Title
Abstract
Introduction
Aims
Theory
Apparatus
Methodology/Procedure
Results
Calculations
Discussion
Conclusion
Recommendations
Reference
Appendix
TOTAL MARKS
Remarks:
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
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CONTENT
PAGE
Abstract
Introduction
Objectives
Theory
57
Apparatus
Experimental procedure
89
Result
10 12
Calculation
13 15
Discussion
16 17
Conclusion
18
Recommendation
19
Refrences
20
Appendices
21
ABSTRACT
This experiment is aimed at investigating the validity of Bernoullis equation when applied to
a steady flow of water in tapered duct and to measure the flow rate of steady flow rates. Based on
(Bernoullis theorem, 2011) relates the pressure, velocity, and elevation in a moving fluid the
Page  1
compressibility and viscosity (internal friction) of which are negligible and the flow of which is
steady, or laminar.
For this experiment, by using the FM 24 Bernoullis Apparatus Test Equipment is to
demonstrate the Bernoullis theorem. The experiment was conducted in order to find the time
taken to collect 3L of water, the volumetric flow rates of the water, the pressure difference at all
manometer tube at different cross section. The time to collect 0.003 m 3 water is recorded based
on the different flow rate for each experiment.
The combination of venture meter complete with manometer tube and hydraulic bench
were used. During the experiment, water is fed through a hose connector and the flow rate can be
adjusted at the flow regulator valve at the outlet of the test section. The venture can be
demonstrated as a means of flow measurement and the discharge coefficient can be determined
the results show the reading of each manometer tubes increase when the pressure difference
increases. From the reading of height can be calculated the data by applied the Bernoulli equation
to fin the velocity of the fluid moving.
The pressure level and velocity reading for part A to E of the tube is recorded. From
Bernoulli theory, the relation between the increase and decrease in the pressure value is inversely
proportional to its velocity. Bernoulli's Principle tells that as the fluid flows more quickly through
the narrow sections, the pressure actually decreases rather than increases. Thus, it proves the
validity of Bernoullis theorem
INTRODUCTION
Bernoulli's Principle is a physical principle formulated that states that "as the speed of a
moving fluid increases, the pressure within the fluid decreases. Bernoulli's principle is named
after the Swiss scientist Daniel Bernoulli . Bernoulli's principle states that for an in viscid flow,
an increase in the speed of the fluid occurs simultaneously with a decrease in pressure or a
decrease in the fluid's potential energy. Bernoulli's principle is named after the Swiss
Page  2
scientist Daniel Bernoulli who published his principle in his book Hydrodynamica in 1738.
( Wikipedia, 2013)
Bernoulli's
principle
can
be
derived
from
the
principle
of conservation
of
energy. Bernoullis Principle can be demonstrated by the Bernoulli equation. The Bernoulli
equation is an approximate relation between pressure, velocity, and elevation. As a fluid passes
through a pipe that narrows or widens, the velocity and pressure of the fluid vary. As the pipe
narrows, the fluid flows more quickly. Surprisingly, Bernoulli's Principle tells that as the fluid
flows more quickly through the narrow sections, the pressure actually decreases rather than
increases. Bernoulli's principle can be explained in terms of the law of conservation of energy.
As a fluid moves from a wider pipe into a narrower pipe or a constriction, a corresponding
volume must move a greater distance forward in the narrower pipe and thus have a greater
speed.
Meanwhile, Continuity equation is about in physics is an equation that describes the
transport of a conserved quantity. Continuity equations are a stronger, local form of conservation
laws. (Wikipedia, 2013).
However, Bernoullis Principle can only be applied under certain conditions. The
conditions to which Bernoullis equation applies are the fluid must be frictionless (in viscid) and
of constant density; the flow must be steady , continuous, incompressible, nonviscous fluid
flow, the total energy or total head remains constant at all the section along the fluid flow
provided there is no loss or addition of energy.
.
p
Where, y
p
y
v
2g
+ z = total head=constant
(Equation 2.11)
Page  3
OBJECTIVE
1. To investigate the validity of the Bernoulli equation when applied to the steady flow of water in a
tapered duct.
2. To measure the flow rates with venture meter and to demonstrate Bernoulli.
3. To find the time taken to collect 3L of water, the volumetric flow rates of the water, the pressure
difference at all manometer tube, velocity, dynamic head and also the total head
4. To determine a steady, continuous, incompressible, nonviscous fluid flow, the total energy or total
head remains constant at all the section along the fluid flow provided there is no loss or addition of
energy.
THEORY
The FM 24 Bernoullis Apparatus Test Equipment is used to investigate the validity of the Bernoulli
equation when applied to the steady flow of water in tapered duct. The apparatus consists of a clear
acrylic duct of varying circular cross section, known as a Venturi. The duct has a series of wall
tapings that allows measurement of the static pressure distribution along the converging duct, while a
total head tube is provided to traverse along the center line of the test section. The venture meter is
connected to the manometer with pipes. Wall pressure tapings are provided along the converging and
diverging portions of the venturi to measure the static pressure distribution. The reading of the
Page  4
manometer from manometer 1 to manometer 5 shows the pressure head and manometer 6 shows the
static head. Flow rate and pressure in the apparatus may be varied independently by adjustment of
the flow control valve, and the bench supply control valve.
Tapping Point
A
B
C
D
E
F
Distance (mm)
60
83
105
148.6
166.4
215
Diameter (mm)
26
21.6
16
20
22
216
From table above show the positions in mm of the pressure tappings and the dimensions of
the crosssection. From this related figure, point A to F is the same along the venture meter. This data
is use for to apply in Bernoulli equation and Continuity Equation.
that the characteristics of flow through both a converging and diverging section can be studied. Water
is fed through a hose connector and is controlled by a flow regulator valve at the outlet of the test
section. The venturi can be demonstrated as a means of flow measurement and the discharge
coefficient can be determined. The tapping point from A to F where the distance from point A to F is
increase and the diameter is different for each of them. The common form or bernoullis equation,
where is valid at point along a streamline when gravity is constant
which density is constant, along a stream line, the liquid is nonviscous, the flow is steady and the
velocity of the liquid is less than the critical velocity for the liquid and there is no loss of energy due
to friction.
Page  5
= A5
2 g ( h5 h1 )
A5
1
( A5)
[]
( )
d 21
Where, A1=
4
d 25
and A5=
4
Velocity measurement
Page  6
The velocity of the flow is measured by measuring the volume of the flow, V, over a time period, t.
Thus gives the rate of volume flow: Qv = V/t m3/s, which in turn gives the velocity of the flow
through a defined are :
v=
Qv
A
Continuity equation
For an incompressible fluid, conservation of mass requires that volume is also conserved.
A1V1 = A2V2
APPARATUS
1. Pad of Manometer tubes
2. Venturi tube
3. Air bleed screw
4. Water inlet
5. Pump and Pump switch
6. Stopwatch
7. Water hosts and tubes
8. Water tank equipped with valves, Control Valve and measuring tube
9. Hypodermic tube
10. Hydraulic Bench
11. Union
12. Air Bleed Screw
13. Discharge water
14. Sump tank
15. Volumetric Tank
PROCEDURES
General Startup Procedures
The Bernoullis Theorem Demonstration (Model: FM 24) is supplied ready for use and only requires
connection to the Hydraulic Bench (Model: FM110) as follows:
Page  7
1. The clear acrylic test section was ensured installed with the converging section upstream. The
unions tightened and checked.
2. The apparatus located on the flat top of the bench.
3. A spirit level was attached to the baseboard and the unit was level on the top of the bench by
adjusting the feet.
4. The water was filled into the volumetric tank of the hydraulic bench until approximately 90%
full.
5. The flexible inlet tube was connected using the quick released coupling in the bed channel.
6. The flexible hose was connected to the outlet and it directed into the channel.
7. The outlet flow control partially opened at the Bernoullis Theorem Demonstration Unit.
8. The bench flow control valve, V1 fully closed then the pump switched on.
9. V1 was gradually opened and water allowed filling until all air has been expelled from the
system.
10. All the trapped bubbles was checked in the glass tube or plastic transfer tube.

To remove air bubbles, the air were bleed out using a pen or screw driver to press the air
bleed valve at the top right side of the manometer board.
11. Water flowing into the venturi and discharge into the collection tank of hydraulic bench.
12. The water flow rate proceeds to increased it. When all the water flow was steady and there
were no trapped bubbles, the discharge valve closed to reduce the flow to the maximum
measurable flow rate.
13. Water levels in the manometer were in different heights.
14. V1 and outlet control valve adjusted to obtain the flow through the test section and the static
pressure profile observed along the converging and diverging sections is indicated on its
respective manometers. The total head pressure along the venture tube being measured by
traversing the hypodermic tube.
Note: the manometer tube connected to the tapping adjacent to the outlet flow control valve is
used as a datum when setting up equivalent conditions for flow through test section.
15. The actual flow rate measured by using the volumetric tank with a stop watch.
General Shut Down Procedures
1. Water supply valve and venturi discharge valve closed.
2. The water supply pump closed.
3. Water drain off from the unit when not in use.
Page  8
Procedure
8. The velocity was calculated using the Bernoullis equation where ViB = 2 g (h hi)
9. The velocity were also calculated using the continuity equation where, ViC =
Qav / A i
RESULT
Experiment 1
Volume (L)
Average Time (s) to collect
3
Q, Flow Rate ( m /s)
3L
20.99 s
4
1.429 x 10
m3 /s
Page  9
Cross
section
#
h* = hH
hi
(mm)
(mm)
Using
2 g
ViB =
(m/s)
A
B
C
D
E
F
154
152
149
146
145
142
144
140
104
124
129
132
0.443
0.485
0.939
0.657
0.560
0.443
Continuity Difference
equation
Ai =
Vic =
Di2
Q av
Ai
(m2)
0.000531
0.000366
0.000201
0.000314
0.000380
0.000531
(m/s)
0.269
0.310
0.711
0.455
0.376
0.269
ViB  Vic
(m/s)
0.174
0.095
0.228
0.202
0.184
0.174
Experiment 2
Volume (L)
Average Time (min) to collect
3
Q, Flow Rate ( m /s)
Cross
section
#
3L
23.345 min
4
1.285 x 10
hi
(mm)
(mm)
Using
2 g
ViB =
(m/s)
176
165
m3 /s
0.465
equation
Ai =
Continuity difference
Vic =
Di2
Q av
Ai
(m2)
0.000531
(m/s)
0.242
ViB  Vic
(m/s)
0.223
Page  10
B
C
D
E
F
166
154
138
125
120
153
109
116
110
110
0.505
0.939
0.657
0.542
0.443
0.000366
0.000201
0.000314
0.000380
0.000531
0.351
0.639
0.409
0.338
0.242
0.154
0.300
0.248
0.204
0.201
Experiment 3
Volume (L)
Average Time (s) to collect
3
Q, Flow Rate ( m /s)
3L
33.498
4
8.958 x 10
Cross
section
#
h* = hH
hi
(mm)
(mm)
Using
2 g
ViB =
(m/s)
A
B
C
D
E
F
173
170
165
163
157
152
162
157
120
141
142
142
m3 /s
0.465
0.505
0.939
0.432
0.294
0.443
equation
Ai =
Di2
4
(m2)
0.000531
0.000366
0.000201
0.000314
0.000380
0.000531
Continuity difference
Vic =
Q av
Ai
(m/s)
0.169
0.245
0.446
0.274
0.226
0.169
ViB  Vic
(m/s)
0.296
0.260
0.493
0.158
0.068
0.274
Page  11
CALCULATIONS
Experiment 1:
4
Flow rate of water = 1.429 x 10
m3 /s
ViB =
2 9.81
ViB =
Ai =
4
Ai =
(26 103)2
4
Ai = 5.31 x 104 m2
Vic =
Q av
Ai
Page  12
Vic =
1.429 x 104 m3 /s
5.31 x 104
Experiment 2:
Flow rate of water =
1.285 10 m /s
ViB =
2 9.81
ViB =
Ai =
4
Page  13
3 2
(26 10 )
Ai =
4
Ai = 5.31 x 104 m2
Vic =
Q av
Ai
Vic =
1.285 104
5.31 x 104
Experiment 3:
Flow rate of water =
8.958 105 m3 /s
ViB =
Page  14
2 9.81
ViB =
Ai =
4
3 2
Ai =
(26 10 )
4
Ai = 5.31 x 104 m2
Vic =
Q av
Ai
Vic =
8.958 10
5.31 x 104
Page  15
DISCUSSION
For this experiment, Bernoullis theorem demonstration apparatus along with the hydraulic
bench were used. This instrument was combined with a venturi meter and the pad of manometer
tubes which indicate the pressure of hA until hF . A venturi is basically a convergingdiverging section
(like an hourglass), typically placed between tube or duct sections with fixed crosssectional area.
The flow rates through the venturi meter can be related to pressure measurements by using
Bernoullis equation.
From the result , it is been observed that when the pressure difference increase, the flow rates
of the water increase and thus the velocities also increase for both convergent and divergent flow.As
fluid flows from a wider pipe to a narrower one, the velocity of the flowing fluid increases. This is
shown in all the results tables, where the velocity of water that flows in the tapered duct increases as
the duct area decreases, regardless of the pressure difference of each result taken. Bernoullis
equation used to calculate the velocity
From the experiment, to calculate the velocity using the continuity equation as it relates with
area. The velocity was calculated with ViC =
Ai
Qav / A i
, where
Qav
is cross sectional area of pipe. From the data, the value of the volume flow rate is calculated
based on the 3L volume collected per time in second .After calculated the value is to be
4
1.429 10 m /s
3
4 m
1.235
10
for the fast rate for flow rate 1,
s
8.958 105 m3 /s
made after the experiment, it can be concluded that the diameter of the tube will affect the
differences in velocity as a bigger tube will cause the differences in velocity become bigger while the
smaller tube cause the velocity differences between ViB and Vic to be smaller.From this experiment
there are also happen the major and minor losses in the pipe. The major factor contributed to this loss
is sudden expansion and enlargement across the point A to point F. Next, the friction factor also
contributed in reducing the pressure inside the pipe. Therefore, it can be concluded that the
Bernoullis equation is valid when applied to steady flow of water in tapered duct and absolute
velocity values increase along the same channel. Although the experiment proof that the Bernoullis
equation is valid for both flow but the values obtain might be slightly differ from the actual value.
There are some errors on the results due to happen during the experiment is done. As for
parallax error, the observer must have not read the level of manometer properly, where the eyes are
not perpendicular to the water level on the manometer. Thus, possibility that the eye position of the
readers is not parallel to the scale. Besides that, the error also occurs due to manometer reading
which not steady due to water flow through the pipe not properly in stable state.
Page  17
CONCLUSION
The increasing velocity of fluid is flowing from a wider to narrower tube and the velocity
will decrease in the opposite case regardless of the type of flow and the pressure difference. As the
velocity for all cases increases the dynamic head values are also seem to be increased. The pressure
depends on the velocity of the flow while velocity is dependent on the diameter of the tube also.
Increasing the flow rate leads to increasing the velocity at any point thus will cause the pressure
drop. But there are some errors occurred in the results. There might be due to some errors occurred
during the experiment. However, the results can be improved if some precautions are taken during
the experiment for example the eyes level must be placed parallel to the scale when manometer
readings are taken. Besides that, the valve is also need to be controlled slowly to stabilize the water
level in the manometer. Furthermore, before conducting the experiment, make sure all the bubble
inside the manometer tubes is remove completely .This is due to influence taking the reading of
manometer and it also effect the pressure inside the manometer include the velocity flow.
The second objective which is to measure flow rates and both static and total pressure heads
in a rigid convergent and divergent tube of known geometry for a range of steady flow rates is
achieved. As the pressure difference increase, the time taken for 3L water collected increase and the
flow rates of the water also increase.Thus, as the velocity of the same channel increase, the total head
pressure also increase for both convergent and divergent flow.
Page  18
RECOMMENDATION
Before start running the experiment, make sure the trap bubbles must be removed from
manometer tubes to get accurate data by press air bleed valve lightly to allow fluid and
trapped air to escape out. Then, t he valve must be control carefully to maintain the constant
values of the pressure difference as it is quite difficult to control. When taking the reading at
manometer, the eye position of the observer must be parallel to the water meniscus to
avoid parallax error. During taking the reading at manometer, the time taken must be
accurate with the rising of water volume to avoid error . Beside that, the experiment should be
repeat several times to get average values.
Page  19
REFRENCE
at
11
November
2013
from
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bernoulli's_principle
4. Continuity
equation
Date
accessed
at
11
November
2013
from
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Continuity_equation
APPENDIX
Page  20
Page  21
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