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Caribbean Examination Council

School Based Assessment (S.B.A)

Centre #:
Candidate #:

Tasheika King
Port Antonio High School


Table of Contents

Miss Raymond




































They are a few persons the researcher owes a great deal of gratitude for the
successful completion of this study. Firstly, the researcher would like to share her
gratitude to the residence of Fellowship for their cooperation and participation.
Secondly, a special thanks to the researchers father for his constant
encouragement and for being their every step along the way. Finally, the

researcher would like to thank her Social Studies teacher, Miss Raymond for her
guidance throughout this study.

Unemployment is a social issue that have been a plague in the community of
Fellowship. This is a small farming and residential community made up of
approximately hundred and twenty residents (120). Fellowship is located in
Jamaica, Portland. It is approximately five miles from Port Antonio, the capital of

Sixty percentage of the population of Fellowship is of mixed descendant,

twenty percent African and the other twenty percent are Indians. These person are
mainly Christians of different denominations and others with no religion.


Diagram showing a map of Jamaica.

Unemployment is a situation where individuals in the labor force, who is capable
and willing to work but has not yet found a job or isnt willing to work. The
researcher has chosen this topic because it breaks her heart to see so many
unemployed individuals in her community. As a result, the researcher wants to find
out what measures can be put in place to alleviate the problem. To do this the
researcher has to find out what are the causes of unemployment in Fellowship.
Secondly, the researcher has to find out the effect on the individuals who are
unemployed. Thus, the researcher will be able to find measures that can be taken
to increase employment opportunities in Fellowship.

Topic: Unemployment
Statement of Problem:
To what extent does unemployment affects the individuals involved and what
measures can be put in place to increase employment opportunities in the district
of Fellowship?
Research Questions:


What are the main causes of unemployment in the Fellowship district?


What are the effects of unemployment on the unemployed individuals?


What can be done to increase employment opportunities?

Reasons for Selecting the Area of Research

The researcher has been observing this issue that is affecting the country of
Jamaica for many years now and it breaks the heart to see how many people are
unemployed and how it affects them. Since 2005- 2010 the rate of unemployment
has risen drastically in Jamaica. As a result of this individuals have turned to
criminal activities and many other social issue such as teenage pregnancy, drug
abuse, and street children.
Unemployment do not only affects the individuals involved, but the people around
them also. Therefore this problem needs to be dealt with immediately. The
researcher wouldnt hesitate to eradicate unemployment once and for all,
unfortunately however, this is impossible. Nevertheless the researcher still wishes
to do something to alleviate this issue, with the hope starting from the community
she has been living for her entire life. Therefore the researcher has chosen this
area of study with the hope of finding some means of alleviating this problem.

Method of Investigation

In order to collect data for the survey, the interviewer decided to use printed
questionnaires. The questionnaires used as a tool for collecting information was
used because of its merits. These include:

It requires little time to be completed.

It can be done at the respondents convenience.
It is guaranteed confidentiality, since respondents are not allowed to

attach their names on it.

It allows data to be collected from large numbers of persons.
It makes it possible to compare response of respondents.
It can be used to collect data that can be represented in statistical form.

Data Collection Instrument

S u r v e y d e t e rm i n i n g : To w h a t e x t e n t d o e s u n e m p l o y m e n t a ff e c t s
t h e i n d i v i d u a l s i n v o l v e d a n d w h a t m e a s u re s c a n b e p u t i n p l a c e t o
i n c re a s e e m p l o y m e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s ?

Dear Residents,
This is a survey being carried out in the Fellowship district to determine to what
extent does unemployment affects the individuals and what measures can be put
in place to increase employment opportunities in the Fellowship district. This is
being conducted as the school based assessment for a Social Studies course I am
currently pursuing at Port Antonio High School.
You are kindly asked to answer the questions on the questionnaire honestly. You
are not required to write your name. Thus, this is confidential. Remember this is
not a test they are no right or wrong answers. Most of the question can be
answered by a single tick, like this.

Therefore this will not be time

consuming, or difficult. Specific instructions are given where necessary.

Thank you for your time.

Yours sincerely,
Tasheika King

Procedure Used to Collect Data

Fellowship has approximately 120 households. It was calculated that a sample

of 20% was necessary in order to ensure accurate conclusions on the extent to
which employment affects the individuals involved and measures that can be put
in place to increase employment opportunities in Fellowship. (20% of 120= 24)
Precisely thirty (30) questionnaires were printed and distributed to the
residence. It was expected that at least 26 will be returned.
When selecting the households the researcher used random selection. This
was done by writing the number of the houses in the community where
unemployed individuals are residing on a piece of paper. Each pieces of paper was
put in a box. After shaking the box for three minutes to ensure it was mixed
thoroughly. A number of thirty slips of paper was taken from the box, one after the
other, while each slip of paper was been taken from the box the box was shaken
after each slip of paper was taken from the box.
The researcher specifically selected 30 households where unemployed
individuals are living. The questionnaires was given to respondents directly with a
note to return to the Post Office. In few cases where respondents were not at home
questionnaire was left with someone of the household.


Presentation and Explanation of Data

Out of the thirty (30) questionnaires that were distributed to the unemployed
residence in Fellowship a total number of 27 was returned, only 25 questionnaires
was used. Of the 25 only 13 were male and 12 were female. That is, 48% were
female and remaining 52% were male.

Causes of Unemployment in Fellowship Number of Individuals





No jobs available nearby

have a disability or illness

laid off


Figure 1. Pie Chart showing the Causes of Unemployment in Fellowship.

Figure 1 shows the causes of unemployment in Fellowship. Most of the unemployed

population are unemployed because there is no jobs available nearby. That is 64%
of the unemployed individual in Fellowship. While 12% are unemployed because

they have a disability or an illness, 16% because they have been laid off and 8%
are unemployed because they were dismissed from work.

Why Unemployment is so prevalent in Fellow ship?



Respondents Responses

Figure 2. Bar graph showing the reason for the prevalence of

unemployment in Fellowship.
Figure 2 shows the respondents responses to why unemployment is so prevalent in
Fellowship. Significantly 60% of the respondents believed that the reason why
unemployment is so prevalent in Fellowship is because individuals did not received
adequate training and skills, while 3 believes it is because people quit their jobs
because of low wages, 8% suggested that it is because of the poor working
conditions people quit and 20% refuse to work.


What are the major cause of unemployment in Fellowship?

Number of individuals



fulltime students

refused to go into

no one wants

0% 100%


Figure 3. Histogram showing the major causes of unemployment.

Figure 3 shows the major causes of unemployment. The majority of individuals who
are without jobs are unemployed because they refuse to go into agriculture, this is
54%. While 30% are unemployed because they are inexperience thus no one wants
to hire them, 8% are because they are fulltime students or retired.

What are the main effect of unemployment on the unemployed population in Fellowship?


What are the Main Effect of Unemploymenton on the Unemployed Population in

Fianacial problems
Emotional/ psychological problems
family problems
Social problems


Figure 4. Pie chart showing the effect of unemployment?

Figure shows the effect of unemployment on the unemployed population of

Fellowship. The majority (40%) of the unemployed population face emotional
problems, while 20% have financial problems, 16% social problems and the other
24% have family problems.

What are the main effect of unemployment?

Resort to unhealthy method of

Percentage of

Number of

relieving stress
Resort to criminal activities


Migrate from community



Involve in illegal/ unhealthy methods

of passing time


Table I. Showing the main effect of unemployment?

The table shows that significantly 40% of the individuals have to migrate, 24%
have to resort to unhealthy method of relieving stress, 16% resort to criminal
activities and 20% get involved in illegal/ unhealthy method of passing time.


What can be done to create more employment opportunities Percentage?

Encourage small business ventures
Encourage agricultural practises


Encourage technical education

Encouraging cottage industry





Figure 5. Show ways to create more employment opportunities?

Figure 5 shows that 20% of the respondents believes that encouraging of small
business venture can create more employment opportunities. While 24% believes
that cottage industry must be encouraged, 48% to encourage agricultural practices
and 8% believes that encouraging technical education would create more
employment opportunities.

What measures can be put in place to alleviate unemployment ?


Number of Respondents

better working conditions


Figure 6. Bar graph showing measures to alleviate unemployment?


Figure 6 shows measure to alleviate unemployment in Fellowship. These most

likable measure by respondents are increase of wages, 40% recommends that
wages. While the 24% respondents choose that better working conditions would
alleviate unemployment. Whereas 20% believe that encouraging studies in areas
where jobs are available and 16% believes that to set up programs to help people
find jobs would help to alleviate unemployment.

What measures can be taken by the government to help reduce unemployment?


Raw materials can be used to

generate new products

Number of

Percentage of





Control birth rate

Improving infrastructure in

Illl ll

Market tourism more vigorously

llll l

Table 2. Tally chart showing the measures that can be taken by the
government to help reduce unemployment?


The table shows that most individuals suggests that the government can reduce
unemployment by generating new products from raw materials 36%, while the
other recommends that the government controls the birth rate 12%, improve
infrastructure in agriculture 24%, and to market tourism more vigorously 28%.

Interpretation and Analysis of Data

In the district of Fellowship unemployment is caused by several reasons, one of

the main causes of unemployment is that they are no available jobs nearby, that is
60%, as presented in figure 1. As a result individuals are searching for jobs but yet
to find any. This is because Portland is a rural area, thus job opportunities are
scarce because few business are located in these rural areas. This is because
market are closer in urban areas, transport which is an important factor supporting
access to markets; closeness to raw materials, availability of appropriately skilled

employees, opportunity for waste disposal, availability of power

supplies, availability of land and government incentives which pulls business to the
urban areas. Therefore it can be concluded that most unemployed persons are
capable and willing to work but are unemployed because of the unavailability of
jobs in Portland.
A significant causes of unemployment is that individuals do not have adequate
training and skills to be qualified for the jobs available. Whereas 60% cannot get
jobs because they do not have the adequate training and skill. According Dr. Errol
Morrison, the President of University of Technology said: Most individuals are illequipped, inadequately prepared or insufficiently trained for the jobs they
perform. Hence, many people are without jobs because of the few jobs available
most people are not qualified to get the job. Evidence from International Labour
Organization shows that Rural peoples access to education and training is often
limited by financial barriers (e.g. training and transportation costs) and nonfinancial barriers (e.g. scarce education and training infrastructure, inflexible
training schedules). Especially for poor rural children and adults, the opportunity
costs for education and training may be too high to give up their incomegenerating activities and unpaid duties that help sustain their families. Many rural
people do not have basic education. This also hampers their access to technical
and vocational training or other skills development. Unequal gender relations and
traditional gender roles entail specific difficulties for rural girls and women in
accessing education and training. Education and training is often of inadequate
quality. Teachers and trainers may be unqualified, equipment and technology

outdated, and teaching and training methods ill-suited to rural contexts. Thus
there are so many people who are unqualified, hence there is such a large
population of unemployed individuals in Fellowship.
Based on the data collected 44% of the individuals are without jobs because
they refused to go into agriculture. This is because adequate infrastructure are not
available in these rural areas. Therefore they are limited access to agricultural
input, and agriculture market. They are poor roads, slow technological
development and emerging markets in more urban areas. A lack of access
to markets - whether due to poor infrastructure or productivity, limited education,
or insufficient information - prevents access to both labor and capital. In many
rural societies, there are few job opportunities outside of agriculture
(wikipedia.org/wiki/Rural poverty). As a result agriculture is seem as an
unattractive, unprofitable and degrading area of work. Thus many people dont
want to go into agriculture especially young individuals. According to Tyrone Hall,
Compton International Fellow, Clark University, and LIGIs Head of Communication
youth participation in the agriculture sector in many developing countries is very
low, largely because the sector is highly unattractivedue to risks, costs,
inefficiency and its labor intensive nature(Local Insight). However, in rural areas
they are few other job opportunities from agriculture, rendering many people
Unemployment have several effects on the unemployed population of
Fellowship. One of the main effect of unemployment are the emotional and
Psychological problems it causes. Figure 4 shows that 40% of the unemployed are

affected psychologically or emotionally. According to sociologist research claimed

that, work gives people a sense of identity, of what their role in society is. It is
source of relationships of the family. (Sociology, Themes and Perspectives).
Therefore when individuals are unemployed they lose their sense of identity and
purpose, plus they face lot of break down in their relationships. In addition when
most individuals are unemployed they cannot live up to their usual standard of
living or cannot afford to take care of their family and themselves as they would
wish. This causes them to become stress and depressed according to The Society
for the Psychological Study of Social Issues. Also unemployed workers are twice as
likely as their counterpart to experience psychological problems such as
depression, anxiety, psychosomatic symptoms, low subjective, wellbeing, and poor
Additionally, a high number of individuals have experienced family problems
because of unemployment, figure 4 shows that 24% of the unemployed population
of Fellowship faced family problem. When individuals are unemployed they face
financial problems which results in family problems because one is not able to
provide for his self and family, which in some cases causes partners to become
divorced, separated, it also causes domestic violence in homes because some
partner become stress due to not having a job, so they become angry, frustrated
and stress. Because of this they become abusive to their partner or child. Stress
and depression symptoms associated with job lost can negatively affect parenting.
As a result children report more distress and depressed and abusive. Abuse of
children can cause multiple negative outcomes, including academic performances,

substance abuse, teenage pregnancy, juvenile delinquency and many others which
do not only affects the family but has a lot of negative implications on society.
Another significant effect of unemployment based on the data collected is that
unemployment causes individuals to migrate away from their community which
consist of their family, friends and loved ones. Table 1 shows that 35% of
individuals migrate from their family, to different countries, parishes or community
in the search for jobs because of the lack of jobs nearby. As a result this influenced
many family problems because when parents travel away and leave their child in
others supervision, the child lacks love, socialization and guidance from parents
which results in juvenile delinquency, teenage pregnancy, child or children get
involved in gambling or drug abuse . According to the Module in Social Studies,
third edition, by Rampersad Ramsawak and Ralph R. Umraw, There is increasing
evidence that this (juvenile delinquency) is a reaction to growing up in
dysfunctional families where children are not wanted, unloved, abused and
humiliated. When individuals migrate from Fellowship to work in foreign countries,
brain drain.
Individuals in Fellowship recommended a number of solutions to creating
employment opportunities. The most recommended solution was to encourage
agricultural practices because this way individuals would be self-employed and can
provide for their family. According to figure 5, 48% percentage of the respondents
indicates that emphasis on agricultural practices would increase employment
opportunities. This is supported by the Module in Social Studies, third edition, by
Rampersad Ramsawak and Ralph R. Umraw, When one considers that a man

cannot survive without food, then the demand for agricultural products will never
cease. The agricultural sector has a great potential for creating jobs. The
agricultural sector must consequently become a prior of all governments.
Additionally, many of the respondents, that is 40% believes that the increased
of wages would increase employment because people wouldnt quit their jobs to
find better paying jobs. The Principle of Business for CSEC Examination by Ivan
Waterman, Dave Ramsingh and Alvin Ramsaroop states that: The wage structure
in the Caribbean economies has had an important effect on unemployment. The
Daily Observer, Saturday, April 13, 2009, article by Michael Dingwall says that the
conditions under which they (workers) must work are not being satisfactory. They
are underpaid, taken for granted and as is too often the case taken for granted.
People who are underpaid feel as if their rights are violated and that they are
exploited, as a result of this they quit their job to find better paying jobs, however
many of these people remain unemployed because of the unavailability of
Another significant solution suggested by respondents is that the government
should use raw materials to generate new products. Table 2 illustrations that
36%believes using raw materials to generate products would increase employment
opportunities. This way more jobs will be created in manufacturing industries.
Therefore individual who dont have the training or skills to work in other area such
as administrative, management and others can get jobs in factories. This is
supported by the Module in Social Studies, third edition, by Rampersad Ramsawak
and Ralph R. Umraw, which states that Many of our local materials which are at

present exported in their raw state can be used to generate new products thus
creating jobs. An article in The Gleaner, October 20, 2011 states that too many
imports are flooding the island, this because raw materials are not used to create
new products, thus almost every product has to be import to Jamaica.
Based on the data collected 24% suggests that if tourism is market more
vigorously, it would help to create thousands of jobs for individuals. The Module in
Social Studies, third edition, by Rampersad Ramsawak and Ralph R. Umraw reports
that tourism sector has a great potential to create jobs in variety of occupation.
This is true because the increase in the tourism industry cause more people to go
in farming, so that they can sell produce to tourists and hotels and other tourist
attraction sites. It also create more jobs at the hotels, villas, spa; it would create
more demand for taxi drivers, tour guide, rafters, and artists. Evidence from Vision
RI also shows that tourism with its wide range of constituent sub sectors is now
world's largest industry. The dramatic growth of tourism over the last twenty five
years is one of the most remarkable economic and social phenomena of the
period. Also that conservative estimates of tourism related employment (base
year 2002) by our professionals reveal that tourism generates about 7.5 million full
time job equivalents in India. It translates to about 11 million actual jobs and the
employment impact of tourism goes beyond employment in sectors in which
tourists directly spend their money, such as hotels, restaurants and airlines.
Therefore tourism would be supportive in creating employment opportunities.



The survey carried out has discovered several facts about the extent to which
unemployment affects the individuals involved and the measures that can be taken
to increase employment opportunities in Fellowship. These includes:
1 The main causes of unemployment in Fellowship is that they are no
available jobs nearby, they do not have adequate training or skills and
because they refused to go into agriculture. 60% are unemployed
because they are inadequately trained, 60% no available jobs nearby and
54% because they refused to go into agriculture.
2 The most significant effect of unemployment on the individual involved is
that is causes psychological or emotional problems, family problems and
increased migration. That is 60% of the unemployed individuals


experienced psychological problems, 40% faces family problem and 40%

migrate away from the community in the search of jobs.
3 To create employment opportunities the government should use raw
materials to create new products, market tourism better and encourage
agricultural practices. The survey carried out shows these are the best
solutions recommended to alleviate unemployment. The data collected
shows that 36% believes that unemployment can be alleviate by using
raw materials to generate new products. While 24% believes that
unemployment can be unemployment can be reduced by marketing
tourism more actively and 48% believes in encouraging agricultural
Recommendation and Implementation Strategy
The key to economic growth is to reduce unemployment which
consequently would reduce other prevalent social problems. Therefore in the
interest of making Fellowship into a pleasant community, the residents, and the
government would work together to create more employment opportunities.
One of the most recommended solution is that the Government should
encourage agricultural practices, this way individuals can sell their crops to local
and or foreign market as well and they would also have food for themselves and
family consumption. Therefore increase individuals in agriculture would be very
beneficial because it can also create more employment for skilled and unskilled


Additionally, the government should market tourism more vigorously to create

employment. Tourism would create job opportunities in many areas, hotels, clerks,
chefs, artisans and many others. Tourism activity has long lasting socio-economic
impacts on the host economy and community. The establishments which receive
tourists also buy goods and services from other sectors that generate employment
in those sectors through multiplier effect.
The government should use raw materials to create new products and import
less which would create more employment opportunities and less money be spent
on importation of goods. This way more jobs will be created in manufacturing
industries and individual who dont have the training or skills to work in other area
such as administrative, management can get jobs in factories. This is a very
important recommendation because sixty percentage of the individuals who are
unemployed in Fellowship is because they do not have adequate training and skill.
Therefor e this would make a tremendous difference in the number of unemployed
individuals in Fellowship.

The Caribbean soil and temperature is ideal for farming, however the number of
persons who refused to go into agriculture is surprising. Specifically, youths
involvement in agriculture is low, mostly because sector is very unattractive due to
risks, costs, inefficiency and its labour intensive nature. As such, motivating
individuals of Fellowship to view agriculture as a potential career would require


multi-level intervention.
The government would try to make agriculture appear more attractive and
profitable to lure more individuals towards agriculture. Ways in which the
government intended to do this is by:

Since many individuals are turned off by the problems affecting the
agricultural sector such as land price, larceny and lack of investments.
Subsequently, the government makes it easier for individuals to go into
agriculture by reducing price for lease and purchasing agriculture land, and
to create and encourage agricultural Investment Trust through tax incentives
to direct private investment in agricultural sectors. This would make
agriculture more appealing, thus influencing more individuals to become
involved in agriculture. Therefore, creating more employment opportunities

for individuals in Fellowship.

The researcher would encourage residence of Fellowship to focus more on
labour intensive crops, for example sugar cane, because the production of
these crops requires a large labour force, thus lot of unemployed persons
would be able to get a job in these areas. As a result increasing job

opportunities in and around Fellowship.

The government will increase infrastructure in agriculture because based on
the survey done it is concluded that 44% of the unemployed individuals are
unemployed because they refuse to go into agriculture as a result of the lack
of infrastructure available in agriculture. This cause agriculture to become
more difficult and unprofitable, thus driving people away from this area of

The tourism sector will create ways to market tourism better so that
employment can be create. To do this the sector would have to increase the
number tourist vacating in Jamaica and increased satisfaction ratings of tourism in
Jamaica. The sector will do this by understanding the motivations and preferences
of visitors in their decision-making and travel planning process and how these
behaviors change over time; identifying appropriate visitor markets that fit the
destination attractions and experiences and align with community values;
Developing a Strategic Marketing Plan to provide direction for destination
marketing activities. Also by developing a stakeholder agreed, strong and
recognized destination brand and image that is underpinned by the values and
unique point of difference of the destination; facilitation of a process to engage
stakeholders to implement key marketing activities including: relevant promotional
and advertising actions to influence visitor perceptions, awareness and destination
choice; effective sales and distribution channels to enable conversion of intention
to visit into actual visitation; and development of cooperative marketing programs
with tourism organizations and businesses to provide resource synergies and
increased visitation potential for a destination. This will increase the number of
tourists destination as Jamaica, thus increasing employment opportunities in
tourism, hence reducing unemployment in Fellowship.



Ramsawak Rampersad and Umraw R. Ralph. Modules in Social Studies with

S.B.A Guide and C.X.C Questions. Trinidad: R.P.L Ltd., 2005.
Waterman L. Ivan, Ramsingh Dave and Ramsaroop P. Alvin. Principle of Business
for CSEC Examination.
Haralambous and Holborn. Sociology, Themes and Perspectives. N.P. Harper
Collins Publishers Limited, 2007
Blair Leonard. The Sunday Gleaner. May 23, 2014.
Dingwall Michael. The Daily Observer. April 13, 2000. P.9
The Herald. 14-20/08/05. P.3B


1. What is your gender?

a. Male
b. Female

2. Which of the options below best describes your age?

a. 16- 20 yrs.
b. 20-25 yrs.
c. 25- 30 yrs.
d. 30-35 yrs.
e. 40 yrs. and older
3. To what ethnic group do you belong?
a. African descent
b. Chinese descent
c. Indian descent
d. Mixed descent
4. How long have you been a resident of Fellowship?
a. 1-5 yrs.
b. 5-10 yrs.
c. 10-20 yrs.
d. 20yrs and more
5. Have you ever been employed?
a. Yes
b. No
If yes please state where
6. Why are you unemployed?
a. No available jobs near by
b. Have a disability
c. Have been laid of
d. Suffer great illness
7. Why is unemployment so prevalent in Fellowship?
a. Individuals do not have adequate training and skills
b. Refused to work
c. Quit job because of bad working conditions
d. Quit job because of low wages

8. Which of the following is the major cause of unemployment?

a. By choice
b. Refuse to go into agriculture
c. Full time student
d. Retired
9. How does unemployment affect you emotionally?


Lower your self esteem

Caused you to feel embarrassed
Caused you to feel depress/ distress
Caused you to feel restless


How does affects you socially?

Caused you to become divorced
Caused you to be unable to give your child suitable
Caused you to be unable to give you and your family proper health care
Caused people to look down on you


Which of the following is the main effect of unemployment?

Emotional effects
Financial problems
Family problems
Emotional/ Psychological problems


How unemployment affects the individual involved?

Caused individual to migrate from family
Caused you to in involve in unhealthy method passing time
Caused you to resort unhealthy method of relieving stress
Causing individual to turn to criminal activities


An individual who is unemployed mostly financial difficulties?

Strongly agree
Somewhat agree
Strongly disagree






What can be done to create more employment opportunities?

Encourage agricultural practice
Encourage small business venture
Encourage cottage industry
Encourage technical and vocational education

What measures can be taken by the government to help reduce
a. Raw materials could be used to generate new products

b. Control high birth rate

c. Improving infrastructure in agricultural areas
d. Tourism should be market more vigorously

What can be done to reduce unemployment?

a. Create special education programs for disabled individuals
b. Doing your own fishing
c. Raising your own live stocks
d. Give loan to individual who wants to go back to school to pursue career


What measures may be put in place to alleviate unemployment?

Better working conditions
Increase wages
Encourage studies in areas jobs are available
Place more emphasis on career choices in school