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Safety engineering model


A well-known early study into safety management was undertaken by an

American engineer H.W Henrich in 1931 and is usually refers to as
Henrichs dominion theory
He identifies chain of events and circumstances that ultimately lead to
Environmental factors
Fault of the individual
Unsafe act or condition
Henrich analyse a number of accidents and determine that 88% were due
unsafe acts and 10% due to unsafe conditions
These findings has formed a base of much subsequent OSH .
A similar finding emerged from a development of the safety engineering
model (SEM)
In this model developed in the united states of America, research confirms
the similar balance of unsafe acts (85%) and unsafe conditions (15%)
Researchers further suggested that unsafe acts are best educated through
education and enforcement whereas unsafe conditions are best prevent
through improved engineering practices and enforcement of these
The addition of management and worker behaviour to the basic model
include a focus on the following elements:
1. Empowerment of workers
2. Adoption of progressive labour practices
3. Promotion of health and safety as a personal and organisational value
4. Development of positive worker attitude to focus on behaviour
5. Application of ergonomic and human factor analysis
In addition a focus of healthy in the workplace was introduced, this
introduced an emphasis on protecting and promoting healthy and safety in
the work place
Key aspects included:
1. Prevention and control of occupational diseases and accidents
2. Development and promotion of healthy and safe work place
3. Enhancement of physical and mental of social well-being of employees
4. Empowerment of employees to conduct social and economically
productive lives
These early studies and developments created a platform for the
emergence of more systematic approach to OSH in the work place



It is the employers legal to develop and emplement workers procedures

1. Identify harzards in the works place
2. Assess the level of risk associated
3. Develop risk control option and implement the appropriate control
The aim of the process is to completely remove or at least minimise the
risk of injury or illness associated with work place activity
To enable an employer to do this hazards must be reported

Identifying hazards through work place inspections, completing hazards

assessment and then selecting hazards controls is an important part of the
management of healthy and safety at work


General hazards can be identified by:

1. Direct observation
2. Reference to information and data
3. Consultation of staff or external organisations
Examples of hazard identification
1. Feedback from work place personnel
2. Hazard reports, incidents reports
3. Injury and illness records
4. Work place monitoring, eg atmospheric
5. Investigation of staff concerns
6. Research and information exchange



After identifying a hazard and assessing a risk, the next step is to identify
control method and apply
If yu eliminate a hazard the no need to control, the best option
Hazard control can be grouped in hierarchy control
Most effective are on top and (engineering, administration and PPE

The three Es for a simple guide, Elimination of hazard, engineering controls,

Exposure controls