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Chemistry

Periodic table
Periodic Table : Periodic table may be defined as the
arrangement of known elements according to their
properties in a tabular form
Newlands law of octaves: When the elements are
arranged in the increasing order of atomic masses, the
properties of every eight elements are similar to the
first one. Newland called this relation as the law of
octaves due to similarity with the musical scale.
First
Octave
2nd octave
3rd Octave

I
H

II
Li

III
Be

IV
B

V
C

VI
N

VII
O

F
Cl

Na
K

Mg
Ca

Al
Cr

Si
Ti

P
Mn

S
Fe

Mendeleeffs Law: In 1969, Mendeleeff, a Russian


chemist, stated his famous periodic law
The physical and chemical properties of an
elements are a periodic function of their atomic
masses.
Main features of Mendeleevs periodic table The horizontal rows present in the periodic table
are called periods. There are seven (7) periods in
the table.
Properties of elements in a particular period show
regular gradation (i.e. increase or decrease) from
left to right.

The vertical columns present in it are called


groups. There are nine in number and are
numbered from I to VIII and Zero.
Groups I to VII are subdivided into A and B
subgroups. Groups Zero and VIII dont have any
subgroups.
All the elements in a particular group are
chemically similar in nature. They show regular
gradation in their physical properties and chemical
reactivities.
Defects in Mendeleevs periodic classification Position of Hydrogen Hydrogen resembles alkali metals ( forms H+
just like Na+ ) as well as halogens ( forms H- similar to
Cl- ). Therefore, it could neither be placed with alkali
metals (group I ) nor with halogens (group VII ).

Position of isotopes -

Different isotopes of same elements have different


atomic masses, therefore, each one of them should be
given a different position in the periodic table. On the
other hand,because they are chemically similar, they
had to be given same position. On the other hand,
because they are chemically similar, they had to be
given same position.
Anomalous pairs of elements At certain places, an element of higher atomic mass
has been placed before an element of lower atomic
mass. For example, Argon (39.91) is placed before

potassium (39.1) and Cobalt (atomic mass 58.9)


appeared before nickel (atomic mass 58.7) .

Modern Periodic Law : The properties of the elements


are a periodic function of their atomic numbers
Features of the Modern Periodic Table :1)The elements in the periodic table are arranged in the
increasing order of their atomic number or electronic
configurations .
2) The horizontal rows are called as "periods".
3) The vertical columns are called as " groups" .
4)The Modern periodic table consists of 7 periods and
18 groups.
PERIODS :a) Each period starts with an alkali metal and ends with
an inert gas element.
b) Elements present in the same period have same
number of shells which is equal to the periodic number.

c) The 1st period is the shortest period containing only


2 elements i.e. Hydrogen (H) & Helium (He). In this
period, only the 1s orbital is filled.
d) The 2nd period contains 8 elements starting with
Lithium (Li) and ending with Neon (Ne). In this period,
the 2s & 2p orbitals are filled.
e) The 3rd period also contain 8 elements starting with
Sodium (Na) and ending with Argon (Ar). In this period
the 3s & 3p orbitals are filled.
f) The 4th period is the long period with 18 elements,
starting with Potassium (K) and ending with Krypton
(Kr). In this period, 4s & 4p and also the 3d orbitals are
filled.
g) The 5th period is also the long period with 18
elements, starting with Rubidium (Rb) and ending with
Xenon (Xe). The 5s & 5p along with 4d orbitals are
filled.
h) The 6th period is the longest period with 32
elements. It not only includes 10 elements belonging to
5d series i.e. from Lanthanum (La) to Mercury (Hg) but
also contains 14 elements belonging the 4f
series called lanthanides i.e from Cerium (Ce) to
Lutetium (Lu). In this period, the 6s & 6p along with the
4f & 5d orbitals are filled.

i) The 7th period is an incomplete period. It includes Fr


along with the 14 elements belonging to 5f series called
actinides i.e from Thorium (Th) to Lawrencium (Lr). In
this period, the 7s & 5f orbitals are filled.
GROUPS :a) The Modern Periodic Table consists of 18 groups or
vertical columns.
b) Elements present in the same group show same
physical and chemical properties.
c) Also the elements present in the same group have
same number of electrons in the outermost shell.
d) According to American convention, the groups are
denoted by roman numerals followed by either an
capital alphabet "A" if the group is in the s-block or pblock, or by "B" if the group is in the d-block .
e) Thus the groups from 1 to 18 are denoted as IA , IIA,
IIIB, IVB, VB, VIB, VIIB, VIII, IB ,IIB, IIIA, IVA, VA, VIA, VIIA
and 0 (zero).
f) The elements from IA to VII A group i.e the elements
in the groups 1, 2, 13, 14, 15, 16 & 17 are called as
representative elements.

g) The 18th group or zero group elements are called as


inert gases or noble gases . This group includes the
elements He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe and Rn.
h) The elements in the groups from IIIB to IIB i.e., from
group 3 to 12 are called as transition elements .
i) The two rows placed at the bottom of the periodic
table i.e the Lanthanides and Actinides are also
considered to be the part of IIIB group (i.e. group 3).
These are usually called as inner transition elements .
The 14 elements with atomic number 58 to 71 are
called as Lanthanides, whereas the 14 elements with
atomic number 90 to 103 are called as Actinides.
Classification of Elements :At present elements upto atomic number 118 are
known of which the recently discovered elements are
man-made. With such a large number of elements,it is
very difficult to study the chemistry of the individual
elements and the innumerable compounds they
form.Hence it is necessary to classify the elements for
their systematic and organised studies. Therefore the
Elements in the Periodic Table are classified on the
basis of their electronic configuration into 4 blocks as
s , p , d and f .

1. S-block :- The Group 1 and 2 elements contain 1 or 2


electrons in their outermost shell and are called as sblock elements.
2. P-block :-The elements in the Groups from 13 to 17
and the 0 (zero ) group elements contain 3 to 8
electrons in their outermost shell and are called as pblock elements.
3. D-block :- The elements in the Groups from 3 to 12
contain 1 to 2 electrons in their outermost shell and are
called as Transition elements. They are all metals.
4. F-block :- The 14 elements with atomic number 58 to
71 are called as Lanthanides whereas the 14 elements
with atomic number 90 to 103 are called as
Actinides.These 28 elements are collectively called as fblock elements.
Description:
In the standard periodic table, the elements are listed
in order of increasing atomic number (the number of
protons in the nucleus of an atom). A new row (period)
is started when a new electron shell has its first
electron. Columns (groups) are determined by the
electron configuration of the atom; elements with the
same number of electrons in a particular subshell fall
into the same columns (e.g. oxygen and selenium are
in the same column because they both have four
electrons in the outermost p-subshell). Elements with
similar chemical properties generally fall into the same

group in the periodic table, although in the f-block, and


to some respect in the d-block, the elements in the
same period tend to have similar properties, as well.
Thus, it is relatively easy to predict the chemical
properties of an element if one knows the properties of
the elements around it.[3]
As of 2014, the periodic table has 114 confirmed
elements, comprising elements 1 (hydrogen) to 112
(copernicium), 114 (flerovium) and 116 (livermorium).
Elements 113, 115, 117 and 118 have reportedly been
synthesised in laboratories however none of these
claims have been officially confirmed by the
International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
(IUPAC), nor are they named. As such these elements
are currently identified by their atomic number (e.g.,
"element 113"), or by their provisional systematic name
("ununtrium", symbol "Uut").[4]
A total of 98 elements occur naturally; the remaining
16 elements, from einsteinium to copernicium, and
flerovium and livermorium, occur only when
synthesised in laboratories. Of the 98 elements that
occur naturally, 84 are primordial. The other 14
naturally occurring elements occur only in decay chains
of primordial elements.[1] No element heavier than
einsteinium (element 99) has ever been observed in
macroscopic quantities in its pure form
Groups: A group or family is a vertical column in the
periodic table. Groups usually have more significant
periodic trends than periods and blocks, explained
below. Modern quantum mechanical theories of atomic
structure explain group trends by proposing that

elements within the same group generally have the


same electron configurations in their valence shell
Periods: A period is a horizontal row in the periodic
table.
Blocks : Specific regions of the periodic table can be
referred to as blocks in recognition of the sequence in
which the electron shells of the elements are filled.
Each block is named according to the subshell in which
the "last" electron notionally resides.
Electronegativity: Electronegativity is the tendency
of an atom to attract electrons. An atom's
electronegativity is affected by both its atomic number
and the distance between the valence electrons and
the nucleus. The higher its electronegativity, the more
an element attracts electrons. It was first proposed by
Linus Pauling in 1932.
ionization energy : the energy required to remove an
electron from a neutral isolated gaseous atom and
convert it into a positively charged gaseous ion .The
ionization energy (IE) of an atom or molecule
describes the minimum amount of energy required to
remove an electron (to infinity) from the atom or
molecule in the gaseous state.
X + energy X+ + e
1st ionization energy
X X+ + e
2nd ionization energy

X+ X2+ + e
3rd ionization energy
X2+ X3+ + e
It is the minimum amount of energy required to remove
an electron from an isolated gaseous atom in its ground
state to form a gaseous ion .The ionization energy is
the amount of energy it takes to detach one electron
from a neutral atom.
The closer and more tightly bound an electron is to the
nucleus, the more difficult it will be to remove, and the
higher its ionization energy will be.
The first ionization energy is the energy required to
remove one electron from the parent atom denoted by
I1 Na --> Na+ + eThe second ionization energy is the energy required to
remove a second valence electron from the univalent
ion to form the divalent ion, and so on denoted by I2 -

Na+ --> Na2+ + eSuccessive ionization energies increase. The second


ionization energy is always greater than the first
ionization energy. Ionization energies increase moving
from left to right across a period (decreasing atomic
radius). Ionization energy decreases moving down a
group (increasing atomic radius).
Group I elements have low ionization energies because
the loss of an electron forms a stable octet.

electron affinity :
The electron affinity of an atom is the amount of energy
released when an electron is added to a neutral atom
to form a negative ion. Although electron affinity varies
greatly, some patterns emerge. Generally, nonmetals
have more positive electron affinity values than metals.
Chlorine most strongly attracts an extra electron. The
electron affinities of the noble gases have not been
measured conclusively, so they may or may not have
slightly negative values.[36]
Electron affinity generally increases across a period.
This is caused by the filling of the valence shell of the
atom; a group 17 atom releases more energy than a
group 1 atom on gaining an electron because it obtains
a filled valence shell and is therefore more stable