Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 72
A ppli cat io n o f Capac i to rs in Distribution Systems 1

Application of Capacitors in Distribution Systems

1

Introduction  Capacitors provide tremendous benefits to distribution system performance . Most noticeably ,

Introduction

Capacitors provide tremendous benefits to distribution system performance. Most noticeably, capacitors reduce losses, free up capacity, and reduce voltage drop:

Losses; Capacity: By providing the reactive power to motors and other loads with low power factor, capacitors decrease the line current. Reduced current frees up capacity; the same circuit can serve more load. Reduced current also significantly lowers the I 2 R line.

Voltage drop: Capacitors provide a voltage boost, which cancels part of the drop caused by system loads. Switched capacitors can regulate voltage on a circuit.

2

Introduction  If applied properly and controlled, capacitors can significantly improve the performance of

Introduction

If applied properly and controlled, capacitors can significantly improve the performance of distribution circuits.

But if not properly applied or controlled, the reactive power from capacitor banks can create losses and high voltages. The greatest danger of over-voltages occurs under light load.

3

C apac it or Construction  Capacitor elements have sheets of polypropylene film, less than

Capacitor Construction

Capacitor elements have sheets of polypropylene film, less than one mil thick, sandwiched between aluminum foil sheets.

Capacitor dielectrics must withstand on the order of 78 kV/mm. No other medium- voltage equipment has such high voltage stress.

must withstand on the order of 78 kV/mm. No other medium- volta ge equip ment has

4

C apac it or Construction  Capacitor units are supplied with an internal discharge resistor.

Capacitor Construction

Capacitor units are supplied with an internal discharge resistor.

The purpose of the discharge resistor is to provide a path for current to flow in the event that the capacitor is disconnected from the source.

resistor is to provide a path for current to flow in the event that the capacitor

5

C apac it or C onnec ti on  Capacitors are either fixed or switched

Capacitor Connection

Capacitors are either fixed or switched banks.

The fixed capacitors exist all time but the switched capacitors are switched on based on the system need.

A typical switched capacitor bank is shown in the figure below:

are switched on based on the system need.  A typical switched capacitor bank is shown

6

Capacitor use in the Distribution Network  The application of capacitors in the distribution systems

Capacitor use in the Distribution Network

The application of capacitors in the distribution systems can be summarized as follows:

60% of capacitors are applied to feeders.

30% of capacitors are applied to substation buses.

10% of capacitors are applied to transmission systems.

Application of capacitors to secondary systems is very rare.

7

Capacitor use in the Distribution Network 8

Capacitor use in the Distribution Network

Capacitor use in the Distribution Network 8

8

Capacitor Ratings Capacitors should not be applied when any of the following limits are exceeded:

Capacitor Ratings

Capacitors should not be applied when any of the following

limits are exceeded:

• 135% of nameplate kvar.

• 110% of rated RMS voltage.

• 135% of nominal RMS current based on rated kvar and rated voltage.

• Capacitors are designed to withstand over-voltages for

short periods of time.

rated kvar and ra t e d vo lt age . • Capacitors are designed to

9

Capacitor Losses • Capacitor losses are typically on the order of 0.07 to 0.15 W/kvar

Capacitor Losses

Capacitor losses are typically on the order of 0.07 to 0.15 W/kvar at nominal frequency.

• Losses include resistive losses in the foil,

dielectric losses, and losses in the internal discharge resistor.

Capacitors must have an internal resistor that

discharges a capacitor to 50 V or less within 5 min when the capacitor is charged to the peak of its rated voltage . This resistor is the major component of losses within a capacitor.

10

Capacitor Connection a ) Delta-connection  F or de lt a connec ti on, th

Capacitor Connection

a) Delta-connection

For delta connection, the single phase capacitor is a two bushing capacitor unit.

single phase capac itor is a t wo bushing capacitor unit.  The required voltage rating
single phase capac itor is a t wo bushing capacitor unit.  The required voltage rating

The required voltage rating of the capacitor unit must be equal to or greater than the nominal line voltage of the system.

11

a) Delta-connection Example-1 Determine the appropriate voltage and kVAR ratings for the capacitor units used

a) Delta-connection

Example-1

Determine the appropriate voltage and kVAR ratings for the capacitor units used to make a 2400 kVAR delta connected capacitor bank to be installed on 13.8 kV feeder.

for the capacitor units used to make a 2400 kVAR delta connected capacitor bank to be

12

a) Delta-connection Example-1-solution kVAR / phase 2400  3  800 kVAR / phase •

a) Delta-connection

Example-1-solution

kVAR

/

phase

2400

3

800 kVAR / phase

The most practical combination would be 2X400 kVAR units per phase or 1X800 kVAR unit per phase.

The voltage rating of each capacitor is equal to the nominal line-to-line voltage of the system; i.e. 13.8 kV.

13

Capacitor Connection b) Y-connection  For Y connection , the single phase capacitor is a

Capacitor Connection

b) Y-connection

For Y connection, the single phase capacitor is a single bushing capacitor unit.

phase capacitor is a single bushing capacitor unit.  Th lidl nd d Y ti n
phase capacitor is a single bushing capacitor unit.  Th lidl nd d Y ti n

Th

lidl

nd d Y

ti

n i

r medium voltage distribution feeders.

e so

y g ou

e

-co

nn

ec

o

s

t

i

ll

yp ca y use

d in

14

Capacitor Connection b) Y-connection  The voltage rating of the capacitor unit must be equal

Capacitor Connection

b) Y-connection

The voltage rating of the capacitor unit must be equal or more than the nominal line-ground voltage of the feeder.

Additional units may be added in parallel to increase the rating of the bank.

Group fusing is typically provided by fused cutouts. However, individual fusing is provided for larger capacitor banks.

15

b) Y-connection Example-2 A 4800 kVAR, 12.47 kV, solidly grounded Y-connected capacitor bank is made

b) Y-connection

Example-2

A 4800 kVAR, 12.47 kV, solidly grounded Y-connected capacitor bank is made of eight 200 kVAR, 7200 V capacitor units per phase. A blown fuse detection scheme is to be used to determine the presence of a blown fuse. Assume that one fuse of phase A is blown, calculate the current flowing from the neutral of the bank to the ground.

16

Z B  Z C b) Y-connection Example-2-solution   j 7200 2 8 

Z

B

Z

C

b) Y-connection

Example-2-solution

 

j

7200

2

8 200,000



j

32.4

Z

A

 

j

7200

2

7 200,000



j

37.0

The source voltage references are selected as:

I

C

V

AN

I

A

72000,

7200

0

37



90

V

BN

194.6

7200 120,

V

CN

7200120

90

A

I

B

7200



120

32.4



90

222.2



30

A

7200 120

32.4



90

222.2

210 A

30 A   7200 120  32.4  90 222.2  210 A I 

I



N

I

A

I

B

I

C

27.6

90A

17

a) Power Factor Correction  One of the main advantages of the application of capacitors

a) Power Factor Correction

One of the main advantages of the application of capacitors is the power factor correction.

This reactive power requirement has three adverse effects on distribution system:

The reactive power increases the generators kVA and consequently all system components sizes and rating have to be increased.

The reactive current increases the system voltage drop.

The reactive current increases the system losses.

18

Power Factor Correction Equations  The present power factor (pf) is given by: 2 2

Power Factor Correction Equations

The present power factor (pf) is given by:

2

2

1/2

pf (present) = P/(P + Q 1 )

When a shunt capacitor is connected to the load , the new pf is then given by:

pf (new) = P/[P 2 + (Q 1 - Q C ) 2 ] 1/2

is connected to the load , the new pf is then given by: pf (new) =

19

Power factor corrections values Correction factor = Q cap /P load 20

Power factor corrections values Correction factor = Qcap/Pload

Power factor corrections values Correction factor = Q cap /P load 20

20

Example-3 If a 700 kVA load has a 65% p ower factor connected to 4160VGrdY/2400V

Example-3

If a 700 kVA load has a 65% power factor connected to 4160VGrdY/2400V system, it is required to

improve the power factor to 92%. Using the following Table, determine the following:

a) The correction factor required.

b) The capacitor size required

c) If the capacitor size calculated in (b) is not the

standard size, use the list standard of capacitors sizes

in the previous Table to calculate the new possible improved power factor.

21

Power factor corrections values Correction factor = Q cap /P load 22

Power factor corrections values Correction factor = Qcap/Pload

Power factor corrections values Correction factor = Q cap /P load 22

22

Solution: From the previous Table, the correction factor required i s 0.74. The real power

Solution:

From the previous Table, the correction factor required is 0.74. The real power of the 700 kVA load at 0.65 power factor

= 700 x 0.65 = 455 kW

The capacitor size necessary to improve the power factor from 65% to 92% can de found as Capacitor size = P x (correction factor)

= 455 (0.74)

= 336.7 kVAR

23

From the capacitor rating Table the next higher standard capacitor size is 400 kVAR, therefore

From the capacitor rating Table the next higher standard capacitor size is 400 kVAR, therefore the resulting new correction factor can be found to be

= 400/455 = 0.879

24

Power factor corrections values Correction factor = Q cap /P load 25

Power factor corrections values Correction factor = Qcap/Pload

Power factor corrections values Correction factor = Q cap /P load 25

25

• From p ower correction Table b y linear interpolation, the resulting corrected p ower

From power correction Table by linear interpolation, the resulting corrected power factor, with an original power factor of 0.65 and a correction of 0.879 can be found as:

New corrected power factor

0.96

(.97

.96) *

(0.879

0.878)

(0.918

0.878)

0.96025

0.96

26

b) Voltage Support  As mentioned earlier , capacitors are used to improve the voltage

b) Voltage Support

As mentioned earlier, capacitors are used to improve the voltage profile for the feeders.

The best location for voltage support depends on where the voltage support is needed.

Unlike a regulator, a capacitor changes the voltage profile upstream of the bank.

27

b) Voltage Support 28

b) Voltage Support

b) Voltage Support 28

28

Approximate Calculation for Voltage Ri se “K” Factor: The K r i s e is

Approximate Calculation for Voltage Rise

“K” Factor:

The K rise is similar to the Kdrop factor except that the load now is a shunt capacitor. When a leading current flows through an inductive reactance there will be a voltage rise instead of voltage drop.

K

V

rise

ZI

cap

Percent voltage rise

rise

kvar . mile

29

Example -4  Calculate the K factor for a feeder with an impedance of Z=0.25+j0.6

Example-4

Calculate the K factor for a feeder with an impedance of Z=0.25+j0.6 and a length of 3 miles. Assuming a load of 7000 kVA and power factor of 0.9 lagging and a nominal line to line voltage = 11 kV determine the rating of a three phase capacitor bank to limit the voltage drop to 1.5%.

rise

30

Example - 4 Solution I cap  V rise K rise 1 kVAR  3

Example-4 Solution

I

cap

V

rise

K

rise

1 kVAR  3 kV LL    Z  I cap
1 kVAR
3 kV
LL
Z  I
cap

90

0.034 11000 / 3
0.034
11000 /
3

0.0525

90

(.25

j

0.6)

0.000537%

0.0525

90

0.034 V

/

rise kVAR mile

.

I

load

7000 3  11 V drop
7000
3
 11
V drop



(

cos

Z I

.

1

)

(0.9)

367



238.6 V

25.8

31

Example - 4 Solution % V drop  238.6 11000 / 3  3.76% However,

Example-4 Solution

%

V

drop

238.6 11000 / 3
238.6
11000 /
3

3.76%

However, it is required to limit the voltage drop to 1.5%, so:

V rise

kVAR

3.76 1.5 2.26%

V rise

K

rise

mile

2.26

0.000537

3

1403 kVAR

32

c) Reducing Line Losses • O ne o f th e ma i n b

c) Reducing Line Losses

One of the main benefits of applying capacitors

is that they can reduce distribution line losses.

• Losses come from current through the resistance of conductors.

• Some of that current transmits real power, but some flows to supply reactive power.

• It is desirable to determine the size and

location of capacitors to maximize reduction in

line losses.

33

c) Reducing Line Losses • Th e magn it u d e o f th

c) Reducing Line Losses

The magnitude of the line current can be expressed as follows:

• Where:

I

L

I

2

p

I

2

q

1/ 2

-Ip = magnitude of in-phase component of line current

- Iq = magnitude of quadrature component of line current

34

c) Reducing Line Losses • The curren t a b sor b e d b

c) Reducing Line Losses

The current absorbed by a capacitor bank will subtract from the quadrature component of the line current resulting in the following:

I

L

• Where:

I

2

p

I

q

I

c

1/ 2

2

-Ic = magnitude of the capacitor current

35

c) Reducing Line Losses Example -5 If the load (700 kVA) in example 3 was

c) Reducing Line Losses

Example-5

If the load (700 kVA) in example 3 was connected to the source via a feeder with the following impedance: Z = 0.5+j1.3, find the line losses before and after power factor correction. Also, find the optimum location of the capacitor for maximum line loss reduction.

36

c) Reducing Line Losses Example -5- solution: P  700(.65)  455 kW Losses 

c) Reducing Line Losses

Example-5-solution:

P 700(.65) 455 kW

Losses

3

2

I R

I

L 1

I

L 2

455

97 A

 
3
3

4.16

.65

455

38.2 A

 
3
3

4.16

.96

 38.2 A   3  4.16  .96 Losses  14.16 kW Losses  2.19
 38.2 A   3  4.16  .96 Losses  14.16 kW Losses  2.19

Losses 14.16 kW

Losses 2.19 kW

Where is the best place for this capacitor?

37

c) Reducing Line Losses Pra ctical co nsi derati ons: • Determining the size and

c) Reducing Line Losses

Practical considerations:

• Determining the size and location of a capacitor for a uniformly distributed load is more complicated, why?

The time-varying nature of the loads will also be a significant factor in determining capacitor requirements, why?

38

c) Reducing Line Losses Example -6 For the reactive load shown below for a 4.16

c) Reducing Line Losses

Example-6

For the reactive load shown below for a 4.16 feeder, determine the fixed and switched capacitor to be added to correct the power factor?

a 4.16 f ee d er, det erm i ne th e fixed an d sw

39

Example-6-solution
Example-6-solution

c) Reducing Line Losses

Example-6-solution c) Reducing Line Losses • Solution (b) is better as it delivers better compensation for

Solution (b) is better as it delivers better compensation for the reactive current. However, solution (b) requires the switching of two capacitors instead of one for solution (a) which is not desirable in power system.

40

c) Reducing Line Losses Optimum capacitor size and location: • Consider the following radial system
c) Reducing Line Losses
Optimum capacitor size and location:
• Consider the following radial system with uniform
reactive current.
kI
I
1
1
i
(
x
)
.x
I
1
L
• The active power loss per phase
due to reactive component of load
current is:
2
L
kI
I
1
1
P
 
.
x
I
.
R dx
.
Loss
1
L
0
41
c) Reducing Line Losses Optimum capacitor size and location: P Loss  L 3 .

c) Reducing Line Losses

Optimum capacitor size and location:

P Loss

L

3

.

I

2

1

.

K

2

K

R

1.

If the load has only lumped load, so K = 1 and:

P

Loss

L I

.

2 R

1

.

If the load has only distributed load, so K = 0 and:

P

Loss

L

3

.

I

2

1

R

.

R is the resistance per unit length

. If the load has only distributed load, so K = 0 and: P Loss 

42

c) Reducing Line Losses Optimum capacitor size and location: If a single capacitor bank is
c) Reducing Line Losses
Optimum capacitor size and location:
If a single capacitor bank is added to the circuit, the
reactive load profile is modified as shown below:
 kI
I
1
1
'
i
(
x
)
 
 
.x
I
I
for 0
x
x
1
C
L
 kI
I
1
1
'
i
(
x
)
  . x
I
for
x
x
L
1
 
L
2
x '
 kI
I
1
1
P
.
x
I
I
.
R dx
.
Loss
1
C
So:
L
0
2
L
 kI
I
1
1
.
x
I
.
R dx
.
1
L
x '
43
c) Reducing Line Losses Optimum capacitor size and location: P Loss   x '

c) Reducing Line Losses

Optimum capacitor size and location:

P Loss

x '

2

L

(

I I

1

C

(1

K

)

x

'(

I

2

C

2

I I

1

C

)

L

3

I

2

1

(

K

2

K

1)

. R

For a given load profile, line length,

and resistance, the quantities K, I 1 , R and L are constant. • The
and resistance, the quantities K, I 1 , R and
L are constant.
• The only two variables are I
C an
d
x .
• To determine the optimum capacitor
size and location to minimize losses, the
partial derivatives are taken for these
two variables, I C and x’.
P
2
x
'
Loss
 
0
2
I I
(1
K
)
(
I
2
I I
)
(1)
1
C
C
1
C
x
'
L
P
x '
Loss
0
I
(1
K
)
2
I
2
I
(2)
1
C
1
I
L
C
44
c) Reducing Line Losses I Optimum capacitor size and location: Solving equation no.1 will result

c) Reducing Line Losses

I

Optimum capacitor size and location:

Solving equation no.1 will result in:

x '

(

I

2

2

I I

 
 

C

1

C

) L

I I

1

C

(1

K

)

2

It is convenient to express the capacitor current I C as a function of the reactive current I 1

C

I

1

  L

x '

2

2  

1 K

(3)

Substituting equations (3) in (2) will results in:

3

0 1

2

2

3

  1  K  (3) Substituting equations (3) in (2) will results in: 3

45

c) Reducing Line Losses Optimum capacitor size and location: So the size of the capacitor

c) Reducing Line Losses

Optimum capacitor size and location:

So the size of the capacitor is 2/3 of the total reactive current entering the feeder. If this value is substituted in equation 3, then:

x '

2

3

1

L

1 K

So it can be seen from this equation that

the 2/3 capacitor size is only true for K

value is up to 1/3. If K is more than 1/3

then x’ will be more than L which is not logic. If K exceeds 1/3, the optimum location t

i

’=L

d

h

i

i

ill b

s x

an

e capac tor s ze w

e:

K

1

2

If K exceeds 1/3, the optimum location t i ’=L d h i i ill b

46

c) Reducing Line Losses Capac it or s iz e and p la ce me

c) Reducing Line Losses

Capacitor size and placement:

If K = 0 (only uniformly distributed load), then x’ = 2/3L

Line Losses Capac it or s iz e and p la ce me nt : If

47

c) Reducing Line Losses Capac it or s iz e and p la ce me

c) Reducing Line Losses

Capacitor size and placement:

• A generalization of the 2/3 rule for applying n capacitors to a circuit is to size each one to 2/(2n+1) of the circuit var requirements.

Apply them equally spaced, starting at a distance of 2/(2n+1) of the total line length from the substation and adding the rest of the units at intervals of 2/(2n+1) of the total line length.

48

c) Reducing Line Losses Capac it or s iz e and p la ce me

c) Reducing Line Losses

Capacitor size and placement:

• The total vars supplied by the capacitors is 2n/(2n+1) of the circuits var requirements.

• So to apply three capacitors, size each to 2/7 of the

total vars needed, and locate them at per unit distances of 2/7, 4/7, and 6/7 of the line length from the substation.

49

Example 7: A section of a 12.47 kV distribution line has a length of 3

Example 7:

A section of a 12.47 kV distribution line has a length of 3 miles. The reactive power loading was measured as 2000 kVAR at the distribution substation line exit. The reactive power loading at the end of the line section was estimated as 600 kVAR. Determine the optimum capacitor rating and location to minimize line loss of this section.

50

Example 7-solution: The ratio of reactive power at th e end of the line section

Example 7-solution:

The ratio of reactive power at the end of the line section to the reactive power at the beginning of the line is:

K

600

2000

0.3

Since K is less than 1/3, the optimum capacitor rating is two- thirds time the reactive loading at the beginning of the line *

section, i.e. kVAR

CAP = (2/3) 2000=1333.3 kVAR

The optimum capacitor location is given by:

'

x

2 (3)
3

1

1

0 3

.

 2.86 miles

51

d) Released Capacity • In addition to reducing losses and improving voltage, capacitors release capacity.

d) Released Capacity

• In addition to reducing losses and improving voltage, capacitors release capacity.

• Improving the power factor increases the amount of real- power load the circuit can supply.

release capacity. • Improving the power factor increases the amount of real- power load the circuit

52

d) Released Capacity 53

d) Released Capacity

d) Released Capacity 53

53

Example 8: In th e following Fi gure a pri mary line with unif orm

Example 8:

In the following Figure a primary line with uniformly distributed load. The voltage at the distribution substation low-voltage bus is held at 1.03 pu V with bus voltage regulation. When there is no capacitor bank installed on the feeder, the per unit voltage at the end of the line at annual peak load is 0.97. Use the nominal operating voltage of 13.8 KV of the three-phase as the base voltage. Assume that the off peak load of the system is about 25% of the on peak load. Also, assume that the line reactance is 0.80 /(phase.mi) but the line resistance is neglected and determine the following:

a- When the shunt capacitor bank is not used, find the Vx, voltages at the times of peak load and off-peak load.

b- Apply an un-switched capacitor bank and locate it at the point of X = 4 mi on the line, and size the capacitor bank to yield a voltage of 1.05 per unit at point X=0 at the time of zero load. Find the size of the capacitor in three phase kilovars.

of 1.05 per unit at point X=0 at the time of zero load. Find the size

54

Example 8 , solution The current flowing through any segment along a feeder with uniforml

Example 8, solution

The current flowing through any segment along a feeder with uniformly distributed load can be calculated from the following equation (no installed capacitors exist):

I

x

I

S

1

x

l

The voltage drop across this segment can be calculated from the following equation:

dVD

x

I

z dx

x

55

Example 8 , solution The total voltage drop from the source point to point x

Example 8, solution

The total voltage drop from the source point to point x along the feeder is given by:

VD

x

x

0

dVD

x

x

0

I

x

z

dx

VD

x

VD

x

x

0

I

S

I

S

  1

x   z dx

l

z

x

x

2 l

2

I

S

z

x

  1

x

2 l

56

Example 8 , solution The total voltage drop from the source point to the feeder

Example 8, solution

The total voltage drop from the source point to the feeder end-point is given by:

VD

VD

x

VD

l

l

I

S

z

%

VD

x

%

VD

l

l

l

2

2

l

 

x   1

x

2 l

l

2

I

x

l

S

z

2

l

2

x  

l

57

Example 8 , solution The total voltage drop from the source point to the feeder

Example 8, solution

The total voltage drop from the source point to the feeder end-point (no installed capacitors exist) at the peak load is given by:

VD

l

,

pu

1.03

0.97

0.06

pu

6 %

VD

x

VD

l

VD

V

x

x

x

l

2

0.888

x  

l

x

0.06

2

3

2



3

pu

2

0.0533

8

9

0.888

V

o

VD

x

1.03 0.0533 0.9767

pu

V

x

0.9767

x

13.8 13.47846

kV

58

Example 8 , solution The total voltage drop from the source point to the feeder

Example 8, solution

The total voltage drop from the source point to the feeder end-point (no installed capacitors exist) at the no loading condition is given by:

% VD

l

,

off

D

off

1

% VD

l

k

, pea

D

pea k

4

Therefore, at off-peak conditions:

% VD

l

,

off

VD x off

,

VD

l , off

VD

x

,

off

1

4

x

0.06

0.015

pu

1.5 %

x

l

2

0.888

x  

l

x

0.015

2

3

2

2  

pu

3

0.0133

8

9

0.888

V

x

V

x

V

o

VD

x

1.0167

x

1.03 0.0133 1.0167

13.8 14.03

kV

pu

59

Example 8 , solution The voltage at point X with no capacitor is 1.03 pu

Example 8, solution

The voltage at point X with no capacitor is 1.03 pu (because there is no load and the voltage at the bus will equal the voltage at X), after installing the capacitor bank the voltage at point X becomes 1.05 pu. Therefore, the per unit voltage rise at point X is 0.02 pu or 2 %.

V

rise

[

z

*

I

cap

] 0.0336

V

I cap

1 kVAR 3 *13.8
1 kVAR
3 *13.8

90

0.042

90

0.0336   0.000422%rise/kvar.mile K rise 13.8 / 3 2 %V  K * kVAR
0.0336
 0.000422%rise/kvar.mile
K rise
13.8 /
3
2
%V
 K
* kVAR * mile
KVAR 
 1185 7
.
rise
rise
0.000422* 4

60

Capacitor banks switching control  Several o p tions for controls are available for capacitor

Capacitor banks switching control

Several options for controls are available for capacitor banks. They can be classified to:

a) Simple control: these techniques does not require any electrical measurements.

Time

clock: The simplest scheme: the controller

switches capacitors on and off based on the time of day. This control is the cheapest but also the most susceptible to energizing the capacitor at the wrong time.

Temperature: Another simple control; the

controller switches the capacitor bank on or off

d

di

epen

ng on temperature.

61

Capacitor banks b) More complicated control: these techniques require different electrical measurements like: –

Capacitor banks

b) More complicated control: these techniques require different electrical measurements like:

Voltage:

The capacitor switches on and off, based on voltage magnitude.

Voltage control is most appropriate when the primary role of a capacitor is voltage support and regulation.

Voltage-controlled capacitor banks have bandwidths which should be at least 3 or 4 V (on a 120-V scale).

62

Capacitor banks – Vars: • The capacitor uses var measurements to determine switching. • This

Capacitor banks

Vars:

The capacitor uses var measurements to determine switching.

This is the most accurate method of ensuring that the capacitor is on at the appropriate times for maximum reduction of losses.

Like the voltage control technique, there is a bandwidth for switching of each capacitor bank to prevent excessive switching operations in most cases.

63

Control Methods used for Switched Capacitors Type of Control Pole Mounted Banks on Feeders Percent

Control Methods used for Switched Capacitors

Type of Control

Pole Mounted Banks on Feeders Percent

Distribution Substation Banks Percent

Voltage

16.6

30.8

Current

4.9

2.4

Time

59.8

16.3

Voltage-Current

7.2

12.6

Voltage-Time

5.1

6.3

Manual *

6.2

28.4

Others

0.2

3.2

Total

100.0

100.0

* Manual includes any switching directly or indirectly caused by the dispatcher

64

Capacitor Switching Consideration  In man y cases it is desirable to install several steps

Capacitor Switching Consideration

In many cases it is desirable to install several steps of switched capacitor units. This is particularly true if the load reactive power requirements fluctuates during the day. When a de-energized capacitor is energized, the capacitor behaves as a short circuit. The inductance of the source/line will limit the current.

65

Capacitor Switching Consideration  The calculation of currents during capacitor switching is extremely important in

Capacitor Switching Consideration

The calculation of currents during capacitor switching is extremely important in capacitor applications.

Both contactors and circuit breakers used in capacitor switching are limited in the amount of momentary current the contacts can safely withstand.

This current will be also at high frequency compared to system frequency which will produce high frequency voltage spikes in the system.

66

Switching Single Capacitor Bank  Exact calculations of capacitor switching currents are extremely difficult manually,

Switching Single Capacitor Bank

Exact calculations of capacitor switching currents are extremely difficult manually, so the following assumptions will be made:

a) The system will be analyzed on a single phase basis.

b) The source will be modeled as a DC voltage source.

c) The DC voltage will have a magnitude equal to the peak line to neutral system voltage.

d) Resistances will be ignored.

67

Switching Single Capacitor Bank  The equivalent circuit is shown below V o  2

Switching Single Capacitor Bank

The equivalent circuit is shown below

V

o

2 . V LL 3
2
. V
LL
3

The capacitance per phase of the capacitor bank is:

C

MVAR

rated

2 .

.

f

rated

.(

kV

LL

rated

_

)

2

The capacitor switching current is:

I

(

s

)

V / s

o

sL

s

(1 /

sC

)

 . f rated .( kV LL rated _ ) 2 Th e capaci tor sw

68

Switching Single Capacitor Bank V / L o s I ( s )  2
Switching Single Capacitor Bank
V
/
L
o
s
I
(
s
)
2
s
(1 /
L
C
)
s
Re-arranging the equation:
1 / 2
 C 
o
I
(
s
)
V
o
2
2
L
s
o
Where:
1
o
L
C
s
1 / 2
1 / 2
 C 
 C 
i
(
t
)
sin(
t
)
I
V o
V o
o
max
L
L
69
Example 9: A 1200-kVAR, 4.16-kV capacitor bank is installed on a p lant bus. The

Example 9:

A 1200-kVAR, 4.16-kV capacitor bank is installed on a plant bus. The plant bus is supplied from a 5000-kVA, 69kV-4.16/2.4 kV transformer having an impedance of 7%. Neglecting the impedance of the source and resistance determine the maximum instantaneous value and the frequency of the inrush current. Also, determine the inductance of the inductors that must be added to reduce the inrush current.

70

Example 9-solution: The transformer inductive reactance is: X  0.07.  4.16 kV  2

Example 9-solution:

The transformer inductive reactance is:

X

0.07.

4.16

kV

2

5 MVA

0.242

The transformer inductance is:

L

0.242

2.60

The capacitance per phase is equal to:

C

1.2 MVAR

2 .60.(4.16

kV )

2

1.84

10

4

F

The peak source voltage is:

V

o

 10  4 F The peak source voltage is: V o  I max 

I max

3396

1 84

.

10

4

6.43

10

4

 

1/ 2

2.4160 3  1817 A
2.4160
3
1817 A

6 43

.

10

3396

V

4

H

71

Example 9-solution: The frequency of the transient inrush current is  o  1 

Example 9-solution:

The frequency of the transient inrush current is

o

1

1.84

10

4

.6.43

10

4

1/ 2

2909

rad

463

Hz

The total amount of inductance to limit the maximum current to 1000 A is:

L added
L
added

L

s

V 2

o

I

2

max

. C

2.12

10

3 H

The inductance to be added will be equal to:

2.12

10

3

6.43

10

4

1.5 mH

72