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ELE-351

Electrical Energy Conversion

Chapter 5

Synchronous Generators

Outline

Synchronous generator construction

The rotor circuit

The speed of rotation and the frequency of the electrical power

An equivalent circuit for a synchronous generator

The phasor diagram

Voltage regulation

Power & torque in synchronous generators

Measuring SG parameters

Frequency and voltage control of SG

Effects of load variations (voltage regulation) for isolated generators.

Synchronous generator

A p rime mover (diesel en g ine or turbine) is connected to the shaft (rotor) to supply mechanical power. A dc current is applied to the rotor or field winding producing a rotating magnetic field (Br). A 3 φ set of vo l tages is i n d uced on t h e stator or armature windings.

Elementary Synchronous generator

Elementary Synchronous generator The rotating magnetic field is created by the dc current applied to the
Elementary Synchronous generator The rotating magnetic field is created by the dc current applied to the

The rotating magnetic field is created by the dc current applied to the field winding on the spinning rotor!

Voltage is induced on the 3 windings placed on the stator by the variation of the magnetic flux.

The rotor circuit (magnet)

2 and 4-pole machines have nonsalient (cylindrical) poles while machines with 4 or more poles have salient (sticking out) poles.

nonsalient (cylindrical) poles while machines with 4 o r more poles have salient (sticking out) poles.

The rotor circuit (magnet)

The rotor circuit (magnet) Photograph of a salient 8 ‐ pole synchronous machine rotor 9:54 PM

Photograph of a salient 8pole synchronous machine rotor

The rotor circuit (magnet)

DC current is supplied to the rotor by means of slip rings and brushes.

Slip Rings: are metal rings encircling shaft and are insulated from it

metal rin g s encircling shaft and are insulated from it O ne en d of

One end of rotor winding is

connected to each of the 2 slip rings A stationary brush mounted on the machine casing ride on each slip ring

A brushless exciter system

The dc current that appears on the rotor is obtained from a rectified induced voltage.

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exciter system The dc current that appears on the rotor is obtained from a rectified induced

8

Another brushless exciter system

Notice the small pilot exciter (extra windings, permanent magnet and rectifiers).

exciter system Notice the small pilot exciter (extra windings, permanent magnet and rectifiers) . 9:54 PM

The speed of rotation of a synchronous generator

The electrical frequency is synchronized to the rotor speed. Recall that the magnetic field created by a 3φ 4- pole machine moves 180° while the stator currents vary 360°.

moves 180 ° while the stator currents vary 360 ° . Therefore, a 2 - pole

Therefore, a 2-pole generator must turn at 3600 r/min to produce a 60 Hz voltage while a 4-pole must turn at 1500 r/min to produce 50 Hz power.

The induced voltage

The “internal generated voltage” (no load) is:

E

K

A = ϕω,

K

=

N C 2
N
C
2

where ω is given in Electrical rad/s

How can this voltage be varied?

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is: E K A = ϕω , K = N C 2 where ω is given

11

The output voltage of the generator

The output voltage of the generator 9:54 PM 12

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The output voltage of the generator 9:54 PM 12
The output voltage of the generator 9:54 PM 12
The output voltage of the generator 9:54 PM 12

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The output voltage of the generator

Last figure shows a 2 pole rotor spinning inside a 3 phase stator, without load Rotor magnetic field B R develops a voltage E A is positive out of conductors, at top, and negative into the conductors at bottom of figure When there is no load on generator, the armature current is zero, E A =V φ If the generator is connected to a lagging PF load, the peak current occurs at an angle behind the peak voltage as in fig (b)

The output voltage of the generator

Current flowing in stator windings produces its magnetic field B S The direction of B S is found by R.H.R. as shown in fig(c). This B S produces another voltage in stator, named E stat as shown in figure Having these two voltage components in stator windings, total voltage in one phase is sum of E A and

E stat :

V φ = E A + E stat

and

B net = B R + B S

The angle of B net coincide with angle of V φ shown in

fig (d)

The output voltage of the generator

To model the effect of armature reaction, note:

E stat lies at an angle of 90 behind plane of maximum current I A E stat directly proportional to I A and X is constant of proportionality

E stat = -j X I A

voltage in one phase

V φ =

E A - j X I A

The output voltage of the generator

Factors that affect the output voltage (V φ ):

Armature reaction: Field created by the stator or armature currents.

stator

Self-inductance windings.

and

resistance

of

the

These

inductive

reactance and resistance in series with the internal generated voltage

be

modeled

by

can

an

The output voltage of the generator

Stator self-inductance named L A (its reactance

X A ) and stator resistance is R A :

V φ = E A - jXI A - jX A I A - R A I A

Armature reaction & self-inductance in machine both represented by reactances, normally they are combined to a single reactance as :

X S = X + X A

V

φ

= E - jX I - R I

A

S

A

A

A

Equivalent model of a 3φ synchronous generator

Equivalent model of a 3 φ synchronous generator 9:54 PM 18

The per-phase equivalent circuit and phasor diagrams

The per-phase equivalent circuit and phasor diagrams How does V φ / Ε Α vary with

How does V φ /Ε Α vary with the load type?

Synchronous Generators Power and Torque

Not all mechanical power goes to a synchronous generator becomes electrical power The difference between input & output power represent the losses.

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b ecomes e l ectr i ca l power The difference between input & output power

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Synchronous Generators Power and Torque

The input mechanical power is the shaft power in the synchronous generator

P in

= τ app ω m

The power converted from mechanical to electrical form

P conv = τ ind ω m

= 3E A I A cos γ where γ is the angle between E A and I A )

The difference between P in and P conv in generator represents mechanical, core, and stray losses of the machine

Synchronous Generators Power and Torque

The real electrical output power of synchronous generator in line quantities:

P out =3 V T I L cos θ in phase quantities:

P out = 3 V φ I A cos θ

The reactive power output:

=3 V

Q

out

T

I

i

L s n

θ

in phase quantities:

Q out = 3 V φ I A sin θ Ignoring the armature resistance R A (X S >> R A ), a useful relation can be derived to approximate the output power of the Generator.

Synchronous Generators Power and Torque

To derive that useful equation with the stator resistance ignored, a simplified phasor diagram is used

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To derive that useful e q uation with the stator resistance ignored, a simplified phasor diagram

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Synchronous Generators Power and Torque

The vertical segment bc is

E A sinδ

I A cos θ = E A sin δ / X S

or

X S I A cos θ

Substituting this in the equation of P out

P out = (3V φ E A sinδ) / X S

Since resistances assumed zero, no electrical losses in the generator and P conv = P out

The above equation shows that the power produced by a the generator depends on the angle δ (between V φ and E A ), the torque angle

Maximum power that the generator can supply occurs when δ = 90.

P max = (3V φ E A ) / X S

Synchronous Generators Power and Torque

From chapter 4, torque developed in a generator can be expressed as:

τ ind = k B R × B S

τ ind = k B R × B net

Magnitude of torque in this equation is:

τ ind = k B R B net sin δ δ is the angle between the rotor field and the net magnetic field Since B R produces voltage E A , and B net produces V φ , the angle δ between E A and V φ is same as angle between B R and B net

Synchronous Generators Power and Torque

Alternative expression for this torque in syn. Gen. is derived

Using P conv = τ ind ω m

τ ind

=

3V E

φ

A sin

δ

ω X

m

S

This equation gives torque in terms of circuit parameters.

Measurement of Synchronous Generator Model Parameters

Main parameters: I F × E A relationship, X S and R A .

Open-circuit test E A = V T

Short-circuit test

Z S

E 2 2 A = R + X = A S I
E
2
2
A
= R + X =
A
S
I

A

Since X S >> R A

,

E V φ, A oc X = S ≈ I I A A
E
V φ,
A
oc
X
=
S ≈
I
I
A
A

DC voltage test in the armature

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R =

A

V

DC

2I

DC

2R

A =

V

DC

I

DC

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Measurement of Synchronous Generator Model Parameters

Measurement of Synchronous Generator Model Parameters E A from the open circuit test and I A
Measurement of Synchronous Generator Model Parameters E A from the open circuit test and I A

E A from the open circuit test and I A from the short circuit test are taken at the rated field current I f, rated

The Effect of Load Changes on a Synchronous Generator Operating Alone

For E A constant, if the load changes, the voltage drop across X S and V φ also change

drop across X S an d V φ al so c h ange → How can
drop across X S an d V φ al so c h ange → How can

How can V φ be regulated? By varying I f