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Tugas Distilasi

A feed to a distillation unit consists of 50 mol % benzene in toluene. It is introduced to the column at its
bubble point to the optimal plate. The column is to produce a distillate containing 95 mol% benzene and
a bottoms of 95 mol % toluene. For an operating pressure of 1 atm, calculate:
a) the minimum reflux ratio
b) the minimum number of equilibrium stages to carry out the desired separation
c) the number of actual stages needed, using a reflux ratio () of 50% more than the minimum
d) the product and residue stream in kilograms per hour if the feed is 907.3 kg/h
e) the saturated steam required in kilograms per hour for heat to the reboiler using enthalpy data
below:
Steam

: HVAP = 2000 kJ/kg

Benzene

: HVAP = 380 kJ/kg

Toluene

: HVAP = 400 kJ/kg

JAWAB:
DIKETAHUI:
-

Feed: = 0.5 C6H6; = 0.5 C7H8


Overhead product: = 0.95 C6H6; = 0.05 C7H8
Bottom product: = 0.05 C6H6; = 0.95 C7H8

DITANYA:
a) Rmin
b) Nmin
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c) the number of actual stages needed, using a reflux ratio () of 50% more than the minimum
(R)
d) the product and residue stream in kilograms per hour if the feed is 907.3 kg/h
e) the saturated steam required in kilograms per hour for heat to the reboiler using enthalpy data
below:
Steam

: HVAP = 2000 kJ/kg

Benzene

: HVAP = 380 kJ/kg

Toluene

: HVAP = 400 kJ/kg

SOLUTION:

Drawing the Equilibrium Curve:


o Raoults Law:
= .
= .
+ = 1

= +
= . + .
= . + (1 )
= . + ( . )
= ( ) +
= ( )

=

. = .

= (
)

& digunakan untuk membuat plot VLE.

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Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium:
Benzene

xA

xA

yA

1
0.780254
0.580613
0.411472
0.257579
0.129611
0

1
0.780254
0.580613
0.411472
0.257579
0.129611
0

1
0.900234
0.776482
0.632315
0.455567
0.261217
0

Benzene Vapor Mole Fraction (yA)

VLE Diagram of Benzene Toluene System


1

0.5

xA
yA

0
0

0.5

Benzene Solution Mole Fraction (xA)

Toluene

xB

xB

yB

0
0.219746
0.419387
0.588528
0.742421
0.870389
1

0
0.219746
0.419387
0.588528
0.742421
0.870389
1

0
0.099766
0.223518
0.367685
0.544433
0.738783
1

Toluene Vapor Mole Fraction (yB)

VLE Diagram of Benzene Toluene System


1

0.5

xB
yB

0
0

0.5

Toluene Solution Mole Fraction (xB)

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Equilibrium Plot:

VLE Diagram of Benzene


- Toluene System
1

yA

0.5

yB

0
0

0.5

Plotting the Feed Line:

+
(1 )
1
Feed introduced to the column at its bubble point or as saturated liquid,
hence = 1.
=

VLE Diagram of Benzene - Toluene System

Benzene Vapor Mole Fraction (yA)

feedline

0.5

xA
yA

0
0

0.5

Benzene Solution Mole Fraction (xA)

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Plotting the Operating Line:


o Rectifying Operating Line:
= 0.95
Minimum reflux ratio:

VLE Diagram of Benzene - Toluene System

Benzene Vapor Mole Fraction (yA)

0.5

xA

( + 1)

yA

0
0

0.5

Benzene Solution Mole Fraction (xA)

( + 1)
0.95
( + 1) =
0.38
= 2.5 1 = 1.5
0.38 =

(a) minimum reflux ratio = = .


= 150%
150

= 100 1.5
= 2.25
=
=
=

+1
0.95
2.25+1
0.95
3.25

= 0.31

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VLE Diagram of Benzene - Toluene System

Benzene Vapor Mole Fraction (yA)

0.5

xA
yA

0
0

0.5

Benzene Solution Mole Fraction (xA)

Striping Operating Line:


= 0.05

VLE Diagram of Benzene - Toluene System

Benzene Vapor Mole Fraction (yA)

0.5

xA
yA

0
0

0.5

Benzene Solution Mole Fraction (xA)

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(b) minimum number of equilibrium stages to carry out the desired


separation:

VLE Diagram of Benzene - Toluene System

Benzene Vapor Mole Fraction (yA)

0.5

xA
yA

0
0

0.5

Benzene Solution Mole Fraction (xA)

minimum number of equilibrium stages to carry out the desired


separation is 16.

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(c) number of actual stages needed, using a reflux ratio () of 50%


more than the minimum reflux ratio:

VLE Diagram of Benzene - Toluene System

Benzene Vapor Mole Fraction (yA)

0.5

xA
yA

0
0

0.5

Benzene Solution Mole Fraction (xA)

number of actual stages needed, using a reflux ratio () of 50% more


than Rmin is 12.
(d) the product and residue stream in kilograms per hour if the feed is 907.3 kg/h:

All mole fractions are in

= 907.3

66 = = 78

78 = = 92
Feed = Bottom product + Distilled product, hence:
o . = . + .
Elimination:
=+
. = . + .

=

0.5 005
=
0.95 0.05

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1
=
2
= 2
o

= .
= ( . + (1 ). )
907.3 = (0.5 78 + 0.5 92)
907.3 = (39 + 46)
907.3
= 85 = 10.67

=2=
o

10.67
2

= 5.34

= .
= ( . 66 + (1 ). 78 )
= (0.95 78 + 0.05 92)5.34
= (74.1 + 4.6)5.34
= 78.7 5.34

= 420.02
=
= 907.3 420.02

= 487.28

(e) the saturated steam required in kilograms per hour for heat to the reboiler:
o T= 80.1oC
o The mass balance over the reboiler and the feed stage:
=L = . +
=1
=F+L'-B

= 5.34
= 10.67
=
= 10.67 5.34
= 5.33
= 2.25
= .
= 2.25 5.34
= 12.015

" = 10.67 + 12.015 5.33


" = 17.355
Hvap A = 380
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o
o
o

Hvap 2 = 2000
The steam consumption required at given reflux:
Hvap B = 400

=
=
=
=

. " . MA . Hvap A +(1-xA ) . V" . .


2
(0.517.35578380)+((10.5)17.35592400)
2000
257201.1+319332
2000
576533.1
2000

= .

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