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TABLE OF CONTENTS

PERSONS & FAMILY RELATIONS.1

FORMAL REQUISITES

13

1. CEREMONY

13

2. AUTHORITY OF THE SOLEMNIZING

I. EFFECT AND APPLICATION OF LAWS

2

OFFICER

14

A.

WHEN LAWS TAKE EFFECT

2

3. LICENSE REQUIRED

15

B.

IGNORANCE OF THE LAW

2

4. MARRIAGE CERTIFICATE

16

C.

RETROACTIVITY OF LAWS

2

D. LAW GOVERNING VALIDITY OF

D.

MANDATORY OR PROHIBITORY LAWS

2

MARRIAGES ABROAD

16

E.

WAIVER OF

RIGHTS

3

E. COMMON-LAW MARRIAGES

17

F.

REPEAL OF

LAWS

3

F. VOID AND VOIDABLE MARRIAGES

18

G.

JUDICIAL DECISIONS

3

F.

1. VOID MARRIAGES

19

L.

BINDING EFFECT

4

ARTICLE 40 (NO JUDICIAL DECLARATION

II. PERSONS AND PERSONALITY

5

OF NULLITY)

19

A. CONCEPT OF PERSON AND PERSONALITY

5

B. COMMENCEMENT AND TERMINATION OF

BOTH SPOUSES ENTERING A SUBSEQUENT MARRIAGE AFTER

PRESUMPTIVE DEATH, WHO ACTED IN

PERSONALITY

5

BAD FAITH

20

C. DEATH

6

ARTICLE 53 (NON-RECORDING):

23

D. JURIDICAL PERSONS

7

F. 2. VOIDABLE OR ANNULLABLE

E. RESTRICTIONS ON CIVIL CAPACITY

7

MARRIAGE

26

E.

1. PRESUMPTION OF CAPACITY

7

G. THE LAW ON SEPARATION OF THE

E.

2. RESTRICTIONS ON CAPACITY TO

 

SPOUSES

31

ACT

7

V.

RIGHTS

AND

OBLIGATIONS

OF

I. MINORITY

8

SPOUSES

 

38

II. INSANITY

8

A. LIVE TOGETHER

 

38

III. DEAF-MUTISM

9

B. FAMILY DOMICILE

38

IV. PRODIGALITY

9

C. SUPPORT

38

INCOMPETENT INCLUDES PRODIGALS

 

D. MANAGEMENT OF FAMILY LIFE

38

(RULES OF COURT RULE 92, SEC 2)

9

E. EFFECT OF NEGLECT OF DUTY

38

V. CIVIL INTERDICTION

9

F. EXERCISE OF PROFESSION

38

VI. FAMILY RELATIONS

9

VI. PROPERTY RELATIONS OF SPOUSES.39

VII. ALIENAGE

10

A. MARRIAGE SETTLEMENTS

39

VIII. ABSENCE

10

B. DONATIONS BY REASON OF MARRIAGE39

F. DOMICILE AND RESIDENCE OF PERSON. 11

III. FAMILY CODE

11

A. EFFECT AND RETROACTIVITY

11

B. REPEAL AND AMENDMENT

11

IV.

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SPOUSES

MARRIAGE

AND

PERSONAL

12

VII. FAMILY RELATIONS

57

57

EFFECTS OF FAMILY RELATIONSHIP ON

THE FAMILY AS AN INSTITUTION

LEGAL DISPUTES

57

THE FAMILY HOME

57

A. WHAT CONSTITUTES THE FAMILY

A. CONCEPT OF MARRIAGE

12

HOME?

57

B. AGREEMENTS PRIOR TO MARRIAGE

12

B.

WHO MAY CONSTITUTE THE FAMILY

C. REQUISITES

12

HOME?

58

KINDS OF REQUISITES AND EFFECTS OF

C. WHEN IS IT DEEMED CONSTITUTED?58

NON-COMPLIANCE

12

D. BENEFICIARIES

58

EFFECT OF ABSENCE OF REQUISITES

13

E. WHEN TERMINATED

59

ESSENTIAL REQUISITES

13

F. WHEN IT MAY BE SOLD

59

1. GENDER

13

G. RIGHTS OF CREDITORS

59

2. AGE

13

VIII. PATERNITY AND FILIATION

60

3. CONSENT FREELY GIVEN

13

A.

LEGITIMATE CHILDREN

60

i

TABLE OF CONTENTS

B. PROOF OF FILIATION

62

WHO ARE DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN:

C. ILLEGITIMATE CHILDREN

63

77

D. LEGITIMATED CHILDREN

65

PERSONS EXERCISING SPECIAL

IX. ADOPTION

66

A. WHO CAN ADOPT

66

B. WHO

CAN

BE ADOPTED

67

C. PRE-ADOPTION PROCEDURES

68

D. ADOPTION PROCEDURES

69

E. WHO MAY NOT ADOPT/ BE ADOPTED

69

F. RIGHTS OF AN ADOPTED CHILD

70

G. RESCISSION OF ADOPTION

70

X.

H. RECTIFICATION OF SIMULATED BIRTH . 71

I. RA 8043 THE LAW ON INTER-COUNTRY

ADOPTION

72

72

73

73

73

C. SUPPORT DURING MARRIAGE LITIGATION

75

75

75

75

75

71

I. 1. WHO CAN ADOPT

I. 2. WHO CAN BE ADOPTED

SUPPORT

A. WHAT IT COMPRISES

B. WHO ARE OBLIGED

D.

E. WHEN DEMANDABLE

F.

G.

AMOUNT

OPTIONS

ATTACHMENT

XI. PARENTAL AUTHORITY AND CUSTODY

OF CHILDREN

75

PARENTAL AUTHORITY INCLUDES [ART.

209]:

CASES WHEN PARENTAL AUTHORITY AND RESPONSIBILITY MAY BE

75

TRANSFERRED OR RENOUNCED

RULES AS TO THE EXERCISE OF

76

76

PARENTAL AUTHORITY

CHARACTERISTICS OF PARENTAL

AUTHORITY

76

PARENTAL PREFERENCE RULE

76

WHO EXERCISES AUTHORITY IN CASES OF DEATH, ABSENCE, UNSUITABILITY,

REMARRIAGE, OR SEPARATION OF

PARENTS

76

TENDER YEARS PRESUMPTION:

77

PERSONS EXERCISING SUBSTITUTE

PARENTAL AUTHORITY IN DEFAULT OF PARENTS OR JUDICIALLY APPOINTED

GUARDIAN

77

SUBSTITUTE PARENTAL AUTHORITY

77

OVER DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN

ii

PARENTAL AUTHORITY

77

XII. EMANCIPATION

XII. SUMMARY JUDICIAL PROCEEDINGS

UNDER FC

78

77

A. PROCEDURAL RULES PROVIDED FOR IN

THIS TITLE SHALL APPLY TO [ART. 238]:

78

B.

SEPARATION IN FACT

78

C. INCIDENTS INVOLVING PARENTAL

AUTHORITY

79

XIII. CARE AND EDUCATION OF CHILDREN

 

80

XIV. SURNAMES

81

A. SURNAMES OF CHILDREN

81

B. WIFE AFTER AND DURING MARRIAGE

81

C. CONFUSION AND CHANGE OF NAMES

81

XV.

RULES

GOVERNING

PERSONS

WHO

ARE ABSENT

 

82

A. PROVISIONAL MEASURES IN CASE OF

82

B. DECLARATION OF ABSENCE, [ARTS. 384-

84

C. ADMINISTRATION OF THE PROPERTY OF

THE ABSENTEE, [ARTS. 387-389]

D. PRESUMPTION OF DEATH, [ARTS. 390-

85

84

389]

ABSENCE [ARTS. 381-383]

392]

XVI.

FUNERALS

85

XVII. ENTRIES IN THE CIVIL REGISTER

86

A. ARTS. 407-413

86

B. RA 9048 AS AMENDED BY RA 10172

87

C. RULE 108, RULES OF COURT

89

PROPERTY

91

I. CHARACTERISTICS

92

II. CLASSIFICATION

92

92

B. BASED ON MOBILITY [IMMOVABLE OR

92

B. 1. REAL OR IMMOVABLE PROPERTY. 92

94

TESTS TO DETERMINE MOVABLE

95

B. 3. IMPORTANCE AND SIGNIFICANCE OF CLASSIFICATION UNDER THE NCC . 95

CHARACTER

B.2. PERSONAL OR MOVABLE

MOVABLE]

A. HIDDEN TREASURE

C. BASED ON OWNERSHIP/RIGHTS-HOLDER

 

96

C.1. PUBLIC DOMINION

96

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

CHARACTERISTICS

96

POLICE POWER

102

CLASSIFICATIONS

96

PROPERTY TAKEN WITH NO

C.2. PRIVATE OWNERSHIP

97

COMPENSATION FOR GENERAL

KINDS

97

WELFARE

102

DETERMINATION (TWO DIFFERENT

TAXATION

102

VIEWS)

98

EMINENT DOMAIN

102

CONVERSION

98

D.2. SPECIFIC LIMITATIONS:

102

D.

BASED ON CONSUMABILITY

98

IMPOSED BY LAW, SIC UTERE TUO,

[NCC 418]

98

NUISANCE, STATE OF NECESSITY,

D.1. CONSUMABLE

98

EASEMENTS, AND THOSE VOLUNTARILY

D.2. NON-CONSUMABLE

98

IMPOSED BY THE OWNER: SERVITUDES,

E. BASED ON SUSCEPTIBILITY TO

MORTGAGES IMPOSED BY CONTRACT.

SUBSTITUTION

98

102

E.1. FUNGIBLES

98

SUMMARY OF ACTIONS

103

E.2. NON-FUNGIBLES

99

IV. ACCESSION

104

F.

BASED ON THE CONSTITUTION [ARTICLE

A.

CLASSIFICATION OF ACCESSION

104

XII, SEC 3]

99

A.1. WITH RESPECT TO IMMOVABLES

104

G.

OTHER CLASSIFICATIONS

99

ACCESSION DISCRETA

104

G.1. BY THEIR PHYSICAL EXISTENCE

99

PRINCIPLES APPLICABLE TO ACCESSION

G.2. BY THEIR AUTONOMY OR

 

DISCRETA

105

DEPENDENCE

99

PRINCIPLES APPLICABLE TO ACCESSION

G.3. BY SUSCEPTIBILITY TO

CONTINUA

105

DETERIORATION

99

A.2. WITH RESPECT TO MOVABLE

G.4. BY REASON OF THEIR

PROPERTY

110

SUSCEPTIBILITY TO DIVISION

99

TYPES

110

G.5. BY REASON OF DESIGNATION

99

CONJUNCTION / ADJUNCTION

110

G.6. EXISTENCE IN POINT OF TIME

99

MIXTURE

111

III. OWNERSHIP

99

SPECIFICATION

111

A. DEFINITION AND CONCEPT

99

V. QUIETING OF TITLE

112

B. TYPES

OF OWNERSHIP

100

OR INTEREST IN AND REMOVAL OR

C. RIGHT

IN GENERAL

100

PREVENTION OF CLOUD OVER TITLE TO OR

C.1. RIGHTS INCLUDED IN OWNERSHIP

INTEREST IN REAL PROPERTY

112

[NCC 428]

100

A. IN GENERAL

112

C.2. BUNDLE OF RIGHTS

100

B. PURPOSE

112

C.3.

PROTECTING PROPERTY

100

C. NATURE: QUASI IN REM

112

C.3.1 BASIC DISTINCTIONS

100

D. JUSTIFICATIONS TO BRING AN ACTION TO

REAL RIGHTS V. PERSONAL RIGHTS

100

QUIET TITLE

112

REAL ACTION V. PERSONAL ACTION

E. THE ACTION TO QUIET TITLE DOES NOT

(ROC, RULE 4 SEC 1-2)

100

APPLY:

112

ACTION IN REM V. ACTION IN PERSONAM

F.

REQUIREMENTS

112

V. ACTION QUASI IN REM

101

F.1. REQUISITES OF AN ACTION TO QUIET

C.3.2. REMEDIES

101

TITLE

112

DOCTRINE OF SELF-HELP [NCC 429-430]

F.2. REQUISITES OF AN ACTION TO

 

101

PREVENT A CLOUD:

113

ACTIONS TO RECOVER OWNERSHIP AND

G. QUIETING OF TITLE V. REMOVAL OF

POSSESSION OF PROPERTY

101

CLOUD

113

D. LIMITATIONS ON OWNERSHIP

102

H.

PRESCRIPTION / NON-PRESCRIPTION OF

D.1. GENERAL LIMITATIONS:

102

ACTION

113

TAXATION, EMINENT DOMAIN, POLICE

PRESCRIPTION OF ACTION

113

POWER

102

iii

VI. CO-OWNERSHIP

TABLE OF CONTENTS

114

VII. POSSESSION

119

A. REQUISITES

114

A. CONCEPT OF POSSESSION

119

B. WHAT GOVERNS CO-OWNERSHIP

114

B. ESSENTIAL REQUISITES OF POSSESSION

C. CHARACTERISTICS OF CO-OWNERSHIP114

 

119

D. SOURCES OF CO-OWNERSHIP

115

C. DEGREES OF POSSESSION

120

D.1. LAW

115

D. CASES OF POSSESSION

120

D.2.

CONTRACT

115

D.1. POSSESSION FOR ONESELF, OR

D.3.

INTESTATE SUCCESSION

115

POSSESSION EXERCISED IN ONE’S OWN

D.4. TESTAMENTARY DISPOSITION OR

NAME AND POSSESSION IN THE NAME

DONATION INTER VIVOS

116

OF ANOTHER [NCC 524]

120

D.5. BY FORTUITOUS EVENT OR BY

D.2. POSSESSION IN THE CONCEPT OF

CHANCE

116

AN OWNER, AND POSSESSION IN THE

D.6. BY OCCUPANCY

116

CONCEPT OF A HOLDER WITH THE

D.7. BY ASSOCIATIONS AND SOCIETIES

OWNERSHIP BELONGING TO ANOTHER

WITH SECRET ARTICLES

116

[NCC 525]

120

E. RIGHTS OF CO-OWNERS

116

D.3. POSSESSION IN GOOD FAITH AND

E.1. RIGHT TO SHARE IN THE BENEFITS

AS WELL AS THE CHARGES [NCC 485].116 E.2. RIGHT TO USE THE THING OWNED IN

116

COMMON [NCC 486]

RIGHT TO BRING AN ORDER IN

POSSESSION IN BAD FAITH [NCC 526] .121

122

E.1. WAYS OF ACQUIRING POSSESSION

122

E.2. BY WHOM MAY POSSESSION BE

[NCC 531]

E. ACQUISITION OF POSSESSION

EJECTMENT [NCC 487]

116

ACQUIRED [NCC 532]

122

RIGHT TO COMPEL OTHER CO-OWNERS

F. WHAT DO NOT AFFECT POSSESSION [NCC

TO CONTRIBUTE TO THE EXPENSES OF

537]

123

PRESERVATION AND TO THE TAXES [NCC

F.1. ACTS MERELY TOLERATED

123

488]

116

F.2. ACTS EXECUTED CLANDESTINELY

RIGHT

TO

REPAIR [NCC 489]

116

AND WITHOUT THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE

RIGHT TO OPPOSE ALTERATIONS

117

POSSESSOR [NCC 1108]

124

[NCC 491]

 

117

F.3. ACTS OF VIOLENCE AS LONG AS

RIGHT TO FULL OWNERSHIP OF HIS

THE POSSESSOR OBJECTS THERETO (I.E.

PART AND OF THE FRUITS AND

FILES A CASE)

124

BENEFITS PERTAINING THERETO

117

[NCC 536]

124

[NCC 493]

117

RULES TO SOLVE CONFLICTS OF

RIGHT TO PARTITION [NCC 494]

117

POSSESSION [NCC 538]

124

RIGHT TO REDEMPTION [NCC 1619]

117

G.

EFFECTS OF POSSESSION

124

F. RULES

117

G.1. RIGHTS OF A POSSESSOR IN GOOD

F.1. ON RENUNCIATION OF SHARE

FAITH

124

(DIFFERENT FROM RENUNCIATION OF

G.2. OBLIGATIONS OF A POSSESSOR IN

CO-OWNERSHIP)

117

GOOD FAITH

124

F.2. REPAIRS FOR PRESERVATION

117

G.3. RIGHTS OF A POSSESSOR IN BAD

F.3. EMBELLISHMENTS OR

FAITH

124

IMPROVEMENTS

117

G.4. OBLIGATIONS OF A POSSESSOR IN

G. TERMINATION OR

118

GOOD FAITH

125

EXTINGUISHMENT

118

G.5. RIGHT TO BE PROTECTED IN HIS

G.1. TOTAL DESTRUCTION OF THING OR

POSSESSION [NCC 539]

125

LOSS OF THE PROPERTY CO-OWNED

118

ACTIONS TO RECOVER POSSESSION

125

G.2. MERGER OF ALL INTERESTS IN ONE

RULES

125

PERSON

118

G.6. ENTITLEMENT TO FRUITS

G.3. ACQUISITIVE PRESCRIPTION

118

POSSESSOR IN GOOD/BAD FAITH [NCC

G.4. PARTITION OR DIVISION

118

544, 549]

126

iv

TABLE OF CONTENTS

RIGHT OF THE POSSESSOR IN GOOD

AS TO THE FRUITS

134

FAITH

126

AS TO THE OBJECT

134

D. REIMBURSEMENT FOR EXPENSES

C.5. BY THE TERMS OF THE USUFRUCT

POSSESSOR IN GOOD/BAD FAITH

127

134

[NCC 546-552]

127

D. RIGHTS AND OBLIGATIONS OF

D.1. NECESSARY EXPENSES

127

USUFRUCTUARY

134

D.2. USEFUL EXPENSES

127

D.1. RIGHTS AS TO THE THING AND ITS

D.3. EXPENSES FOR LUXURY

127

FRUITS

134

E.

LOSS OR UNLAWFUL DEPRIVATION OF A

RIGHT TO ENJOY THE PROPERTY

134

MOVABLE PROPERTY

129

HIDDEN TREASURE

135

E.1. POSSESSION OF MOVABLE

RIGHT TO FRUITS PENDING AT THE

ACQUIRED IN GOOD FAITH (IN CONCEPT

BEGINNING OF USUFRUCT

135

OF OWNER) IS EQUIVALENT TO TITLE

RIGHT TO CIVIL FRUITS

135

[NCC 559]

129

RIGHT TO ENJOY ANY INCREASE

E.2. PERIOD TO RECOVER [NCC 1140, 1132,

THROUGH ACCESSIONS AND

1133]

129

SERVITUDES, INCLUDING PRODUCTS OF

E.3. FINDER OF LOST MOVABLE [NCC 719-

HUNTING AND

135

720]

129

RIGHT TO LEASE THE THING

135

E.4. DISTINGUISHED FROM VOIDABLE

RULES AS TO LEASE

136

TITLE [NCC 1506]

129

RIGHT TO IMPROVE THE THING, BUT

F. EFFECTS OF POSSESSION IN THE

130

PRESUMPTION IN FAVOR OF THE POSSESSORFOR ACQUISITIVE

130

PRESCRIPTION

CONCEPT OF AN OWNER

IMPROVEMENT INURES TO THE BENEFIT

137

OF THE NAKED OWNER

D.2. RIGHTS AS TO THE LEGAL RIGHT OF

137

USUFRUCT ITSELF

RIGHT TO MORTGAGE RIGHT OF

G. LOSS/TERMINATION OF POSSESSION

USUFRUCT

137

[NCC 555]

131

RIGHT TO ALIENATE THE USUFRUCT

G.1. ABANDONMENT

131

EXCEPT IN PURELY PERSONAL

G.2. ASSIGNMENT, EITHER GRATUITOUS

USUFRUCTS OR WHEN TITLE

OR ONEROUS

131

CONSTITUTING IT PROHIBITS THE SAME

 

G.3. POSSESSION BY ANOTHER; IF

ONE YEAR; REAL RIGHT OF POSSESSION

 

137

POSSESION HAS LASTED LONGER THAN

NOT LOST AFTER 10 YEARS SUBJECT

D.3. OBLIGATIONS AT THE BEGINNING OF THE USUFRUCT OR BEFORE

137

TO NCC 537

131

EXERCISING THE USUFRUCT TO MAKE AN INVENTORY

137

H.

RULES FOR LOSS OF MOVABLES

132

TO GIVE A BOND FOR THE FAITHFUL

I. KINDS OF ANIMALS

132

PERFORMANCE OF DUTIES AS

VIII. USUFRUCT

132

USUFRUCTUARY

138

A. OBJECTS OF USUFRUCT

132

D.4. DURING THE USUFRUCT

138

B. CHARACTERISTICS

132

TO TAKE CARE OF THE THING LIKE A

B.1. NATURAL CHARACTERISTICS

132

GOOD FATHER OF A FAMILY

139

C. CLASSIFICATION

133

TO UNDERTAKE ORDINARY REPAIRS . 139

C.1. BY ORIGIN

133

TO NOTIFY OWNER OF NEED TO

C.2. BY PERSON ENJOYING THE RIGHT OF

UNDERTAKE EXTRAORDINARY REPAIRS

USUFRUCT

133

139

C.3. BY OBJECT OF USUFRUCT

133

TO PAY FOR ANNUAL CHARGES AND

RIGHTS

133

TAXES ON THE FRUITS

140

THINGS

133

TO NOTIFY OWNER OF ANY ACT

C.4. BY THE EXTENT OF THE USUFRUCT

DETRIMENTAL TO OWNERSHIP

140

 

134

(NCC 601)

140

v

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TO SHOULDER THE COSTS OF

LITIGATION REGARDING THE USUFRUCT

H.1. EXPRORPIATION OF THING IN

144

USUFRUCT [NCC 609]

(NCC 602)

140

H.2. BAD USE OF THING IN USUFRUCT

TO ANSWER FOR FAULT OR

 

[NCC 610]

144

NEGLIGENCE OF THE ALIENEE, LESSEE

IX. EASEMENT

144

OR AGENT OF THE USUFRUCTUARY (NCC

A.

CHARACTERISTICS

144

590)

140

A.1. ESSENTIAL FEATURES:

144

D.5. AT THE TIME OF THE TERMINATION

B.

CLASSIFICATION

146

OF THE USUFRUCT

140

B.1. AS TO RECIPIENT OF BENEFITS

146

E. SPECIAL CASES OF USUFRUCT

140

B.2. AS TO CAUSE OR ORIGIN

146

E.1. USUFRUCT OVER A PENSION OR A

 

B.3. AS TO ITS EXERCISE [NCC 615]

146

PERIODICAL INCOME [NCC 570]

140

B.4. AS INDICATION OF ITS EXISTENCE

E.2. USUFRUCT OF PROPERTY OWNED IN

 

146

COMMON [NCC

582]

140

B.5. BY THE OBJECT OR OBLIGATION

E.4. USUFRUCT CONSTITUTED ON A

 

IMPOSED [NCC 616]

146

FLOCK OR HERD OF LIVESTOCK

140

C.

GENERAL RULES

146

[NCC 591]

140

D.

RELEVANCE OF CLASSIFICATIONS

147

E.5. USUFRUCT OVER FRUIT BEARING

D.1. DETERMINES WHAT EASEMENTS

TREES AND SPROUT AND WOODLANDS

CAN BE ACQUIRED BY PRESCRIPTION 147

[NCC 575-576]

141

D.2. DETERMINES WHAT EASEMENTS

E.6. USUFRUCT ON A RIGHT OF ACTION

 

CAN BE ACQUIRED BY TITLE

147

[NCC 578]

141

D.3. DETERMINES HOW TO COMPUTE

E.7. USUFRUCT ON MORTGAGED

 

THE PRESCRIPTIVE PERIOD [NCC 621] 147

PROPERTY [NCC 600]

141

D.4. DETERMINES HOW EASEMENT IS

E.8. USUFRUCT OVER AN ENTIRE

 

LOST BY PRESCRIPTION [NCC 631 (2)]. 147

PATRIMONY [NCC 598]

141

E.

CREATION

147

E.9. USUFRUCT OVER DETERIORABLE

E.1. BY TITLE

147

PROPERTY

141

E.2. BY LAW (LEGAL EASEMENTS)

148

E.10. USUFRUCT OVER CONSUMABLE

 

E.3. BY WILL OF THE OWNERS

PROPERTY [NCC 574]

142

(VOLUNTARY EASEMENTS)

148

F. RIGHTS OF THE OWNER

142

E.4. BY PRESCRIPTION

148

G. EXTINGUISHMENT / TERMINATION [NCC

G.

LEGAL EASEMENTS

148

603]

142

G.1. LAW GOVERNING LEGAL

G.1. DEATH OF USUFRUCTUARY

142

EASEMENTS

148

G.2. EXPIRATION OF PERIOD OR

F.

VOLUNTARY EASEMENTS

148

FULFILLMENT OF RESOLUTORY

H. RIGHTS AND OBLIGATIONS OF OWNERS

CONDITION IMPOSED ON USUFRUCT BY

OF DOMINANT AND SERVIENT ESTATES

148

PERSON CONSTITUTING USUFRUCT

142

H.1. RIGHTS OF DOMINANT ESTATE

G.3. MERGER OF RIGHTS OF USUFRUCT

OWNER

148

AND NAKED OWNERSHIP IN ONE

H.2. OBLIGATIONS OF DOMINANT

PERSON

143

ESTATE OWNER

149

G.4. RENUNCIATION OF USUFRUCT

143

H.3. RIGHTS OF THE SERVIENT ESTATE

G.5. EXTINCTION OR LOSS OF PROPERTY

OWNER

149

[NCC 608]

143

H.4. OBLIGATIONS OF SERVIENT ESTATE

 

G.6. TERMINATION OF THE RIGHT OF

 

OWNER

150

PERSON CONSTITUTING THE USUFRUCT

I.

KINDS OF LEGAL EASEMENTS

150

 

144

I.1. NATURAL DRAINAGE

150

 

G.7. PRESCRIPTION

144

I.2.

RIPARIAN BANKS

150

H.

CONDITIONS NOT AFFECTING USUFRUCT

 

I.3.

DRAINAGE OF BUILDINGS

150

 

144

I.4.

DAM

150

vi

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

I.5.

DRAWING WATER

151

OCCUPATION OF DOMESTICATED

I.6.

AQUEDUCT

151

ANIMALS

164

I.7. SLUICE GATE

151

PIGEONS AND FISH

164

I.8. RIGHT OF WAY

151

HIDDEN TREASURE

164

I.9. PARTY WALL

153

LOST MOVABLES; PROCEDURE AFTER

I.10. EASEMENT OF LIGHT AND VIEW

155

FINDING LOST MOVABLES

164

I.11. INTERMEDIATE DISTANCES

156

B.

DONATION

 

165

[NCC 677]

156

B.1. OTHER INSTANCES CONSIDERED AS

BRANCHES, ROOTS AND FRUITS

157

DONATION

 

165

I.12. LATERAL AND SUBJACENT SUPPORT

 

B.2.

NATURE

 

165

 

157

B.3.

REQUISITES

165

J. MODES OF ACQUIRING EASEMENT

157

B.4.

WHAT

MAY

BE DONATED

165

J.1. BY TITLE

157

B.5. WHAT MAY NOT BE DONATED

165

J.2. BY PRESCRIPTION

157

FUTURE PROPERTY

165

K. EXTINGUISHMENT OF EASEMENTS

158

C.

KINDS OF DONATIONS

166

K.1. MERGER

158

C.1. AS TO ITS TAKING EFFECT

166

 

K.2. BY A NON-USER FOR 10 YEARS

158

C.2. AS TO CAUSE OR CONSIDERATION

K.3. BY IMPOSSIBILITY OF USE

158

168

K.4. EXPIRATION OF THE TERM OR

 

C.3. AS TO EFFECTIVITY OR

FULFILLMENT OF RESOLUTORY

EXTINGUISHMENT

168

CONDITION

 

158

D.

FORMALITIES REQUIRED

168

K.5. RENUNCIATION OF THE OWNER OF

D.1. HOW MADE AND ACCEPTED

168

THE DOMINANT ESTATE

158

D.2. PERFECTION

168

K.6. OTHER CAUSES NOT MENTION IN

 

D.3. QUALIFICATIONS OF DONORS AND

NCC 631

 

159

DONEES

 

168

X. NUISANCE

159

E.

EFFECTS OF DONATION / LIMITATIONS170

A. NUISANCE V. TRESPASS

159

E.1. IN GENERAL

170

B. NUISANCE

V.

NEGLIGENCE

160

E.2. SPECIAL PROVISIONS

170

C. CLASSES

160

F.

VOID DONATIONS [NCC 739-740, 1027] 172

C.1. ACCORDING TO NATURE

160

F.1. THOSE MADE BETWEEN PERSONS

 

C.2. ACCORDING TO SCOPE OF

 

WHO WERE GUILTY OF ADULTERY OR

INJURIOUS EFFECTS

160

CONCUBINAGE AT THE TIME OF THE

D. DOCTRINE OF ATTRACTIVE NUISANCE.161

 

DONATION

 

172

E. LIABILITY IN CASE OF NUISANCE

161

F.2. THOSE MADE BETWEEN PERSONS

E.1 WHO ARE LIABLE

161

FOUND GUILTY OF THE SAME CRIMINAL

 

E.2. LIABILITY OF CREATOR OF

 

OFFENSE, IN CONSIDERATION THEREOF

NUISANCE

 

161

172

E.3.

LIABILITY OF TRANSFEREES

161

F.3. THOSE MADE TO A PUBLIC OFFICER

E.4. NATURE OF LIABILITY

161

OR HIS WIFE, DESCENDANTS AND

E.5. RIGHT TO RECOVER DAMAGES

162

ASCENDANTS, BY REASON OF HIS

NO PRESCRIPTION

162

OFFICE

 

172

F. REGULATION OF NUISANCES

162

F.4. THOSE MADE TO PERSONS

F.1. PUBLIC NUISANCE

162

INCAPACITATED TO SUCCEED BY WILL.

F.2. PRIVATE NUISANCE

163

[NCC. 1027]

 

172

XI. MODES OF ACQUIRING OWNERSHIP 163

G.

REVOCATION V. REDUCTION

172

A.

OCCUPATION

164

G.1. GROUNDS FOR REDUCTION

172

A.1. REQUISITES

164

C.

TRADITION

 

177

A.2. KINDS

164

PRESCRIPTION

177

A.3. SPECIAL RULES

164

OBLIGATIONS

 

181

OCCUPATION OF A SWARM OF BEES

164

vii

TABLE OF CONTENTS

I. DEFINITION

II. NATURE AND EFFECT OF OBLIGATIONS

185

182

A.OBLIGATION TO GIVE

185

B. OBLIGATION TO DO OR NOT TO DO

185

C. BREACH

186

C.1. COMPLETE FAILURE TO PERFORM

 

186

C.2. DEFAULT, DELAY, OR MORA

186

C.3. FRAUD (DOLO) IN THE PERFORMANCE OF THE OBLIGATION .188 C.4. NEGLIGENCE (CULPA) IN THE PERFORMANCE OF THE OBLIGATION . 189

C.5. CONTRAVENTION OF THE TENOR OF

THE OBLIGATION

D. LEGAL EXCUSE FOR BREACH:

FORTUITOUS EVENT OR ACTS OF THE

CREDITOR

E. REMEDIES AVAILABLE IN CASE OF

191

191

BREACH

192

E.1. SPECIFIC PERFORMANCE

192

E.2. SUBSTITUTED PERFORMANCE

192

E.3. RESCISSION (RESOLUTION IN

RECIPROCAL OBLIGATIONS)

192

E.4. DAMAGES, IN ANY EVENT

193

E.5. SUBSIDIARY REMEDIES OF

CREDITORS

193

195

III. KINDS OF CIVIL OBLIGATIONS

A. PURE OBLIGATIONS

195

B. CONDITIONAL OBLIGATIONS

195

C. OBLIGATIONS WITH A PERIOD OR TERM

198

D. ALTERNATIVE OR FACULTATIVE

OBLIGATIONS

E. DIVISIBLE AND INDIVISIBLE OBLIGATIONS

202

F. OBLIGATIONS WITH A PENAL CLAUSE 203

200

B. LOSS OF THE THING DUE OR

IMPOSSIBILITY OR DIFFICULTY OF

PERFORMANCE

215

C. CONDONATION

216

D. CONFUSION OR MERGER OF RIGHTS

217

E. COMPENSATION

217

F. NOVATION

220

CONTRACTS

223

I. GENERAL PROVISIONS

224

A. PRINCIPAL CHARACTERISTICS OF

CONTRACTS (MARCO)

224

A.

1. MUTUALITY

224

A.3. RELATIVITY

226

A.4. CONSENSUAL

227

A.5. OBLIGATORY FORCE

227

B. ELEMENTS OF CONTRACTS

227

C. CLASSIFICATION OF CONTRACTS

228

D. STAGES OF A CONTRACT

229

II. ESSENTIAL REQUISITES

229

A.

CONSENT

229

E.

OBJECT OF CONTRACTS

236

F.

CAUSE OF CONTRACTS

236

III. FORM OF CONTRACTS

238

A. KINDS OF FORMALITIES REQUIRED BY

LAW

238

A.1. FOR THE VALIDITY OF CONTRACTS (AD ESENTIA / AD SOLIMNITATEM/

SOLEMN CONTRACTS)

A.2. FOR THE PURPOSE OF PROVING THE

EXISTENCE OF THE CONTRACT

(AD PROBATIONEM/ STATUTE OF

FRAUDS)

A.3. FOR THE EFFECTIVITY OF THE

CONTRACT AGAINST THIRD PERSONS

238

239

239

240

240

A. CASES WHERE REFORMATION IS PROPER

IV. REFORMATION OF INSTRUMENTS

IV.

JOINT

AND

SOLIDARY

OBLIGATIONS

 

241

 

204

A.1. MISTAKE

242

 

A. JOINT OBLIGATIONS

204

A.2. FRAUD

242

B. SOLIDARY OBLIGATIONS

206

A.3. INEQUITABLE CONDUCT [ART. 1362]

V.

EXTINGUISHMENT OF OBLIGATIONS 209

 

242

A.

PAYMENT OR PERFORMANCE

210

A.4. ACCIDENT [ART. 1364]

242

A.1 APPLICATION OF PAYMENTS

212

A.5. SEVERE PACTO DE RETRO /

A.2. DATION IN PAYMENT

212

RELATIVE SIMULATION

242

A.3. PAYMENT BY CESSION

213

B. WHO MAY ASK FOR REFORMATION [ART.

A.3. TENDER OF PAYMENT AND

1368]

242

CONSIGNATION

213

C. CASES WHERE REFORMATION IS NOT

viii

PROPER

242

TABLE OF CONTENTS

V. INTERPRETATION OF CONTRACTS

A. RULES ON DOUBTS [ART. 1378]

VI. DEFECTIVE CONTRACTS

243

244

245

A. RESCISSIBLE CONTRACTS

245

B. VOIDABLE CONTRACTS

249

C. UNENFORCEABLE CONTRACT

251

D. VOID OR INEXISTENT CONTRACTS

253

VII. NATURAL OBLIGATIONS

NATURAL OBLIGATIONS

VIII. ESTOPPEL

255

255

257

DEFINITION

257

KINDS OF ESTOPPEL

257

LACHES OR “STATE DEMANDS”

258

IX.

TRUSTS

A. GOVERNING RULES

B. PARTIES [ART. 1440]

C. KINDS OF TRUST C.1. EXPRESS TRUST C.2. IMPLIED TRUST

SALES

258

259

259

259

259

260

262

I. DEFINITION AND ESSENTIAL REQUISITES

263

263

B. ESSENTIAL REQUISITES OF A CONTRACT

263

B.1. ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS OF A VALID

CONTRACT OF SALE

B.2. NON-ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS OF A

263

OF SALE

A.DEFINITION OF SALES

A.1. ABSOLUTE INCAPACITY

A.2. RELATIVE INCAPACITY: MARRIED

266

 

PERSONS

267

A.3. SPECIAL DISQUALIFICATIONS

267

B.

EFFECTS OF INCAPACITY

269

B.1. ABSOLUTE INCAPACITY

269

B.2. RELATIVE INCAPACITY

269

B.3. SPECIFIC INCAPACITY/ SPECIAL

DISQUALIFICATIONS

269

269

A. REQUISITES OF A VALID SUBJECT

III. SUBJECT MATTER

MATTER

269

A.1. MUST BE LICIT

269

A.2. EXISTING, FUTURE, CONTINGENT270

DETERMINATE OR DETERMINABLE

271

272

A. OBLIGATIONS OF THE VENDOR IN

IV. OBLIGATIONS OF THE SELLER

GENERAL

272

B.

WHEN SELLER IS NOT THE OWNER

272

C. SALE BY PERSON HAVING A VOIDABLE

V.

TITLE

272

PRICE

272

A. MEANING OF PRICE

272

B. REQUISITES FOR A VALID PRICE

273

C. HOW PRICE IS DETERMINED/ CERTAIN273

D. INADEQUACY OF PRICE

273

E. WHEN NO PRICE AGREED

274

F. FALSE PRICE VS SIMULATED PRICE 274

G. EARNEST MONEY VS. OPTION MONEY

 

CONTRACT OF SALE

263

274

C. STAGES OF CONTRACT OF SALE

263

VI. FORMATION OF CONTRACT OF SALE

PHASES OF A SALE CONTRACT

263

275

D. OBLIGATIONS CREATED

264

A. PREPARATORY

275

 

NATURE OF OBLIGATIONS CREATED PER

B. PERFECTION

278

DEFINITION IN ART.1458

264

C. CONSUMMATION

278

E. CHARACTERISTICS OF A CONTRACT OF

FORMALITIES OF THE CONTRACT

278

 

264

VII. TRANSFER OF OWNERSHIP

280

SALE E.1. SALE IS TITLE AND NOT MODE

F. SALE DISTINGUISHED FROM OTHER

CONTRACTS

264

264

264

DONATION

265

F.2. CONTRACT FOR A PIECE OF WORK

F.1. BARTER

265

265

F.4. CONTRACT OF SALE/CONTRACT TO

F.3. DACION EN PAGO

G.

SELL

KINDS OF CONTRACT OF SALE

II. PARTIES TO A CONTRACT OF SALE

266

266

266

A.

B.

D.

OBLIGATIONS OF THE VENDOR:

280

280

280

280

280

280

281

C. WHEN DELIVERY DOES NOT

B.3. WHERE TO DELIVER

280

MANNER OF TRANSFER A.1. GENERAL CONCEPTS

CONCEPT OF DELIVERY B.1. REQUISITES

B.2.

B.4.

WHAT TO DELIVER

WHEN TO DELIVER

TRANSFER TITLE

KINDS OF DELIVERY D.1.ACTUAL DELIVERY

281

282

282

A. KINDS OF INCAPACITY

266

ix

TABLE OF CONTENTS

D.2. CONSTRUCTIVE DELIVERY

283

B.5. IMPLIED WARRANTY AGAINST

E. DOUBLE SALES

284

REDHIBITORY DEFECT IN THE SALE OF

E.1. RULES GOVERNING SALE OF

ANIMALS

297

MOVABLES, IMMOVABLES AND

C. EFFECTS OF WARRANTIES

297

UNREGISTERED LANDS

284

D. EFFECTS OF WAIVERS

297

F. PROPERTY REGISTRATION DECREE

285

E. BUYER’S OPTIONS IN CASE OF BREACH

VIII. RISK OF LOSS

286

OF WARRANTY

297

A. GENERAL RULE

286

F. WARRANTY IN SALE OF CONSUMER

B. PRIOR TO PERFECTION OF CONTRACT286

GOODS

299

C. AT TIME OF PERFECTION

286

XIII. BREACH OF CONTRACT

300

 

D. AFTER PERFECTION BUT BEFORE

A. GENERAL REMEDIES [ART 1191]

300

DELIVERY

286

B. REMEDIES OF THE SELLER

300

 

D.1.LOSS

286

B.1. SALE OF MOVABLES

300

D.2. DETERIORATION

286

C. RECTO LAW: SALE OF MOVABLES ON

 

E.

AFTER DELIVERY

287

INSTALLMENT ARTS. 1484-1486

302

IX.

DOCUMENTS OF TITLE

287

C.1. WHEN APPLICABLE

302

A.

DEFINITION

 

287

C.2. ALTERNATIVE AND EXCLUSIVE

B.

PURPOSE OF DOCUMENTS OF TITLE

287

REMEDIES

303

C.

NEGOTIABLE DOCUMENTS OF TITLE

287

D. SALE OF IMMOVABLES

303

C.1. WHO MAY NEGOTIATE IT?

287

D.1. RESCISSION FOR ANTICIPATORY

D.

NON-NEGOTIABLE DOCUMENTS OF TITLE

 

BREACH

303

 

288

D.2. SPECIFIC PERFORMANCE +

E.

WARRANTIES

OF

SELLER

OF

DAMAGES OR RESCISSION + DAMAGES

DOCUMENTS OF TITLE

 

288

303

F.

RULES

ON

LEVY/GARNISHMENT

OF

E. PD 957, SECTIONS 23 AND 24

304

GOODS

288

F. MACEDA LAW (RA 6552): SALE OF

X. REMEDIES OF AN UNPAID SELLER

289

IMMOVABLES ON INSTALLMENT

304

A. DEFINITION OF UNPAID SELLER

289

G.

REMEDIES OF THE BUYER

305

B. REMEDIES OF UNPAID SELLER

289

G.1. SALE OF MOVABLES

305

 

JUDICIAL REMEDIES OF AN UNPAID

 

G.2. SALE OF IMMOVABLES

305

SELLER

289

XIV. EXTINGUISHMENT OF SALE

306

C. ALTERNATIVE REMEDIES OF THE UNPAID

SELLER UNDER RECTO LAW

290

291

XI. PERFORMANCE OF CONTRACT

A. DELIVERY OF THING SOLD

291

B. PAYMENT OF PRICE

293

XII. WARRANTIES

294

A. EXPRESS WARRANTIES

294

B. IMPLIED WARRANTIES

295

B.1. IMPLIED WARRANTY OF TITLE

295

B.2. IMPLIED WARRANTY AGAINST

ENCUMBRANCE/NON-APPARENT

SERVITUDES

B.3. IMPLIED WARRANTY AGAINST

HIDDEN DEFECTS

296

296

B.4. IMPLIED WARRANTY AS TO

MERCHANTABLE QUALITY AND FITNESS

OF GOODS

296

x

A. CAUSES

306

B. CONVENTIONAL REDEMPTION

306

B.1. DEFINITION

306

B.2. PERIOD

306

B.3. BY WHOM EXERCISED

307

B.4. FROM WHOM TO REDEEM

307

B.5. HOW EXERCISED

307

B.6. EFFECT OF REDEMPTION

307

B.7. EFFECT OF NON-REDEMPTION

307

B.7. RIGHT TO REDEEM VS. OPTION TO

PURCHASE

308

C. EQUITABLE MORTGAGE

308

C.1. PRESUMPTION THAT A CONTRACT IS

308

C.2. REQUISITES FOR PRESUMPTION OF

AN EQUITABLE MORTGAGE

309

C.3. RATIONALE BEHIND PROVISION ON

309

EQUITABLE MORTGAGE

AN EQUITABLE MORTGAGE (5P-R)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

C.4. REMEDIES OF APPARENT VENDOR

XVI. THE CONDOMINIUM ACT (RA 4726) 318

 

309

A.

DEFINITION OF A CONDOMINIUM

318

C.5. PERIOD OF REDEMPTION

309

A.1. OTHER DEFINITIONS

318

C.6. EXERCISE OF THE RIGHT TO REDEEM

B. TRANSFERS OR CONVEYANCES OF A

 

310

UNIT OR AN APARTMENT, OFFICE OR

 

C.7. HOW REDEMPTION IS EXERCISED 310

STORE, OR OTHER SPACE THEREIN

D.

LEGAL REDEMPTION

310

[SECTION 5, RA 4726]

319

D.1. DEFINITION

310

C.

RIGHTS OF A CONDOMINIUM UNIT

D.2. MANNER

310

OWNER (ASIDE FROM RIGHTS ARISING

D.3. PERIOD TO REDEEM

310

FROM OWNERSHIP) [SECTION 6]

319

D.4. INSTANCES OF LEGAL REDEMPTION

D. PARTITION BY SALE [SECTION 8]

319

 

311

E. DECLARATION OF RESTRICTIONS BY

XV. THE LAW ON SALE OF SUBDIVISION

AND CONDOMINIUM (PD 957)

314

314

A.

DEFINITIONS

A.1. DEFINITION OF "SALE" OR "SELL" 314

A.2. DEFINITION OF "BUY" OR

314

B. REQUIREMENTS FOR OWNERS AND

"PURCHASE"

OWNER OF PROJECT - PRECONDITION

320

TO CONVEYANCE [SECTION 9]

F. ASSESSMENT IN ACCORDANCE WITH

DECLARATION OF RESTRICTIONS

[SECTION 20]

320

G. HOW LIEN ENFORCED AFTER NON-

PAYMENT OF ASSESSED FEES [SECTION

DEVELOPERS

314

20]

320

B.1. REGISTRATION OF PROJECTS

H.

CONTENTS OF A DECLARATION OF

[SECTION 4, PD 957]

314

RESTRICTIONS [SECTION 9]

320

B.2. REGISTRATION OF OWNER [SECTION

I. INVOLUNTARY DISSOLUTION OF THE

4, PD 957]

314

CONDOMINIUM CORPORATION [SECTION

B.3. LICENSE TO SELL [SECTION 5, PD

12]

320

957]

315

J.POWER OF ATTORNEY HELD BY

C. REQUIREMENT FOR DEALERS,

CORPORATION IN CASE OF VOLUNTARY

BROKERS, AND SALESMEN (DBS)

316

DISSOLUTION OF CONDOMINIUM

C.1. REGISTRATION

316

CORPORATION [SECTION 15]

320

D. CHARACTERISTICS OF SALE OF A

CONDOMINIUM OR SUBDIVISION UNIT AND

316

D.1. REGISTRATION OF SALE, ETC

[SECTION 17, PD 957]

D.2. MORTGAGES ON UNIT OR LOT BY

OWNER OR DEVELOPER [SECTION 18, PD

957]

D.3. ADVERTISEMENTS BY THE OWNER OR DEVELOPER [SECTION 19, PD 957] 317

317

316

SIMILAR CONTRACTS

D.4. NON-FORFEITURE OF PAYMENTS

(SECTION 23, PD 957)

D.5. FAILURE TO PAY INSTALLMENTS

[SECTION 24, PD 957]

D.6. ISSUANCE OF TITLE [SECTION 25, PD

957]

317

317

317

D.7. REALTY TAX [SECTION 26, PD 957]

318

D.7. NO OTHER CHARGES [SECTION 27,

PD 957]

318

xi

K. SALE, EXCHANGE, LEASE, OR

DISPOSITION BY CORPORATION OF THE

COMMON AREAS [SECTION 16]

L. STOCKHOLDER/MEMBER DEMANDING PAYMENT FOR SHARES OR INTEREST

AKA APPRAISAL RIGHT [SECTION 17]

M. REQUIREMENT FOR REGISTRATION

OF CONVEYANCE WITH THE REGISTER

OF DEEDS [SECTION 18]

N. REALTY TAX ON CONDOMINIUMS

[SECTION 25]

321

321

321

321

SUCCESSION

I. GENERAL PROVISIONS

322

323

A.

DEFINITION

323

B.

OBJECT

OF

SUCCESSION

AND

TRANSMISSION

323

C. SUBJECTS OF SUCCESSION

324

II. TESTAMENTARY SUCCESSION

324

A. WILLS

324

A.1. IN GENERAL

324

TABLE OF CONTENTS

I. KINDS OF WILLS

324

A. AS A TYPE OF CONTRACT

365

II. CHARACTERISTICS OF WILLS

324

A.1. ELEMENTS (STATUTORY):

365

III. RULES OF CONSTRUCTION AND

A.2. ELEMENTS (JURISPRUDENTIAL) . 365

INTERPRETATION

325

A.3. BEING A CONTRACT, IT HAS COC 365

IV. GOVERNING LAWS, IN GENERAL

326

B. AS A LEGAL RELATIONSHIP

365

A.2. TESTAMENTARY CAPACITY AND

C. EFFECTS OF AGENCY

365

INTENT

326

C.1. INTEGRATION (MERGER) OF THE

A.3. FORM

326

PERSONALITY OF THE PRINCIPAL AND

A.4. CODICILS

331

THE AGENT

365

A.5. INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE 331

C.2. EXTENSION (REPRODUCTION) OF

A.6. REVOCATION

331

THE PERSONALITY OF THE PRINCIPAL

A.7. REPUBLICATION AND REVIVAL

332

THROUGH THE AGENT

365

A.8. ALLOWANCE AND DISALLOWANCE

C.3. CONSEQUENCES

365

OF WILLS

332

II. POWERS

366

I. PROBATE REQUIREMENT

332

A. RIGHTS OF AGENTS

366

II. GROUNDS FOR DENYING PROBATE333

A.1. COMPENSATION

366

B. INSTITUTION OF HEIR

333

A.2. LEND MONEY TO / BORROW MONEY

C. SUBSTITUTION OF HEIRS

336

FROM THE AGENCY

367

D. TESTAMENTARY DISPOSITIONS WITH A

A.3. APPOINT A SUBSTITUTE

367

CONDITION, A TERM, AND A MODE

337

A.4. RETAIN IN PLEDGE THE OBJECTS OF

E. LEGITIME

339

AGENCY

368

F. DISINHERITANCE

343

B. OBLIGATIONS OF AGENTS

369

 

F.1. DISINHERITANCE OF CHILDREN AND

B.1. ACT WITHIN SCOPE OF AUTHORITY

DESCENDANTS

343

369

F.2. DISINHERITANCE OF PARENTS AND

B.2. ACT IN ACCORDANCE WITH

ASCENDANTS

344

INSTRUCTIONS

370

F.3. DISINHERITANCE OF A SPOUSE

344

B.3. CARRY OUT THE AGENCY

370

G.

LEGACIES AND DEVISES

346

B.4. ADVANCE FUNDS

371