at a high pressure. The first
step in this process is to increase the pressure of the refrigerant gas by using a
compressor. Compressing the gas also results in increasing its temperature.

ii)

Condensing Process (

t2 t3 )

The refrigerant leaves the compressor as a gas at high temperature and


pressure. In order to change it to a liquid, heat must be removed from it. This is
accomplished in a heat exchanger called the condenser. The refrigerant flows
through one circuit in the condenser. In the other circuit, a cooling fluid flows
(normally air or water), at a temperature lower than the refrigerant.
Heat is therefore transferred from the Refrigerant to the Cooling fluid and as a
result, the refrigerant condenses to a liquid state (3). This is where the heating
takes place.
iii)

Expansion Process (

t3 t 4 )

At Point (3), the refrigerant is in liquid state at a relatively high pressure and
temperature. It flows to (4) through a restriction called the flow control device or
expansion valve. The refrigerant loses pressure going through the restriction. The
Pressure at (4) is so low that a small portion of the refrigerant flashes (vaporizes)
into a gaseous. In order to vaporize, it must gain heat (which it takes from that
portion of the refrigerant that did not vaporize).
iv)

Vaporizing Process (

t 4 t 1 )

The refrigerant flows through a heat exchanger called the evaporator. The heat
source is at a slightly higher temperature than the refrigerant, therefore heat is
transferred from it to the refrigerant. The refrigerant boils because of the heat it
receives in the evaporator. By the time it leaves the evaporator (4) it is completely
vaporized.

Understanding the Pressure Enthalpy Diagram

Figure 3: A pictorial representation of a P-H diagram


Using the chart of R-134a Refrigerant (Figure 3), we shall attempt to explain the use of it:
The Chart is divided into THREE areas. These three areas are separated from each other by
the following:
a) Saturated liquid
b) Saturated vapor line

The area on the chart to the left of the Saturated Liquid line is called the SUBCOOLED
region. At any point in the sub-cooled region, the refrigerant is in the LIQUID phase and its
Temperature is below Saturation temperature corresponding to its Pressure.
The area to the right of the Saturated Vapor line is the SUPERHEATED region, and the
refrigerant is in the form of a SUPERHEATED VAPOR.

The area between the SATURATED LIQUID and the SATURATED VAPOR lines is the

mixture region and represents the change in phase of the refrigerant between the liquid and
Vapor phases. Thus, at any point between the two saturation lines the refrigerant is in the
form of liquid-vapor mixture.
The distance between the two lines along any constant pressure line is known as the
latent heat of vaporization at that pressure.
The Saturated Liquid line and Saturated Vapor line are not exactly parallel to each other
because the "latent heat of vaporization" varies with the pressure at which the change in
phase occurs.
This change of phase from liquid to vapor phase takes place progressively from LEFT to
RIGHT and the change in phase from vapor to liquid phase occurs from RIGHT to LEFT.
At any point on the Saturated Liquid line, the refrigerant is at SATURATED LIQUID and
at any point along the SATURATED VAPOR LINE, the Refrigerant is a SATURATED
VAPOR.

The HORIZONTAL LINES, extending across the chart are CONSTANT PRESSURE Lines.
The VERTICAL Lines are Lines of CONSTANT ENTHALPY.
The Lines of Constant Temperature varies, depending on the phase stage. It is
almost VERTICAL in the SUBCOOLED region and is PAPALLEL to lines of CONSTANT
ENTHALPY.
It however changes at the CENTRE section, since the refrigerant changes state at a
CONSTANT TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE, the lines of Constant Temperature are now,
parallel to constant Pressure line. At the Saturated Vapor line, the lines of Constant
Temperature changes direction again and upon entering the SUPERHEATED VAPOR
REGION, it falls off sharply towards the bottom of the chart.
The ENHALPY Values are found on the Horizontal scale at the bottom of the chart.

The Magnitude' of the Pressure in bar/MPa is read on the vertical scale at the left side of the
chart.
Temperature values in degrees Celsius are found adjacent to constant temperature
lines in sub-cooled and superheated regions of the chart on both Saturated Liquid and

Saturated Lines.
It is worthwhile to note that the p-h diagram is based on a limb mass of the
refrigerant, the volume given is the specific volume, the Enthalpy is in kJ per kg, and the
entropy is in kJ per kg per degree of absolute temperature.
Obtain the Enthalpy Values from P-H Diagram
To obtain the following values, we first refresh our memory from the previous chapter on:
a) Flow diagram of a Simple Saturated Cycle
b) Enthalpy or p-h diagram of R-134A, Simple Saturated Cycle, as shown below;

Figure 4: Flow diagram of a simple saturated cycle

Figure 5: Comparison of two simple saturated cycles operating at different


vaporizing temperatures (figure distorted) (Refrigerant-134a)

Figure 6a: Skeleton P-H chart illustrating the three regions of the chart and the
direction of phase changing

Figure 6b: Skeleton P-H chart showing oaths of constant pressure, constant
temperature constant volume, constant enthalpy, and constant entropy
(Refrigerant-134a)

Figure 6c: Pressure-enthalpy diagram of a simple saturated cycle operating at a


vaporization temperature of 200F and a condensing temperature of 1000F
(Refrigerant 134a)

In recalling, and referring back to Figure 5 and 6, of a Simple Saturated Cycle, we now thus
obtained the following values:

h1

= The Enthalpy at Point 1, which is the point where Compression Process" begins
(This is also where we obtained the Temperature Reading, TT1 for the process)

h2

= The Enthalpy at Point 2, which is the point where "Compression Process" ends.

h3

= The Enthalpy at Point 3, which is the point where "Condensation" is complete.


(This is also where we obtained the Temperature Reading, TT3 for the process)

Thus,
h2 h3 = Refrigerating Effect (See figure 5)
While,
h2 h1 = Heat of Compression (See figure 5)

Figure 7: Pressure-enthalpy diagram of a simple saturated cycle operating at a


vaporizing temperature of 20oF and a condensing of 100F (Refrigerant- 134a)

Coefficient of Performance
The Coefficient of Performance, (COPH) of a heat pump cycle is an expression of the cycle
efficiency and is stated as the ratio of the heat removed in the heated space to the heat
energy equivalent of the energy supplied to the Compressor.
COPH = Heat removed from heated space / Heat energy equivalent of the Energy supplied
to the compressor.
Thus, for the Theoretical Simple Cycle, this may be written as:

COPH =

Heating Effect
Heat of Compression

(h 2h3)
(h 2h1)

APPARATUS.

Figure 8: Unit construction for Mechanical Heat Pump (Model: HE165)

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Pressure switch
Receiver tank
Compressor
Condenser
Pressure transmitter
Control panel
Evaporator
Refrigerant flow meter
Water flow meter

PROCEDURES.
i.

General Operating Procedures


A. General Start-Up Procedures
1. The unit and all instruments are checked to ensure they are in proper conditions.
2. The water source and drain are checked to ensure they are connected. The water supply is
open and the cooling water flowrate is set as 1.0 LPM
3. The drain hose at the condensate collector is checked to ensure it is connected.
4. Power supply is connected. The main switch is on at the main power and main switch on
control panel.
5. Refrigerant compressor is switch on.when the temperature and pressure is constant, the unit
is ready for experiment.
B. General Shut-Down Procedures
1. The compressor is switched off followed by the main switch and power supply.
2. The water supply is closed.

1.
2.
3.
4.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Experiment 1
Geeral start up procedure is performed.
The cooling wate r flow rate is adjusted to 40%
The system is run for 15minutes.
The reading is recorded.
Experiment 2
The The general start-up was run.
The cooling water flow rate was adjusted to 60%..
The system was allowed to run for 15 minutes.
All the necessary reading was recorded in the table.
The procedure 1 to 4 was repeated with different cooling water flow rate. (40% and 20%)
All the necessary reading was recorded in the table
.

Experiment 3
1.
2.
3.
4.

The general start-up was run.


The cooling water flow rate was adjusted to 40%.
The system was allowed to run for 15 minutes.
All the necessary reading was recorded in the table.

Experiment 4
1. The general start-up was run.
2. The cooling water flow rate was adjusted to 60%.
3. The system was allowed to run for 15 minutes.

4. All the necessary reading was recorded in the table.


5. The procedure 1 to 4 was repeated with different cooling water flow rate. (40% and
20%)
6. All the necessary reading was recorded in the table.

Experiment 5
1.
2.
3.
4.

The general start-up was run.


The cooling water flow rate was adjusted to 40%.
The system was allowed to run for 15 minutes.
All the necessary reading was recorded in the table.

RESULTS AND CALCULATIONS


EXPERIMENT 1
Cooling Water Flow Rate, FT1
Cooling Water Flow Rate, FT1
Cooling Water Inlet Temperature, TT5
Cooling Water Outlet Temperature , TT6
Compressor Power Input

%
LPM
C
C
W

Cooling water flow rate (LPM)

Refrigerant flow rate (LPM)

Cooling water flow rate ()


100

Refrigerant flow rate( )


100

x 1.26 LPM

Heat output
2000

mL
min

1g
1 mL

1 kg
1000 g

T ( K )=T ()+273.15

C p @ 25 50 =4.18

kJ
kg . K

Q=m C p dT

0.033 kg 4180

165.53W

J
(31.530.3) K
kg . K

1 min
60 s

x 5 LPM

= 0.033 kg/s

40
2
30.3
31.5
165

Coefficient of performance

W net ,
CO PR =

Desired output Q L
=
Required input

165.53
165.0

1.0032

EXPERIMENT 2

Cooling Water Flow Rate, FT1


Cooling Water Flow Rate, FT1
Cooling Water Inlet Temperature, TT5
Cooling Water Outlet Temperature , TT6
Compressor Power Input
Heat Output

CO PR

*The calculations are similar to that in Experiment 1.

%
LPM
C
C
W
W

1
60
3
30.2
31.3
164
151.73
0.92

2
40
2
30.3
31.3
165
206.91
1.25

3
20
1
30.2
33.0
167
386.23
2.31

Power input vs temperature

Power Input (W)

167.5
167
167
166.5
166
165.5
165
165
164.5
164
164
163.5
163
162.5
31.2 31.4 31.6 31.8 32 32.2 32.4 32.6 32.8 33 33.2
Temperature ()

Heat output vs temperature


450

386.23

400
350
300
250
Heat output (W)

206.91

200 151.73
150
100
50
0
31.2 31.4 31.6 31.8

32

32.2 32.4 32.6 32.8

Temperature ()

33

33.2

COP vs temperature
2.31

2.5
2
1.5
COP

1.25
0.92

0.5
0
31.2

31.4

31.6

31.8

32

32.2

32.4

32.6

32.8

33

33.2

Temperature ()

EXPERIMENT 3
Refrigerant Flow Rate, FT2
Refrigerant Flow Rate, FT2
Refrigerant Pressure (Low), P1

%
LPM
Bar

61.3
0.77
2.0

Refrigerant Pressure (High), P2

(abs)
Bar

7.1

Refrigerant Temperature, TT1


Refrigerant Temperature, TT2
Refrigerant Temperature, TT3
Refrigerant Temperature, TT4
Cooling Water Flow Rate, FT1
Cooling Water Flow Rate, FT1
Cooling Water Inlet Temperature, TT5
Cooling Water Outlet Temperature , TT6
Compressor Power Input

(abs)
C
C
C
C
%
LPM
C
C
W

28.7
82.0
81.1
24.7
40.1
2.01
30.3
31.9
165

Point
Pressure (bar)

1
2.0

2
7.1

3
7.1

4
2.0

Temperature (
Enthalpy (kJ/kg)

28.7

82.0

31.1

24.7

277.76

320.15

269.56

274.27

*All of the enthalpy value was obtained from the property table of R-134a (interpolation)

P 2P 1
P 3P 1

T 2T 1
T 3T 1

Pressure
8

7.1

7.1

6
5
Pressure (bar)

4
3
2

1
0
277.76

320.14999999999998

269.56

Enthalpy (kJ/kg)

*The cycle is out of the curve (all of the state is in superheated vapor)

274.27

Figure 9: Ideal vapor compression cycle


Compressor energy balance

Q W m(h pe ke)

Q 0, ke 0, pe 0

W m h

Condenser energy balance

Q W m(h pe ke)

W 0, ke 0, pe 0

Q m h

Q mh mh
in

out

EXPERIMENT 4

Refrigerant Flow Rate, FT2


Refrigerant Flow Rate, FT2
Refrigerant Pressure (Low), P1
Refrigerant Pressure (High), P2
Refrigerant Temperature, TT1
Refrigerant Temperature, TT2
Refrigerant Temperature, TT3
Refrigerant Temperature, TT4
Entalphy 1 (P1, TT1)

%
LPM
Bar (abs)
Bar (abs)
C
C
C
C
kJ/kg

1
61.2
0.77
2.0
7.1
28.8
82.2
30.8
24.5
277.84

2
61.2
0.77
2.0
7.1
28.6
82.0
31.1
24.4
277.67

3
61.3
0.77
2.0
7.1
28.3
81.0
32.0
24.5
277.41

Entalphy 2 (P2, TT2)


Entalphy 3 (P2, TT3)
Evaporating Temperature (TT4)
Condensing Temperature (TT3)
Compressor Power Input
Heat Delivered in Condenser (Refrigerant)
COPH

kJ/kg
kJ/kg
C
C
W
W

320.35
269.18
24.5
30.8
163
0.665
1.204

320.15
269.46
24.4
31.1
165
0.659
1.193

319.15
270.37
24.5
32.30
164
0.634
1.169

*All of the enthalpy value was obtained from the property table of R-134a (interpolation)

L
min

0.77

1000 mL
L

Trial 1
Q

= mh
= m(h2-h3)
= 0.013(320.35-269.18)
= 0.665 kW

COPH =

Heating Effect
Heat of Compression

(h 2h3)
(h 2h1)

321.55268.7
321.55276.74

= 1.179

g
mL

kg
1000 g

min
60 s

= 0.013 kg/s

*The same calculations are used for Trial 2 and 3.

EXPERIMENT 5
Refrigerant Flow Rate, FT2
Refrigerant Flow Rate, FT2
Refrigerant Pressure (Low), P1

%
LPM
Bar

61.1
0.77
2.0

Refrigerant Pressure (High), P2

(abs)
Bar

7.1

Refrigerant Temperature, TT1

(abs)
C

30.2

Compressor pressure ratio

Suction pressure of refrigerant

= Discharge pressure of refrigerant

2
7.1

= 0.282

Volumetric efficiency

Actual mass flow rate


Theoretical mass flow rate

P1
P2

DISCUSSIONS.
Boyles law stated that the pressure of gas inversely proportional to the volume of a
container. From the results recorded, some calculation have been made in order to know the
difference value between before and after of the experiment one. These values are very
small and close with the theoretical value, therefore the Boyless Law is verified. According to
the data tabulated, it can been said that the pressure and volume inversely proportional.
When the pressure increase, the volume start to decrease. This is happen because if the gas
of the same pressure with constant temperature injected into small and big container which
means have different volume. The gas molecule in small container have less spacious room
and will collide to the wall and with each other more often which exert more pressure.
Gay-Lussacs Law stated that pressure is directly proportional to the temperature which
means if the pressure increase, the temperature also increase with constant volume.
Experiment two has been conducted in order to know the relationship between pressure and
temperature. Therefore, from the data tabulated and graph plotted, it can be said that the
Gay-Lussacs Law is verified. The same concept applied here, if the temperature of a gas in
a container increase, the heat energy of the system transfer its energy into the molecule of
gas which actually increase the frequency of collision in that container which exert more
pressure.
Isentropic expansion process occur when the system are reversible and adiabatic
where no heat will be transferred in or out and no energy transformation occurs. From the
data recorded, a constant k are now known which is equal to 1.443. It was obtained that both
temperature and pressure of the gas before expansion were higher compared to after the
expansion. The process is said to be isentropic since there was no change in the entropy
throughout the process.
Stepwise

depressurizationis

strategy

to

adopt

an

equal

time-stepwise

depressurization approach in this study yield a more reliable result for an example in the
production sector in industries. The molecule in the container affected when the number of
them decreasing slowly as they do not have to collide between them more often. The
depressurization shown that pressure decrease with time and also affecting the temperature.
As the pressure decrease, the temperature also decrease in the system.
Brief depressurization shown in the graph plotted in result section which is decrease
more linear compared to stepwise. The expansion occur when the pressure of gas increase.
Expansion of gas decrease as the gas is free to flow out time by time.
Ratio volume can be determined by manipulating the equation of Boyles law.
Boyles law proposed an equation P1V1=P2V2 and after manipulate the equation ratio
volume can be determine by V2/V1=P1P2. This experiment test in three different condition
where first condition the gas is flow from tank 1 to tank 2, while gas flow from tank 2 to tank 1
in second condition and both were filled with gas in third condition. The theoretical value is
0.495 in this experiment where the error or percentage difference was between 10 and -10.
There must be environmental factors that affect the stability of pressure and temperature or
random mistake during experiment. The percentage error is high due to some error during
conducting the experiment. Some of air probably left from chamber due to not properly close
the valve or before the experiment, the gas did not left out completely from the chamber.

Determination of ratio of heat capacity using the expression of the heat capacity ratio and
it gives the 1.1584. The theoretical value of this experiment is 1.4. The deviation which now
is equal to 21%. The deviation is due to measurement error. The actual intermediate
pressure supposed to be lowered that the measured one. Unfortunately the error occur due
to heat loss and sensitivity of pressure sensors. Supposed, the intermediate pressure taken
as the lowest pressure at the moment the valve is closed. Since the percentage difference is
more than 10%, the experiment can be declared as failed.

COCLUSIONS.
In conclusion, the experiment was aimed at determining the properties of measurement /PVT
according to the Boyles law, Gay-Lussacs Law, isentropic expansion, and heat capacity
equation. In fact, in this experiment, we have proven the Boyles law and Gay-Lussacs law.
Although our experiment failed, but we have the reason behind the failure. For experiment 7,
the failure was due to the fact that an intermediate pressure was not taken after the valve
closed. However, the experiment was successfully done in final, and the objective of the
experiment was accomplishedly achieved.

RECOMMENDATIONS.
There are several improvements that can be performed so as to obtain a more satisfying
result in future. Before starting this experiment, we are supposed to do a start-up and shutdown step in order to make sure there is no gas left in the chamber. Most importantly, during
recording data, keep an eye on the sensor while monitoring the board because the
parameter can increase and decrease really fast and read the procedure carefully.
In addition, obtain an average reading by repeating the experiment for three times in
order to reduce the range of deviation. Handle the valve carefully and try not to make
mistake by choosing the valve because it will affect the data. The place where the
experiment is conducted also must be at stable and no vibration. All the equipment must be
handled carefully in order to avoid explosion because over-pressure in the tank would cause
an explosion.

REFERENCES.
Engineering Sciences 182: PVT Measurement And Properties Of a Simple Compressible
Substances. (n.d). Retrieved from
http://sites.fas.harvard.edu/~es181/handouts/lab01_PVT_f05_v9.pdf
Charles's Law. (2010). Retrieved from Sparknotes:
http://www.sparknotes.com/testprep/books/sat2/chemistry/chapter5section8.rhtml
Charles's Law. (n.d.). Retrieved from how stuff works:
http://science.howstuffworks.com/dictionary/physics-terms/charles-law-info.htm
Calculating PVT Properties. (n.d). Retrieved from
http://petrowiki.org/Calculating_PVT_properties

APPENDIX.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Pressure switch
Receiver tank
Compressor
Condenser
Pressure transmitter
Control panel
Evaporator
Refrigerant flow meter
Water flow meter