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A composition, in unit dosage form, for the batchwise purification for drinking purposes of a

relatively small predetermined volume of contaminated water includes: (a) an organo-chlorine


compound serving as a disinfectant-sanitizing agent; (b) a solid inorganic metal salt having a
trivalent cation serving as a coagulant-precipitate agent; (c) a solid alkali which is highly soluble
in water and highly effervescent in the presence of an acid serving as a dispersion-buffer agent;
(d) a solid anionic polymeric hydrophilic primary colloid flocculant; (e) a solid cationic,
polymeric hydrophilic secondary colloid flocculant; (f) long fiber cellulose serving as an
agglomeration matrix and pre-filter for absorbing flocs and trapping visible debris and cysts; and
(g) a bulk ion exchange absorbent. A water purification kit and method employing the
composition are also disclosed.

flocculant is frequently only able to effect satisfactory


agglomeration of the coagulated effluent over quite a small coagulant dosage
range.
- below the optimum coagulant dose for successful flocculation the resulting
agglomerated flocs can be stringy, leaving an unsatisfactory turbid liquor.
- above the optimum coagulant dose for successful flocculation the
agglomeration process may not occur at all.
Hence, the definition of an appropriate flocculant is the product which effects
successful agglomeration over the widest coagulant dosage range as well as one
which creates distinct, separable flocs at a low dose rate

Although alum and iron salts are the most widely used chemical coagulants for community drinking water
treatment, other coagulants have been and are being used to coagulate household water at point of use,
including alum potash, crushed almonds or beans and the contents of Moringa and Strychnos seeds. Table
12 lists some the coagulants that have been and are being used for water treatment at the community and
household level, their advantages and disadvantages and their costs.
Table 12. Chemical coagulants for water treatment and their advantages, isadv

Community/Household
Coagulant Advantages Disadvantages Cost* Comments
Use

Community use Difficult to


Alum (aluminum
common; optimize without Proper use
sulfate, etc.), Yes/rare-moderate Moderate?
simple training and requires skill
alum potash
technology equipment

Iron salts (ferric


Proper use
chloride or Yes/rare Same as Alum Same as Alum Moderate?
requires skill
sulfate)

Same as Alum;
Lime (Ca(OH2)),
pH control and Softeners;
lime+soda ash
neutralization a Moderate to not
(Na2CO3), Yes/rare-moderate Same as Alum
problem; high? applicable to
caustic soda
hazardous many waters
(NaOH)
chemicals

Same as Alum;
Use with
Improve hard to dose;
other
Soluble synthetic coagulation need training &
Yes/no-rare High coagulants;
organic polymers with alum and equipment;
limited
iron salts hazardous
availability
chemicals
Natural polymers
(carbohydrates)
Rare/Yes
from seeds, nuts,
beans, etc.

Source plant
required; Traditional
(in some Effective, available and training and use based
developing culturally accepted in skill required; Low on
countries) some places cultural historical
acceptability; practices
may be toxic

*Estimated Annual Cost: low is 0.01 per liter (corresponds to about $100, respectively, assuming household
use of about 25 liter per day)
Chemical coagulation-flocculation enhances the removal of colloidal particles by destabilizing them,
chemically precipitating them and accumulating the precipitated material into larger "floc" particles that can
be removed by gravity settling or filtering. Flocculation causes aggregation into even larger floc particles
that enhances removal by gravity settling or filtration. Coagulation with aluminum or iron salts results in the
formation of insoluble, positively charged aluminum or iron hydroxide (or polymeric aluminum- or iron-
hydroxo complexes) that efficiently attracts negatively charged colloidal particles, including microbes.
Coagulation-flocculation or precipitation using lime, lime soda ash and caustic soda is used to "soften"
water, usually ground water, by removing (precipitating) calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese and other
polyvalent, metallic cations that contribute to hardness. However, reductions in microbial contaminants as
well as turbidity, and dissolved and colloidal organic matter are also achieved in this process.
Duan and Gregory investigated on coagulation by hydrolyzing aluminum and iron salts and their
dependence on pH and coagulant dosage Duan, J. and Gregory, J., (2003)., Coagulation by hydrolyzing
metal salts, Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, 100, 475-502

INORGANIC COAGULANTS and TREATMENT


CHEMICALS
Inorganic Coagulants
Inorganic coagulants can be electrolytes or polyelectrolytes and are typically based on iron
(ferric or ferrous), aluminum, calcium, or magnesium. These coagulants all have one thing
in common: when they are dissolved in water they generate a highly charged cation useful
for destabilizing dispersed solids.
Most wastewaters contain finely divided solids or emulsified liquids that are dispersed due
to the mutual repulsion of their surface negative charges. When a highly cationic ion is
introduced into this system, it interferes with this repulsive stabilization and allows the
particles to come into close contact. This starts the coagulation process. Van der Waals
attraction and/or the use of polymeric coagulants completes the process forming larger
aggregates which can be further flocculated or separated as is from the waste stream.
The following is a list of the most common inorganic coagulants in use today and a brief
overview of some of their features. The best choice for a particular application depends on
the system and is usually determined only after jar testing in the laboratory.
Ferric Chloride [FeCI3] - Typically sold in solution form. Applications include phosphate
removal, sludge conditioning and dewatering, trace metals removal, and odor control.
Solutions are very acidic and corrosive. Available as a solid and in solution (27-43% FeCl3)
form.
Ferrous Chloride [FeCI2] - Applications include phosphate removal, odor control, heavy
metals removal, controls toxic sulfide generation in anaerobic digesters, oil & grease
removal, and sludge conditioning. Available in solution form only (8-14% iron). Very
acidic and corrosive.

Ferric Sulfate [Fe2(SO4)3] - Applications include water clarification, decolorization of


surface water, sludge conditioning and dewatering, trace metals removal, organics removal
(including trihalomethanes), sulfide control, phosphate removal, oil &grease separation
and DAF. Available as a solid and in solution (10-13% iron) form. Very acidic and
corrosive.

Hydroxylated Ferric Sulfate [Fe5(SO4)7(OH)] - The newest of the iron salts. Billed as a
replacement for alum. Sold in solution form. Very acidic and corrosive.

Ferrous Sulfate [FeSO4] - Applications include phosphate removal, trace metals removal,
and odor control. Available in solid and solution (5-12% iron) form. Very acidic and
corrosive.

Aluminum Chloride [AlCl3] - Applications include metals removal, oil & grease separation
and water clarification. Available as a solid and in solution form. Acidic and corrosive.

Aluminum Sulfate [alum, Al2(SO4)3] - Perhaps the most widely used inorganic coagulant.
Uses similar to aluminum chloride. Available as a solid and in solution form. Acid and
corrosive.

Calcium Chloride [CaCl2] - Infrequently used for metals removal, organics reduction and
water clarification. CaCl2 also has great utility for. phosphate removal. Available as a solid
and in solution form. Nonhazardous.

Magnesium Hydroxide [Mg(OH)2] - Used for pH control (maximum pH of 9.0 helps


prevent overshooting pH target). Helps reduce sludge levels when used as a precipitant.
Safe to handle. Contains no heavy metals. Available as a 50% slurry or in solution form.
Can have problems with stability of slurry and is slow to dissolve.

Polyaluminum Chloride [PAC] - This describes a wide variety of materials containing more
than one aluminum atom in the molecule up to about 13. These materials are typically
described by their Al2O3 content and basicity. Al2O3 ranges from about 8% to 25% and
basicity is usually between 50 and 70% for most commercial products. Aluminum
chlorohydrate is an example of a PAC. Some manufacturers replace part of the chloride
content with silicate or sulfate. Some materials are corrosive. Available in solution form
only.

Sodium Aluminate - Applications include color removal,, phosphorus removal, lime


softening, pH control, and many papermaking applications. Very alkaline and very
corrosive. Available in solution form.

FLOCCULANT APPLICATIONS
FOR PRECIPITATION AND DEWATERING
Last updated October, 2009

Copyright ©1997-20
09 TRAMFLOC, INC. All Rights Reserved.
http://www.tramfloc.com/tf27.html

Med Tr Prom Ekol. 1994;(1):26-8.

[Rationale for maximum allowable exposure level of aluminum sulfate and its
coagulants in the air of the workplace]

[Article in Russian]

Grekhova TD, Neizvestnova EM, Konstantinova LI, Dobroliubova LP, Babakova OM, Petelina EV, Fomina AS.

Aluminum sulfate, ammonium alum, purified and unpurified nephelinic coagulant are assigned to the 3rd jeopardy

class (moderately dangerous chemicals), sodium alum, , potash alum --to the 4th jeopardy class (slightly dangerous

chemicals) at the single exposure. Local irritation of rabbit's skin was not revealed, but instillation into the eye results

in conjunctivitis and purulent ophthalmitis. Aluminum sulfate and coagulants afflict the nervous system, liver and

heart. The recommended MAC in the air of workplace for aluminum sulfate, potash alum, sodium alum and

coagulants based on them is equal to 0.5 mg/m3.

PMID: 7804710 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

v
Table 4. Chemical or Physical-Chemical Methods for Water Treatment at the Household Level

Availability
Technical Microbial
Method and Cost (a)
Difficulty Efficacy (b)
Practicality

Coagulation-Flocculation or
Moderate Moderate Varies Varies (c)
Precipitation
Adsorption (charcoal, carbon, High to Low to Varies with
Varies
clay, etc.) moderate moderate adsorbent (d)

Moderate to Usually Low or


Ion exchange Low to Moderate
high High moderate

High to Low to
Chlorination Moderate High
Moderate Moderate

Ozonation Low High High High

Chlorine Dioxide Low Varies (e) High High

Iodination (elemental, salt or Moderate to


Low High High
resin) High

Acid or base treatment with


citrus juice, hydroxide salts, High Low Varies Varies
etc.

Silver or Copper High Low Low Low

Combined systems: chemical


Moderate to
coagulation-flocculation, Low to Moderate High High
High
filtration, chemical disinfection

(a) See footnote to Table 3.


(b) See footnote to Table 3
(c) Varies with coagulant, dose, mixing and settling conditions and pH range.
(d) Microbial adsorption efficiency is low for charcoal and carbon and high for some clays.
(e) On-site generation of gas is difficult but chemical production by acidifying chlorate or chlorite is simple if
measuring devices and instructions are provided.
Managing water in the home: accelerated health gains from improved water supply: 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11 |
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Ferrate is an excellent water treatment agent for its multi-functions in oxidation, disinfection, coagulation
and adsorption, but its coagulation ability depends on its dosage and is after its oxidation

Double catholyte electrochemical approach for preparing ferrate-


aluminum: a compound oxidant-coagulant for water purification
Journal Journal of Environmental Sciences

Publisher IOS Press

ISSN 1001-0742 (Print) 1878-7320 (Online)

Issue Volume 14, Number 1/2002

Pages 49-53

Authors

Jiu-hui Qu1, Peng-ju Lei1, Hui-juan Liu1


1
State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Research Center for Eco-Environmental
Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China. E-mail: jhqu@ mail.rcees.ac.cn