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Pumps & Hydraulic Turbines

Pumps
The most common types of pumps used in gas processing
plants are centrifugal and positive displacement. Occasionally
regenerative turbine pumps, axial-flow pumps, and ejectors
are used.
Modern practice is to use centrifugal rather than positive
displacement pumps where possible because they are usually
less costly, require less maintenance, and less space. Conventional centrifugal pumps operate at speeds between 1200 and
8000 rpm. Very high speed centrifugal pumps, which can operate
FIG. 12-1
Nomenclature
A
a
AC
bbl
bkW
C
C p
D
DC
d
e
g
H
h
hyd kW
k
kPa
kPa (abs)
kPa (ga)
L
L s
m
NPSH
NPSHA
NPSHR
n
n s
P
P
P vp
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
Q =
r =
RD
s
S
sp gr
=
=
=
=
T =
t r = temperature rise, C
cross-sectional area of plunger, piston, or pipe, mm 2
cross-sectional area of piston rod, mm 2
u = impeller peripheral velocity, m/s
alternating current
VE = volumetric efficiency, fraction
VE o = overall volumetric efficiency
barrel (42 U.S. gallons or 0.1589 m 3 )
brake kilowatt
VE = volumet ic efficiency due to density change
constant (Fig. 12-16)
VE l = volumet ic efficiency due to leakage
specific heat at ave age tempe atu e, J/(kg C)
v = liquid mean velocity at a system point, m/s
displacement of ecip ocating pump, m 3 /h
z = elevation of a point of the system above (+) o
di ect cu ent
below () datum of the pump. Fo piping, the elevation is f om the datum to the piping cente impelle diamete , mm
line; fo vessels and tanks, the elevation is f om
pump efficiency, f action
the datum to the liquid level.
9.8067 m/s 2 (accele ation of g avity)
G eek:
total equipment head, m of fluid
= density at ave age flowing conditions, kg/m 3
head, m of fluid pumped
i = inlet density, kg/m 3
hyd aulic kilowatts
o = outlet density, kg/m 3
facto elated to fluid comp essibility (Fig. 12-16)
Subsc ipts:
kilopascal
a = accele ation
kilopascal, absolute

bep = best efficiency point, fo maximum impelle


kilopascal, gage
diamete
length of suction pipe, m
c = comp ession
st oke length, mm
d = discha ge of pump
numbe of plunge s o pistons
dv = discha ge vessel
net positive suction head of fluid pumped, m
D = displacement
NPSH available, m
f = f iction
NPSH equi ed, m
i = inlet of equipment
speed of otation, evolutions/minute ( pm)
l = leakage
specific speed, pm
o = outlet of equipment
diffe ential p essu e, kPa
ov = ove all
p essu e, kPa (abs) o kPa (ga)
p = p essu e
liquid vapo p essu e at pumping tempe atu e,
= ise
kPa (abs)
s = static, suction of pump, specific, o st oke
ate of liquid flow, m 3 /h
sv = suction vessel
atio of inte nal volume of fluid between valves,
v = velocity
when the piston o plunge is at the end of the suction st oke, to the piston o plunge displacement.
vp = vapo p essu e
elative density to wate at standa d tempe atu e
w = wate
slip o leakage facto fo ecip ocating and ota y pumps
x = point x in the system
suction specific speed (units pe Eq 12-7)
y = point y in the system
specific g avity at ave age flowing conditions.
1 = impelle diamete o speed 1
Equal to RD
2 = impelle diamete o speed 2
to que, N m (Newton mete s)
12-1FIG. 12-1 (Contd)
Nomenclatu e
Alignment: The st aight line elation between the pump
shaft and the d ive shaft. on the system cha acte istics, liquid p ope ties and
ope ating conditions.
Casing, Axially Split: A pump case split pa allel to the
pump shaft. NPSHR: The minimum total suction absolute head, at the
suction nozzle, efe ed to the standa d datum, minus the
liquid vapo absolute p essu e head, at flowing tempe atu e,
equi ed to avoid cavitation. Fo positive displacement
pumps it includes inte nal accele ation head and losses
caused by suction valves and effect of sp ings. It does not
include system accele ation head. NPSHR depends on the
pump cha acte istics and speed, liquid p ope ties and flow

ate and is dete mined by vendo testing, usually with wate .


Casing, Radially Split: A pump case split t ansve se to
the pump shaft.
Cavitation: A phenomenon that may occu along the flow
path in a pump when the absolute p essu e equals the
liquid vapo p essu e at flowing tempe atu e. Bubbles
then fo m which late implode when the p essu e ises
above the liquid vapo p essu e.
Pelton Wheel: A tu bine unne which tu ns in eaction to
the impulse impa ted by a liquid st eam st iking a se ies
of buckets mounted a ound a wheel.
Coupling: A device fo connecting the pump shaft to the
d ive shaft consisting of the pump shaft hub and d ive
shaft hub, usually bolted togethe .
Reci culation Cont ol: Cont olling the quantity of flow
th ough a pump by eci culating discha ge liquid back to
suction.
Coupling, Space : A cylind ical piece installed between
the pump shaft coupling hub and d ive shaft coupling
hub, to p ovide space fo emoval of the mechanical seal
without moving the d ive .
Roto : The pump o powe ecove y tu bine shaft with the
impelle (s) mounted on it.
Cutwate : The point of minimum volute c oss-sectional
a ea, also called the volute tongue.
Roto , F ancis-type: A eve se unning cent ifugal pump
impelle , used in a hyd aulic powe ecove y tu bine, to
conve t p essu e ene gy into otational ene gy.
Datum Elevation: The efe ence ho izontal plane f om
which all elevations and heads a e measu ed. The pumps
standa ds no mally specify the datum position elative to
a pump pa t, e.g. the impelle shaft cente line fo cent ifugal ho izontal pumps.
Run-out: The point at the end of the head-capacity pe fo mance cu ve, indicating maximum flow quantity and
usually maximum b ake ho sepowe .
Runne : The shaft mounted device in a powe ecove y tu bine which conve ts liquid p essu e ene gy into shaft powe .
Diffuse : Pump design in which the impelle is su ounded
by diffuse vanes whe e the g adually enla ging passages
change the liquid velocity head into p essu e head.
Shut-off: The point on the pump cu ve whe e flow is ze o,
usually the point of highest total dynamic head.
Displacement: The calculated volume displacement of a
positive displacement pump with no slip losses.
Simplex: Pump with one plunge o piston.
Double Acting: Recip ocating pump in which liquid is
discha ged du ing both the fo wa d and etu n st oke of
the piston.
Single Acting: Recip ocating pump in which liquid is discha ged only du ing the fo wa d st oke of the piston.
Slip: The quantity of fluid that leaks th ough the inte nal
clea ances of a positive displacement pump pe unit of
time. Sometimes exp essed on a pe centage basis.
Duplex: Pump with two plunge s o pistons.
Efficiency, Mechanical: The atio of the pump hyd aulic
powe output to pump powe input.
Su ging: A sudden, st ong flow change often causing excessive vib ation.
Efficiency, Volumet ic: The atio of the pump suction o

discha ge capacity to pump displacement.


Suction, Double: Liquid ente s on both sides of the impelle .
Head: The flowing liquid column height equivalent to the
flowing liquid ene gy, of p essu e, velocity o height above
the datum, whose sum is the total head. Also used to exp ess changes of ene gy such as the f iction losses, the
equipment total head and the accele ation head.
Suction, Single: Liquid ente s one side of the impelle .
Th ottling: Cont olling the quantity of flow by educing the
c oss-sectional flow a ea, usually by pa tially closing a valve.
T iplex: Pump with th ee plunge s o pistons.
Vanes, Guide: A se ies of angled plates (fixed o va iable)
set a ound the ci cumfe ence of a tu bine unne to cont ol the fluid flow.
Head, Accele ation: The head equivalent to the p essu e
change due to changes in velocity in the piping system.
HPRT: Hyd aulic powe ecove y tu bine.
Impelle : The bladed membe of the otating assembly of a
cent ifugal pump which impa ts the fo ce to the liquid. Volute, Double: Spi al t
ype pump case with two cutwate s
180 apa t, dividing the flow into two equal st eams.
NPSHA: The total suction absolute head, at the suction nozzle, efe ed to the standa d datum, minus the liquid vapo absolute p essu e head, at flowing tempe atu e
available fo a specific application. Fo ecip ocating
pumps it includes the accele ation head. NPSHA depends Volute, Single: Spi al ty
pe pump case with a single cutwate to di ect the liquid flow.
Vo tex B eake : A device used to avoid vo tex fo mation in
the suction vessel o tank which, if allowed, would cause
vapo ent ainment in the equipment inlet piping.
12-2FIG. 12-2
Common Pump Equations
FLOW RATE
Given
multiply by
to get
m 3 /h
US gal/min
0.2271
Given
multiply by
to get
kPa
P
g RD 0.999
v 2
h v =
2 g
=
0.2728
ft wate
at 39.2F m wate
at 0C
6.895 2.989 9.8066
1 HP = 0.7457 kW
= 550 ft lbf/s
= 33,000 ft lbf/min
CHANGE
Q 2 =

h 2 =
6.624 10
m liquid
g/1000
DENSITY
lb/US gal lb/UK gal kg/lt
16.018 119.83 99.77 1000
g
d n
60 000
Q 277.8
v =
A
-3
lb/ft 3
1000 P
u =
bbl/day
101.9
PRESSURE
lb/in 2
Given
multiply by
to get
kg/m 3
h p =
ft 3 /sec
UK gal/min
Q H g
Q H RD
=
367.47
3 600 000
Q P
=
3600
h y d kW
( fo r pump s )
bkW =
e
bkW = h yd kW e (for turbines)
hyd kW =
3
bkW 2 = bkW 1 (n 2 /n 1 )
NPSHR 2 = NPSHR 1 (n 2 /n 1 ) 2
1/(999 RD)
kgf/cm 2
100 101.325 98.066
API gravity
Baum gravity
See Fig. 1-3
Q H g
Q P
Q H RD
=
=
**
367.47 e
3 600 000 e 3600 e

(for pumps)
9549 bkW
n
n
Q

H
3


bep
4
bep
4


n H bep
Q bep
H bep
1
=
See Fig. 1-7 for viscosity relationships
*Standard atmospheric pressure:
1 atm = 760 mm Hg = 101.325 kPa = 14.696 psi
**See Eq. 12-3 and 12-4.
CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS AFFINITY LAWS
1: Values at initial conditions
2: Values at new conditions
SPEED
DIAMETER
Q 1 (n 2 /n 1 )
Q 1 (d 2 /d 1 )
h 1 ( n 2 / n 1 ) 2
3.6 * std atm
760 mm Hg
at 0C
n s =
RD = relative density
Water density at 15C = 999 kg/m 3
Standard gravity acceleration:
g = 9.80665 m/s 2 = 32.174 ft/s 2
kg/h
bar
bkW =
T =
liters/s
SPEED AND DIAMETER
Q 1 (d 2 /d 1 ) (n 2 / n 1 )
h 1 ( d 2 / d 1 ) 2 h 1 [(d 2 /d 1 ) (n 2 /n 1 )]
bkW 1 (d 2 /d 1 ) 3 bkW 1 [(d 2 /d 1 ) (n 2 /n 1 )]
NPSHR 1 (n 2 /n 1 ) 2
2
3
Fig. 12-1 provides a list of symbols and terms used in the text
and also a glossary of terms used in the pump industry. Fig. 12-2
is a summary of some of the more useful pump equations. Fig.
12-3 provides guidance in selecting the kinds of pumps suitable
for common services.
up to 23 000 rpm and higher, are used for low-capacity, high-head
applications. Most centrifugal pumps will operate with an approximately constant head over a wide range of capacity.
Positive displacement pumps are either reciprocating or rotary.
Reciprocating pumps include piston, plunger, and diaphragm types.
Rotary pumps are: single lobe, multiple lobe, rotary vane, progress-

ing cavity, and gear types. Positive displacement pumps operate


with approximately constant capacities over wide variations in head,
hence they usually are installed for services which require high
heads at moderate capacities. A special application of small reciprocating pumps in gas processing plants is for injection of fluids (e.g.
methanol and corrosion inhibitors) into process streams, where their
constant-capacity characteristics are desirable.
EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEM EQUATIONS
The energy conservation equation for pump or hydraulic
turbine systems comes from Bernoullis Theorem and relates
the total head in two points of the system, the friction losses
between these points and the equipment total head. Elevations are measured from the equipment datum.
The total head at any system point is:
Axial-flow pumps are used for services requiring very high capacities at low heads. Regenerative-turbine pumps are used for
services requiring small capacities at high heads. Ejectors are
used to avoid the capital cost of installing a pump, when a suitable motive fluid (frequently steam) is available, and are usually
low-efficiency devices. These kinds of pumps are used infrequently in the gas processing industry.
h = z + h p + h v = z +
v 2
1000 P
+
2 g
g
Eq 12-1
The system f iction head is the inlet system f iction head lus
the outlet system f iction head:
h f = h fx + h fy
12-3
Eq 12-2