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The College Board

Advanced Placement Examination

AMERICAN HISTORY
SECTION II
(Suggested time--60 minutes)

Directions: The following question is based on the accompanying Documents A-H. You will have 60
minutes to read and analyze the documents and answer the question.

This question tests your ability to work with historical documents. Your answer should be derived mainly
from the documents. You may also refer to historical facts and developments not mentioned in the
documents and may assess the reliability of the documents as historical sources where relevant to your
answer.

1. Describe the primary goals of the Gay Liberation Movement as well as the methods activists used to try
to achieve them in the years 1969-1974.
Document A

Source: From the Archives and Special Collections Department of the Northeastern University Library.

Note: This is was a flyer distributed by the Student Homophile League at MIT, likely in 1970.
"We Raise Our Voices...A Closet Is a Very Lonely Home Flyer (ca. 1970)." Northeastern University
Libraries Web. 13 Mar. 2010. <http://www.lib.neu.edu/archives/voices/gl_identity7.htm>.
Document F

Source: “A Gay Manifesto”, Carl Wittman (1970)

“Where once there was frustration, alienation, and cynicism, there are new characteristics among us. We
are full of love for each other and are showing it; we are full of anger at what has been done to us. And as
we recall all the self-censorship and repression for so many years, a reservoir of tears pours out of our
eyes. And we are euphoric, high, with the initial flourish of a movement.

We want to make ourselves clear: our first job is to free ourselves; that means clearing our heads of the
garbage that’s been poured into them. This article is an attempt at raising a number of issues, and
presenting some ideas to replace the old ones. It is primarily for ourselves, a starting point of discussion.
If straight people of good will find it useful in understanding what liberation is about, so much the better.

It should also be clear that these are the views of one person, and are determined not only by my
homosexuality but my being white, male, middle class. It is my individual consciousness. Our group
consciousness will evolve as we get ourselves together—we are only at the beginning.

I. On Orientation
1. What homosexuality is: Nature leaves undefined the object of sexual desire. The gender of that object
is imposed socially…
II. On Women
1. Lesbianism: It’s been a male-dominated society for too long, and that has warped both men and
women. So gay women are going to see things differently from gay men; they are going to feel put down
as women, too. Their liberation is tied up with both gay liberation and women’s liberation…
III. On Roles
1. Mimicry of straight society: We are children of straight society. We still think straight: that is part of
our oppression…
IV. On Oppression
It is important to catalog and understand the different facets of our oppression. There is no future in
arguing about degrees of oppression…
V. On Sex
1. What sex is: It is both creative expression and communication: good when it is either, and better when
it is both…
Conclusion: An Outline of Imperatives for Gay Liberation
1. Free ourselves: come out everywhere; initiate self defense and political activity; initiate counter
community institutions.
2. Turn other gay people on: talk all the time; understand, forgive, accept.
3. Free the homosexual in everyone…
4. We’ve been playing an act for a long time, so we’re consummate actors. Now we can begin to be, and
it’ll be a good show!

Faderman, Lillian, Yolanda Retter, and Horacio Roque. Ramírez. Great Events from History: Gay,
Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender Events : 1848-2006. Pasadena [etc.]: Salem, 2006. Print.
Document C

Source: Preamble to the Constitution of the Gay Activists Alliance of New York (1974)

“WE AS LIBERATED HOMOSEXUAL ACTIVISTS demand the freedom for expression of our dignity
and value as human beings through confrontation with and disarmament of all mechanisms which
unjustly inhibit us: economic, social, and political. Before the public conscience, we demand an
immediate end to all oppression of homosexuals and the immediate unconditional recognition of these
basic rights.

THE RIGHT TO OUR OWN FEELINGS. This is the right to feel attracted to the beauty of members of
our own sex and to embrace those feelings as truly our own, free from any question or challenge
whatsoever by any other person, institution, or “moral authority.”

THE RIGHT TO LOVE. This is the right to express our feelings in action, the right to make love with
anyone, anyway, anytime, provided only that such action be freely chosen by individuals concerned.

THE RIGHT TO OUR OWN BODIES. This is the right to treat and express our bodies as we will, to
nurture, display and embellish them solely in the manner we ourselves determine independent of any
external control whatsoever.

THE RIGHT TO BE PERSONS. This is the right freely to express our own individuality under the
governance of laws justly made and executed, and to be the bearers of social and political rights which are
guaranteed by the Constitution of the United States and the Bill of Rights, enjoined upon all legislative
bodies and courts, and grounded in the fact of our common humanity.

To secure these rights, we hereby institute the Gay Activists Alliance, which shall be completely and
solely dedicated to their implementation and maintenance, repudiating, at the same time, violence (except
for the right of self-defense) as unworthy of social protest, disdaining all ideologies, whether political or
social, and forbearing alliance with any group except for those whose concrete actions are likewise so
specifically dedicated.

It is finally to the imagination of oppressed homosexuals themselves that we commend the consideration
of these rights, upon whose actions alone depends all hope for the prospect of their lasting procurement.”

20 Questions About Homosexuality: A Political Primer. New York: Gay Activists Alliance, 1974. Web. 14 Mar.
2010. <http://paganpressbooks.com/jpl/20Q.HTM>.
Document B
Source: The Strategies and Directions of the National Gay and Lesbian Task Force (1973)

“The Task Force is the organization that builds grassroots political power of the LGBT community in
order to attain complete equality. The following four Primary Strategies are employed by The Task Force
to build political power for the LGBT community.

Primary Strategies
1. Strengthening state and local grassroots activists’ power by building their capacity to organize and to
initiate and respond appropriately and effectively to a range of political struggles
2. Arming activists with research, facts, and messages to advance complete equality and refute and
expose the homophobic attacks against the LGBT community
3. Being the unwavering and uncompromising national voice within the LGBT movement, that
consistently raises the interconnections between homophobia, transphobia, biphobia, sexism, racism, and
classism
3. Acting as the movement’s primary convener and coalition builder including working with non-LGBT
allies

Strategic Directions for the Task Force


1. Expands the ability of local and state organizations to exercise political power
2. Uses strategically its power and presence in political arenas
3. Uses strategically its role as the principal convener within the movement”

Faderman, Lillian, Yolanda Retter, and Horacio Roque. Ramírez. Great Events from History: Gay,
Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender Events : 1848-2006. Pasadena [etc.]: Salem, 2006. Print.
Document E

Source: Announcement of the first Griffith Park ”Gay-In” ( May 1974)


"Announcement of the First Griffith Park Gay-In." Tangents Group. Web. 14 Mar. 2010.
<http://www.tangentgroup.org/history/GayIn.html>.

Document D
Source: “The ‘Gay’ People Demand Their Rights”, the New York Times (July 5, 1970)

“Singing their songs as they marched up Sixth Avenue to Central Park, they proclaimed to anyone who
would listen the ‘new strength and pride of the Gay People’.”

“Not long ago the scene would have been unthinkable, but the spirit of militancy and determination is
growing so rapidly among the legions of young homosexuals that last weekend thousands of them came
from all over the Northeast—eager to participate in the demonstration and to serve notice on the straight
world that the passive climate of guilt and inferiority that has long subdued the homosexual world is
changing.”

“The focus of the protest, which brought together almost two dozen divergent groups, was both the laws
which make homosexual acts between consenting adults illegal and the social conditions which make it
difficult for homosexuals to behave romantically in public, get jobs in government, corporations, banks,
airlines, schools or utility companies, or even in some cases rent apartments together.”

"The 'Gay' People Demand Their Rights." New York Times 5 July 1970: 1. Proquest Historical Newspapers. Web.
14 Mar. 2010.
Document G

Source: “Homo Nest Raided, Queen Bees Are Stinging Mad”, Jerry Lisker, the New York Daily News
(July 1969)

“Last weekend the queens had turned commandos and stood bra strap to bra strap against an invasion of
the helmeted Tactical Patrol Force. The elite police squad had shut down one of their private gay clubs,
the Stonewall Inn at 57 Christopher St., in the heart of a three-block homosexual community in
Greenwich Village. Queen Power reared its bleached blonde head in revolt. New York City experienced
its first homosexual riot. "We may have lost the battle, sweets, but the war is far from over," lisped an
unofficial lady-in-waiting from the court of the Queens.”

“The crowd began to get out of hand, eye witnesses said. Then, without warning, Queen Power exploded
with all the fury of a gay atomic bomb. Queens, princesses and ladies-in-waiting began hurling anything
they could get their polished, manicured fingernails on. Bobby pins, compacts, curlers, lipstick tubes and
other femme fatale missiles were flying in the direction of the cops. The war was on. The lilies of the
valley had become carnivorous jungle plants.

Urged on by cries of "C'mon girls, lets go get'em," the defenders of Stonewall launched an attack. The
cops called for assistance. To the rescue came the Tactical Patrol Force…

Official reports listed four injured policemen with 13 arrests. The War of the Roses lasted about 2 hours
from about midnight to 2 a.m. There was a return bout Wednesday night.

Two veterans recently recalled the battle and issued a warning to the cops. ‘If they close up all the gay
joints in this area, there is going to be all out war.’”

Lisker, Jerry. "Homo Nest Raided, Queen Bees Are Stinging Mad." The New York Daily News 6 July 1969.
Stonewall Society. Web. 14 Mar. 2010. <http://www.stonewallsociety.com/raid.htm>.
Document H

Source: “Gay Ghettos’ Seen as Police Targets”, C. Gerald Fraser, The New York Times (Aug 31, 1970)

“Representatives of homosexual organizations charged yesterday that police harassment of homosexuals


has been intensified within the last three weeks in the ‘gay ghettos’ of Manhattan.”

“The statements from the homosexuals were made at a news conference yesterday afternoon in response
to the disturbances which followed a homosexual protest march.”

“A statement that was read by one of the men said that three gay groups had held a protest march
Saturday night against what they called stepped-up police intimidation.
The march started at Eight Avenue and 42d Street, one of the areas describes as a “gay ghetto.”

“The spokesmen said that police harassment had increased since a Gay Peoples Week in June and
especially in the last three weeks.

Members of the group also cited on-street assaults by ‘heterosexual bigots.’ In these instances, the
spokesmen said, they receive no police protection.”

Fraser, C. G. "'Gay Ghettos' Seen as Police Targets." New York Times 31 Aug. 1970: 1. Proquest
Historical Newspapers. Web. 14 Mar. 2010.

END OF DBQ DOCUMENTS