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Rev 1.

33 EN
14.03.2013

Manual
SPECTRAN NF

Made in Germany

Please read the following manual


carefully before starting up your
measurement device. The manual
gives you useful instructions how to
operate the unit correctly.

Firmware V 1.0 / 2005-2013 by Aaronia AG, D-54597 Euscheid, www..aaronia.com

Contents

With your purchase of this SPECTRAN low-frequency measurement device,


you have bought professional equipment which allows you measuring lowfrequen- cy fields.
Please note: For measuring high-frequency fields (cellphones, mobile communication, RADAR, TV and others), you would need additionally one of our highfrequency HF-SPECTRAN models.
Therefore we recommend purchasing one of our cost-effective measurement
BUNDLES, which you can obtain from Aaronia at any time by paying the corresponding price difference.
Upgrading to a higher-grade SPECTRANmodel (for example, an NF-5030
instead of the NF-1010E) is possible at any time. Likewise, OPTIONS like
memory expansions, frequency expansions or a higher-grade battery can
also be purchased and added to your unit whenever you need them.
In case of replacement, our devices are optimally recycled, including all
circuitry. In this regard, also check our warrantys terms and conditions in the
chapter The Aaronia warranty.

Firmware V 1.0 / 2005-2013 by Aaronia AG, D-54597 Euscheid, www.aaronia.com

Section
1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7
6.0
7.0
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.7
7.8
7.9
7.10
7.11
7.12
7.13
7.14
7.15
7.16
7.17
7.18
7.19
7.20
7.21
7.22
7.23
8.0
8.1
8.2

Page
Safety instructions
Scope of delivery
LC display
Key layout
Your first measurement / Modes
Choosing the sensor
Choosing the mode of operation
Spectrum analysis mode
HOLD mode
The panning approach
Exposure limits mode
Audio output mode (demodulator)
Manual frequency selection
The main menu
Sensor (choose sensor and axis)
Center (center frequency)
Span (frequency range width)
fLow & fHigh (start and stop frequency)
RBW (bandwidth)
Dim (1D, 2D or 3D measurement)
VBW (video filter)
SpTime (Sampletime)
Reflev (reference level)
Range (dynamics)
Atten (attenuator)
Demod (demodulator/audio output)
Detec (RMS or MinMax detector)
Hold (activate HOLD mode)
Unit (select physical unit)
UScale (set scaling of physical unit)
MrkCnt (set number of markers)
MrkLvl (set starting level of markers)
MrkDis (marker display mode)
Bright (set display brightness)
Logger (invoke recording/data logger)
RunPrg (run program)
Setup (configuration)
Correct measurement
Noise floor
The 0Hz spike and the noise floor

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30
31
31
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32
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Firmware V 1.0 / 2005-2013 by Aaronia AG, D-54597 Euscheid, www..aaronia.com

1.0 Safety instructions


Chapter

Page

8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6
8.7
8.8
8.9
8.10
8.11
8.12
9.0
10.0
11.0
12.0
13.0
14.0
14.1
14.2
14.3
15.0
15.1
15.2
15.3
15.4
15.5
16.0
17.0
18.0
19.0
20.0
21.0
22.0

35
35
36
37
37
38
39
39
40
40
41
42
43
44
45
47
47
48
49
50
50
51
52
52
52
53
54
56
57
62
63
64

Choosing the right filter (RBW)


Choosing the right sampletime (Sptime)
Measurement of electric fields and above 500kHz
Sensitivity
Measurement inaccuracy
The cursor and zoom features
DFT mode (rapid measurements with small RBWs)
Choosing the right attenuator
The Autorange function
Spurious
Measurement of static magnetic fields
Measurement in 1D, 2D or 3D
Aligning the sensor
Physical units
Tips and tricks
Exposure limits
Limits for personal safety
Device limits
Construction-biological limits
Connections
SMA input (measurement of external signals)
External DC input (battery charging)
Audio output
Jog Dial / Volume control
USB connector
Typical readouts in practice
Conversion tables
Tables
Spectrum analysis basics
Warranty
Developer-Net, User Forum and more!
Antenna and Analyzer frequency charts

Firmware V 1.0 / 2005-2013 by Aaronia AG, D-54597 Euscheid, www.aaronia.com

Contents
ATTENTION:
Always screw antennas and adapters always in a non-violent way.
Please use for loosening or screwing of SMAconnections ONLY the
enclosed SMAtool, which offers an over-tightening protection.
Dont bring ever the analyzer in contact with water. Dont use it if it is raining.
The sensitive electronic system could otherwise be damaged.
Avoid excessively high temperatures. Do not leave the device on heating radiators, in direct sunlight or in your car.
Due to the high sensitivity, the sensors and display of this device are shocksen- sitive, therefore it should be handled with care. Dont let the device or
antennas, falling down as they could be damaged or destroyed!
Consequently, we strongly recommend to usw our special transport case
for storage and transportation. It is also available as a very durable version made of special plastics (available at an extra charge).
Even though all SPECTRAN models are pretty safe due to their counter-sunk
screws, they should not be kept in the reach of children, as they might be a
potential threat in this case!
Your measurement device is maintenance-free. Only clean it outside with a
damp cloth. Do not use any cleaning supplies.

WARNING:
Avoid overloading the input by applying signals with excessive power
as otherwise the highly-sensitive circuitry could be destroyed! The maximum applicable voltage is only 200mV (0.2V). Voltages bigger than 1V can
destroy SPECTRANs highly sensitive amplification circuitry!
.Firmware V 1.0 / 2005-2013 by Aaronia AG, D-54597 Euscheid, www.aaronia.com

3.0 LC Display
Please check before initial operation the completeness of delivery. Reclaim missing parts immediately at Aaronia or at your Aaronia dealer.
The package should include:
(1) CD, containing this manual, MCS PC Software (Windows, MAC, Linux) and
more
(2) SPECTRAN NF Spectrum Analyzer incl. 1300mAh Battery (installed)
(3) Small aluminum transport case. When purchasing a measurement Bundle,
the bigger version of the transport case is included in delivery

2
3

Firmware V 1.0 / 2005-2013 by Aaronia AG, D-54597 Euscheid, www.aaronia.com

2.0 Scope of delivery


1

10

11

12

13

14

15

(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
(9)
(10)
(11)
(12)
(13)
(14)
(15)

BATTERYdisplay
BARGRAPH (50 segments)
Bargraph scaling (6 number blocks)
STATUS field:
SETUP, REF, UNCALL, OVERLOAD!, NUMERIC ENTRY, MIN,
MAX LOW, HIGH, MAX-MIN, ZOOM, USB/PC
AUDIO Status field
AM/FM, LEVEL, NORM
MODE Status field:
AVG, PEAK, HOLD, TIME, MIN, MAX
MARKER block 1
Graphics display (Pixel display)
MULTIPLICATOR field
MEMORY Status field:
STORE, RECALL, RECORD, RESET
DISPLAY MODE Status field:
SPECTRUM, RF, AM, FM, EXPOS.-LIMITS
INFOdisplay
MAINdisplay
MARKER block 2
MARKER block 3

Depending on the model, not all display elements may be available!


Firmware V 1.0 / 2005-2013 by Aaronia AG, D-54597 Euscheid, www.aaronia.com

5.0 Your first measurement / Modes


1

(1) Numeric block (hotkeys)


1 = RAIL (traction power) 15-30Hz
2 = POWER (mains frequency 50Hz or 60Hz) 45-65Hz
3 = HARMON (50Hz/60Hz harmonic) 90-500Hz
4 = TCO 1 (shortend TCO frequency range 1) 500Hz-2kHz
5 = TCO 2 (TCO frequency range 2) 2kHz-400kHz
6 = SENSOR (sensor type and axis: Mag, Msta, E-Fld, Analog)
7 = DIM (H-field measurement dimension: 1D, 2D or 3D)
8 = RBW (resolution bandwidth)
9 = SPTIME (sample time in mS or S)
0 = ATTEN (attenuator: auto, 0dB, 10dB, 20dB, 30dB, 40dB)
(2) On-/Off key
Turn the unit on/off
(3) Clear-/Reset key
1.) Resets the settings to default incl. 0dB attenuator.
2.) When in main menu: clear entry
(4) Arrow keys
1.) With activated menus: selection of menu entries
2.) In Spectrum analysis mode:
Right/left key: move frequency range by one SPAN.
Up/down key: move reference level by 10dB.
3.) In Exposure limits mode:
Right/left key: select exposure limit.
4.) In Audio mode:
Right/left key: move center frequency by one RBW.
Up/down key: decrease/increase RBW (bandwidth).
(5) Dot key
1.) Modes Spectrum analysis / Exposure limits: HOLD on/off.
2.) Mode Audio: Switch between AM and FM.
(6) Shift key
Mode Spectrum analysis & Exposure limits: Detector RMS/MinMax.
(7) Enter key
1.) Switch between the three main modes Spectrum analysis,
Exposure limits and Audio.
2.) While navigating menus: confirm selection or entry (usual enter key).
(8) Menu key
Call up / dismiss main menu for changing various settings.

Firmware V 1.0 / 2005-2013 by Aaronia AG, D-54597 Euscheid, www.aaronia.com

4.0 Key layout


To explain the use of SPECTRAN, we will measure its own powersupply.
During this procedure, you will get to know the 3 different operation
modes of SPECTRAN, as well as the important HOLD feature and the
panning approach:
It is really very simple, just follow the following instruction step by step:
How to prepare SPECTRANfor measurement:
Remove the protective film from the display. Should
you not yet have charged the integrated battery, you
can also operate SPECTRAN wit h the
included power supply (further information on
page 51). Next, press the on/off switch located
lower left corner.
SPECTRAN is now switched on and will perform
a brief calibration procedure.
For easier orientation, we will now briefly show the most important aspects of
the
SPECTRAN
BARGRAPH (trend display when Reflev is not in Auto-mode)
Depending on signal strength, the half-circle will grow or shrink. A very
handy function for quickly changing levels!
MODE status field (MinMax and HOLD)
Displays the detector and mode which is used. Possible values are:
MINMAX and HOLD (advanced HOLD mode).
INFO display
Displays the current physical unit and various menu information.
DISPLAY MODE status field
Displays the current operation mode of SPECTRAN. Possible values
are: SPECTRUM (spectrum analysis), EXPOS.-LIMITS (exposure
limits) and AM / FM (audio output).
MAINdisplay
Displays signal strength or voltage in T, G, V/m, A/m or V.
MARKER block (1 to 3)
Displays frequency and signal level or voltage of the strongest signals.
Up to three markers can be displayed simultaneously.
GRAPHICS display (here:spectrum display)
This highly versatile display field can provide a multitude of textual and
graphical information (spectrum or exposure limit display, menus).

Now were ready for making measurements of SPECTRANs own power supply. First, plug the power supply into a power socket. Now, you can measure the
magnetic field of the power supply as follows:
Firmware V 1.0 / 2005-2013 by Aaronia AG, D-54597 Euscheid, www.aaronia.com

5.0 Your first measurement / Modes


Switch on the unit and press key 2. Thats all you
have to do. Now, the most popular measurement
will be carried out:
The frequency range between 45 and 65Hz is measured
(sweeped) now. The large main display shows the
strength of the magnetic field in Tesla (T), the so-called
readout. Above the readout on the main display, the physical unit is shown. Depending on field strength, it will
automatically switch between (for example) T and mT
(autorange feature). If you approach the power supply,
the field strength will increase, likewise, it will rapidly
decrease when you move further away.
It might be necessary to set the correct mode of operation by using the Enter key. Push it repeatedly until the
dis- play mode status field reads SPECTRUM.
Of course, SPECTRAN is far more capable than this, so following is a more
detailed introduction about how to use further features:

5.1 Choosing the sensor [Key 6]:


In general, you should know that there are two different
kinds of fields that are measurable with SPECTRAN in
the proximity of electrical appliances and installations:
electric alternating fields and magnetic alternating fields.
For each of these field types, you need an appropriate
sensor. Both sensors are already integrated into our
SPECTRAN devices. The appropriate sensor can be chosen at any time using the key 6 (use the up/down
arrow keys to choose, and apply your selection with
the Enter key).
For magnetic fields, you need the Mag sensor. Press the
key 6 and select the Mag sensor (further options are XYMag, YZ-Mag and ZX-Mag).
If you want to measure electric fields, press the key 6
and select the E-Fld sensor. Please note that measurement of electric fields can be easily interfered. Please
have a closer look at the Measurement of electric fields
section for more information.

1
0

Firmware V 1.0 / 2005-2013 by Aaronia AG, D-54597 Euscheid, www.aaronia.com

5.0 Your first measurement / Modes


Using our Option 006, which can be retrofitted as an upgrade at any time,
you can also measure STATIC magnetic fields, like the geomagnetic field
(geo- logical dislocation) or the strength of magnets (for example in
loudspeakers). To do this, just press key 6 and select the MSta sensor
(possible choices are X- MSta, Y-MSta and Z-MSta).
If you have an NF-3020 or better, you can also select the external input (SMA
socket), which allows you to connect arbitrary external sensors like large, highly sensitive coils, testing probes, or other special antennas. You could also simply measure a voltage. This input provides you with a whole range of new possible applications and converts SPECTRANinto a versatile all-rounder. For
using the external input, press the key 6 and choose Analog.

5.2 Choosing the mode of operation [Enter key]:


All SPECTRANmodels offer
3 different MODESOF
OPERATION:
- SPECTRUManalysis (graphical display of signal levels and frequencies)
- EXPOSURELIMITdisplay (percentage of a particular exposure
limit)
- AUDIOoutput (makes modulated signals audible)
You can switch between the different modes of operation at any time by
using the Enter key.

5.3 Mode Spectrum analysis:


(The DISPLAYMODE status field displays SPECTRUM)

Press the Enter key until the display mode status field
reads SPECTRUM. SPECTRAN will now provide a readout similar to the one shown in the picture on the left.
Should the large main display show 0000, then no
signal is found. In this case, you probably have to measure closer to the signal source. During every measurement, a small dot will constantly move from the left to
the right edge of the upper part of the graphics display.
Only when this point reaches the right edge, the measurement is completed and all readout values are
updated, very often it will be so fast that you wont
even notice.
The main display shows the current field strength, in our example it is 45,15T.
Firmware V 1.0 / 2005-2013 by Aaronia AG, D-54597 Euscheid, www.aaronia.com

11

Directly below up to 3 so-called markers are displayed. These show the frequency and corresponding signal strength of the strongest signal sources. In
our example, we have two markers. Marker1 at 30Hz and 45T and
marker2 at
50Hz and 75T (75T is at the same time the strongest signal overall, thats
why it is also displayed on the main display).
Marker1
30Hz
45T

Marker2
50Hz
75T
Graphical display
with SPECTRUM graph

Below the markers, the graphics display shows a graphic consisting of a number of little hills. This graphic is called SPECTRUMDISPLAY. The higher
the hills, the stronger the corresponding signal. The markers mentioned
previous- ly show the frequency and level at the peaks of each hill.
Using frequency charts, it is also possible to make assumptions on the origin
or source of the corresponding signal. See our frequency charts on page 56
for more details. Please note that marker-frequencys are always shown with
one decimal place.

5.4 HOLD mode


(The MODE status field displays HOLD)

As you have probably already noticed, the display changes constantly. This is completely normal as the field
strength also changes with distance to the signal
sour- ce. Simply try it out yourself - move the device
around the signal source and keep an eye on the display
and the changing readouts.
Often, the user just wants to check the highest possible
readout. However, as the display always keeps changing, this might cause difficulties. To solve these problems you can use the so-called HOLD mode. To activate it, press the dot key. The mode status field will display
HOLD. From now on, only the strongest measured signal will be displayed. Furthermore, the spectrum display
will not be erased - it seems to literally freeze. By pressing the dot key a second time, HOLD will disappear
from the MODE status field and HOLD mode is turned off.

5.5 The panning approach


When evaluating exposure limits, usually only the maximum signal level is
important. This maximum can be determined by using the so-called panning
approach, which is already established as a legally binding means of measurement in many countries. Proceed as follows:
Choose the desired frequency range. In our example, we have already done so
(key 2). Activate HOLD mode (dot key) as described previously. Afterwards
plea- se also activate 3D measurement by pressing the 8 key. This will save
you the hassle of having to move the device around constantly in all directions
near the measurement subject.
Now, keep measuring until the value stops changing completely. You have now
determined the signal maximum at a particular position/location.
However, should you wish to determine the signal maximum in an entire room,
you additionally need to measure at every possible position. Walk through the
entire room, pay special attention to the walls and electrical appliances, where
you will often find the strongest signals due to electrical wiring. During measurement, the displayed signal strength will rapidly increase, until at some point it
will stop changing and freeze at the signal maximum. This can take several
minutes when testing an entire room. After completion of this procedure, the
maximum signal strength found in the entire room is shown on the display.
As field strength diminishes very rapidly with increasing distance (depending on
the source, r, r or even r), you can quite easily determine the exact location of
a signal source (the higher the signal level, the closer the source). Of course,
you will need to turn off HOLD mode in this case. Next, simply try to find the signal maximum in various rooms to get acquainted with the panning approach
and the importance of HOLD mode.
Now, of course your measurement result is not that useful if you cannot relate it
to any exposure limits. Until today this used to be very complex with the need to
browse complex tables and convert between physical units. A highly daunting
task for the novice and even for some experts. SPECTRAN offers therefore a
special and easy to handle mode for exposure limit calculation:

5.6 Exposure limits mode


(The DISPLAY MODE status field displays EXPOS.-LIMITS)

Press the Enter key until the display mode status


field shows EXPOS.-LIMITS.
As usual, the strongest signals will be shown along with
their frequencies and levels as markers, as in the spectrum analysis mode. The large main display will again
show the level of the strongest signal found.
However, in the graphics display below, the strongest
sig- nal will be shown now as a percentage in relation
to an exposure limit: As various very different exposure
limits and recommendations are existing for the various
fields of interest and professional groups, SPECTRAN
offers an
entire range of different exposure limits. You can select the desired
exposure limit by using the right/left cursor keys. Find a more detailed introduction to these exposure limits on pages 47 and following in this
manual.
Please try it yourself: Select all the different exposure limits and compare the
results. The available exposure limits are:
xTESLA = Shows the readout in Tesla
ICNIRP = ICNIRP recommendation also German limit (General population)
BGRB11 = BGFE limit for workplace exposition (exposition class 2)
BImSch = 26. BimSchV (Indutrial German limit) (only 16,66Hz, 50Hz,
>10MHz)
TCO99 = International limit for computer screens (only from 5Hz-400kHz)
In our fictional example, the exposure limit bargraph shows an approximation to
the German ICNIRP limit of 69%. When EXCEEDINGthe exposure limit, the
dis- play will show percentages above 100% (for example, 128,00 = limit
exceeded by 28%). When exceeding the exposure limit by more than 999.99%,
the display will show ***.**, indicating overflow.

HINT: You will always find current or updated exposure limits on the
Aaronia homepage for downloading, e. g. when legal changes occur and official
limits are altered This allows you to keep your SPECTRAN always updated. We
also recommend our free PCanalysis software, which offers a lots of additional
fea- tures.
Another approach to precisely locate a signal or determine its origin is demodulation. This feature allows you to hear potential pulsing or modulation of a signal
source. As with other features, SPECTRANhas a special mode for this kind of
operation:

5.7 Audio output mode (demodulator)


(the DISPLAY MODE status field displays AM or FM)

All SPECTRANmodels offer a so-called demodulator.


This demodulator turns pulsings and modulation of signal
sources into tones.
Frequency-accurate and selective acoustic representation of a signal can be helpful with identification and location of a signal source. As demodulation occurs in
realtime, it is suited perfectly to find the signal source
very quickly. SPECTRAN offers two different
demodulation modes: AM (amplitude modulation AM)
FM (frequency modulation FM).
You can switch between the demodulation modes by
pressing the dot key (the DISPLAYMODEstatus field
displays AM or FM).
You can adjust the volume by turning the volume knob
on the left side.
ATTENTION: During audio analysis, the entire
display will be frozen and the pixel field is turned
off com- pletely to save computing power for
demodulation. Then ONLY acoustic reproduction of
the signal is car- ried out!
In contrast to simple broadband detectors, SPECTRAN
performs its demodulation only at a specific frequency (center frequency). Thus,
you can selectively listen small individual frequency ranges. However, please
note that filtering in this mode is slightly less stringent. As a result, strong
signals on neighbouring frequencies might bleed onto the actual selected
frequency and be audible as well.
For optimal audio reproduction of signals, you can choose between several filter bandwidths by using the up/down arrow keys. The currently selected filter
will be shown in the large INFOdisplay.

You will often find that it is difficult to accurately find the right center frequency
and demodulation is bad or not successful at all. Hence, by pressing the
right/left arrow keys, you can fine-adjust the center frequency. The used
step width is based on the filter you have previously selected. For example,
should you have chosen a 1kHz filter, fine-adjustment will take place in steps of
1kHz, and so on. The new center frequency will be shown on the large INFO
dis- play after changes.
ATTENTION: For optimal audio reproduction of signals, their levels should be
significantly higher than the noise floor.

6.0 Manual frequency selection


So far, our examples were only using the provided frequency presets available
at key 2 (45-65Hz). However, you can also make a manual, highly precise frequency range (sweep) adjustment:
Recall frequency range presets
At the keys 1 - 5 are different presets available including
the optimal frequency selection for traction power
(16.7Hz), mains power (50Hz/60Hz), harmonics, TFTs,
switching power supplies and others.
Usually these are the measurements which almost anybody wants to carry out. The amateur in particular will
appreciate these presets, as all frequency parameter are
already adjusted.
However, you can also make a manual, highly precise frequency range
(sweep) adjustment. This way, you can set a frequency range exactly tailored
for a spe- cific signal source in order to measure only this single source.
To set the frequency range, you simply need to know the start and stop frequencies of the subject to be measured and provide them to SPECTRAN. You
can find an excerpt from the start and stop frequencies of various signal
sources in the frequency table on page 56.
Manual adjustment
There are two ways for setting up the requested frequency range exactly. You can either go in the menu to the
Start and Stop frequency, or just work with the Center
frequency.

In the following paragraphs, you will find an explanation of such a manual measurement, using a TV set or computer monitor as an example. Proceed as follows:
First of all, have a look at the frequency list on page 56. From this list, you can
derive that TV sets or computer monitors work in the frequency range from
approx. 31kHz to 56kHz. We choose a slightly more liberal frequency range of
20kHz to 70kHz. These are the searched start and stop frequencies which you
have to set as follows:

1.) Please choose in the menu fLOW to enter the START frequency
A suffix-list will be displayed then. Please use the arrows keys to select
kHz. Confirm your selection by pressing the Enter key.
The large main display will now show zero. In addition, the large status field will
display START. Now by using the number keys, enter the STARTfrequency in
kHz, in our example, 20kHz. Hence, enter 20 (you can correct typing errors by
using the CLR key and entering the number again). Press then the Enter key
once again to confirm your entry.
Leave the the entry by pressing the menu key and you are back in the main
menu.
2.) Please choose in the menu fHigh to enter the STOP frequency
Again, the suffix-list with Hz, kHz, MHz etc. will appear. Choose kHz once
again. Press the Enter key to confirm your selection.
Again, the display will show zero. In addition, the large status field displays
STOP. Again, enter the STOPfrequency in kHz by using the number keys. In
our case, we want to measure up to 70kHz, so enter 70. Again, press the Enter
key
to
confirm
your
entry.
Leave the the entry by pressing the menu key and you are back in the main
menu.
As the next step we need to select the appropriate filter and sampletime
(display speed):
3.) Choose a filter (RBW) in the menu at RBW
The filter should be at least 10 times smaller than the SPAN (at our example 7020=50kHz). A list with various filter bandwidths will be displayed. Please choose
a bandwidth of 3kHz. Confirm your selection by pressing Enter.
Leave the the entry by pressing the menu key and you are back in the main
menu.
4.) Choose the SampleTime (SpTime) in the menu at SpTime
A list consisting of ms and s will be displayed. Use the arrow keys to select mS
and confirm your selection with Enter.
The large main display will now show zero. In addition, the large status field
will display SWEEP. Enter now the required sampletime in mS by using the
number keys - in our case, 300mS.
Enter 300 and press the Enter key to confirm.

Leave the the entry by pressing the menu key and you are back in the main
menu.
Please leave then the main menu and all settings are saved. The sweep (measurement) will be carried out with our specified parameters.
All following measurements only use the specified frequency (sweep)range
from 20kHz to 70kHz, that means all operating modes (exposure limit display
and spectrum display) now only refer to this specified frequency range!
Now you can measure precisely which fields with which frequencies are
being generated by your monitor or TV set.
Next, experiment a bit: For example, change the Sampletime (key 8) to
100mS or 1S, or change the filter (key 9) to 10kHz or 1kHz and observe the
displayed changes.
You will notice very soon a simple regularity:
1.) The higher the sampletime the more accurate are the measured values
but the longer time takes the sweep
2.) The bigger the RBW the lower is the required sampletime to get accurate measurements
Please note that only full kHz will be displayed for all frequency redisplays in
the menue because the display is limited to 4 digits (9999). For example an
entry of
50Hz will result a 0 (0kHz) display and 6,788kHz will be displayd as 7kHz (rounded).
HINT: You can permanently save this setup as a custom preset as a hotkey of
your choice. Find more details on the following pages.
HINT2: You can switch between the modes Spectrum analysis, Exposure
limits and Audio at any time by pressing the Enter key.
Further hints and other information related to setting a frequency range
and to other options available in the main menu are available in the section The main menu on the following pages.

20

Firmware BETA50 / 2005-2013 by Aaronia AG, DE-54597 Euscheid, www.aaronia.de

7.0 The main menu


By pressing the menu key, you go directly to the
heart of SPECTRAN: the menu system.
Here, you can control the entire device, change various
settings, but also starting the datalogger or save and
recall your own programs. By pressing the menu button
again, you can exit the menu at any time.
SPECTRANs easy to operat menu system works as follows:
The currently selected menu entry is shown in inverse
(dark background), as can be seen in the example on
the left (Center).
The setting of the currently highlighted menu entry is
always shown as clear text in the large info field at the
top - in this example it is the currently configured center
frequency (940). This avoids the need for tiresome,
one-by-one activation of menu entries to browse values.
The marker blocks 1-3 continuously display the following information:
START, CENTER and STOP frequencies (as integers in Hz, kHz or MHz)
In the next line, the current settings for Range, MrkLvl and Reflev are displayed.
This is very practical: For example, you can query the current frequency
range (among other settings)at any time during a measurement by just pressing the menu button. After you have checked the current values, please just
press the menu button again and the measurement will continue without any
changes in settings.
To step through the menu entries, use the up/down arrow keys or the
jog dial.
To activate the currently highlighted menu entry, press the enter key. Now
you can change the current setting by using the keypad, or make a
selection
by using the up/down arrow keys. To confirm your entry or selection, press
Enter once again, and you will come back to the menu.
All changes will only take effect after you leave the menu completely.
A complete step-by-step description of each menu entry follows.

Firmware V 1.0 / 2005-2013 by Aaronia AG, D-54597 Euscheid, www.aaronia.com

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7.0 The main menu


7.1 Sensor (choose sensor and axis) [Key 6]
Use Sensor to select the sensor or input which you want to use. By choosing
this you select at the same time which kind of field you want to measure
(magnetic field, static magnetic field, electric field).
Starting with the NF-3020, you can also select an external input (SMA connector). Here you can attach arbitrary external sensors, like large, highly-sensitive
coils, E-field and H-field probes or other specialized antennas. This connector
opens lots of possibilities and applications and converts SPECTRANto a multitalent measurement device.
At the same time, you can select the desired measurement axis/plane (XY,
YZ, ZX) in the Sensor menu when doing 2D measurements.
Available choices are:
Mag = internal 3D air-core coil (for magnetic alternating fields)
XY-Mag (X axis resp. X & Y axes when doing a 2D measurement)
YZ-Mag (Y axis resp. Y & Z axes when doing a 2D measurement)
ZX-Mag (Z axis resp. Z & X axes when doing a 2D measurement)
MSta = internal static magnetic field sensor, only available with Option 006!
Measurement of static magnetic fields (geomagnetic field, magnets)
X-MSta (X axis resp. X & Y axes when doing a 2D measurement)
Y-MSta (Y axis resp. Y & Z axes when doing a 2D measurement)
Z-MSta (Z axis resp. Z & X axes when doing a 2D measurement) EFeld = Internal 1D E-Sensor (measurement of alternating electric fields)
Analog = SMA input, only applicable to NF-3020 or higher (highly sensitive
measurement of an external alternating field up to 0,2V max)
Note: At magnetic fields you can change the dimension (1D, 2D, 3D) at any
time with hotkey 7.

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Firmware V 1.0 / 2005-2013 by Aaronia AG, D-54597 Euscheid, www.aaronia.com

7.0 The main menu


There are TWOways to set the frequency range manually:
- Center (Center frequency) and Span (Frequency range width)
or
- fLow & fHigh (Start and stop frequency)

7.2 Center (Center frequency)


Chooses the frequency displayed in the middle of the readout. When changing
the Center frequency, the SPAN parameter (see following description) is preserved. That way you can quickly evaluate different frequency ranges with
identical SPAN and without tedious re-adjustment of Start/Stop frequencies.

Center Frequency

7.3 Span (Frequency range width)


Span adjusts the width of the sweep. Changes are relative to the before mentioned Center frequency of the display. By changing Span, the Start/Stop
fre- quency (see following description) is automatically adjusted to be able to
con- form to the Span. Therefore the Span function can be compared to a
magnify- ing glass, though only operating in the X axis.

SPAN
EXAMPLE: You have chosen 2kHz as the Center frequency. Now choose
2kHz as Span, and it will be sweeped from 1 to 3kHz. Choose 3kHz as Span
and the sweep will be performed from 0,5 to 3,5kHz etc. In other words, you
always increase or decrease the resolution, centered around the Center frequency.
HINT: The right/left arrow keys can be used to move the sweep range directly
one SPAN unit to the right or left.
For best level-results you should choose the Span not bigger then 20 times the
RBW size (e.g. 1kHz RBW = maximum 20kHz Span).

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7.0 The main menu


7.4 fLow & fHigh (Start- & Stop frequency)
fLow (start frequency)sets the frequency where the sweep should begin, whereas fHigh (stop frequency)sets its ending frequency. By choosing these two
parameter, the complete frequency range which will be sweeped is defined.
Please note that a large frequency range will badly squeeze the display horizontally (in the X axis) and thus significantly reduces measurement accuracy.
Individual signals, especially when close together, will often not be distinguishable anymore. However, if you narrow the frequency range, you will be able to
analyze the sweep range more precisely. You will be able to see far more
details and higher accuracy. A large frequency span is thus mostly useful for a
broad overview, not for exact measurements.

fLow (Start-Frequency)

fHigh (Stop-Frequency)

7.5 RBW (Bandwidth) [Key 9]


By adjusting bandwidth, you can adjust detail clarity and sensitivity at the same
time. When bandwidth is setted at a very high value or even FULL, the sweep
will be very fast, however, the display becomes comparatively inaccurate and
sensitivity is low. Hence, very weak signals will not be picked up anymore. The
smaller the bandwidth, the longer the sweep will take, but the display will be
more precise and weaker signals can still be displayed. Thus, for example, a
single signal initially sweeped with high bandwidth, can turn out to be a number
of several narrow, close together signals. However, this gain in accuracy has its
disadvantage in the far longer sweep times.

RBW (300Hz)

RBW (3Hz)

HINT: To accelerate measurement of small frequency ranges with extremely


small filters, DFT-FFT mode is automatically activated when using a SPAN
bet- ween 10-200Hz and a 0,3Hz, 1Hz or 3Hz filter. Thanks to this mode,
signifi- cantly faster sweep times can be achieved in spite of extremely
narrow filters.
Firmware V 1.0 / 2005-2013 by Aaronia AG, D-54597 Euscheid, www.aaronia.com

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7.0 The main menu


7.6 Dim (1D, 2D or 3D measurement) [Key 7]
The Dim setting determines in how many dimensions you want to measure
magnetic fields: 1-dimensional, 2-dimensional or 3-dimensional (isotropic) measurements are available. Naturally, measurements will be slower in 2D or 3D as
the number of sweeps (and therefore the total sweep time) necessary increases 2- or 3-fold to complete a measurement. However, units equipped with DDC
(Option 005) will be as fast in 2D as in 1D mode, as two channels can be used
simultaneously. Likewise, in 3D mode, sweep time is only double the normal
sweep time instead of triple without DDC.
Further related information can be found in Measurement in 1D, 2D or 3D.

7.7 VBW (Video filter)


The so-called Video filter is intended for optical smoothing of the signal. The
lower the Video filter setting, the broader and smootherbecomes the display
of the signal . Using this filter, you can mostly suppress unwanted noisefloors,
harmonics or sporadic peaks. However, with a low Video filter setting, the display can become less meaningful. In our example, there might be there three
separate signals. However, the low video filter straightens these signals out to
become one single smoothsignal. The alleged noise band around the signal
has also been smoothed out. Thus, when dealing with weak signals, the
Video filter should be used only at a higher setting.

VBW=3Hz

VBW=300Hz

7.8 SpTime (Sampletime) [Key 8]


Determines the time per sample. As a single sweep consists of several samples, total sweep time is a multiple of the sampletime. The higher the sampletime setting, the more accurate the measurement, however, the longer it will
take. You can enter values either in mS (milliseconds) or S (seconds). Possible
values range from 0.001 to 999.9. The longer the Sampletime, the more accurate the measurement.
Please note: The maximum usable sampletime in DFT mode is 5s. The
maximum sampletime in non DFT-mode is 240s.

7.0 The main menu


7.9 Reflev (reference level) [Up/Down arrow keys]
By setting the so-called reference level, you can adjust the position of the displayed signals in relation to the upper screen edge (the so-called reference
level). This feature can be uses to eliminate visually distracting background
noise or other small signals from the display so that only the peaksof the
stron- gest signals remain. Other signals will be cut off at the bottom.
Available opti- ons are:
Auto
Reflev (reference level)
Unit
m-Unit
-Unit
n-Unit
With the Auto mode (default), SPECTRANwill automatically calculate the
opti- mum reference level AFTER taking the sweep (this might be corrected
during the next sweep), by taking into account the highest measured signal
level. A very convenient feature especially when the signal level is not known.
However, automatic adjustment cannot always provide optimal scaling: By
constantly changing the reference level, the display can always keep jumping,
which might be interfere when doing slow sweeps. Another problem is, that
background noise would be displayed as a full signal when there is no other
signal. To alleviate this problem, you can set a fixed reference level by using
one of the Unit, m-Unit, -Unit or n-Unit settings and get a background-noise
less display. With these settings, the reference level will be set according to the
phy- sical unit selected in the UNIT menu (see also 7.15). For example, if you
are measuring in Tesla, using the m-Unit setting will set the reference level to
1mT. In theory, only signals stronger than 1T and below 1mT will be displayed
(in practice, however, due to the low resolution of the LCD, 20T is a more
reali- stic).
If you would like to display signals smaller than 1T again, please just change
the reference level accordingly:
1T (Unit)

Reflev (reference level)

1mT (m-Unit)

1T (-Unit)

1nT (n-Unit)

7.0 The main menu


7.10 Range (dynamics)
The range setting determines the scaling of the visible part of the spectrum. It
also provides linear and logarithmic display modes.
In the linear display mode, level changes of weak and strong signals are visualized equally, without artificial scaling/distortion.
To visualize very weak signals more clearly, you can use the logarithmic display
mode, where small level changes will result in large changes in the graphical
dis- play. Furthermore, the stronger the signal becomes, the more
compressed it will become in the display. But please note that changes in very
strong signals will not be as clearly visible as with linear mode: the display is
distorted to bet- ter visualize small level changes in very weak signals.
Linear = linear display
log10 = logarithmic display with maximum enlargement
log100 = logarithmic display with medium enlargement
lg1000 = logarithmic display with optimum overview
Setting the range to lg1000 (maximum) provides the clearest possible overview
of all signal sources. The lg100 and lg10 settings in turn provide more detail,
however, parts of the signal sources above or below could now be cut off. The
range setting can be therefore compared with a magnifying glass that only
affects the Y axis. The vertical bars caused by the individual signals are virtually squeezed in order to be able to display them all.

Range (dynamics)

7.11 Atten (attenuator) [Key 0]


An attenuator, as the name implies, attenuates
the signal by the corresponding amount in dB.
This makes sense particularly with very strong
signals, for example, to avoid overloading the external SMA input. Possible
choi- ces are:
Auto = An appropriate attenuator is chosen automatically (10dB and 20dB)
0dB = No attenutator (highest sensetivity)
10dB = Attenuate input signal by 10dB
20dB = Attenuate input signal by 20dB (only NF-5020/5030!)
30dB = Attenuate input signal by 30dB (only NF-5020/5030!)
40dB = Attenuate input signal by 40dB (only NF-5020/5030!)
NOTE: You always have to set the 0dB, 30dB and 40dB attenuator
manually. They will not be set with the Auto function!
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7.0 The main menu


7.12 Demod (demodulator/audio output)
The demodulator allows you to audibly reproduce pulsings and modulations of
up to approx. 3.5kHz. SPECTRAN offers two modulation modes:
AM (Amplitude modulation) and FM (Frequency modulation). You can switch
between AM and FM at any time by pressing the dot key. By selecting Off
or pressing the menu key, the demodulator can be turned off.
Please note that in oposition to the usual broadband detectors, demodulation
only occurs around the center frequency! The bandwidth is adjustable using
the RBW setting. Hence, you can selectively monitor small frequency ranges.
However, in this mode, the filter is slightly softer compared to other modes, so
unwanted strong signals on neighbouring frequencies might audibly spill into
the currently selected frequency range.
This frequency-exact, selective acoustic evaluation can be helpful when identifying signal sources. As demodulation occurs in real-time, it is also perfectly
suited for locating signal sources very quickly.

7.13 Detec (RMS or MinMax detector) [Shift key]


Here you can choose between two different detectors. Possible choices are:
RMS (Default)
MinMax
This mode allows you, for instance, to find out if a certain signal is modulated:
When the displayed signal level is larger in MinMax mode than in RMS mode,
the signal must be modulated. If both modes show a nearly identical display, the
signal is unmodulated.
HINT: You can change the detector at any time by just pressing the Shift
key.

7.14 Hold (activate HOLD mode)


By selecting On you can activate HOLD mode, indicated by the word HOLD in
the status field. Likewise, Off turns it back off.
In HOLD mode, the spectrum display does not get erased, thus all measured
signals stay visible at all times. Only signals stronger than those already
recor- ded will be able to overwrite the display.
Likewise, only the highest markers since the last activation of HOLD mode will
be displayed, including frequency and field strength/voltage. HOLD mode turns
SPECTRAN into a very sophisticated tool - it is really an ADVANCED HOLD:
You can use this mode for creating full-day diagrams: Just leave SPECTRAN
in HOLDmode for, say, 24 hours, and the next day you will be able to check
what exactly happened in the past 24 hours. This way, you can also use

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Firmware V 1.0 / 2005-2013 by Aaronia AG, D-54597 Euscheid, www.aaronia.com

7.0 The main menu


SPECTRANas an EVENTRECORDER for recording intermittent signals:
just leave SPECTRANrunning in HOLD mode until the requested event
occurs. HOLD mode is also indispensible for conducting measurements
according to the panning approach (see also the section about correct
measurement)
Another application where HOLD mode is extremely helpful is exposure limit
calculation: You can use data acquired in HOLD mode for quick and easy
com- parison of exposure limits. You do not even need to start a new
measurement, as all markers and other relevant information are preserved.
Please just switch to exposure limits mode after measurement, and the
corresponding result is displayed immediately.

A typical measurement result after evaluating a room for 20 minutes


with HOLD mode active. You can clearly see that only two main signal
sources / frequency bands have been detected during the entire measurement (30Hz and 50Hz).

HINT: You can switch HOLD mode on and off at any


time by pressing the dot key (switching it off deletes the HOLDmemory).
ATTENTION: Please note that when using the Reference Level Auto setting in
combination with HOLD mode, the spectrum display can quickly get filled up
because of the automatic scaling. Such a combination of settings is generally of
limited use.

7.15 Unit (Select physical unit)


The Unit setting allows you to specify the physical unit used to display measurement results. Options are "Tesla", "Gauss" and "A/m". Two further options,
Volt (external SMA connector) and V/m (E-field sensor)are automatically
chosen when the corresponding sensor is selected.
Hint: In EXPOSURELIMITS mode, the measurement result additionally ge ts
displayed as a figure and bargraph. In this mode you can display the result with
two units ATONCE (for example, Gauss and Tesla SIMULTANEOUSLY).
Hint2: You can even use this feature for conversion of units. Simply freeze
the current reading by using HOLD mode, then choose a different unit. The
conver- sion result will be displayed immediately (as far as physically possible).

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7.0 The main menu


7.16 UScale (Set scaling of physical unit)
UScale allows you to choose the prefix of the physical unit.
Selecting Auto automatically selects the prefix ("p", "n", "", "m", "k").
However, you can also set a fixed prefix, where possible options are: "p" (Pico),
"n" (Nano), "" (Micro), "m" (Milli), "Unit" (only full units WITHOUTprefix) and
"k" (Kilo).

7.17 MrkCnt (Set number of markers)


MrkCnt is used to set the number of markers. Possible values are 1,2 or 3.
If you only need to measure one frequency you should reduce the number of
markers to 1. Then you will get a very stable display with no jumping markers
after every sweep.

7.18 MrkLvl (Set starting level of markers)


MrkLvl is used to set a specific signal strength from which markers are generated and exposure limit calculations are performed. Available settings range
from 20% to 80% and correspond to the relative height of the peaks in the bargraph display.
100%
80%
60%
40%
20%

At the 80% setting, markers are only generated with relatively strong signals, compared to the 20% setting, where far
weaker signals, but also potential interference, are shown
as markers. The default (60%) offers the best balance of
both extremes in most cases.

7.19 MrkDis (Marker display mode)


The marker display mode determines how markers are displayed. As the available display space for showing markers very differs in size and readability, two
different modes are available:
Freq. (frequency) displays the frequency of each marker in the large display. Its
amplitude (or similar applicable property) is small displayed beneith the frequency.
Ampl. (amplitude)displays the amplitude (or similar property) of each marker in
large, and the frequency in the smaller display field. Usually, the Freq. mode
will be preferred as the frequency usually is the most important piece of
information and therefore should be the most readable as well.

Freq.

30

Amp. (larger amplitude display)


(larger frequency display)
Firmware V 1.0 / 2005-2013 by Aaronia AG, D-54597 Euscheid, www.aaronia.com

7.20 Bright (Set display brightness)


The Bright option allows you to change display brightness. Simply turn the Jog
Dial until the desired brightness level is reached, and confirm the setting by
pres- sing the Enter key. The new setting will be permanently saved.

7.21 Logger (Invoke recording/data logger) (not active)


With the logger option, you can start a long-term recording in the current frequency range (NF-5010 and better). The logger will regularly record the strongest signals together with their frequency and amplitude over a freely adjustable timespan.
This feature can be used, for example, to create perfect
full-day diagrams. After processing this data, for example by using a PC-based spreadsheet software, you
could end up with a graphic similar to the one shown on
the left.
After activating, the device will query the following parameters:
Count =
Enter the number of logs (recorded events)
Time =
Enter the duration of the pauses between the individual logs,
in seconds.
FILEId =
Enter the program number used to store the recorded data.
This number is later used to download the recorded data using
our PCsoftware. ATTENTION! Currently, our PCsoftware
only supports program number 1000!
After setting FILEId, the memory status field will show RECORD and the
log- ger is armed. Press the menu button again, and the recording will start.
After each recorded event, the remaining number of events to record will be
display- ed briefly in the pixel display (counter) to estimate how long the
recording will take. Furthermore, a short beep will be emitted each time
when an event is recorded. When recording is finished, RECORD will
disappear from the memory status field. The recorded data
can now be downloaded using the PC
software LCS: Launch in the LCS software the File managerin the Extras
menu and click on logger data in the
Spezial directory. Logger data is then
immediately displayed as a table (first
column amplitude in dBm, second column
frequency).

By using the standard Copy and pastefeature, you can now transfer the data
for further processing, for example, into a spreadsheet application.
ATTENTION: Please note that depending on the size of data, downloading and
displaying all data can take some time. dBm values are transfered with two
deci- mal places.
ATTENTION: Please note that the internal 64K memory can quickly get filled
up. Consequently, we strongly recommend our 1MB memory expansion
(Option
001 ) for using the logger-function.

7.22 RunPrg (Run program)


SPECTRANfeatures its own file system which is loaded with various programs.
You can even write your own programs and store them right there. Also, saved
SETUPs (see the following paragraph) use this program feature. Every program
is stored with a specific number. When using this function, any of these programs can be recalled and executed by just typing its number.

7.23 Setup (Configuration)


Use Setup to manage individual configurations and programs.
The Store option will save the current configuration (fLow, fHigh, RBW, VBW,
SpTime, Atten, RefLev, Range, Detec) as its own little program. Please enter a
number above 200 to store configurations. The previously described RunPrg
function can be used to recall a configuration. Del deletes a previously stored
configuration:please just enter the corresponding program number.
Factor recalls the factory settings. This option is especially useful for unexperienced users having messed up the devices configuration.
Attention: Please note that you can only store full kHz frequency values with
the Store comand but if you use our free LCS PC-software there is not such a
limi- tation. With the PC software you can store much more values like used
sensor, unit, scale etc.
HINT: When using program numbers 100 to 109, you can directly recall the corresponding program using keys 0 to 9! However, the previous key assignment
will be overwritten.

8.0 Correct measurement


8.1 Noise floor
The so-called noise floor indicates the lower range limit below measurements
become physically impossible. Only interference can be found below this limit.
Visually, this will be shown as a collection of little dots or bars in SPECTRANs
display which either stay at fixed places or change with every sweep (noise).
Depending on the actual frequency, however, the noise floor can very
vary. Usually the noise floor will increase significantly in lower frequency levels.
For example, the noise floor at 50Hz (mains power) is significantly stronger
than at
500Hz. This is often called the 0Hz spike:

Noise floor

(below this imaginary line)

8.2 The 0Hz spike and the noise floor


When using a spectrum analyzer, the closer you get to a frequencyof 0Hz
(the so-called 0Hz spike), the stronger the natural noise floor becomes and
the worse the measurement accuracy will be. Measurements quickly hit
physical limits in this range. To achieve still the best possible sensitivity, at least
the resi- dual noise of the amplifiers, i.e. the measurement electronics
themselves, has to be kept to a minimum by using only high-grade, extremely
low-noise ampli- fiers like in SPECTRAN, which actually goes quite close to
the actual physical limits.
When doing measurements close to 0Hz, pay attention to the following recommendations:
The closer you get to the 0Hz spike, the stronger the received noise and
the less accurate the measurement:
0Hz noise floor
The simulated graph shows the 0Hz spike as a
High noise
steep curve starting at 0Hz (left side) which
Low noise
quickly flattens towards higher frequencies.
Also visible: the simulated sweep from 2050-70Hz
20-40Hz
40Hz results in a much higher value of background noise (about 2,5)than another from
5070Hz (0,2) even though the SPAN of both
sweeps is identical.

Always use the smallest possible SPAN when measuring close to the 0Hz
spike in order to reduce the noise floor:
0Hz noise floor
The SPAN itself also influences the strength of
Big SPAN = high noise
the noise floor due to the steepness of the fil(smoother filter cut off)
ters. These become smoother with a bigger
Small SPAN = low noise
SPAN and also start capturing neighbouring
(sharper filter cut off)
signals.
100Hz SPAN
While this hardly matters with higher frequencies, the difference much more significant
30Hz
SPAN
near the 0Hz spike. In spite of an identical
star- ting frequency setting, the noise floor is
much stronger with a bigger SPAN than when
using a small SPAN.
Try to avoid measurements near the 0Hz limit whenever possible.
Try not to use 0Hz as starting frequency.
If possible, try to measure from 1kHz or, even better, 10kHz to 100kHz instead
of 0Hz to 100kHz. Spectrum analyzers try to dampen the noise floor close to the
0Hz spike when doing large sweeps that start close to 0Hz. This has the sideeffect of a very low sensitivity in the lower frequency range. Thus, do not
expect a 50Hz signal to be measured correctly when using a sweep of 0Hz to
100kHz.
However, should you despite of this wish to measure close to the 0Hz spike (for
example, 50Hz mains or 16.7Hz traction power), you should use the smallest
possible filters (0,3Hz, 1Hz or 3Hz). However, this naturally leads to an extremely slow sweep. As this is not very practical, we have developed a very fast
sweep mode for exactly this case: the DFT sweep. Basically, it uses FFT, but
avoids its typical aliases. DFT mode is automatically activated if both of the following apply:
a) The 0,3Hz, 1Hz or 3Hz filter is used
AND
b) a SPAN smaller than 200Hz, but at least 10Hz is chosen
In the current software revision, there are still two further restrictions:
c) only use SPANs which are multiples of 15, like 15Hz, 30Hz, 45Hz etc.
d) always use a SPAN which is SMALLER than the difference between 0Hz and
the chosen starting frequency flow. Otherwise, you will get erroneous results.

Examples:
flow=30Hz and fhigh=60Hz (SPAN=30Hz): OK (ex.: 50Hz mains).
flow=15Hz and fhigh=30Hz (SPAN=15Hz): OK (ex.: 16.7Hz traction power).
flow=29Hz and fhigh=59Hz: WRONG. The distance to 0Hz is too small compared to the SPAN. It is 29Hz, but the SPANis set to 30Hz. The distance to
0Hz should be therefore at least 30Hz.
flow=16Hz and fhigh=30Hz: WRONG. The SPAN is not a multiple of 15 (as it
is set to 14Hz), resulting in WRONG measurement results.
Also see the chapter on DFTmode (rapid measurement with 1-3Hz RBW)

8.3 Choosing the right filter (RBW)


The correct filter setting depends on various factors, among them the selected
SPAN. Usually, the filter should be SMALLER than the selected SPAN, as
other- wise, signals outside the (visible)SPANwill be also received and
erroneously displayed, which is only tolerable in very rare cases. Most of the
time, a filter at least 10 times smaller than the SPAN should be chosen. For
example: SPAN=100Hz; set filter to 10Hz (or smaller)
SPAN=500kHz; set filter to 100kHz or 30kHz (or smaller)
However, note that the selected filter directly influences the sweep speed and
display accuracy: the larger the selected filter, the faster the sweep but the less
accurate the display.
The following illustrations explain the filter problem, assuming a sweep from 50
to 60 kHz. The grid lines show the visible range:
Graphical approximation of the
10 1kHz filter
10T
signal at
46kHz

1T signal at
58kHz

Good visible:
The 46kHz signal outside the visible
sweep range is not taken into
account, as the 1kHz filter only
catchesa small frequency band
outside the visible 50-60kHz sweep
range. The display would show
the right value of 1T.

50-60kHz
Graphical approximation of 30kHz filter

10T
signal at
46kHz

1T signal at
58kHz
50-60kHz

In contrast, when using a 30kHz filter, the 46kHz signal outside the
visible sweep range will be caught
as well, as the wide 30kHz filter will
also encompass a wide range outside the visible 50-60kHz sweep. The
display would show a wrong
value of 10T.

Do you like however to perform a very accurate level measurement, you should
not set the filter bandwidth too narrow, as very narrow filters can, due to
the inherent phase noise, display levels lower than actually present.
For example, consider measurement of a signal at 100kHz, using a 10kHz filter.
Changing to a 3kHz or 1kHz filter might not cause any significant change in
the displayed level. However, at some point, for example with the 300Hz or
100Hz filter, the displayed signal level will suddenly drop slightly, thereby
delivering an incorrect readout due to phase noise.

8.4 Choosing the right Sampletime (SpTime)


If you want to measure levels it is very important to choose the right sampletime. If you use a to small sampletime you can get to low level results. Especially
if you use low filter (RBWs) you have to set the sampletime quite high (depending on filter even up to a view seconds).
The right sampletime depends on the used Filter (RBW). You should set the following RBWs and sampletime:
10Hz=70s, 30Hz=30s, 100Hz=7s, 300Hz=3s, 1kHz=700ms etc.
If the Span is bigger then 20 times the RBW you must use a higher sampletime!
Please note that the sampletime in DFT mode (1Hz and 3Hz filter) is
limited to 5s. A too small sampletime in DFT mode is easy to detect: The levels
will fre- quently change a lot after each sweep. If you use our free PC-Software
you will then see a snake like graph in the spectrogram window. Simply
change the sampletime to a higher value until you get a stable reading after
each sweep.

8.5 Measurement of electric fields & all fields above 500kHz


Correct measurement of potential-free electric fields or magnetic fields above
500kHz requires a bit of technical knowledge, as measurement results can
quickly become inaccurate due to objects in immediate proximity, such as walls,
trees, or the operator her-/himself. Consequently, please take care of the following:
- You should maximize the distance between your body and the measurement
instrument. Consequently, you should measure by using a non-conduc
tive, wooden tripod or similar, and increase the distance between
your body and the device to about 1-2m. Also, please note that these fields
quickly diminish in proximity to the floor. Thusly, most measurements
of electric fields are carried out at a height of about 1-3m above the floor.
Should you wish to measure with the instrument in your hand anyway, you
should only measure with your arm extended. Also, only handle the device
by its tail end, as the sensors are located close to the front of the case.
However, please note that the measured values will be 3 to 4 times too

large when doing such a manual measurement!


- Be sure that no other persons are near by where you make your measurements, as they could influence the results.
- The device and the used tripod must not be covered by dew. This could lead
to extremely inaccurate results.
- Operation with connected USB or audio cables or the included power supply
can distort the field and lead to extremely inaccurate results. Always measure
with battery supply and without any cables connected.
- Use the panning approach to determine the E-field maximum as the E-field
sensor can only measure in one dimension. Otherwise, wrong (too low)levels
could be measured. This is especially possible, when several wires, signal
sources or various other sources of interference are occuring. On the other
hand, should you measure a single subject, such as a free-field high voltage
line, the measurement inaccuracy without the panning approach is often below
5% and therefore often tolerable.

WARNING! Please note that various so-called construction biologists and


their measuring instruments wrongly measure potentials with ground
reference. This approach violates any applicable EMC security standards
and is thus- ly WRONG and legally worthless!
Consequently, the results obtained from such measurements are not comparable at all to results obtained with SPECTRAN, as SPECTRAN measures
according to standards (potential-free, without ground reference).

8.6 Sensitivity
Please be aware that with spectrum analysers, the noise floor and sensitivity is
subject to significant fluctuations depending on the frequencies measured.
In general you can say:the lower the frequencies, the higher the noise floor and
the worse the sensitivity. In practice: Using the same filter settings, for example, 100kHz, you can measure significantly weaker fields than at the
50Hz setting.
Also see the section The 0Hz spike and the noise floor

8.7 Measurement inaccuracy


Aaronia provides a typical accuracy rating for each SPECTRANmodel.
However, this also means that higher deviations could happen.
Especially when approaching the so-called noise floor or the highest measurable levels, accuracy will naturally decrease.

Even though SPECTRAN instruments already are impressively accurate considering their price, in practice an even higher measurement inaccuracy than the
one specified for the instrument has to be assumed. There are various reasons
for this, such as temperature dependance, reproducability and many others.
This has to be taken into account at every measurement.

8.8 The cursor and zoom features/Caracteristicile zoom-ului


si ale cursorului
In spectrum analysis mode, you can use the Jog Dial to
activate a cursor. This cursor allows you to determine the
exact frequency and signal strength at an arbitrary point
in the display. To activate the cursor, simply rotate the
Jog Dial and the cursor will appear as a thin line in the
spec- trum. To deactivate it, simply press the menu key
twice. The part of the display covered by the cursor gets
drawn in reverse colour, thereby preserving its
information.
In modul de analiz al spectrului , pute i utiliza butonul
Jog pentru a activa un cursor . Acest cursor v permite
s stabilii frecvena exact i puterea semnalului de la
un punct arbitrar pe ecran . Pentru a activa cursorul , pur
i simplu rotii butonul Jog i cursorul va aprea ca o linie
subire n ntregul spectru . Pentru a dezactiva , apsa i
de dou ori tasta de meniu . Partea afiajului acoperita
de cursor este semnalizata n culoare inversata ,
pstrnd astfel informaiile sale .

Frequency and level/ Frecveta si nivel


at the current cursor position / la pozitia curenta a cursorului
Cursor / cursor
Parts of the graphic covered by
the cursor are drawn inverted/
parti ale graficului trasate invers si
acoperite de cursor

By rotating the Jog Dial, the cursor can be placed at any desired position on the
display. The readout on the large main display, the exposure limit display and
demodulation now EXCLUSIVELYrepresent the frequency at the current cursor
position! The current frequency and level display at the cursor position only get
updated after each sweep and are displayed in the first (leftmost)marker field.
Naturally, no auto marker functionality is available in this mode.

Prin rotirea butonului Jog , cursorul poate fi plasat n orice pozi ie doriti pe
ecran . Citirea pe ecranul principal, afi ajul limit de expunere i demodularea
acum reprezint exclusiv frecvena la pozitia curenta a cursorului ! Frecven a
actual i afiarea nivelului la poziia cursorului se actualizeaza numai dupa
fiecare baleiere i sunt afiate n campul marker-ului ( stnga ). In mod normal,
nicio autofuncionalitate a marker-ului nu este disponibil n acest mod .
Once you have positioned the cursor, you can zoom into a signal by pressing
the Jog Dial. This will set the CENTER frequency to the current cursor position/frequency, halve the SPAN and initiate a new sweep. In other words, you
zoom into the signal by 50%. This procedure can be repeated as often as you
wish until the desired resolution has been reached. A very useful feature. But
please note that a zoom back out is not possible.
You can turn off the cursor by pressing the menu key twice.
Dup ce ai poziionat cursorul , pute i mri ntr-un semnal prin apsarea
butonului Jog . Aceasta va seta frecvena central la pozitia/frecventa curenta a
cursorului, .. si initierea unei noi baleiere. Cu alte cuvinte , mariti
semnalul cu 50 % . Aceast procedur poate fi repetat ori de cte ori dori i ,
pn cand rezoluia dorit a fost atinsa. O caracteristic foarte util . Dar v
rugm s reinei c un zoom napoi nu este posibil .
Putei opri cursorul apsnd tasta de meniu de doua ori .
ATTENTION: The cursor should NOTbe used in HOLD mode, as it will not be
erased (just like the rest of the display) and thus produce an entirely black and
useless display very quickly!
ATENIE : Cursorul nu trebuie s fie utilizat n modul HOLD , deoarece nu vor fi
terse ( la fel ca restul ecranului ) i produc astfel un afisaj complet " negru" i
inutil !

8.9 DFT mode (rapid measurements with small RBWs)


Modul DFT ( msurtori rapide cu RBW scazute )
All series 50xx SPECTRAN models feature a superfast DFT mode (digital fourier transformation). DFT mode is automatically activated when the following settings are used:
Toate modelele de serie 50xx SPECTRAN dispun de un mod de DFT "
superrapid " ( transformare Fourier digitale ) . Modul DFT este activat automat
atunci cnd se utilizeaz urmatoarele setri:
a) un RBW de 0,3Hz, 1Hz sau 3Hz
SI
b) un SPAN mai mic de 200Hz (cu 10Hz ca minim)
The DFT mode allows a significantly faster sweep when using extremely narrow
filters and is especially suitable for measurement of mains power (50Hz) or traction power (16.7Hz). In contrast to regular FFT, DFT does NOT produce the
infa- mous aliases known from FFT.
Modul DFT permite o baleiere mult mai rapida atunci cnd se utilizeaz filtre
extrem de inguste si este adecvat n special pentru msurarea alimentatoarelor
principale ( 50 Hz) sau a puterii de tractiune ( 16,7 Hz ) . Spre deosebire de
uzualul FFT, DFT nu produce .. .
ATTENTION: For quick searching of signals, you could even use a too low setting for sweep time in DFT mode. This allows very fast sweeps, but inherently
may produce wrong results. For preventing users from misinterpreting these,
the UNCAL display is automatically activated as soon as a too short sweeptime is chosen, indicating that measurement results are not reliable. However, it
is still possible to locate quickly a signal source or verify its presence.
ATENIE : Pentru cutarea rapid a semnalelor, puteti folosi chiar si setari mai
mici pentru timp baleiere n modul DFT . Acest lucru permite baleierea foarte
rapida, dar n mod inerent pot produce rezultate gresite . Pentru prevenirea
interpretarii gresite a rezultatelor de catre utilizatori, ecranul Uncal este activat
automat imediat ce este aleasa o baleiere mult prea scurta, care indic faptul c
rezultatele msurtorilor nu sunt plauzibile. Cu toate acestea , este nc posibila
localizarea rapida a unei surse de semnal sau verificarea ei in sine.
More information on DFT mode can be found in the sectionThe 0Hz spike and
the noise floor.
Mai multe informaii despre modul DFT pot fi gsite n sec iunea "The 0Hz
Spike i Sunet de fond " .

8.10 Choosing the right attenuator


Alegerea atenuatorului corect
SPECTRAN contains a highly accurate internal attenuator, allowing the
attenuation of input signals to prevent overdrive of the internal amplifier.
Without using the attenuator, serious measurement errors and even destruction
of the internal amplifier could occur. To choose the right attenuator for your
mea- surement, proceed as follows:
SPECTRAN conine un atenuator intern foarte precis , permi nd atenuarea
semnalelor de intrare pentru a preveni a amplificatorului intern .
Fr a utiliza atenuatorul,ar putea aparea erori grave de msurare i chiar
distrugerea amplificatorului intern. Pentru a alege atenuatorului potrivit pentru
masurararile dumneavoastra, procedai in felul urmator :
Initially, always select the highest attenuator (40dB) and, if there is a usable
rea- dout, remember its value. Afterwards change to the next smaller
attenuator (30dB). If the new readout value is significantly lower than the
previous one, the amplifier is already suffering from overdrive, so you should
change back to the higher attenuator. However, should the readout be almost
identical, this attenua- tor is the correct choice.
Iniial , selectai ntotdeauna cea mai mare atenuare ( 40dB ) i , n cazul n
care exist o citire utila, amintii-v valoarea ei. Dup, treceti la urmtoarea
atenuare, mai mica, de ( 30dB ) . n cazul n care noua valoare de citire este
semnificativ mai mic dect cea anterioara , amplificatorul deja sufer ,
deci ar trebui s schimbai napoi la atenuatorul mai mare . Cu toate acestea ,
daca citirea ar fi aproape identica , acest atenuator este alegerea corecta .
Further indications of having chosen the wrong attenuator is an unsteady readout and a cluttered graphical display.
When supplying external signals via the SMA connector, we recommend the
following attenuator settings (100kHz signal):
Cnd furnizati semnale externe prin intermediul conectorului SMA , v
recomandm urmtoarele setri pentru atenuator (semnal 100kHz ) :
>=1mV: 10dB, >=5mV: 20dB, >=10mV: 30dB, 50mV and above: 40dB.

9.0 Measuring static magnetic


fields
8.0 Correct measurement
When measuring magnetic fields by using the internal sensor, the attenuator
should be configured as follows:
La masurarea campurilor magnetice utilizand senzorul intern, atenuatorul ar
trebui sa fie configurat ca in exemplul urmator:
>=200nT: 10dB, >=700nT: 20dB, >=2T: 30dB, 7T and above: 40dB.

8.11 The Autorange function


Functia de autoscalare
Magnetic fields are measured in Tesla or Gauss, electric fields in V/m. However,
as these fields can quickly vary in lots of factors and SPECTRAN additionally
provides an extremely wide dynamic range, display of all possible levels would
require a huge display with DOZENS of digits. To allow an usable readout with
just 4 digits, SPECTRAN provides the Autorange function which is popular in
professional measurement technology. SPECTRANsimply prepends an internationally standardized prefix to the actual value:
Cmpurile magnetice sunt msurate n Tesla sau Gauss ,iar cmpurile electrice
n V/m . Cu toate acestea , deoarece aceste domenii pot varia rapid ntr-o
mulime de factori, SPECTRAN ofer n plus o gam dinamic extrem de larg ,
afiarea tuturor nivelurilor posibile ar necesits un afisaj destul de mare, cu zeci
de cifre . Pentru a permite o citire corecta cu doar 4 cifre , SPECTRAN ofer
funcia " Autorange ", care este populara n tehnologia de msurare profesionala
. SPECTRAN pur i simplu introduce un prefix interna ional standardizat la
valoarea real :
k = 1000 (Kilo=thousandfold)
m = 1/1000 (one thousandth)
= 1/1.000.000 (one millionth)
n = 1/1.000.000.000 (one billionth)
p = 1/1.000.000.000.000
Lets use 0.000,000,797 T as an example. This huge row of zeroes can simply
be replaced by one of the prefixes above, which simplifies the display enormously. One possible illustration would be 0.797T (0.7 millionth of a Tesla),
another 797nT (797 billionth of a Tesla). As this example clearly shows, the
rea- dout would literally drown in a huge pile of zeroes without the autorange
func- tion. However, using the or n prefixes, display is still accurately
possible even with just 4 digits.
This of course also works with very large values, like 20,000 V/m. Here, the display would just show 20kV/m (20 kiloVolts/meter).
SPECTRAN automatically changes the prefix used, you do not need to make
any manual adjustments.
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10.0 Measurement in 1D, 2D or 3D


S folosim 0.000,000,797 T ca exemplu . Acest rnd imens de zerouri poate fi
pur i simplu nlocuit cu una din prefixele de mai sus , ceea ce simplific foarte
mult afiarea. O posibila ilustrare ar fi 0.797T ( 0,7 milionime de Tesla ) , o alta
797nT ( 797 miliardime dintr-un Tesla ) . Dup cum arat acest exemplu,
ntr-o grmad mare de " zerouri " , fr functia de
autoscalare. Cu toate acestea , folosind " receptorii p " sau " n" ca prefixe,
monitorul este nc destul de precis , chiar cu doar 4 cifre .
Aceasta, desigur, funcioneaz cu valori foarte mari , cum ar fi 20000 V / m . Aici
, pe afiaj va arta doar 20kV / m ( 20 kilovol i / metru ) . SPECTRAN modific
automat prefixul utilizat , nu trebuie sa faceti nicio modificare manuala.

8.12 Spurious?????
Because of the very high sensitivity of the SPECTRAN, the internal probes can
even measure the very low emissions of its own circuits. Typical are multiply signals of 1,6MHz (3,2MHz, 4,8MHz etc.), which is the frequency of the onboard
switching power supply, and multiply signals of about 128kHz (256kHz, 378kHz
etc.), which is the LCD clock. With the E-Field sensor you can also measure
mul- tiply 65Hz signals which is the refreshrate of the LCD.
Usually all those signals are very small and should not disturb any measurement. Anyway we will add a function in one of the next software revisions to remove them automatically.
Din cauza sensibilitii foarte mare de SPECTRAN , sonde interne pot msura
chiar i emisii foarte reduse ale propriului circuit. Tipice sunt semnalele
multiplicate de 1,6MHz ( 3,2MHz , 4,8MHz etc. ) , care este frecven a sursei de
alimentare de la bord , si semnale multiplicate de aproximativ 128kHz ( 256kHz ,
378kHz etc.) , care este ceasul LCD . Cu senzorul de camp E pute i msura,
semnale multiple de 65Hz , care este . a LCD-ului .
De obicei, toate aceste semnale sunt foarte slabe i nu ar trebui s deranjeze
nicio msurtoare. Oricum vom aduga o funcie ntr-una din software-urile de
revizie pentru a le elimina automat .
Firmware V 1.0 / 2005-2013 by Aaronia AG, D-54597 Euscheid, www.aaronia.com

40

Measurement of static magnetic fields (Option 006)


Msurarea cmpurilor magnetice statice (Optiunea 006)
Activating the sensor / Activarea senzorului
To measure static magnetic fields like the earths magnetic field or that of regular magnets, you will need our internal static magnetic field sensor (option 006).
Static mode is automatically activated when you set fLow=0Hz and
fHigh=0Hz. Now, choose the sensor and/or axes in the SENSOR menu (or key
6). Available choices are (X-MSta, Y-MSta, Z-MSta). Obviously, as a static

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9.0 Measuring static magnetic


magnetic
fields field has a frequency of 0Hz, there is no spectrum display. Instead, a
time domain dis- play is provided (if the selected sampletime is above 77mS),
i.e. level changes are displayed on a time axis. The speed of this time domain
display can be chan- ged in the SpTime menu (or key 6). If you set the
sampletime lower then 77mS you will get a direct level display instead. Setting
up the sampletime can be done in the menu SpTime (key 8).
Pentru a msura cmpurile magnetice statice , cum ar fi cmpul magnetic al
pmntului sau a magneilor uzuali, vei avea nevoie de senzorul static de
camp magnetic ( opiunea 006 ) . Modul static este activat automat atunci cnd
setai FLOW = 0Hz i fHigh = 0Hz . Acum , alege senzorul i / sau axele din
meniul SENSOR ( sau tasta 6) . Op iunile disponibile sunt ( X - MSta , Y MSta , Z - MSta ) . Evident , ca si cmp magnetic static,acesta are o frecven
de 0Hz ,deci afisajul nu indica niciun spectru. n schimb, este prevzut o afi aj
domeniu de timp (n cazul n care timpul de prob selectat este mai sus
77mS ) , adic modificrile de nivel sunt afi ate pe o ax de timp . Viteza de
afisare a domeniului poate fi schimbata din meniul SpTime ( sau tasta 6) . Dac
setai timpul de proba mai jos de 77mS, vei obine in schimb o afisare direct
pe nivele. Configurarea timpului de proba se poate face n meniul SpTime (tasta
8 ).
The measurement /msurarea
The earth is a huge magnet surrounded by a magnetic
field. The magnetic flux density varies between 30 T
and 60T depending on your location. In Germany, a
flux density of approx. 45T is common.
This so-called geomagnetic field can be drastically
influenced by construction materials in buildings.
Therefore the results of indoor measurements will differ significantly depending on the location.
Even in the field, measurement results can differ
widely as the earths geophysical characteristics distort
the magnetic field. Thats why even detailed maps of the geomagnetic field are
available (see image example).
Distortion of the geomagnetic field due to a bigger metallic obstacle, such as a
spade, can still be detected by SPECTRANeven from some distance.
Pmntul este un magnet uria , nconjurat de un cmp magnetic . Densitatea
fluxului magnetic variaz ntre 30 T i 60T, n func ie de loca ia
dumneavoastr. In Germania , o densitate de flux de cca . 45T este comuna.
Acest aa-numit cmp geomagnetic poate fi influen at, n mod drastic, de
materialele de construcii din cldiri . Prin urmare, rezultatele msurtorilor din
interior vor fi semnificativ diferite, n funcie de loca ia .
Chiar " n cmpul " , rezultatele msurtorilor pot diferi foarte mult deoarece
caracteristicile geografice ale pamantului deformeaza campul magnetic. De
aceea, sunt disponibile chiar hri detaliate ale cmpului geomagnetic ( a se
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10.0 Measurement in 1D, 2D or 3D


vedea exemplul de imagine ) .
Deformarea cmpului geomagnetic datorit unui obstacol metalic mare , cum ar
fi o cazma , poate fi detectate prin SPECTRAN, chiar de la o distan destul de
mare.
The 24Bit option (option 009) increases the sensitivity yet further and allows the detection of even very minimal changes. Therefore it is perfect suitable for geomagnetic analysis or for accurate measurements of regular
magnets.
Opiunea 24Bit ( opiune 009 ) crete sensibilitatea i mai mult i permite
detectarea chiar si a micilor schimbari. Prin urmare, este perfect potrivit pentru
analiza geomagnetic sau pentru msurtori precise de magne i regulate .
Currently, the static magnetic field sensor does not have a zero reference, i.e. it
can only display DIFFERENCESin field strength. A zero reference and consequently a calibration is only possible with our zero-gauss-chamber. Then even
the direct value of static magnetic field can be displayed.
n prezent, senzorul de cmp magnetic static nu are o referin la zero , adic
poate afia numai diferenele n intensitate a cmpului . O referin la zero i, n
consecin o calibrare, este posibila numai cu .. . Apoi chiar si valoarea
direct a cmpului magnetic static poate fi afiat .

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Measurement in 1D, 2D or 3D / Masuratori in 1D, 2D sau 3D


All SPECTRAN models feature an integrated 3D measurement coil which allows isotropic measurement of magnetic fields in all directions (axes) at the same
time. You can also choose whether you
want to measure in only 1 axis (1D), two
axes (2D) or in all 3 axes (3D) simultaneously.
Toate modelele SPECTRAN dispun de o
bobin de msurare 3D integrata care
permite msurarea cmpurilor magnetice
n toate direciile ( axe ) n acelai timp .
Putei alege, de asemenea , daca doriti s
msurati numai o axa ( 1D ) , dou axe
( 2D) sau toate cele 3 axe ( 3D ) simultan .
Likewise, you can also adjust the number
of axes when measuring with the optional
sensor for STATIC magnetic fields (option
006).
De asemenea , putei ajusta numrul de
axe la msurarea cu senzorul opional
pentru cmpurile magnetice statice
( opiune 006 ) .
When doing measurements in all three
axes (a so-called isotropic measurement),
the spacial orientation of the measuring
instrument has no influence on the measurement results. Therefore, wrong orientation of the measurement instrument and
thus wrong measurement results become impossible. The only disadvantage of
this technology is the higher sweeptime. A 2D or 3D measurement will generally be slower by nature, as obviously the number of necessary sweeps will
increa- se 2- or 3-fold. However, should your instrument be equipped with the
DDC opti- on (option 005), the sweep times in 1D and 2D mode will be the
same, as two channels can be measured at the same time. In 3D mode,
likewise, sweep time will only be twice as long as in 1D mode, and not three
times as long as when not using DDC.
Atunci cnd faci msurtori n toate cele trei axe ( asa-zisa masurare
izotropica ), orientarea spaial a mijlocului de msurare nu are nicio influen
asupra rezultatelor msurrii . Prin urmare , orientarea gre it a instrumentului
de msurare i, de asemenea,gresirea rezultatelor masurate devene
imposibil . Singurul dezavantaj al acestei tehnologii este baleierea mai mare.
O msurare 2D sau 3D va fi ,n general, mai lenta prin natura , n mod evident

ca numrul de mtur necesare va creste de sine 2 sau 3 ori . Cu toate acestea


, ar trebui ca instrumental s fie echipat cu optiunea DDC (op ional 005 ) , ori
baleierea n modul 1D si 2D va fi la fel , ca i cand dou canale pot fi msurat
simultan . n modul 3D , de asemenea , timpul de baleiere va fi de dou ori mai
lung decat in modul 1D, i nu trei ori mai mult ca atunci cnd nu utiliza i DDC .
Results of 2D and 3D measurements are calculated as a quadratic mean using
the following formula:
Rezultatele msurtorilor 2D i 3D sunt calculate ca o medie ptratic folosind
urmtoarea formul
3D
2D
2D
2D

(X+Y+Z)
(X+Y)
(Y+Z)
(Z+X)

=
=
=
=

X + Y + Z
X + Y
Y + Z
Z + X

In the Dimmenu (or key 7), you can select if you wish to measure in 1D, 2D or
3D. The default setting is 1D./ n meniul " Dim " ( sau tasta 7) , pute i selecta
dac dorii pentru a msura n 1D , 2D sau 3D . Setarea implicit este " 1D "
ATTENTION: Please note that during 2D or 3D measurements, both the main
display and the spectrum display represent the TRUEquadratic mean of
the singleaxes. Hence, it would be wrong to interpret the value shown in the
main display as the quadratic mean of the displayed markers!
ATENIE : V rugm s reinei c, n timpul msurtorilor 2D sau 3D , att pe
ecranul principal cat i pe afiajul spectrului de frecven e sunt reprezentate
media ptratic real a axelor unice . Prin urmare , ar fi gre it s se interpreteze
valoarea prezentat n ecranul principal ca medie ptratic a markerilor afisate !

11.0 Aligning
the sensors
12.0 Physical
units
Aligning the internal sensor
E-field sensor
Senzorul de camp E

The sensor for electric fields only measures in


one dimension.
You can achieve optimal results by making sure
that the field goes through the sides of the device (Y axis), see picture.
The sensor is located in the upper left corner of
the device (right below the AUDIOSTATUSdisplay).
Senzorul de cmpuri electrice masoara doar
ntr-o singura dimensiune .
Putei obine rezultate optime asigurndu-v c
domeniul trece prin prile laterale ale
dispozitivului ( axa Y ) , vezi imaginea .
Senzorul se afl n colul din stnga sus al
dispozitivului ( chiar sub STARE AUDIO
display ) .

12.0 Physical units

H-field sensor (alternating magnetic fields)


Senzorul de camp H (Campuri magnetice alternante)
The sensor for alternating magnetic fields
can measure in 3 dimensions (isotropically).
Thus, you will always get an accurate
measurement independantly on how you align
the device. When measuring the X axis only,
the magnetic field needs to be aligned that it
goes through the front of the unit. Likewise, it
needs to go through the sides for Y axis
measurements, or through the top/bottom for
Z axis measurements (see picture).
The sensor is located at the center of the device (below the INFOdisplay).
Senzorul pentru cmpuri magnetice alternante
poate msura n 3 dimensiuni ( izotrop ) .
Astfel , vei obine ntotdeauna o msurare
exact in mod independent de modul n care
aliniai dispozitivul . La msurarea doar a axei
X , cmpul magnetic trebuie s fie aliniat si
trebuie sa treaca prin partea frontal a unit ii .
De asemenea , acesta trebuie s mearg prin
laturile dispozitivului pentru msurtorile axei
Y , sau prin partea de sus / jos pentru
msurtorile axei Z ( vezi imaginea ) .
Senzorul este situat n centrul dispozitivului
( sub display INFO ) .
M-field sensor (static magnetic fields e. g. magnets, geomagnetic field)
Senzorul de camp M (campurile magnetice statice, ex:magneti, camp
magnetic)
The sensor for static magnetic fields can mea- sure in 3 dimensions
(isotropically). Thus, you will always get an
accurate measurement no matter how you
align the device.
When measuring the X axis, the magnetic field
needs to be aligned such that it goes through
the front of the unit. Likewise, it needs to go
through the sides for Y axis measurements, or
through the top/bottom for Z axis measurements (see picture). The sensor is located in
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13.0 Tips and Tricks


the upper left corner next to the SMA input
(below the nameplate).
Senzorul de cmpuril magnetice statice pot
msura n 3 dimensiuni ( izotrop ) . Astfel , vei
obine ntotdeauna o msurare exact ,
indiferent cum ati aliniat dispozitivul .
La msurarea axei X , cmpul magnetic trebuie
s fie aliniat astfel nct acesta sa treaca prin
partea frontal a campului. De asemenea ,
acesta trebuie s mearg prin laturile
dispozitivului, pentru msurtorile axei Y , sau
prin partea de sus / jos pentru masuratorile axei
Z ( vezi imaginea ) . Senzorul se afl n col ul
din stnga sus de lng intrarea SMA (mai jos
este plcua de identificare ) .

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SPECTRAN offers the possibility to choose between several different physical


units. You can select between various units for magnetic fields at any time in
the Unit menu.
Possible choices are: T, G and A/m.
SPECTRAN ofera posibilitatea de a alege ntre mai multe unit i fizice diferite .
Putei alege ntre diferite unitile de cmp magnetice n orice moment din
meniul " Unit " .
Alegeri posibile sunt : T , G i A / m .

Measuring field strength [V/m; A/m; T;


G]/ Msurarea intensitii cmpului
When using an antenna or sensor instead of direct signal input to make measurements, yo mostly wish to measure field strength (instead of voltage or output).
SPECTRAN allows measurement of electric fields in V/m.
Magnetic fields can be measured in G (Gauss), T (Tesla)or A/m
(Amperes/meter).
As the readout can quickly turn into a gigantic row of digits when measuring
field strengths, SPECTRANoffers a very practical autorange feature: instead
of an endless row of digits, it simply adds a corresponding prefix to the readout,
such as p, n, or m (for example: mT).
Atunci cnd se utilizeaz o anten sau un senzor n loc de semnal de intrare
direct, pentru a face msurtori ,doriti s se msoare intensitatea cmpului ( n
loc de tensiune sau de iesire). SPECTRAN permite msurarea cmpurilor
electrice
n V / m. Cmpurile magnetice pot fi msurate n G ( Gauss ) , T
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12.0 Physical units


( Tesla ) sau A / m( Amperi / metru ) .
Deoarece citirea se poate transforma rapid ntr-un rnd gigantic de cifre, la
msurarea intensitatea cmpului , SPECTRAN ofer o caracteristic foarte
practic numita autoscalare : n loc de un rnd nesfr it de cifre , pur i simplu
adaug un prefix corespunztor pentru citirea , cum ar fi p , n, p sau m ( de
exemplu : MT ) .

Measuring voltage [V]/ Tensiune de masurare


When using direct signal input via the SMA connector, you can directly measure the applied signal in Volts [V]. Input voltage can range from approx. 200nV to
200mV. The extremely high sensitivity of only 200nV allows measurement of
even the weakest signals.
Cnd utilizai semnalul de intrare direct prin conectorul SMA , pute i masura
direct semnalului aplicat n voli [ V] . Tensiunea de intrare poate varia de la
cca . 200nV la200mV . Sensibilitatea extrem de mare de numai 200nV permite
msurarea chiar si celor mai slabe semnale .
You can expand the measuerement range with our optional Differential
Probe up to 240V! The probe also protects the input from to high voltage
(up to 1500V). The probe is a must have if you want to measure DSL
lines etc.
Putei extinde gama de masurare cu .. de pn la 240V ! Sonda
protejeaz , de asemenea, intrarea de tensiune prea inalta ( pn la 1500V ) .
Sonda este un " must have" n cazul n care dorii s msurai linii DSL etc.

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13.0 Tips and Tricks


Turbo sweep/ Baleiera Turbo
The basic factor behind sweep speed is of course the sample time. The smaller
the sample time, the faster the sweep. However, the selected filter and SPAN
settings also influence sweep speed: the broader the filter, the faster the sweep
- the larger the SPAN, the slower the sweep.
Thusly, fastmeasurementofbroadfrequencyranges is only possible with large
filter settings. Simply choose a different RBW setting. Also, dont forget to set
SpTime to a smaller value. However, due to the higher filter bandwidth, the frequency display can be a bit less accurate than with narrower filters. Also,
signals now need to be stronger in order to be still measurable.
Factorul de baz din spatele vitezei de baleiere este, desigur, timpul de prob .
Cu cat sunt mai mici timpii de prob , cu atat este mai rapida baleierea . Cu
toate acestea , filtrul selectat i setrile SPAN influen eaz, de asemenea,
viteza de baleiere : cu cat este mai larg filtru , cu atat este mai rapida baleierea
- daca durata este mai mare, baleierea este mai lenta
Astfel , msurarea rapid a frecvenei largi variaz si este posibil numai cu
setari mari de filtrare . Pur si simplu, alegeti o setare RBW diferita. De
asemenea , nu uitati s setai SpTime la o valoare mai mic. Cu Toate acestea ,
din cauza marimii limii benzii de filtru , afisarea frecventei poate fi mai putin
precisa dect prin metoda filtrelor nguste . De asemenea , semnalele trebuie
acum sa fie mai puternice , cu scopul de a fi in continuare msurabile .
Mapping keys with your own parameters and settings
Taste de cartare cu parametrii si setari personalizate
Keys 0 till 9 can be also mapped with custom configurations (including
start-/stop frequency, RBW etc.). Program numbers 100 till 109 correspond to
keys 0 till 9 and can be used for assignment to these keys. Simply store the
current confi- guration in one of these program numbers, using the menu entry
Setup & Store. You will then be able to recall these settings at any later time
using the corre- sponding number key. If you want even more convenience, you
should use our PCanalysis software LCS or MCS, where you can
additionally add practical notes to your settings.
Taste 0 pana 9 poate fi, de asemenea, cartata cu configura ii personalizate
(inclusiv frecvena pornire / oprire , RBW etc. ) . Numerele de program 100
pn 109 corespund tastelor 0 pana la 9 i pot fi folosite pentru atribuirea
acestor taste . Pur i simplu stocati configurarea actuala intr-unul din aceste
numere de program , folosind functia Setup & Store din meniu . Vei putea apoi
s reutilizati aceste setri n orice moment ulterior, utiliznd tasta numeric
corespunztoare . Dac o variant mai usoara, ar trebui s utiliza i software-ul
nostru de analiz PC " LCS " sau " MCS " , n cazul n care pute i aduga note
practice pentru setri .
Firmware V 1.0 / 2005-2013 by Aaronia AG, D-54597 Euscheid, www.aaronia.com

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12.0 Physical units

You can always recall the factory settings using the menu command
Factor in the Setupmenu.

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13.0 Tips and Tricks


Exposure limit calculations and display with weak signals
Calcule limit de expunere i de afiare cu semnal "slab"
In such a situation, simply set the marker level Marker to a higher sensitivity.
The
20% setting corresponds to the highest sensitivity.
ntr- o astfel de situaie , pur i simplu seta i nivelul marker-ului la o sensibilitate
mai mare. Setare de " 20 % " corespunde celei mai mari sensibilitati .
Conversion of measurement results into other physical units
" Conversia " rezultatelor msurtorilor n alte unit i fizice
As you already know, using the HOLDfeature, you can freeze a measurement
result. After doing this, you can simply change to a different unit [T, G, A/m,
dBm, dBV] or [V/m, dBm, dBV] and the old value will instantly be converted
to the newly selected unit after you leave the menu. You can repeat this
procedure as often as you wish. Very practical for a quick conversion from e. g.
Tesla [T] to Gauss [G].
Dup cum tii deja , utiliznd caracteristica HOLD , pute i " nghe a " un
rezultat de msurare . Dup ce faci acest lucru , avei posibilitatea s modifica i
pur i simplu ntr-o alt unitate [ T , G , A / m , dBm , dBV ] sau [ V / m , dBm ,
dBV ] i valoarea veche va fi imediat transformata n unitatea nou selectata
dup ce prsiti meniul . Putei repeta aceast procedur ori de cte ori dori i .
Foarte practic pentru o conversie rapid de la ex. Tesla [ T ] pentru Gauss [ G ] .
Correct settings for manual input/measurements
Setrile corecte pentru intrare / msurtori manuale
We recommend our PC analysis software LCS or MCS for such tasks. Here,
you can find many optimized profiles from mains power to TCO99 or energysaving lamps. In addition, information such as channel numbers etc. are also
displayed. These parameters can then simply be copied and transferred to
SPECTRAN.
V recomandm software-ul nostru de analiz PC " LCS " sau " MCS " pentru
astfel de sarcini . Aici , putei gsi multe " profiluri " optimizate la re eaua de la
energie electric la TCO99 sau lmpi de economisire a energiei . n plus , sunt
afizate informaii cum ar fi numere de canal etc. Ace ti parametri pot fi apoi pur
i simplu " copiati " i transferati la SPECTRAN .
However, we also have a special setting just for 50Hz/60Hz mains power:
Simply use quick measurement via key 2. In this mode, 50Hz resp. 60Hz signals from power lines, electrical appliances or high-voltage lines can be measured and displayed quickly and easily.
Cu toate acestea avem, de asemenea un decor special doar pentru re ea de
alimentare de 50Hz / 60Hz: Pur i simplu utilizai msurarea rapid prin tasta 2.
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14.0 Exposure limits


n acest mod ,semnalele de 50Hz resp. 60Hz din liniile electrice , aparate
electrice sau linii de nalt tensiune poat fi masurate i afi ate rapid i u or .
PC analysis/ Analiza PC
We offer you our FREEPCanalysis software LCS and MCS for SPECTRAN
at our homepage. Only this PRO application shows the full power which is inside SPECTRAN. You should use this software whenever possible to be able to
fully and optimally use the power of your instrument.
Va oferim gratuite software de analiz pentru PC-uri " LCS " i " MCS " pentru
SPECTRAN de pe pagina noastra . Numai aceast aplica ie PRO arat puterea
deplin , care este inclusa in SPECTRAN . Ar trebui s utiliza i acest software
ori de cte ori este posibil pentru a putea folosi pe deplin i n mod optim
puterea instrumentului .

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14.0 Exposure limits


14.1 Limits for personal safety / Limite pentru
sigurana personal
There are international recognized limits for power wires and the appliances
connected to them, as well as various precautionary limits and recommendations. Depending on the country, professional sector or the various interest
groups, however, they all can differ significantly.
Exist limite internaionale recunoscute pentru cabluri de putere i aparatele
conectate la acestea , precum i diverse limitele de precau ie i recomandri .
n funcie de ar , sector profesional sau diverse grupuri de interese , cu toate
acestea , pot diferi n mod semnificativ .
The German exposure limits are dictated by the Regulierungsbehrde fr
Telekommunikation und Post (Reg TP, roughly: regulating body for telecommunications and post), which is a subsidiary of the Bundesministerium fr
Wirtschaft und Arbeit (BMWA, roughly: ministry of commerce and labour). Most
national and international bodies recognize these recommendations. They are
part of the German 26. BimSchV (ordinance for electromagnetic fields) and
fol- low the international ICNIRPrecommendation.
The German exposure limits are intended for quadratic means of
measurements taken during intervals of 6 minutes and subdivided by
frequency ranges. Furthermore, there are seperate limits depending on the
group of persons affec- ted. As an example, we will use the limit for the
generic population:
Limitele de expunere germane sunt dictate de Regulierungsbehrde fr
Telekommunikation und Post ( Reg TP , aproximativ : organism de
reglementare pentru telecomunicaii i pot ) : Ministerul Comer ului i a
muncii, o filial a Bundesministerium fr Wirtschaft und Arbeit ( BMWA ,
aproximativ ) . Cele mai multe organisme naionale i interna ionale recunoasc
aceste recomandri . Ele fac parte din " 26 . BImSchV " (Ordonan a de cmpuri
electromagnetice ) i urmaresc recomandarile international ICNIRP .
Limitele de expunere germane sunt destinate mijloacelor ptratice de
msurtori efectuate pe durata unui interval de 6 minute i subdivizate pe
categorii de frecven. n plus, exist limite separate n func ie de grupul de
persoane afectate. Ca un exemplu , vom folosi termenul de generic
population:
Frecvente
Below 1 Hz
1-8 Hz

Campul E [V/m]
10.000

Campul H [T]
40.000
40.000 / f

Campul M [A/m]
32.000
32.000 / f

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14.0 Exposure limits


8-25 Hz
0,025-0,8 kHz
0,8-3 kHz
3-150 kHz
0,15-1 MHz
1-10 MHz
10-400 MHz

10.000
250 / f
250 / f
87
87
87 / f
27,5

5.000 / f
5/f
6,25
6,25
0,92 / f
0,92 / f
0,092

4.000 / f
4/f
5
5
0,73 / f
0,73 / f
0,073

The chart on the left graphically


represents, among others, the
before mentioned formulas for H
fields over a frequency range
from 0Hz to 400MHz. The curve
clearly indicates that the widely used, cheap broadband
testers CANNOT determine
these exposure limits properly
as they do not take signal frequency into account.
Graficul din stnga reprezint, printre altele , formulele men ionate anterior
pentru domenii H peste un interval de frecven de la 0 Hz la 400 MHz . Curba
indic n mod clar faptul c pe cara larga, testele ieftine de band larg nu pot
determina aceste limite de expunere n mod corespunztor , deoarece nu iau
semnalul de frecven n considerare .
Moreover, the significant differences of exposure limits for various groups of
per- sons are clearly visible, as well as the corresponding maximum values.
For EMfields at the workplace, there is a seperate prescription from the
German Berufsgenossenschaften (BGV B11) which allows higher exposure
for a short time period.
Cu atat mai mult, diferenele semnificative de limite de expunere pentru diferite
grupuri de persoane sunt clar vizibile , precum i " valorile maxime "
corespunztoare .
Pentru cmpurile EM la locul de munc , exist o recomandare separate de
german " Berufsgenossenschaften " ( BGV B11 ), care permite o expunere mai
mare pentru o perioad scurt de timp .
Mathematical examples:/Exemple matematice
The 50Hz power supply system (mains wiring, high-voltage lines) would have a
maximum allowed electric field strength of under 250/0,050 = 5.000 V/m.
Sistemul de alimentare cu energie 50Hz ( circuitul de alimentare, linii de nalt
tensiune ) ar avea o rezisten maxim permis cmpului electric de sub 250 /

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14.0 Exposure limits


0050 = 5.000 V / m .
In contrast, an energy-saving lamp with an operating frequency of 5kHz, the
electric field strength may only be less than 87 V/m - a big difference.
n schimb , o lamp de economisire a energiei , cu o frecven de func ionare
de 5kHz , a carei intensitate a cmpului electric poate fi doar mai pu in de 87
V / m - o mare diferen .
Those low-frequency fields with the highest impact in daily life are those caused
by regular mains wiring and appliances operated very closely to the human
body, such as electrical shavers and hair dryers. Contrary to popular belief,
appliances such as TVs, computers and monitors are neglectible as they are
mostly shielded very well (TCO99) or operated at large distances (TV) and
thus, exposure levels are very low.
Aceste domenii de joasa frecventa cu cel mai mare impact n via a de zi cu zi
sunt cele cauzate de cablurile i aparate de reea obisnuite utilizate foarte
aproape de corpul uman, cum ar fi aparate de ras electrice i usctoare de pr .
In ciuda celor spuse ,efectele provocate de aparate cum ar fi televizoarele ,
computerele i monitoarele sunt neglijabile n care acestea sunt n mare parte
foarte bine ecranate ( TCO99 ) sau amplasate la distan e mari " ( TV) i , prin
urmare , nivelurile de expunere sunt foarte sczute .

14.2 Device limits/Limitele dispozitivului


In contrast to limits for personal safety, the so-called device limits are often
SIGNIFICANTLY more restrictive and are subject to greater variations depending on frequency. For example, a hair dryers limit is totally different to that of a
computer monitor - values may well vary by a factor of 100. Nevertheless, all
device limits must also conform to limits for personal safety and are a
sub- set of those.
A good example for device limits are the well-known monitor labelling schemes
MPR2 and the more stringent TCO99, the latter of which will be outlined
here. TCO99 recommendations are again frequency-dependant:
Spre deosebire de limitele pentru siguran a personal , a a-numitele limitele
dispozitivului sunt de multe ori semnificativ mai restrictive i sunt supuse unor
variaii mai mari, in functie de frecven . De exemplu , limita unui uscator de
par este total diferit de cea a unui monitor de calculator - valorile pot varia cu
un factor de 100. Cu toate acestea , toate limitele de dispozitive trebuie s se
conformeze limitelor de siguran personal i sunt un sub-set a acestora.
Un bun exemplu pentru limitele de dispozitive sunt bine-cunoscutele .. "
MPR2 " i mult mai strictele " TCO99 " , . Recomandarile TCO99 sunt din
nou - dependenta de frecven :
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14.0 Exposure limits


Frecventa
5Hz-2kHz
2kHz-400kHz

Campul E V/m]
10
1

Campul H [T]
0,200
0,010

There is a vast difference to the personal safety limits outlined previously.


However, it is noteworthy that the TCO99 recommendation also prescribes
com- plex details of the measurement setup such as specific distances,
antennas, number of measurements taken, monitor settings etc. for correct
measurement.
Exist o mare diferen n limitele de siguran cu caracter personal
menionate anterior . Cu toate acestea , este de remarcat c recomandarea
TCO99 prevede , de asemenea, detalii complexe ale configurarii de msurare ,
cum ar fi distanele specifice , antene , numrul de msurtori luate , setrile
monitorului etc. pentru msurarea corect .

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14.0 Exposure limits


14.3 Construction-biological limits & Precautionary limits
" Limitele de constructii biologice " & " limitele de precauie "
The countless construction-biological limitsare vastly different from the
offici- al limits for personal safety - they are mostly significantly lower. To
ones great surprise, however, they often do not have any frequency
component (in con- trast to the highly complex official ICNIRP limits, which
are also legally binding in Germany). In other words, they are completely
identical, for instance, at
16.7Hz (traction power)as well as 50Hz(mains).
Hence, technicians in professional measurement technology are astounded at
this rather strangeway to evaluate exposure limits, predominantly used by
construction biologists. However, there is a simple explanation for this relatively
simple way of evaluating exposure limits:
The measurement equipment used in this sector is predominantly based on
the so-called broadband/diode detectortechnology. However, it is physically
impossible to conduct frequency-selective measurements with these devices.
Hence, frequency-selective construction-biological limits would simply not be
manageable. In any case, this might change very soon thanks to SPECTRAN,
as frequency should really not be swept under the carpet.
Nenumratele "Limitele de constructii biologice" sunt extrem de diferite fata de
limitele oficiale pentru sigurana personal - acestea sunt semnificativ mai mici.
Cu toate acestea, de multe ori nu au nici o "component de frecven " (n
contrast cu limitele oficiale ICNIRP extrem de complexe, care sunt, de
asemenea, legale n Germania). Cu alte cuvinte, ele sunt complet identice, de
exemplu, la 16,7 Hz (puterea de traciune) sunt la fel ca la 50Hz (re ea).
Prin urmare, tehnicieni n domeniul tehnologiei de msurare profesionale sunt
uimiti de acest fel, mai degrab "ciudat", de a evalua limitele de expunere,
utilizate n mod preponderent de biologii de construc ie. Cu toate acestea,
exist o explicaie simpl pentru acest mod relativ simplu de a evalua limitele
de expunere:
"Utilajele de msurare" folosite n acest sector se bazeaz, n principal, pe
tehnologia aa-numita "band larg detector / diode". Cu toate acestea, este
fizic imposibil de a efectua msurtori de frecven selectiva cu aceste
dispozitive. Prin urmare, limitele de constructii biologice pur i simplu nu pot fi
gestionate. n orice caz, acest lucru s-ar putea schimba foarte curnd datorit
SPECTRAN..
Even if supporting such trivial precautionary limits in a real measurement device, such as SPECTRAN, does bother us intensely, we decided to support at
least the ECOLOG-institute and BUNDprecautionary limits.
Chiar dac se sustin in masuratorile dispozitivului astfel de triviale " limitele de
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14.0 Exposure limits


precauie ", cum este SPECTRAN , ceea ce ne deranjeaz destul de mult, am
decis s susinem cel puin institutul ECOLOG i . " limitele de precau ie " .
The following limits can all be called up in Exposure limits mode by using
the right/left cursor keys - they will be displayed instantly:
Urmtoarele limite pot fi gasite in modul " Limite de expunere " folosind tasta
dreapta / stnga - acestea vor fi afiate instantaneu
ECOLOG = ECOLOG institute precautionary limit*
0,1T or 20V/m
BUND = BUNDprecautionary limit for relaxation areas 0,01T or 0,5V/m
Please note that these values could change at any time. Thus, please consult
the respective entities when in doubt. / V rugm s reinei c aceste valori
s-ar putea schimba n orice moment . Astfel , v rugm s consulta i entit ile
respective atunci cnd aveti dubii .
*Only applicable to 50Hz/ Se aplic numai la 50Hz

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15.0 Connections
12.0 SMA input (measurement of external signals)
Intrarea SMA ( msurarea semnalelor externe )
Starting with the NF-3020, an SMAinput is available.
Here, you can connect arbitrary external sensors, like
large, highly sensitive coils, specialized antennas or taps
and similar devices. The incoming signal strength is then
shown in volts.
This additional input allows a wide range of additional
applications and converts SPECTRAN into a true allround instrument. To activate the SMA input, simply
press the key 6 and select the analog sensor (the
Status dis- play reads ANALOG).
ncepnd cu NF - 3020 , o intrare SMA este disponibila.
Aici , putei conecta arbitrar senzori externi , cum ar fi
bobine mari extrem de sensibile , antene specializate sau
robinete i dispozitive similare . Puterea semnalului de
intrare este apoi afisata n voli .
Aceast intrare suplimentar permite o gam larg de
aplicaii suplimentare i transform SPECTRAN ntr-un
dispozitiv complex. Pentru a activa intrarea SMA , pur i
simplu apsai tasta 6 i selectai senzorul analogic
( display-ul afiseaza " ANALOG " ) .
The highly sensitive, ultra low-noise input of SPECTRAN (depending on model
down to 0.74nV/ Hz) has specifically been designed for measurement of extremely weak signals, thus the maximum allowable input voltage is very small. The
maximum input voltage is 200nV to 200mV (0.2V) with a frequency of max.
30MHz (if the SPECTRANis equipped with this option).
Zgomotul de fundal a intrarii extreme de sensibile a lui SPECTRAN , ( n func ie
de model, pn la 0.74nV / Hz ) a fost special conceput pentru msurarea
semnalelor extreme de slabe, astfel ca tensiunea de intrare maxim admis
este foarte mica . Tensiunea maxim de intrare este 200nV la 200mV ( 0,2V ) cu
o frecven de maxim 30MHz ( n cazul n care SPECTRAN este echipat cu
aceast opiune ) .
WARNING: Be sure not to overload the input! The maximum allowable voltage
is just 200mV (0.2V). Voltages more than 10V can destroy SPECTRANs highly
sensitive amplifier circuitry!
AVERTISMENT : Avei grij s nu suprancrcai intrare ! Tensiunea maxim
admis este de doar 200mV ( 0.2V ) . Tensiuni mai mari de 10 V pot distruge
circuitele amplificatorul extrem de sensibil !
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15.0 Connections
You can expand the measurement range with our optional Differential
Probe up to 240V! The probe also protects the input from to high voltage (up to
1500V). The probe is a must have if you want to measure DSL lines etc.
Putei extinde domeniul de msurare cu diferen ialul optional de pn la
240V ! Sonda protejeaz intrarea de tensiuni inalte ( pn la 1500V ) .
Sonda este un " must have" n cazul n care dori i s msura i linii DSL
etc.
SPECTRAN as
DSL-Tester:
The Upstream of a
DSL1000 line.
Measured with a
SPECTRAN NF50xx with DDC and
our active
Differential Probe.
Our free PCSoftware LCS
even shows the
smallest change
with extremly high
resolution!
SPECTRAN ca tester DSL :
Amonte de linia DSL1000 . Msurat cu un SPECTRAN NF 50xx cu DDC si ............. . Software-ul
nostru PC gratuit-" LCS " chiar arat cea mai mic schimbare cu orezoluie extrem de inalta !

58

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15.0 Connections
15.2 External DCinput (battery charging)
Intrare DC externa ( ncrcare acumulator )
All SPECTRANRF measurement devices contain a
high-performance battery package which is already
installed in the unit. However, this battery is not yet
charged due to safety reasons. Please charge it
with the included charger. For this, connect it to your
usual mains and plug the small phone jack into the
DC input on the SPECTRAN. Now turn OFF your
SPECTRAN and the battery pack will be automatically charged. Full charge is reached after about 24
hours for the standard 1300mAh battery, and about
36 hours for the 3000mAh version.
Toate dispozitivele de msurare SPECTRAN RF con in un pachet de baterie de
nalt performan , care este deja instalat n unitatea . Cu toate acestea , acest
acumulator nu este nc ncrcat, din motive de siguran . V rugm s
ncrcai cu ncrctorul inclus . Pentru aceasta, conecta i-l la re eaua obi nuita
i conectai mufa jack n intrarea DC a aparatului. Acum stinge SPECTRAN i
bateria va fi automat ncrcata. ncrcare complet este atins dup
aproximativ 24 de ore pentru baterie standard 1300mAh , i in jur de 36 de ore
pentru versiunea 3000mAh .
Operating with an external power supply:
Operare cu o surs de alimentare extern :
As described above, the DCinput is suitable for charging the internal battery
pack. However, it can also be used for operating SPECTRAN independently of
the internal battery pack.
You can also connect other DC power sources from 8V to 12V max., by
using a 3,5mm phone jack. Polarization of the jack needs to be as follows:
The inner conductor must be +, the outer conductor must be -.
Using our optional car power adapter (see price list), you can also operate
SPECTRANdevices in your car.
Aa cum este descris mai sus, intrare DC este potrivita pentru ncrcarea
acumulatorului intern . Cu toate acestea , ea poate fi , de asemenea, utilizata
pentru acionarea SPECTRAN independent de bateriile interne .
Putei conecta , de asemenea, alte surse de alimentare de la 8V la 12V max .,
folosind un jack de 3,5 mm.Polarizarea mufei trebuie s fie dup cum urmeaz :
Conductorul interior trebuie s fie " + " , conductorul exterior trebuie s fie " - " .
Prin folosirea unui adaptor auto de alimentare (a se vedea lista de pre uri ) ,
putei utiliza dispozitivele SPECTRAN si in masina.
Should you wish to operate SPECTRAN via the wall power supply, please note
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59

15.0 Connections
that the power supply will cause additional interference. This may lead to mismeasurement in extreme cases.
Dac dorii s operati SPECTRAN prin sursa de alimentare de perete , v
rugm s reinei c alimentarea cu energie electric va provoca interferen e
suplimentare . Acest lucru poate duce la n cazuri extreme .
Please note that the included switching power supply operates between
55kHz and 65kHz (60kHz Center plus 10kHz Spread Spectrum).
V rugm s reinei c comutarea de alimentare inclusa opereaz ntre 55kHz
i 65kHz ( 60kHz Center plus 10kHz Spread Spectrum ) .

Toate cablurile / dispozitive folosite pentru conectarea la intrarea externa DC trebuie s furnizeze o tensiune de
curent continuu ntre 8 i 12V prin intermediul unui jack standard de 3,5mm telefon ( interior PLUS conductorul ,
dirijor exterior MINUS )

All cables/devices used for connection to the external DCinput must supply a
DCvoltage between 8 and 12V via a standard 3,5mm phone jack (inner conductor PLUS, outer conductor MINUS).

60

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15.0 Connections
15.3 Audio output/ Iesire audio
This is a standard 2,5mm STEREO phone jack that can
be connected to any device which offers an audio input.
Depending on model and manufacturer, these are
labeled differently: e.g. PHONO, CD, LINEIN, MIC etc.
Depending on the kind of input, you need a fitting adapter cable, which you can purchase from any specialised
trade.
The internal speaker will not switched off if you use the
audio output.
Aceasta este o muf standard de telefon 2,5mm
STEREO care poate fi conectata la orice dispozitiv care
ofer o intrare audio . n funcie de model i de
productor , acestea sunt etichetate diferit : de exemplu,
PHONO , CD , LINE IN , MIC etc. n funcie de tipul de
intrare , avei nevoie de un cablu adaptor de montare ,
pe care le putei achiziiona de la orice vanzator
specializat .
Difuzorul intern nu se va oprit dac utilizai ieirea audio .

15.4 Jog Dial / Volume control


The Jog Dial, like on modern cell phones or PDAs, replaces the up/down arrowkeys (turn the jog dial) and the
Enter key (briefly pressthe jog dial). You can e.g. control the complete menu system just with this practical little wheel.
However, with the demodulator activated, this jog dial
can be used as a volume control. As precaution, before
connecting anything to the audio output, you should turn
this volume control down to zero to avoid overload.
. , asemanator cu cel de pe telefoanele mobile sau
PDA-uri moderne , CES nlocuieste butoanele sus / jos
( " rotii " ) i tasta Enter (..) Enter . Pute i
controla intregul sistem de meniu doar cu acest roat
mica.
Cu toate acestea , cu demodulator activat , acest
poate fi folosit ca un control de volum . Ca msur de
precauie , nainte de a conecta orice pentru ie irea
audio , ar trebui ca acest control al volumului dus pn la
zero pentru a evita suprasarcina .
Firmware V 1.0 / 2005-2013 by Aaronia AG, D-54597 Euscheid, www.aaronia.com

61

15.0 Connections
15.5 USBconnector / conector USB
The 5-pin mini USBBconnector on the SPECTRANallows fast communication with a computer or notebook.
With this feature, you can e.g. download data from
SPECTRANs data logger, perform software (firmware)
updates or perform advanced signal analysis using your
PC with our SPECTRANPC software.
For this connection, you need a high-grade, shielded
USB2.0 cable with USB A to Mini USBB 5-pin (see
Aaronia accessory list).
Conectorul mini USB cu 5 pini a lui SPECTRAN permite
comunicarea rapid cu un calculator sau notebook . Cu
aceast caracteristic , putei: ex. descrca datele de la
logger SPECTRAN, efectua un software ( firmware)
actualizri sau puteti efectua o analiz avansat a
semnalului , folosind PC-ul cu software-ul nostru
SPECTRAN PC .
Pentru aceasta conexiune, ai nevoie de un cablu ecranat
USB 2.0, cu USB de tip A la Mini USB de tip B, 5 - pini (a
se vedea lista de Aaronia accesoriu ) .

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17.0 Tables
Masuratori direct langa aparate:
- Aragaz electric

500 V/m

10.000 nT

- TV
- Sistem Hi-fi
- Uscator de par
- Patura electrica
- Dimmer
- Priza de perete
- Panou de sigurante
- Ecranul calculatorului

5.000 V/m
500 V/m
1.000 V/m
5.000 V/m
1.000 V/m
200 V/m
300 V/m
200 V/m

10.000 nT
5.000 nT
100.000nT
5.000 nT
300 nT

Masuratori la distante mai mari:


- In apropierea unei linii de inalta tensiune de
10kV

500 V/m

5.000nT

3.000 V/m
10.000 V/m
15.000 V/m

20.000nT
50.000nT
500.000nT

- In apropierea unei linii de inalta tensiune de


110kV
- In apropierea unei linii de inalta tensiune de
380kV
- n imediata apropiere a unei staii 380kV

Firmware V 1.0 / 2005-2013 by Aaronia AG, D-54597 Euscheid, www.aaronia.com

500 nT
1.000 nT

63

16.0 Typical readouts in practice


Conversion table for MAGNETICFIELDS
Tabel de conversie pentru cmpuri magnetice
1 nT
10 nT
100nT
1.000nT
10.000nT
100.000nT
1.000.000nT
10.000.000nT
100.000.000nT

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

0,001T
0,01T
0,1T
1T
10T
100T
1.000T
10.000T
100.000T

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

0,000.001mT
0,000.01mT
0,000.1mT
0,001mT
0,01mT
0,1mT
1mT
10mT
100mT

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

0,01mG
= 0,000.01G
0,1mG
= 0,000.1G
1mG
= 0,001G
10mG
= 0,01G
100mG
= 0,1G
1.000mG
= 1G
10.000mG
= 10G
100.000mG = 100G
1.000.000mG = 1.000G

G = Gauss, T = Tesla, n = nano (one billionth), = micro (one millionth)


m = milli (one thousandth)
1 Gauss = 1 Oersted (Oersted is used in various countries, mostly in
eastern Europe)

Conversion table for ELECTRICFIELDS


Tabel de conversie pentru cmpuri electrice
0,01 mV/m
0,1 mV/m
1 mV/m
10 mV/m
100 mV/m
1.000 mV/m
10.000 mV/m
100.000 mV/m
1.000.000 mV/m
10.000.000 mV/m
100.000.000 mV/m
1.000.000.000 mV/m

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

0,000.01V/m
0,000.1V/m
0,001V/m
0,01 V/m
0,1 V/m
1 V/m
10 V/m
100 V/m
1.000 V/m
10.000 V/m
100.000 V/m
1.000.000 V/m

= 0,000.000.01 kV/m
= 0,000.000.1 kV/m
= 0,000.001 kV/m
= 0,000.01 kV/m
= 0,000.1 kV/m
= 0,001 kV/m
= 0,01 kV/m
= 0,1 kV/m
= 1 kV/m
= 10 kV/m
= 100 kV/m
= 1.000 kV/m

V/m = Volti/metru
k = kilo (thousandfold)
m = milli (one thousandth)

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18.0 Tables
Table 5 Gain and corresponding dB values
1
0 dB
2
3 dB
2,5
4 dB
4
6 dB
5
7 dB
8
9 dB
10
10 dB
100
20 dB
1 000
30 dB
10 000
40 dB
100 000
50 dB
1 000 000
60 dB
10 000 000
70 dB
dB = decibel

Table 3 dBm to dBW and W (and corresponding prefixes):


0 dBm
-30dBW
0,001W
1mW
-10dBm
-40dBW
0,000.1W
100W
-20dBm
-50dBW
0,000.01W
10W
-30dBm
-60dBW
0,000.001W
1W
-40dBm
-70dBW
0,000.000.1W
100nW
-50dBm
-80dBW
0,000.000.01W
10nW
-60dBm
-90dBW
0,000.000.001W
1nW
-70dBm
-100dBW
0,000.000.000.1W
100pW
dBm = decibelmilliwatts, dBW = decibelwatts, W = watts,
mW = milliwatts, W=microwatts, nW= nanowatts, pW=picowatts

Table 4 Frequency, wavelength and official band abbreviation


Tabelul 4 Abrevieri de frecventa, lungimea de unda si banda oficiala
3 Hz-30 Hz
100.000 km - 10.000 km
ULF
30 Hz-300 Hz
10.000 km - 1.000 km
ELF
300 Hz-3 kHz
1.000 km - 100 km
VF
3 kHz-30 kHz
100 km - 10 km
VLF
30 kHz-300 kHz
10 km - 1 km
LF
300 kHz-3 MHz
1 km - 100 m
MF
3 MHz-30 MHz
100 m - 10 m
HF
30 MHz-300 MHz
10 m - 1 m
VHF
300 MHz-3 GHz
1 m - 10 cm
UHF
3 GHz - 30 GHz
10 cm - 1 cm
SHF
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65

17.0 Tables
Table 7 Frequencies of various interference sources (examples)
Frequency range
16,67Hz
50Hz
60Hz
50Hz-200Hz
200Hz-1kHz
31kHz
40kHz
42kHz
45kHz
49kHz
52kHz
56kHz
60kHz
77,5kHz
125-135kHz
13,56MHz

Description
Traction power (Germany)
Mains power (Europe)
Mains power (US and others)
Welding and high voltage utility network
Power converters and high voltage utility network
CRT TV
Energy-saving lamp (21W, Osram)
30 TFT monitor (Dell)
Energy-saving lamp (8W, Osram)
17 TFT monitor (Dell)
24 TFT monitor (Dell)
20 TFT monitor (Dell)
Battery charger (noname)
DCF77 (German reference time broadcast)
RFID
RFID

We provide significantly more exhaustive lists on the Aaronia homepage. If you want true
luxury, you can also find our free PC analysis software right there!

Table8 Field strengths of magnetic fields and distance


Single conductor
1/r
Two conductors, opposite polarities
1/r
Electric coils, transformers, motors
1/r

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19.0 Spectrum analysis basics


What is a frequency range?
Ce este lungimea de frecventa ?
Imagine a giant motorway, several kilometres wide, with thousands of individual
lanes. On this motorway, all imaginable kinds of vehicles can be found:pedestrians, motorcycles, cars, trucks etc.. To not let them go into one others way,
every lane is reserved for only a single group of road users: e.g., lane 1 ON LY
for cyclists, lane 3 ONLY for pedestrians, lane 40 ONLY for trucks etc..
Depending on the density of the individual kinds of traffic, these lanes also have
corresponding widths. For example, the lane reserved for cyclists is much narrower than the one for trucks and so on. Electromagnetic fields work exactly like
this, just that the lanes are called frequency ranges and the vehicles are called
applications (for example, a traction power line, mains cable or a TV are all
applications - just as every appliance that somehow makes use of electricity,
including their cables).
Every application utilizes its very own, reserved, exclusive frequency range.
By assigning a seperate frequency range for each application, conflicts between individual applications can be avoided (just as with the different vehicles
on the motorway) - so that for instance, a cellphone cannot disrupted by a highvoltage line.
Imaginai-v un autostrad gigant ,de c iva kilometri l ime, cu mii de benzi .
Pe aceast autostrad ,poate fi gasit orice fel de vehicul: motociclete ,
autoturisme , camioane , etc. Pentru a nu le lasa sa se incurce reciproc, fiecare
culoar este rezervat pentru un singur grup de participan i la trafic : ex. banda 1
este destinata doar pentru ciclist , banda 3 numai pentru pietoni , banda 40 este
destinata doar pentru camioane , etc. n func ie de traficul de pe fiecare banda,
aceste benzi au, de asemenea, diferite l imi : De exemplu, benzile rezervate
pentru bicicliti sunt mult mai ngust dect cele rezervate pentru camioane , etc.
Cmpurile electromagnetice functioneaza exact ca aceasta , doar c benzile
sunt numite domenii de frecven i vehiculele sunt numite aplica ii ( de
exemplu , o linie de putere de traciune ,o re ea prin cablu sau un televizor sunt
toate aplicaiile - la fel ca orice aparat care utilizeaza energie electric, inclusiv
cablurile lor ) .
Fiecare aplicaie are propria lungime de frecven e pentru utilizare exclusiv . Prin
atribuirea unei lungimi de frecven separata pentru fiecare aplica ie, conflictele
ntre diferiti " utilizatori rutieri " pot fi evitate , astfel ncat ex. un telefon mobil nu
poate fi perturbat de o linie de inalta tensiune.
Big differences between exposure limits
Diferente mari intre limitele de expunere
Back to our motorway: Of course, all road users also have their own specific
speed limits. For our example, a pedestrian may only walk at up to 5 km/h., cars
might go at up to 300km/h.

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19.0 Spectrum analysis basics


Exposure limits for applications work similarly, just that the word speedis
replaced with field strength: a traction power line operating at 16.7Hz for
instance, may only emit a field strength of 7,500V/m, while a 50Hz power lines
limit is 5,000V/m, an energy saving lamps maximum is only a few V/m, and so
on. As a practical example, following are three official exposure limits:
napoi la autostrada noastra: Desigur , to i participan ii la trafic au , de
asemenea, propriile limite de vitez specifice .In exemplul nostru , un pieton
poate umbla cu o viteza pn la 5 km / h. Masinile, n schimbare , pot accelera
pn la 300 km / h. Limite de expunere pentru aplica ii func ioneaz n mod
similar , doar c termenul " viteza " se nlocuie te cu intensitatea cmpului : o
linie de putere de traciune funcioneaz la 16,7 Hz , si poate emite doar cu o
intensitate a cmpului de 7,500V / m , n timp ce limita unei linii de alimentare
de 50Hz este 5,000V / m , o economisire maxim de doar cativa V / m , i a a
mai departe . Ca un exemplu practic , sunt urmtoarele trei limite de expunere
oficiale
Frecventa [Hz]
16,7
50
40.000

Utilizatori
Traction power
Mains power
Energy saving lamp

Limita [V/m]
8.500
5.000
87

It is easily noticable that each application may only operate in EXACTLYONE


frequency range. The significant differences between the individual limits are
also clearly visible.
Este uor de notabil faptul ca fiecare cerere poate opera numai ntr-un interval
de frecven . Diferenele semnificative ntre limitele individuale sunt , de
asemenea, n mod clar vizibile .
Why spectrum analysis?
De ce o analiza a spectrului ?
There are two principal reasons:
Exista 2 motive principale:
1.) You would like to know WHICHEXACTapplications are operating,
1. ) Ati dori s titi exact ce aplicaii sunt in derulare ,
2.) You would like to measure the exposure created by each individual application, for example, to evaluate excess of exposure limits.
3.) Ai dori s msurati expunerea creata de fiecare cerere n parte , de
exemplu , pentru a evalua excesul de limite de expunere .
Regarding 1.):
In ceea ce priveste 1.):
Lets reconsider our giant motorway example:
Remember
every lane
was only
intended
for the
use
of a single kind of
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by Aaronia
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Euscheid,
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.aaronia.com

68

19.0 Spectrum analysis basics


vehicle. Now imagine that a huge bridge crossed this motorway and you standing on the bridge and looking down on the motorway. Wow, what a mess!
Now, imagine you would like to know what exactly happens on the motorway,
seperately per lane. As the motorway is incredibly wide, you will need some
quite good binoculars, even if you only want to have a small overview. Lets
ima- gine that you can evaluate a range of 400m with your binoculars. Next, you
would like to determine what lanes have traffic right now and how fast it is
going. Consequently, you will take a piece of paper and note the corresponding
lane number and measured speed. Starting at lane 1, you write down:nothing!
OK, next, lane 2: nothing either! OK, lane 3: yes, theres something going at
18km/h. Lane 4:nothing. And so on - until you have reached the last lane. What
have you achieved? Well, you have just performed an analysis of the entire
lane range of 0-400m. Or, in other words: you have performend a RANGE
ANALYSIS. Analysis, as you know, means dividing something into smaller
pieces and eva- luate those. In our case, the wide motorway was that
something, and the smal- ler pieces were the individual lanes. Now, the word
range can be replaced with the word SPECTRUM, and there we are: we
have just performed a SPEC- TRUMANALYSIS! Well, who would have
thought that you are a spectrum ana- lyser!
But joking aside: now the only thing missing is a lane plan which would provide detailed information which lanes correspond to which vehicles, and you can
determine exactly what vehicles were just been travelling.
S considera exemplul nostrum cu "autostrada gigant":
Amintii-v c fiecare band a fost destinata doar pentru utilizarea unui singur
tip de vehicul. Acum, imaginai-v c un pod imens traverseaza acest
autostrad i stai pe pod i te uiti n jos pe autostrada. Acum, imagina i-v ca
ati dori s titi ce se ntmpl exact pe autostrad, pe fiecare banca separat.
Deoarece autostrada este incredibil de mare, ve i avea nevoie un binoclu destul
bun, chiar dac dorii doar o imagine de ansamblu. S ne imaginam ca pute i
evalua o serie de 400m cu binoclul. Apoi, v-ati dori as determinati ce benzi au
trafic i ct de repede se circula. Prin urmare, luati o bucat de hrtie i nota i
numrul benzii corespunztoare i viteza msurat. ncepnd de la linia 1, v
notai: nimic! OK, urmtoarea, banda 2: nimic, fie! OK, banda 3: da, se circula
cu 18 kilometri pe or. Linia 4: nimic. i aa mai departe - pn cnd a i ajuns
la ultima banda. Ce ai realizat? Ei bine, a i efectuat doar o analiz a ntregii
game de banda 0-400m. Sau, cu alte cuvinte: ai realizat o analiz RANGE.
Analiza, dup cum tii, nseamn mprirea a ceva n buc i mai mici i evaluate individual. n cazul nostru, autostrada larga a fost acel "ceva", iar piesele
cele mai mici au fost benzile individuale. Acum, cuvntul "gama" poate fi nlocuit
cu cuvntul "Spectrum" : tocmai am efectuat o ANALIZA TRUM!
Acum singurul lucru care lipseste este un "plan de banda", care ar furniza
informaii detaliate ce corespund benzi si vehiculelor corespunzatoare, i pute i
determina exact ce vehicule au trecut pe autostrada.

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19.0 Spectrum analysis basics


Thats exactly what happens when doing spectrum analysis:
There are laneshere as well, just that these lanes are called frequency ranges. The width of these frequency ranges is measured in Hz (Hertz). As very
often these ranges fall into very high Hz ranges, numbers would grow quite
large when actually using this unit. Consequently, the unit is often prefixed,
resulting in kHz (1,000Hz) or MHz (1,000,000Hz). This way, working with these
numbers becomes much more comfortable. Likewise, 1.000.000Hz could also
be expres- sed as 1.000kHz or 1MHz, and so on.
Asta e exact ceea ce se ntmpl atunci cnd faci analiza spectrului de
frecvene :
Exist " benzi ", doar c aceste benzi de frecven sunt numite GES. L imea
acestor game de frecvena este msurat n Hz ( Hertz ) . De foarte multe ori
aceste intervale se ncadreaz n intervale foarte mari de Hz , numerele ar
crete destul de mult atunci cnd utilizati acest aparat . Prin urmare , unitatea
este deseori modificata , rezultnd kHz ( 1,000Hz ) sau MHz ( 1,000,000Hz ) .
n acest fel , lucrul cu aceste numere devine mult mai usor. De asemenea ,
1.000.000Hz ar putea fi exprimat ca 1.000kHz sau 1MHz , i a a mai departe .
Back to our example:the individual vehices are called applications and have
handy abbreviations: for instance, the application traction power has its own
frequency range of 16.7Hz.
We will also replace the formerly used expression speed with something else:
field strength.
napoi la exemplul nostru : vehiculele individuale sunt numite aplica ii i au la
ndemn abrevieri : de exemplu, " puterea de trac iune " a aplicatiei are propria
gama de frecvene de 16,7 Hz .
Vom inlocui , de asemenea, expresia utilizat anterior " viteza " cu altceva :
intensitatea cmpului .
So far we are done with all the physical units and wording. Next, spectrum analysis itself; it works exactly like our motorway:
Say our spectrum analyser should measure all frequency ranges from 0Hz to
400Hz (in our metaphor, the 400m range of the giant motorway). It will step by
step measure each frequency range individually. Starting at 0-1Hz, then 1-2Hz
and so on, until it reaches 400Hz. It will also exactly record the signal strength
in each frequency range, also providing us with the signal strength in each of
the frequency ranges.
Pn n prezent, am terminat cu toate unit ile fizice i modul de redactare .
Mai departe ne ocupam de analiza spectrului n sine ; functioneaza exact ca
autostrada noastra : analizor de spectru ar trebui s msoare toate lungimile de
frecven de la 0Hz la 400Hz ( n exemplul nostru, 400m latimea autostrazii
gigant ) . Acesta va masura pas cu pas fiecare frecventa individual . ncepnd
de la 0-1Hz , apoi 1-2 Hz i aa mai departe , pn cnd se ajunge la 400Hz .
Firmware V 1.0 / 2005-2013 by Aaronia AG, D-54597 Euscheid, www.aaronia.com

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19.0 Spectrum analysis basics


De asemenea, va nregistra exact puterea semnalului n fiecare domeniu de
frecven , de asemenea, ne furnizeaz puterea semnalului n fiecare dintre
intervalele de frecven .
Some practical examples:
Cateva exemple practice
Lets assume we want to accurately study the frequency range from 0Hz to
400Hz, and lets further assume that the following 3 applications are currently
active in this range, with varying signal levels (in practice, you will often find a
far bigger number of applications):
S presupunem vrem s studiem cu exactitate lungimea de frecven e de la 0Hz
la 400Hz , i s presupunem n continuare c urmtoarele 3 aplica ii sunt active
n acest interval , cu diferite niveluri de semnal ( n practic , ve i gsi de multe
ori o serie mult mai mare de cereri ) :
Lungime de frecventa [MHz]
16.7Hz
50Hz
350-360Hz

Utilizatori
Traction power
Mains power
Unknown

Masuratori
40
20
80

How could such a result be displayed optimally on a measurement device?


Well, first of all, we apply the frequency range of 0Hz to 400Hz on the X axis,
from left to right:
Cum ar putea un astfel de rezultat s fie afi at n mod optim pe un dispozitiv de
msurare ? Ei bine , n primul rnd, vom aplica lungimea de frecven e de la 0Hz
400Hz pe axa X , de la stnga la dreapta :
0Hz

400Hz

OK, now that was simple. Now, we tag each of the 3 applications on the X axis,
according to their frequencies, and their positions in the frequency range become visible:
Acum , ne-am eticheta fiecare din cele 3 aplica ii de pe axa X , n func ie de
frecvenele lor ,iar poziiile lor n lungimea de frecven e au devenit vizibile:

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19.0 Spectrum analysis basics


400Hz

0Hz

Not that difficult, either. Finally, we represent the strength of each signal in
terms of vertical bars with corresponding heights along the Yaxis:
n cele din urm , ne-am reprezenta puterea fiecrui semnal sub forma de bare
verticale cu nl imea corespunzatoare de-a lungul axei Y:
80
40
20
0Hz

400Hz

In addition, we have made the markers as wide as the frequency range of


each application (the so-called bandwidth): our unknown signal occupied the
fre- quency range from 350 to 360Hz - accordingly, its bandwidth was 10Hz
(360-350Hz = 10Hz).
Cu alte cuvinte, am fcut markerii la fel de largi ca lungimea de frecven e de
fiecare masurare ( aa-numita l ime de band ) : semnalul necunoscut ocupa
intervalul de frecven de la 350 la 360Hz -l ime de band a lui este de 10 Hz
( 360-350Hz = 10Hz ) .
Well, it was all quite simple at the end, wasnt it? We now have a single display
consisting of ALLinformation available about the three signal sources.
Asadar, totul a fost destul de simplu la sfritul anului, nu-i a a ? Acum avem un
singur ecran ce cuprinde toate informa iile disponibile despre cele trei surse de
semnal .
In practice, this display could look similar to the following image on an idealized
measurement device:
n practic , acest ecran ar putea arata similar cu imaginea de mai jos de pe un
dispozitiv de msurare :
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19.0 Spectrum analysis basics


This example image also shows 3 main signal sources,
from left to right:
Acest exemplu arat 3 surse principale de semnal , de la
stnga la dreapta
Semnalul #1=16.7Hz at -63dBm
Semnalul #2=50Hz at -23dBm
Semnalul #3=350Hz at -42dBm

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19.0 Spectrum analysis basics


These signals are illustrated as vertical bars on the display. Our previously
deter- mined rule applies here too:the higher the signal strength, the higher
the bar. More precise information about the individual bars is shown from left to
right as markers in the upper part of the display. On the left, marker 1 (the
leftmost bar) indicates a frequency of 16.7Hz at -63dBm. In the centre, marker
2 (second bar from the left) indicates 50Hz at -23dBm. Finally, marker 3 (the
rightmost bar) dis- plays 350Hz at -42dBm.
Aceste semnale sunt ilustrate ca bare verticale pe ecran . Regula anterior se
aplic i aici : cu ct puterea semnalului este mai mare,cu atat este mai mare si
bara . Mai multe informa ii precise despre barele individuale sunt prezentate de
la stnga la dreapta ca markeri n partea superioar a afi ajului . n partea
stng ,marker-ul 1 (bara din stanga ) indic o frecven de 16,7 Hz la
-63dBm . n centru, marker-ul 2 ( a doua bara din stnga) indic 50Hz la
-23dBm . n cele din urm , marker-ul 3 (bara din dreapta) afiseaza 350Hz la
-42dBm .
Remark:the configured frequency range is constantly being analysed. Thus,
the display will keep changing all the time. This process is called sweeping.
Observa ie : lungimea de frecven e configurata este n mod constant analizata .
Astfel , afiajul va continua s se schimbe tot timpul . Acest proces este numit
de baleiere.
What information did we get from the entire process?
Ce informa ii am primi de la ntregul proces ?
1.) In the entire frequency range from 0 to 400Hz there are 3 main signal
sources.
2.) The frequencies and signal strength of all 3 signal sources are exactly
known.
1. ) n ntreaga lungime de frecven e de la 0 la 400Hz sunt 3 surse
principale de semnal .
2 ) Frecven ele i puterea semnalului de la toate cele 3 surse de semnal
sunt exact cunoscute .
As the exact frequencies of the signal sources are now known, it is now
easy to determine the actual entity or service emitting the signal by using
a so-called frequency table (see also the frequency table on page 56, or
the more exhaustive frequency tables on the Aaronia homepage).
Frecven ele exacte ale surselor de semnal fiind acum cunoscute , este mai u or
s se determine care exercit efectiv sau serviciului care emite semnalul prin
utilizarea unui tabel de frecven e ( vezi , de asemenea, tabelul de frecven de
la pagina 56 , sau tabelele de frecven pe pagina Aaronia ) .
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19.0 Spectrum analysis basics


Using these frequency tables, we can determine the source of our 16.7Hz
signal as follows:
16,7Hz = Traction power
In other words, we are dealing with an overhead line or similar railroad
installation.
Folosind aceste tabele de frecven , putem determina sursa de semnalului
nostru 16,7 Hz , dup cum urmeaz :
16,7Hz = putere de trac iune
Cu alte cuvinte , avem de-a face cu o linie aerian sau o instala ie de cale
ferat similara .

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20.0 Warranty
Aaronia warranty
Garantie Aaronia
Guaranteed upgrade service to newer models.
Upgrade garantat la modelele mai noi
You can simply replace one of our measurement devices with a better model
of the same series at any time by paying the corresponding difference in
price. For example, should you have purchased a SPECTRANNF-1010E
and after some time, you would like more sensitivity, you can simply pay the
price diffe- rence between the two models and upgrade to a SPECTRANNF5030.
Pute i nlocui pur i simplu unul dintre dispozitivele noastre de msurare cu un
model mai bun de aceeai serie , n orice moment, prin plata diferen ei de pret
corespunztoare. De exemplu , ar trebui s cumpratati un SPECTRAN NF 1010E i dup un timp ,vreti mai multa sensibilitate , puteti face plata pur i
simplu plata diferentei de pret ntre cele dou modele i upgrade-ul la un
SPECTRAN NF - 5030 .
Guaranteed replacement in case of product range additions.
As soon as new instruments are ready for launch, you can upgrade your
product to a more current model at any time by paying the price difference.
Our customers have first taken the opportunity to accept this offer in the year
2000, when upgrading from the older Multidetektor 1 series to the new
Multidetektor II models. These customers only needed to pay half the price for
the new Multidetektor II, with Aaronia recycling the old instruments in an ecologically compatible manner.
. .
De ndat ce noi instrumente sunt gata de lansare , pute i s face i upgrade
produsului la un model mai curent n orice moment prin plata diferen ei de pre .
Clientii nostri au posibilitatea de a accepta aceast ofert n annul 2000, atunci
cnd actualizarea era de la seria Multidetektor 1 la noile modele Multidetektor
II . Aceti clien i trebuie sa faca plata a jumtate din pre ul pentru noul
Multidetektor II , cu Aaronia reciclare instrumentele vechi se face ntr-un mod
ecologic.
10 years warranty on all models.
We offer 10 years warranty for all our instruments. We promptly exchange
defec- tive units in a non-bureaucratic way, promised!
10 ani garanie la toate modelele .
Oferim 10 ani garantie pentru toate instrumentele noastre . Facem schimb

20.0 Warranty
prompt de unit i necorespunztoare ntr-un mod non - birocratic!

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Firmware V 1.0 / 2005-2013 by Aaronia AG, D-54597 Euscheid, www.aaronia.com

21.0 Developer-Net, Fo rum ul uti lizat oril or si


m ulte alt ele !
Va rugam sa vizitati support website:
http://spectran-developer.net

This site offers:


- Free Firmware updates
- Free PC Analyzer-Software (MAC OS, Linux and Windows)
- Free ASDK (Aaronia-Software-Developer-Kit)
- P-CODE programing samples and SPECTRAN TUNING
- User Forum incl. FAQ
- News on latest Aaronia products
Acest site ofera :
- Actualizri gratuite de firmware
- Analyzer Software de PC gratuit (Mac OS , Linux i Windows)
- ASDK gratuit ( Aaronia - Software - Developer - Kit)

Probe de programare P -Code si SPECTRAN TUNING - Manual de utilizare Forum incl . FAQ
- Noutati despre cele mai noi produse Aaronia

Firmware V 1.0 / 2005-2013 by Aaronia AG, D-54597 Euscheid, www.aaronia.com

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64

HyperLOG and BicoLOG Antennas and Probes/


Antene si sonde HyperLOG i BicoLOG

SPECTRAN Spectrum Analyzer / Analizor de spectru SPECTRAN

22.0 Frequency charts Analyzer &


Antennas

Firmware V 1.0 / 2005-2013 by Aaronia AG, D-54597 Euscheid, www.aaronia.com