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Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION

Technology has been useful for almost all parts of human life. The new innovations
developed are making things much easier than that of the usual strenuous and time-consuming
workloads. A lot of the countrys populations have had one or two or even more of what the new
technology have brought, and one common to every person are mobile devices or mobile phones.
Mobile devices had become a mean of communication for everyone in a faster way than that of
the past, especially to those far areas. As time goes by, mobile devices have had new innovations
as well. Mobile phones don`t just send text messages, it had developed other functions, such
functions known to us are multimedia messages, music player, radio, internet browsing and a lot
more. Most mobile devices introduced these days works almost like computer. Just like a
computer, mobile devices can work its maximum with the use of software applications which are
dedicated to do excellent jobs to specific things or work.
Pramis (2013) stated that, there are roughly 6 billion active cell phones in use. The same
is true with mobile applications as based on the statement of Handy (2012), mobile developers
across the globe have developed and released more than 650,000 iPhone applications, 400,000
iPads applications and 600,000 applications for android.
As there are a large number of users of cell phones and existing available applications
today, it is a proof how mobile devices and applications had become handy in supplying the
needs of the people. These applications or simply called apps have had its place in education,
business, lifestyle, entertainment, social networking and so much more. It can be used as an
educational tool for children and for others to develop analytic thinking; make business reports,

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finance and the like; keep on track of your health; enjoy leisure time through game applications,
musical applications, social applications and more.
With the data gathered and observed, one can say that different people developed these
applications because they see its potential as a helpful tool for everyone, as mobile phones are
just a pocket away or just by your side.
Another advancement of technology is the use of internet, wherein a person is able to
search for important facts, people, authority, organization, government and others. Internet has
become another resource for every human need. The information found on the internet nowadays
is being integrated to mobile devices through applications to function more personal and efficient
to users.
Based on the International Telecommunication Union as stated by Walters (2011), more
and more of our interaction online occurs on mobile devices. Over five billion mobile
subscribers about 77% of the worlds population are online. This new type of simple access
for consumers is catching on with a staggering amount of smartphone owners purchasing goods
and services from their phone 41% to be exact, as found in a survey by Chadwick Martin
Bailey, 2011. Mobile Applications are internet applications designed to run on smartphones and
other mobile devices
In education, new opportunities for engaging students in education emerge with the
proliferation of smart phones, tablets, and their applications designed for novel interactions with
content, coupled with ubiquitous communication capabilities (www.cmu.edu, n.d.).
The researchers decided to develop an application will function like a library on hand.
Itll be available for mobile devices and will contain a list reference book that they might use for
studying things about Information Technology. The mobile platform that will be used is Android

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operating system. According to Nakao as cited by Erickson (2012), an application run by
Android OS is a great choice for those beginners in developing a mobile application because of
its openness.
Thus with the proposed project, it will make another meaningful use of the modern day
devices for the improvement of acquiring knowledge in computing through a guide supplying a
list of reference they might use in gaining needed knowledge in information technology.

Background of the Study


Aiming to develop more technological advancements has become necessary to improve
every humans way of living. And that is what the proponents are up to, to develop something
out of technology present and are familiar to.
Based on Alexander D. (n.d.), technology has changed our lives in so many ways it is
hard to perceive. In the field of medicine alone, technological advances have allowed doctors to
treat diseases and illness that were otherwise at one time fatal. Another example is the internet,
where one can purchase everything from a pencil to a penthouse without ever leaving the
comforts of our chair. Technological advances have increased response times for emergency
personnel and allow them to trace our call even if someone is unable to state others location.
When it comes to the computers, every facet of our lives has some type of computer involved,
cars, traffic signals, appliances, and the list goes on. When the internet went public, that was the
best thing to happen. However, technology does have a downside. Since more items contain
computers, repairing these can be costly. Technology also has allowed those with ulterior
motives to steal our identities and wreak havoc on our lives. It really depends on the person on
which to focus, on the good or the bad.

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Technology has become a major portion of everyday life. People in nearly every career
are required to have some knowledge of computers and software. Information technology (IT) is
used by organizations for a variety of reasons. Information technology helps organizations
function more efficiently so they can improve (JonDW, n.d.).
Computing is correlated to technology, which in a general way defined to mean any goaloriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computers. In the descriptions of the
major computing disciplines it is grouped to five categories which are: Computer Engineering,
Computer Science, Information Systems, and Information Technology and, Software
Engineering.
Information Technology or IT is a label that has two meanings. In the broadest sense,
the term information technology is often used to refer to all of computing. In academia, it refers
to undergraduate degree programs that prepare students to meet the computer technology needs
of business, government, healthcare, schools, and other kinds of organizations. It is said that
Information Systems focuses on the information aspects of information technology. Information
Technology is the complement of that perspective: its emphasis is on the technology itself more
than on the information it conveys. IT programs exist to produce graduates who possess the right
combination of knowledge and practical, hands-on expertise to take care of both an
organizations information technology infrastructure and the people who use it (www.acm.org,
n.d.).
On the other side, Information literacy is a set of abilities requiring individuals to
"recognize when information is needed and have the ability to locate, evaluate, and use
effectively the needed information." Information literacy also is increasingly important in the
contemporary environment of rapid technological change and proliferating information

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resources. Information literacy is related to information technology skills, but has broader
implications for the individual, the educational system, and for society (www.ala.org, n.d.).
Thus, the need for information literacy is very much needed to hone ones skills and capabilities.
Literacy can be achieved through studying using different resources, like learning through books.
Book learning is advantageous when one: need to prove what he knows, through an exam
or a series of tests; have to continue to improve and augment his knowledge; need new facts and
information on subjects that are constantly changing and where knowledge is being updated
continuously (worldsstrongestlibrarian.com, n.d.). That is why the use of references is also
important to support every theories and knowledge learned.
Because of the rapid change in technology and constant shifting in the corporate
landscape, a person will also come to understand the importance of lifelong learning and selfeducation as he develop as a professional (www.etsu.edu, n.d.). Some of the trends in traditional
and emerging output measures include materials circulated, reserve items circulated, printing/
photocopying, and, electronic resource use (old.diglib.org, n.d.).
Another way in which technology has improved is through productivity applications.
More often than not, productivity applications are at least loosely based on a productivity
method. The thing is, tons of productivity methods exist and many of us are remixing the best
ideas into our own systems. So, to handle all of these different methods of getting things done,
hundreds of applications that do similar things in slightly different ways are available to us
(lifehacker.com, n.d.).
The proponents are Computer Technology student that is why they seek to focus their
study about technology that can be associated to human life for a useful purpose. And because
reference books that can be helpful for IT learners are not seen easily that made those unknown

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this will be what the proposed project will be solving about. The development of the application
for the study can be a beneficial tool for everyone wanting to know what references they can use
for studying Information Technology.
A way to help others studying about Information Technology is to give them a resource
of reference book in the field of IT. This is what the proponents aim for our application to be, to
be a reliable mobile reference application that is freely available. The researchers visualize a
reliable application that can be shared or be downloaded on portable devices specifically run by
Android OS.

Research Objectives
General objectives
The study aims to design and develop a mobile application that will give a list of
reference books in the field of Information Technology. The proposed application will be
beneficial to Information Technology students and professors and even to those with that subject
and are just fond on acquiring knowledge about Information Technology.
Specific objectives
Specifically this study aims to:
1. To design and develop an application that will provide a list of possible reference books
for Information Technology.
2. To determine the requirements needed in order to develop a mobile application in terms
of:
2.1 Hardware Requirement
2.2 Software Development Tools

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3. Determine the level of acceptability of the application based on ISO9126 software
standards in terms of the following characteristics:
3.1 Functionality
3.2 Reliability
3.3 Usability
3.4 Efficiency
3.5 Maintainability
3.6 Portability

Significance of the Study


Through this study, the would-be users will discover a lot of useful references for
learning Information Technology in depth. It can also help them minimize time required to locate
a book though there are tons of available reference books of different authors from different
libraries and bookstores on different countries. For the purpose of making their learning process
better it can widen their resource of knowledge from references in the field of IT.
The proposed study will have its significance to the following:
Information Technology Students. The students may use this to search a book related
for their school study, assignment or project about Information Technology especially about
computer.
Information Technology Professors. The professors may use this to get information on
books about Information Technology and use it to their discussion.
Proponents. The proponents of this study will be able to obtain more knowledge in
making an application through the proposed Android mobile application. Thus making it

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possible for them to comprehend how to design and develop a productive mobile application. It
may be their stepping stone in the world of software development. In a way, they will be able to
help their fellow learners and at the same time they are learning; it is like hitting two birds with
one stone.
Future Researchers. The study may be used as a reference for future innovative studies.

Scope and Limitation


The extent of this research is only on developing an application for mobile devices
specifically run by an Android operating system through Java programming language. Other
software development tools to be used for this mobile application are: Android SDK lets one
write raw code and helps get it working in the Android environment; Eclipse IDE, it will check
for the JDK, to write and test the code; and as cited by Noves (2012), SQLite is an open source
database which is embedded into Android which supports standard relational database features like
SQL syntax, transactions, and prepared statements and requires only little memory at runtime
(approx. 250 KBe). To save the database all other types must be converted into TEXT, INTEGER, or
REAL. SQLite itself does not validate if the types written to the columns are actually of the defined
type.

This proposed study is an offline application. It will provide reference books in the field
of Information Technology that may be found on online bookstores and websites, which are
gathered together and are organized to provide the content of the application for the purpose of
supplying the information needed in this study and to quickly select desired information.
The application will contain a search box wherein the user will type is the title of the
book, author, year publish, International Standard Book Number (ISBN), and the topic, which he
wants to look at. The user can click in See full list to view all Information Technology books

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since 2004 to 2014. To sort it out the user can select the topic or years published on the
dropdown list, or type the title, author and ISBN on the search box provided.

Definition of Terms
For better understanding, the terms that will be used in the study are hereby defined by
researchers operationally and conceptually.
Android - Android delivers a complete set of software for mobile devices: an operating
system, middleware and key mobile applications (www.openhandsetalliance.com, n.d.). It is the
mobile operating system that will be used in the study.
Application - App is short for application, and traditionally this was just a really
generic term for any standalone bit of software that runs on top of a computers operating system
(Gahran, 2011). In the study it will be the developmental software and the application to be
developed which is designed to run a specific function or task in a system.
Application Software - Applications software (also called end-user programs) include
such things as database programs, word processors, Web browsers and spreadsheets. Figuratively
speaking, applications software sits on top of systems software because it is unable to run
without the operating system and system utilities (www.webopedia.com, n.d.). In our study, the
software application will be the software development tools needed to be installed which are
used in order to develop an application.
Database - Often abbreviated DB. A collection of information organized in such a way
that a computer program can quickly select desired pieces of data. Database can also be
compared as an electronic filing system. In traditional databases it is described as organized by
fields, records, and files. A field is a single piece of information; a record is one complete set of

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fields; and a file is a collection of records (www.webopedia.com, n.d.). In the study it will be
SQLite for mobile which will be used in programming especially for the collection of data on
wide-range basis with fast search and retrieval.
Mobile Application -Mobile applications or mobile applications are applications
developed for small handheld devices, such as mobile phones, smartphones, PDAs and so on.
Mobile applications can come preloaded on the handheld device as well as can be downloaded
by users from application stores or the Internet (Viswanathan, n.d.). In this study it will be the
application that the proponents will develop that will run on Android based devices.
Mobile Application Development - Mobile application development is the set of
processes and procedures involved in writing software for small, wireless computing devices
such as smartphones or tablets (Rouse, 2011). In the study itll be the process by which the
proponents will develop an application specifically for mobile devices through specified
development tools.
Mobile Operating System - A mobile operating system, also called a mobile OS, is an
operating system that is specifically designed to run on mobile devices such as mobile phones,
smartphones, PDAs, tablet computers and other handheld devices (www.webopedia.com, n.d.).
In this study the mobile operating system will be uses is Android OS.
Mobile Platform - The hardware / software environment for laptops, tablets,
smartphones and other portable devices. Windows and Mac dominate the laptop world, while
Apple and Android rule the smartphone/tablet universe (www.pcmag.com, n.d.). In this study,
the proponents chose to develop an application for an Android platform.

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Mobile programming-The creation of applications, or applications, that run on mobile
devices like phones and tablets (www.codeconquest.com, n.d.). In the study it will be the
programming to be done for mobile devices.
Programming Language - A vocabulary and set of grammatical rules for instructing a
computer to perform specific tasks. Each language has a unique set of keywords (words that it
understands) and a special syntax for organizing program instructions (www.webopedia.com,
n.d.). The proponents will use Java as their programming language.
Software - Software means computer instructions or data. Anything that can be stored
electronically is software, in contrast to storage devices and display devices which are called
hardware (www.webopedia.com, n.d.). In the study it pertains to the data or objects that will be
coded in the application.
Software Development It is also called Software Application Development or
Development of Software. It is the set of processes and programming tools used to create the
program or software product (www.bitpipe.com, n.d.). In the study it will be the process required
to develop the proposed application which will use different software development tools.
Software Development Tools - A software developer's kit (SDK) is a set of programs
used by a computer programmer to write application programs (www.bitpipe.com, n.d.). This is
a combination of tools to be able to develop software. This study will use the following: Java,
Android SDK, SQLite, and Eclipse.

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Chapter 2
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

This chapter presents the different literature and studies finicky read to gather useful
insights for the researchers study. This also includes the studies considered as another resource
to strengthen the proposed research. In addition, the chapter provides the conceptual framework
and research paradigm to come up with the expected output.

Information Technology
Technology comes a long way to still be around our daily lives up to these days. Some
are against the new technologies but some are into it and are enjoying the new innovations
around us. Thus, making the most out of it brought them to their utmost.
Based on McGrath (n.d.), technology affects almost every aspect of our lives, as it is seen
how all around us are wired. She further added that, storing important in files on a computer
rather than in drawers, for instance, has made information easily accessible.
A wonderful resource for students especially those with disabilities is technology, in
which most students use assistive technology - a software or hardware that helps students with
disabilities do something that might otherwise be difficult or impossible (louisville.edu, n.d.).
On a website by Trent University, there is what they call SAS or Student Accessibility
Services. SAS has opened up a new opportunity for our students to not only access advisors, but
also to the best information they can find from individuals. It has a wide selection of books
available, where they collect inputs and suggestions from other people (www.trentu.ca, n.d.).

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Technology has become a major portion of everyday life and a part of it is Information
Technology, says JonDW (n.d.). It is said that, IT specialists assume responsibility for selecting
hardware and software products appropriate for an organization, integrating those products with
organizational needs and infrastructure, and installing, customizing, and maintaining those
applications for the organizations computer users (www.acm.org, n.d.).
Information Technology has been an important part of life, as utilizing IT allows teachers
to enhance the curriculum. Software programs are available to make lessons more appealing to
students and help them grasp concepts. In addition, students use IT to research topics for papers
and discuss their classes with other students locally or in other parts of the country. Information
technology has opened up the world to students and if used properly in classrooms will enhance
their learning experiences. Thus in conclusion, IT is utilized on a daily basis for everything from
enhancing curriculum, to grading, and record keeping. Schools have become more efficient and
less wasteful; thanks to IT advances over the past few decades. Students are proficient in their
use of IT and have the potential to make drastic improvements as they become educators in the
near future (JonDW, n.d.).
Back then, an information scientist named Frederick Wilfrid Lancaster envisioned a
paperless society. Now, there are emerging paperless technologies that can help bypass many
headaches and decrease their environmental footprint at the same time. Going paperless
environment will save you time, money, storage space and clutter. Technology provides a host of
smart tools to help your office reduce paper waste (www.forbes.com, n.d.).
Paperless office was defined as the absence of paper because all information is stored and
transferred electronically (www.webopedia.com, n.d.).According to Mah (n.d.), adopting
processes that emphasize digitization will help you get closer to the ideal of a paperless society.

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Like what Anthony (n.d.) said, many move to paperless offices as they are getting return on their
hardware, software, and technology investments (www.microsoft.com, n.d.).
On The Myth of the Paperless Office by Sellen and Harper (2001) as cited by
McElhearn (n.d.), it is stated that anyone building complex products that call for thousands of
pages of documentation would be delighted to have their manuals on PDAs or similar devices;
such as dictionaries and encyclopedias on e-book readers as well.
Online Distance Learning is open at Cleveland Institute of Electronics (CIE) which
provides electronics and computer training via distance learning. This institute has Instructor
Support with Chat Rooms and Video Lessons and Hands-on Troubleshooting Labs with Online
Exams (www.cie-wc.edu, n.d.).
Another example is the Utah Electronic High School wherein their mission is to educate,
remediate, accelerate, and graduate Utah's diverse learners with qualified teachers using current
technology to provide rigorous curricula and timely access to quality online instruction
(share.ehs.uen.org, n.d.).
Based on other peoples thought, the proponents can therefore say that technology had
helped a lot in the way of living of every human being. It has made its way to be an instrumental
tool for learning just the same as Information Technology. With the visible importance of
Information Technology, it is important to supplement the need for acquiring knowledge,
through the various resources of useful information about the said field of technology in
computing. Many of the new activities in every field of life are being incorporated with
technology, so new opportunities are opening to make things better and faster. The new things
available today makes accessing to wider information be at hand especially in the process of
learning for education. As the society becomes more modern, digitized and electronic, the same

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happens in acquiring knowledge. A person studying does not just sit in a classroom, but
anywhere and anytime he can look for information through new hardware and software
available.

Mobile Devices
On the online issues about mobile phones, developments in mobile technology have been
rapid in recent years. Mobile phones can now do much more than make calls and send text
messages. The latest generation of phones known as smartphones harness the power of a
myriad of technologies: still and video cameras, audio and video players, handheld gaming
devices, and the ability to access the internet, augmented reality, commercial services and a
whole host of other applications, all in the palm of your hand. In many cases the most recent
mobile devices are more powerful in terms of their processing power than a regular laptop or
desktop computer (www.saferinternet.org, n.d.).
Coustan and Strickland (n.d.) thought of any daily task as its likely there's a specialized,
pocket-sized device designed to help in accomplishing it. A person can get a separate, tiny and
powerful machine to make phone calls, keep your calendar and address book, entertain, play
music, give directions, take pictures, check your e-mail, and do countless other things. They
added that a smartphone is one device that can take care of all of your handheld computing and
communication needs in a single, small package. A smartphone offers the ability to conform the
device to your particular way of doing things. They concluded that mobile technology has not set
in one standard but are going on wider capabilities that can be waited to rely with our future
needs. As stated on Qualcomms (2013) cell phone statistics, many people say mobile devices
have made them more efficient and productive, able to manage more, and stay informed. This

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fact is a proof that as more innovations are made to technology, specifically for mobiles devices,
more improving capabilities are going to be done for humans.
In additional to the issues a given for mobile phones, as it has evolved into an alternative
and more personal way to access online content and services, all of the risks associated with the
internet can also be applied to mobile phones, particularly when used by children and young
people. Some of the key issues are: Inappropriate content and contacts, revealing too much
personal information, Cyber bullying, Sexting, Location-based services, Premium-rate services
and controlling costs, Late-night texting, Mobile phone theft/crime, Health concerns and, the
mobile wallet. Thus, the use of mobile devices for a good purpose is needed to be implemented.
In Rwanda, mobile phones help health workers diagnose and track diseases, while in
Niger; farmers get critical market information via their mobile phones. The availability of mobile
phones in the developing world is radically changing the approach to data collection in health
and agriculture. They believe mobile phones can do the same for conservation. It is further stated
that the reason why collecting data via mobile phones is better is because it is quick, accurate,
frequent and cheap (www.nature.org, n.d.).
On a blog by Rahul Chowdhury (n.d.) he stated that, mobile phones have become a
crucial part of our daily life nowadays. Everyone from teenagers to old men has a personal
cell phone of their own. But the mobile phones seen now did not look like this earlier, instead
they were something totally different, something no one would even think of having around or
using. The improved technology has made a great change in the history of mobile phones,
transforming the huge brick-like mobile phones of 1995 to sleek and stylish smartphones carried
with us now.

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In accordance with the collected information, mobile devices which is part of the
continuous blooming of technology, has been showing a large array in statistics as many person
are buying and wanting to buy such device for their usage. The use of technology such as in
mobile devices, one must be responsible enough for the device to work only for good and to
bring good. So, as the issues on mobile phones are going it is a good choice to make better use of
mobile devices as an instrumental tool for productivity.

Mobile Computing
Mobile computing embraces a host of portable technologies that makes Internet access on
the go not only possible, but integral to everyday life. From notebook computers to personal
digital assistants (PDAs) like the Blackberry and iPhone, to standard cell phones, mobile
computing has become an indispensable way of life (www.wisegeek.com, n.d.).
Similarly mobile computing is described as both old and new. In the past IBM
Researchers have made pioneering contributions, ranging from technology for handheld and
notebook computers such as TrackPoint device and Linux watch, to middleware and standards,
such as accessibility Works, Bluetooth and Mobile IP. Today with the penetration of a new
generation of mobile devices such as smartphones, iPads, the emphasis is increasingly shifting to
mobile and multi-device user experience, mobile social computing, next generation mobile
solutions, mobile cloud services and infrastructure (researcher.watson.ibm.com, n.d.)
The power of technology has come closer to us through mobile computing. With the new
innovations of mobile devices from brick to slender it can be stated as a pocket away technology.

Mobile Application

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Applications are like mobile devices, which are also making an impact in our lives. The
different applications available for the users make their owned devices to work more efficiently.
And making information more available for specific purposes it will function efficiently and
directly.
Based on Gahran (2011), applications were originally mostly about DOING stuff and,
most new apps offer scant interaction beyond navigating, searching, and rating, commenting
on, and sharing published content.
Mobile applications are applications commonly found on mobile devices. A person
having a smart phone or other mobile device, probably use applications. Easy to download and
often free, mobile applications allow us to play games; get turn-by-turn directions; and access
news, books, weather, music, or videos. In fact, applications can be so much fun and so
convenient that one might download without thinking about how they are paid for, what
information

they

may

gather

from

your

device,

or

who

gets

that

information

(www.onguardonline.gov, n.d.).
In the mobile compatibility, it means that the application has been optimized for mobile
devices on the mobile operating systems supported. The format of the view may be different than
its desktop counterpart. Mobile compatible views also recognize and respond, where appropriate,
to common gestures. Applications can be both desktop- and mobile-compatible. Or they can be
designed for one specific device. Device compatibility for an application depends on how the
application was created (mdc.jackbe.com, n.d.).
Viswanathan (n.d.) stated that mobile applications or mobile applications are applications
developed for small handheld devices, such as mobile phones, smartphones, PDAs and so on.
Mobile applications can come preloaded on the handheld device as well as can be downloaded

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by users from application stores or the Internet. The most popular smartphone platforms that
support mobile applications are Windows Mobile, Android, Symbian, Java ME and Palm.
On a similar notion Gahran (2011) stated that, a mobile application is software that runs
on a handheld device (phone, tablet, e-reader, iPod, etc.) is usually assumed to mean native
application upon hearing. She stated that the handheld devices have a smart operating system
which supports standalone software and can connect to the internet via Wi-Fi or a wireless
carrier network. Usually people download native mobile applications from application stores
such as the Apple application store or the Android Market. She added that a native application
can only be native to one type of mobile operating system: iOS, Android, BlackBerry,
Symbian, Windows Phone, WebOS, etc. Which in contrast, a mobile web application is software
that uses technologies such as JavaScript or HTML5 to provide interaction, navigation, or
customization capabilities. These programs run within a mobile devices web browser. This
means that theyre delivered wholly on the fly, as needed, via the internet; they are not separate
programs that get stored on the users mobile device.
On a webpage, mobile application is said to be much faster. It takes a second to launch a
Mobile Application. It can take up to several minutes for a Mobile Web site to load in an area
with bad reception. Though, mobile Web Sites are important but they do not replace the need for
Mobile Applications for the following reasons: Mobile Applications- Function offline, Enable
Push Notifications for Direct Contact with Customers, Always visible on your phone's home
screen, Appear in the Apps Stores; Mobile Web Sites- Don't Function Offline, Don't Enable Push
Notifications for Direct Contact with Customers, Not always visible on your phone's home
screen, and lastly it Don't Appear in the Apps Stores.

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Mobile applications are designed with consideration for the demands and constraints of
the devices and also to take advantage of any specialized capabilities they have (Rouse, 2013).
But though using internet is much useful the availability of offline software is efficient more
importantly to those who cannot connect to the web and that an application has contents that can
and cannot be found depending on the design and purpose of an application.
Furthermore it is said that, more and more people are using such applications because
Mobile Applications are the most affordable and effective way to reach out to customers these
days. Thus in summary, in a mobile application one can: Connect, Inform, Build Loyalty,
Generate Business and repeat business (mobileapploader.com, n.d.). The same with what
Herze (n.d.) said, that mobile applications can increase productivity and cut costs. It is possible
to reach a wider audience and start creating buzz around your brand by using mobile games,
particularly if they go viral.
On a Microsoft Research by Ravindranath et.al (n.d.), they noted that mobile-application
marketplace is highly competitive. To maintain and improve the quality of their applications,
developers need data about how their application is performing in the wild. The asynchronous,
multi-threaded nature of mobile applications makes tracing difficult. The difficulties are
compounded by the resource limitations inherent in the mobile platform. To address this
challenge, they develop AppInsight, a system that instruments mobile application binaries to
automatically identify the critical path in user transactions, across asynchronous-call boundaries.
My App is an Experiment: Experience from User Studies in Mobile App Stores by
Henze et al. (n.d.) said that experiments are a corner stone of HCI research. The Applications are
freely available and have been installed more than 30,000 times. When generalizing findings it
must be considered that smartphone users are a non-representative sample of the worlds

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population. Because Applications are often used for a short time only, data should be collected as
early as possible. Furthermore, testing for differences between the different user populations
allows checking whether cultural differences exist. Thus, future work should try to uncover
pitfalls and establish further guidelines for conducting experiments in mobile application stores
successfully.
Harrison, Flood and Duce (2013) presented on their research that the range and
availability of mobile applications is expanding rapidly. With the increased processing power
available on portable devices, developers are increasing the range of services that they provide.
The small size of mobile devices has limited the ways in which users can interact with them.
Issues such as the small screen size, poor connectivity and limited input modalities have an effect
on the usability of mobile applications.
According to Constine (2011), Facebook officially launched Facebook for Every Phone
a downloadable native mobile application compatible with 2500 different feature phones. The
application brings a smartphone-like experience to less advanced handsets, and includes the
ability to upload photos and pull a phones contacts into the Facebook Friend Finder. The
application will help users of older phone models, including many in the developing world, gain
access to more Facebook features. To make sure users get hooked on this deeper experience,
Facebook has collaborated with 20 international carriers to offer 90 days of free data access to
the application. Facebook has renamed the application Facebook for Every Phone, added new
features, and made deals for temporary free access from 20 more carriers including several from
countries with fast-growing Facebook populations such as India, Indonesia, and the Philippines.
The application was specially designed to require less data transfer than mobile sites or Java
applications, so low costs should encourage users to pay for access after the free trial expires.

22
Based on the data gathered, mobile applications are designed to function in a specific
way depending on the demand, developer or by a specific organization. Developing such
applications has several things to consider in meeting its optimum. An application must have the
ability to meet the need of the users or consumers. One example of the popular applications these
days is Facebook or simply called as FB. From a website to an application, FB won't come this
far if people have not seen the good things it can bring. Though there are some cases wherein
such applications have been used in unethical doings, still, all will work soundly when used
properly. As a whole, a mobile application should not only work for a specific device but it is
also important to consider the person who will use the application and bringing the best out of
the user. The same as to identify the result of the success of every application under study; each
should be tested immediately after being produced.
In here, the researchers show just some of the functions of mobile applications on
handheld devices of different persons in different areas of life. It clearly shows that mobile
applications do not just work on one specific task but in a lot more things there is in our life.
Thus, developers must take in mind what will bring better usage to users for productive
consumption of software programs.

Mobile Applications to Different Areas of Life


When the word references come up to ones mind, the thought of consulting on resources
of information on a point of matter easily pops out. More and more applications are being
developed and another kind of application is used as reference. It is an instrumental tool for users
on specific purposes especially if the user will be able to use such application offline.

23
Katarzyna Wac et al. (n.d.), upon Studying the Experience of Mobile Applications Used
in Different Contexts of Daily Life, have stated that mobile applications and services increasingly
assist us in our daily life situations, fulfilling our needs for information, communication,
entertainment or leisure. In their approach they collect both QoE (Quality of Experience and QoS
(Quality of Service) measures through a combination of user, application and network input from
mobile phones.
The author Scott Brown (n.d.) highlights some of the best applications for mobile devices
that are relevant to information professionals and researchers in his work Which ones really
matter to the information professional? He looks at applications in three categories:
Informational applications that provide information on-the-go and that can be useful for both
researchers and their clients and patrons; applications being offered by information product
vendors; and next generation applications that are combining and offering information in ways
that may be useful to the information professional. Devices on which applications are available
and the cost of each application provided where known. The article concludes with a reflection
on the role of mobile applications in the work of information professionals and researchers.
Applications are now widely available for: Job Search, Business, Health, Travel and
Education. In the said areas of life, applications made human intervention efficient. And
common to all applications is their ability to inform or bring information to users.
In education, Nalder (n.d.) stated that mobile learning or "m-learning", offers modern
ways to support learning process through mobile devices, such as handheld and tablet computers,
MP3 players, smartphones and mobile phones. The said m-learning presents unique attributes
compared to conventional e-learning: personal, portable, collaborative, interactive, contextual
and situated, it emphasizes "just-in-time-learning" as instruction can be delivered anywhere and

24
at any time through it. Moreover, it is an aid to formal and informal learning and thus holds
enormous potential to transform the delivery of education and training. He further added that
mobile learning is emerging as one of the solutions to the challenges faced by education.
UNESCO's program of activities is therefore based on growing partnerships geared towards
exploring how mobile technologies can enable the achievement of Education for All. Its partners
include Nokia and the U.S. Department of State.
Theres an organization- Tribal, a global thought leader in m-learning. They have been
active in mobile empowerment and learning since 2001, working to widen opportunities for
learning through the use of mobile technologies. They help give strategic advice and support
with mobile pedagogy and technologies, or the design and provision of m-learning materials and
tools. The said organization work both in the UK, and internationally with employers, schools,
colleges, universities and NGOs to incorporate and embed mobile learning into all areas of
education and training (m-learning.org, n.d.).
The Mobile Learning 2014 International Conference seeks to provide a forum for the
presentation and discussion of mobile learning research which illustrate developments in the
field (mlearning-conf.org, n.d.).
In relation to the related study of this research is the Stanford Mobile Aware Web
Project. Smart-phones and other web-enabled mobile devices are fast becoming ubiquitous on
their campus. They noticed that theyre used to access and interact with university websites and
online applications. Everyone from undergrads to research faculty to cabinet-level managers
have embraced personal mobile technology. Unfortunately, today the mobile experience on too
many Stanford websites is not there yet and so they suspect many users are giving up trying
from their smart-phones and just waiting to get to a laptop or desktop computer. Thats where

25
the Stanford University Mobile Aware Web Project comes in. Recent developments in web
standards and technologies now make it possible to make websites that display optimally on
mobile browsers so that the function and experience nearly matches that of a native
application installed on the device itself.
Furthermore Stanford stated the benefits of their Mobile Web. The site is a proof of
concept for applying progressive enhancement and mobile first design principles. In
establishing Stanfords standards and giving back, through the work of making specific
reference sites mobile aware, this project also intends to create a library of Stanford standards
and other reference resources that the rest of the community can leverage to most effectively and
appropriately make their web resources mobile aware. It clearly shows that even universities are
trying to improve their system for the benefit of their faculty and students for easy access to
school and to their references.
Just like DynaMed, it is a clinical reference tool created by physicians for physicians and
other health care professionals for use at the point-of-care. With clinically-organized summaries
for more than 3,200 topics, DynaMed provides the latest content and resources with validity,
relevance and convenience, making DynaMed an indispensable resource for answering most
clinical questions during practice. It is used in hospitals, medical schools, residency programs,
and group practices and by individual clinicians supporting physicians, physician assistants,
nurses, nurse practitioners, pharmacists, physical therapists, medical researchers, students,
teachers

and

numerous

other

health

care

professionals

at

the

point-of-care

(dynamed.ebscohost.com, n.d.).
Same with Briodaghs (n.d.) example Elsevier that launches the Online Medical
Reference Tool with Mobile Tour. Elsevier, a leading provider of scientific, technical and

26
medical information products and services, has hit the road to promote its new online clinical
information resource with the Clinical Key Mobile Experience Tour. The tour is designed to
introduce physicians to the service and teach them about how it will change the way they search
for and access content.
On a different field is the Mobile Reference Travel Applications they feature an easyto-use interface that allows a person to intuitively navigate throughout the application to find the
exact travel information he is looking for. Stated on the website`s home page, mobile References
aimed to be available anytime, anywhere or any e-reader (mobilereference.com, n.d.).
Upon knowing that references have brought good to many in the development of data
access applications resource, references at the same time has been beneficial. There are many
reasons why referencing is important, one is to distinguish his own ideas from those of someone
else, another is to validate what the person is writing, by referring to documented evidence.
Published work for instance can be used to support ones argument and add credibility to your
writing. It can inform readers of the scope and depth of your reading and can integrate
information by assessing, comparing, contrasting or evaluating it, to show understanding
(www.cite.auckland.ac, n.d.).
Web applications or native applications are useful tools for every mobile device because
through those, mobile devices become productive with just a touch through easy to access
programs. And as developers try to enhance and beautify their works they are into providing
wealth of information and expand functionalities.

Mobile Application Development

27
Mobile application development is the set of processes and procedures involved in
writing software for small, wireless computing devices such as smartphones or tablets. It is
similar to Web application development and has its roots in more traditional software
development. One critical difference, however, is that mobile applications (apps) are often
written specifically to take advantage of the unique features a particular mobile device offers.
For instance, a gaming application might be written to take advantage of the iPhone's
accelerometer. Furthermore it is stated that one way to ensure that applications show optimum
performance on a given device is to develop the application (app) natively on that device. This
means that at a very low level, the code is written specifically for the processor in a particular
device. When an application needs to run on multiple operating systems, however, there is little - if any -- code that can be reused from the initial development. The application must essentially
be rewritten for each specific device. In conclusion for the future, it is expected that a majority of
mobile application development efforts will focus on creating browser-based applications that
are device-agnostic. Browser-based applications are simply websites that are built for mobile
browsers. Such sites are built to load quickly over a cellular network and have finger-friendly
navigation (Rouse, 2011).
In addition, Rouse (2013) said that mobile applications are sometimes categorized
according to whether they are web-based or native applications, which are created specifically
for a given platform. A third category, hybrid applications, combines elements of both native and
Web applications. As the technologies mature, it is expected that mobile application
development efforts will focus on the creation of browser-based, device-agnostic Web
applications.
In a tutorial on how to build an Android application from PC Plus Issue 315 (2011) it is

28
stated that one of the strengths of the Android platform compared to iOS, for example, is that it
has an open source basis, which makes it easier to produce your own applications and distribute
them without waiting for a lengthy approval process. Set up an Android application on your PC
with the right software installed, and test drive using an Android emulator to see what it will look
like when it is run on a smartphone. It stated that there are two techniques a person can use to
produce Android applications with a PC. The first uses the Android Software Development Kit
(SDK). This lets one write raw code and helps get it working in the Android environment. The
second uses App Inventor, a Google Labs tool that's still in beta. This provides a simple dragand-drop environment that can be used to generate new applications made up of building blocks
of code and media. It is an attempt to make application development possible for people who
aren't hardcore coders, but it is not recommended for production environments.
Android applications are written in Java code, it needs a Java development kit installed
on your PC. It also needs an integrated development environment (IDE) as Eclipse IDE, it will
check for the JDK, to write and test the code. With Eclipse up and running, the Android SDK
can be downloaded. Back in Eclipse it is needed to add the Android Development Tools. After
sorting out the programming environment, get at least one version of the Android platform which
can also be done in the Android SDK and AVD Manager, that can be launched in Eclipse if the
system is set up correctly.
For a new Android developer, it is recommended to download the ADT Bundle to
quickly start developing applications. It includes the essential Android SDK components and a
version of the Eclipse IDE with built-in ADT (Android Developer Tools) to streamline your
Android application development (developer.android.com, n.d.). The Android Developer Tools
(ADT) plugin for Eclipse provides a professional-grade development environment for building

29
Android applications. It is a full Java IDE with advanced features to help build, test, debug, and
package your Android applications. The Android SDK provides the API libraries and developer
tools necessary to build, test, and debug applications for Android (developer.android.com, n.d.).
A software developer's kit (SDK) is a set of programs used by a computer programmer to write
application programs (www.bitpipe.com, n.d.).
To test the application under different versions of Android, it is needed to create a new
virtual device for each version of the platform wherein one can specify other parameters. As all
the software is in place and a virtual device is set up in the Android SDK and AVD manager that
let create a new project.
To develop an application to run on an earlier version of Android, it should run on a later
one too, but one developed for a later version of the platform probably won't run on an earlier
version. For an example like this, the build target is not critical as long as your application run in
the emulator. It is more of a concern when it comes to release an application
(www.techradar.com, n.d.).
The development of mobile applications made simple programs to a lot more functional
than how it looks. Mobile applications development takes into considerations such as how an
application will look on mobile and how it will function well for a friendly-user experience. Such
developments include mobile programming languages, mobile operating systems, hardware
specifications and the purpose of the thought of making an application.

ISO 9126: The Standard of Reference


As based on the study ISO 9126: The Standard of Reference, the objective of this
standard is to provide a framework for the evaluation of software quality. ISO/IEC 9126 does not

30
provide requirements for software, but it defines a quality model which is applicable to every
kind of software. It defines six product quality characteristics and in an annex provides a
suggestion of quality sub-characteristics (cse.dcu.ie, n.d.).
The following are the six quality characteristics and sub-characteristics of a software:
Functionality- suitability, accurateness, interoperability, security; Reliability- maturity, fault
tolerance and recoverability; Usability- understandability, learnability and operability;
Efficiency- time behavior and resource behavior; Maintainability- analyzability, changeability,
stability and testability; Portability- adaptability, install ability, conformance and replace ability;
and in All Characteristics it should have compliance (ascilite.org.au, n.d.).

Figure1. The ISO 9126: Characteristics and Sub-characteristics for Software System
Development.

31
The ISO 9126 is practically very useful especially for beginners to know the important
characteristics an application should have. So, special functions and characteristic of their
proposed application should be evident to them.
Though our goal is set to proposing an application for productivity, when making an
application a developer must take into mind the things he must comply into and what will be
used in order to develop the proposed software. In our case, since the proponents are just
beginners in developing an application we seek advices from our instructors. In accordance with
those advices for our proposed application and base on the seminar we attended, we are advised
that in order to make an application we need to have the following for Android Platform: Java,
Android SDK Eclipse or Net Beans, SQLite, Json Parse which will be used for the purpose of
program coding and for the database of the proposed program. The application must provide:
User Interface, Data Storage, Sharing Info between applications, Networking, Advance Phone
Features, Publishing Apps, Best Practices; that must contain any of the features: App
Framework, Dalvik Virtual Machine, Integrated Browser, Optimized Graphics, SQLite, Media
Support, GSM Telephony, Bluetooth, EDGE, 3G, Wi-Fi, Camera, GPS, compass and
accelerometer, Rich Development Environment. And with all of it, the application should
possess the characteristics and sub-characteristics for software development suggested by the
ISO9126.
Based on the studies and observation related to our research, those gives proof that a wide
variety of mobile applications are developed and are around every person. A wide variety of the
human's life areas are also using application software to make things easy and to improve others
work. Just like our proposed research, studies shows that applications or developing mobile
applications aim to help the people with their lives through the new advancements of technology.

32
With these, it encouraged us to continue and make our study to bring good to others specifically
to Information Technology students, professions and others interested. Our aim is to develop an
application that will provide a reference source of books for Information Technology. This
application will contain reference book title, authors, short description and year published. And
through the use of this application it aim to provide an easy way for the users to find reference
books for related to Information Technology.

Conceptual Framework
After reviewing the Related Studies and Literature there are things that we need to
consider in our modern world now. Technology was spreading widely in our society nowadays
and it does not just give people just the fun, it also gives us knowledge and empowers us more.
Coustan and Strickland stated how a pocket-size device is designed to help one
accomplish any daily task.
In the usability of the mobile application by Harrison, Flood and Duce, they stated that
the usefulness of the mobile devices has been increased in the past few years that allow the user
to used more functions of it, they conducted a review on mobile usability and they found out that
it was measured by its effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction.
Katarzyna Wac also state that Mobile application increasingly assist us in our daily life
situations; fulfill our needs for information, communication, entertainment or leisure. And at the
same time as what Herze (n.d.) said, mobile applications can increase productivity and cut costs.
It is possible to reach a wider audience, particularly if they go viral.
The same as the promotion of mobile learning or "m-learning" which offers modern ways
to support learning process through mobile devices, such as handheld and tablet computers, MP3

33
players, smartphones and mobile phones. It is said to aid formal and informal learning and thus
holds enormous potential to transform the delivery of education and training.
Through mobile computing a task be done have simplified in the go. And as to education,
health and travel, through mobile applications, it made acquiring information easier as mobile
devices and/or phones are just a pocket-away being it more personal.
The researchers conclude that based on these studies and observations it is related to our
research since it gives proof of how our proposed program, the same with other existing
programs, have helped people to boost productivity that in future time, and may also bring
improvement in one's life.

Research Paradigm

Figure2. Research Paradigm


Figure 2 shows the Research Paradigm of the proposed study that includes the input,
process and output. The input is where the researchers identify the contents, program

34
specifications, hardware requirements and software development tools. Process comprises the
program interface design, system coding, development, testing and installation. The output
includes testing the mobile application and evaluation in terms of functionality, efficiency,
operability, security, compatibility, maintainability and transferability to user.

35
Chapter 3
METHODOLOGY

This

part

of

the

study

is

composed

of

research

locale,

unit

of

analysis/respondents/treatments, research design, research instrument, data gathering procedures


and the statistical treatment to get the data needed to explain what and how the research should
be done.

Research Locale
This research study will be conducted in Southern Luzon State University Gumaca
Campus at Gumaca, Quezon to easily gather data from the different respondents of this research.

Unit of Analysis/Respondents/Treatments
The respondents of the study are going to be the students of SLSU-Gumaca from the
following courses: Computer Technology (CPT), Mechanical Technology (MT), Bachelor of
Science in Accountancy (BSA) and Bachelor of Science in Secondary Education (BSED), with a
total of 298students and 3 IT instructors. The researchers will get 13 representatives from each

course and 3 IT instructors with a total of 55 respondents.


The chosen groups of respondents will easily understand the testing procedures to be
conducted. In addition to it is that the results will determine the acceptability of the application
by performing its function for the students studies.
The chosen population to get the respondents is based on random sampling procedure of
their capability to relate with our application to give justifiable conclusions as they were the
primary beneficiaries of the proposed application.

36
Research Design
The proposed study will utilize developmental design of research. The researchers aimed
to develop a mobile application for Information Technology inclined persons giving them a list
of possible reference books for their learning.

Research Instrumentation
The researchers will use a survey type questionnaire to determine the acceptability of the
proposed application base on the International Standards characteristics of software development
in ISO9126. There are three parts in the questionnaire. The first part contains the name of the
researchers, message to the respondents, instruction and name of respondent, date and course.
The second part is the questionnaire composed of statements divided in sections based in the
specific characteristics stated in ISO9126. Last is the portion for comments or suggestions. The
questionnaire was adapted to Chua and Dyson (October 2012) research. The questionnaire will
be answered through putting a check to specific statement whether it is: 5- Highly Acceptable, 4Acceptable, 3-Uncertain, 2- Slightly Acceptable, and 1-Not Acceptable.
The instrument will then be given to the chosen respondents base on the sampling
procedure and evaluation process.

Data Gathering Procedures


The proponents will conduct the research analysis; they will first secure the necessary
permits from the Campus Director of SLSU-Gumaca and to the faculty members. After having
the letter of consent, the mobile application will be given to students to be tested together with
the questionnaire. With their knowledge in using mobile devices and applications and through

37
the given instructions in the questionnaire, the proponents expect to accumulate the needed
results. The results will then be tabulated for statistical treatment and interpretation.

Statistical Treatment
To determine the level of acceptability of the proposed study the researchers will use
weighted mean. According Noves (2012) research, weighted mean is also called weighted average
in which each quantity to be averaged is assigned a weight. These weightings determine the relative
importance of each quantity on the average. The following is the formula used by the researchers:

Where:
WM = Weighted Mean
n =individual score
N = total number of respondents

As adapted on Noves (October 2012) research, the data were analyzed and interpreted
using the following scales:
Quantitative Description

Range Scale

Point

HA

Highly Acceptable

4.21-5.00

Acceptable

3.41-4.20

Uncertain

2.61-3.40

SA

Slightly Acceptable

1.81-2.60

NA

Not Acceptable

1.00-1.80

38
The acceptability of the proposed application will determine the further enrichment of its
function and purposes based on the results and interpretation of analysis.

39
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______. (n.d.). Untitled. Retrieved at http://www.cie-wc.edu/

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______. (n.d.). Untitled. Retrieved at www.cmu.edu
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Appendix B
Questionnaire
The Proponents:

Gamilla, Rachelle Joy DP.


Livado, Rafael B.
Orlina, Aileen Joy A.
Villanueva, Precious Faith G.

To the Respondent,
We would like to ask for your time to evaluate our app. We are students of Southern
Luzon State University Gumaca Campus this is for our research project entitled EBOOKSHELF: LIST OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY BOOKS (2004 2014) VIA
MOBILE DEVICES.
RESEARCH QUESTIONNAIRE
Below are the equivalent values of the points to be given on the research questionnaire by
placing a check () mark on the space.
5 - Strongly Agree
4 - Agree
3 - Uncertain
2 - Slightly Disagree
1 - Strongly Disagree
Name/ Signature of Respondent: _________________________ Date of Evaluation: _____
Course_______________________________________________________________________
A. Functionality of the proposed application software:
1 Can software perform the tasks required?
2 Is the result as expected?
3 Can the system interact with another system?
4 Does the software prevent unauthorized access?
B. Reliability of the proposed application software:
1 Have most of the faults in the software been eliminated over time?
2 Is the software capable of handling errors?
3 Can the software resume working and restore lost data after failure?
C. Usability of the proposed application software:
1 Does the user comprehend how to use the system easily?
2 Can the user learn to use the system easily?
3 Can the user use the system without much effort?
4 Does the interface look good?
D. Efficiency of the proposed application software:
1 How quickly does the system respond?
2 Does the system utilize resources efficiently?

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E. Maintainability of the proposed application software:
1 Can faults be easily diagnosed?
2 Can the software be easily modified?
3 Can the software continue functioning if changes are made?
4 Can the software be tested easily?
F. Portability of the proposed application software:
1 Can the software be moved to other environments?
2 Can the software be installed easily?
3 Does the software comply with portability standards?
4 Can the software easily replace other software?
G. All characteristics of the proposed application software:
1 Does the software comply with laws or regulations?

Suggestion/Comment:

48
Appendix C

PROPOSED LAYOUT

1. Once the app was clicked to run it will be redirected to its welcome screen and
will be asked to key in whether to continue to open or exit.

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2. After choosing to continue opening the app, the user may type on the search box
any of the following: the title of the book, the name of the author, year published,
ISBN or the topic.
3. When the specific book appear, near the title of the book the user will see a
message Expand which means once the user click the title of the book a short
description or an overview about the book will be shown.
4. The red button with an X mark found on the description function as a close
button of the description box.

50
5. When the See full list is clicked it will show the list of books there is in the app.
6. While in the full list of books in the app, the user may sort through a drop down
list on the respective labels such as Topics and Year or type on the search box.
And when the user has picked his choice itll function as he same as the previous
that have a description of the book.
7. Whenever the user wants to go back to previous page he can just click BACK
and to exit application is click EXIT.