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Data (or input)

Collection of unprocessed items (text, numbers, images, audio, video)

Information (or output)


Conveys meaning and is useful to people

data/information
Computers process ____ to create ___________.

Input devices, output devices, storage devices, communications


devices, and a system unit
Components of a computer

Input device
Any hardware component that allows you to enter data and instructions
into a computer (i.e. keyboard, mouse, microphone, scanner, webcam)

Output device
Any hardware component that conveys information to one
or more people (i.e. printer, monitor, speakers)

System unit
A case that contains the electronic components of the computer that
are used to process data.

Mother board
Where is the circuitry of the system unit located?

Processor (CPU) and memory


Two main components on the motherboard?

Storage device
Holds data, instructions, and information for future use.

Storage media
USB flash drives, hard disks, optical
discs, DVD disc, and memory cards are examples of?

Storage device
records(writes) and/or retrieves (reads) items to and from
storage media (i.e. DVD drive)

Optical Discs (Storage media)


CDs, DVDs, and Blurays are?

Communications device
A hardware
component that enables a computer to send

(transmit) and receive data, instructions, and


information to and from one or more computers
or mobile devices (i.e. a modem).

Host (or a server)


Any computer that provides services and connections
to other computers on a network

The internet
Combination of NSFnet and ARPANET gave birth to?

World wide web consortium - Oversees research and sets standards


and guidelines for many areas of the internet.
What is the W3C

Internet2 is a not-for-profit research and


development project that connects more than 200 universities and
115 companies via a high-speed private network.
What is internet2?

Broadband Internet (i.e. cable, dsl, satellite)


Computer or mobile device is connected to the internet the entire time
it is powered on. What service is this called?

Dial-up internet
What service? Modem in the computer connects to the internet via a
standard telephone line that transmits data and information using an
analog signal.

Top-level domain
Last section of a domain name (.com, .net, .org)

Application software
programs designed to make users more productive and/or assist them
with personal tasks.

Business (word processing, spreadsheet), Graphics and multimedia


(Computer-aided design (CAD), desktop publishing, prof. editing),
Home/personal/educational (taxes, personal editing, entertainment),
and Communications (Chat, Skype, email).
Categories of application software and examples?

Multi-core processor
A single chip with two or more separate processor cores.

Dual-core processor
A chip that contains two separate processor cores.

Quad-core processor

A chip with four separate processor cores.

Control unit/ Arithmetic Logic Unit


Processors contain a _______ ____ and an __________ _____ ____ (ALU)
which work together to perform processing operations.

Control unit, arithmetic logic unit, register, system clock.


Components of a processor?

Control unit
Directs and coordinates most of the operations in the computer.
Interprets each instruction issued by
a program and then initiates the appropriate
action to carry out the instruction.

Arithmetic/logic unit (ALU)


Performs arithmetic, comparison, and other operations.

Registers
A processor contains small, high-speed storage
locations, called _________ that temporarily hold
data and instructions.

1. Fetching
2. Decoding
3. Executing
4. Storing
Steps in the machine cycle?

Machine cycle
For every instruction, a processor repeats a
set of four basic operations, which comprise
a _______ _____

Pipelining
The processor begins fetching a second instruction before it completes
the machine cycle for the first instruction. This is called?

system clock
The processor relies on a small quartz crystal circuit called the ______
_____ to control the timing of all computer operations.

Volatile/nonvolatile
The system unit contains two types of memory:
________ and ___________.

temporary/permanent
Volatile memory is _________
and nonvolatile memory is _________.

volatile
RAM is the most common type of ________ memory.

RAM
Also called main memory, it consists of memory chips that can be read
from and written to by the processor and other devices.

dynamic, static, magnetoresistive


Three basic types of RAM chips exist: _______
RAM, ______ RAM, and ________________ RAM.

Dynamic RAM (DRAM)


Must be re-energized constantly or they
lose their contents.

Static RAM
Faster and more reliable than any variation of DRAM chips. These chips
do not have to be re-energized as often as DRAM chips.

Magnetoresistive RAM (MRAM)


Stores data using magnetic charges instead of electrical charges. Has
greater storage capacity, consumes
less power, and has faster access times
than electronic RAM

RAM, cache, ROM, flash memory, CMOS?


Types of memory

Memory cache and disk cache


Two types of cache?

Memory cache
Helps speed the processes of the computer because it stores frequently
used instructions and data.

cache
Computers improve their processing times with?

L1 (Quicker & smaller capactiy) --> L2 (slower and larger capacity) -->
L3 (separate chip) --> RAM
The cache cycle

Read-only memory (ROM)


Refers to memory chips storing permanent data and instructions.

ROM

___ is nonvolatile, which means its contents are not lost when power is
removed from the computer.

Firmware
ROM chips that contain permanently written data, instructions, or
information.

(PROM) Programmable read-only memory


Blank ROM chip on which a programmer can write permanently.

(EEPROM) Electrically erasable programmable read-only memory


Allows a programmer to erase the microcode with an electric signal.

Flash memory
A type of nonvolatile memory that can be erased electronically and
rewritten, similar to EEPROM.

Flash
Most computers use _____ memory to hold their startup
instructions because it allows the computer
easily to update its contents.

CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor)


____ technology uses battery power to retain information even when the
power to the computer is off.

off
0 in data representation means ___

on
1 in data representation means __

Bit
Another name for a binary digit (0 and 1)

Bit
Smallest unit of data a computer can process.

Byte
A name for when 8 bits for together.

256
A byte can represent ___ individual characters.

Coding scheme
The combination of 0s and 1s that represent characters are defined by
patterns called a ______ ______.

ASCII
What is the most widely used coding scheme to represent data?

Program
A series of related instructions that tells a computer what tasks to
perform and how to perform them.

Command
An instruction that causes a program to perform a specific action.

User Response
an instruction a user issues by
replying to a question displayed by a program.

Storage media (or secondary storage)


The physical material on which a computer keeps data, instructions,
and information. (i.e. hard disks, solid state drives, memory cards, flash
drives, expresscard modules, optical disks...etc)

nonvolatile -- meaning it's permanent


A storage medium is ___________. What does that mean?

Storage device
Computer hardware that records and/or retrieves items to and from
storage media.

Reading
The process of transferring items from a storage
medium into memory.

System software
The programs that control or maintain the operations of the computer
and its devices.

operating systems/utility programs


Two types of system software are _________ _______ and _______ ________.

Functions of an operating system


Starting and shutting down a computer, providing a user interface,
managing programs, managing memory, coordinating tasks,
configuring devices, establishing an Internet connection, monitoring
performance, providing file management and other utilities, and
automatically updating itself and certain utility programs. These are all?

Warm boot
The process of using the operating system to restart a computer.

Boot drive
The drive from which your personal computer boots (starts).

Stand alone operating system (client operating system)


A complete operating system that works on a desktop computer,
notebook computer, or mobile computing device. (i.e. Windows 7, Mac
OS X, UNIX, Linux)

Embedded operating system


The operating system on mobile devices and many consumer
electronics. (i.e. Windows embedded, iPhone OS, Blackberry, Google
Android..)

Utility programs
System software that allows a user to perform maintenance-type tasks,
usually related to managing a computer, its devices, or its programs.

Functions of utility programs


Managing files, searching for files, viewing images, uninstalling
programs, cleaning up disks, defragmenting disks, backing up files and
disks, setting up screen savers,
securing a computer from unauthorized access, protecting against
viruses, removing spyware and adware, filtering Internet content,
compressing files, playing media files, burning optical discs, and
maintaining a personal computer. These are all?

A sending device that initiates an instruction to transmit data,


instructions, or information.
A communications device that connects the
sending device to a communications channel.
A communications channel, or transmission
media on which the data, instructions, or
information travel.
A communications device that connects
the communications channel to a receiving
device.
A receiving device that accepts the
transmission of data, instructions, or
information.
Components for successful communication?

Network
A collection of computers and devices connected
together via communications devices and transmission
media.

Facilitating communications Using a network, people communicate


efficiently and easily via e-mail, instant messaging, chat rooms, blogs,

wikis, online social networks, video telephone calls, online meetings,


video conferencing, VoIP, wireless messaging services, and
groupware.
Sharing hardware In a networked
environment, each computer on the network
can have access to hardware on the network.
Sharing data and information In a
networked environment, any authorized computer user can access
data and infor mation
stored on other computers on the network.
Sharing software Users connected to a network have access to
software on the network.
Transferring funds Called electronic funds
transfer (EFT ), it allows users connected to
a network to transfer money from one bank
account to another via transmission media.
Advantages of using a network?

Communications software
(1) help users establish a connection
to another computer or network;
(2)manage the transmission of data, instructions,
and information;
(3) provide an interface
for users to communicate with one another.

Communications
_____________ software works with the network standards and protocols
just discussed to ensure data moves
through the network or the Internet correctly.

Communications software
_____________ ________ helps users establish an Internet
connection using wizards, dialog boxes, and other on-screen messages.
Another allows home and small office users to configure wired and
wireless networks and connect devices to an existing network.

Communications device
any type of hardware capable of transmitting data, instructions, and
information between a sending device
and a receiving device.

dial-up modem
Communications device that can convert digital signals to analog
signals and analog signals to digital signals, so that data can travel
along an analog telephone line.

digital modem
Communications device that sends and receives data and information
to and from a digital line. Three types of digital modems are ISDN
modems, DSL modems, and
cable modems.

wireless modem
Uses the cell phone network to connect to the Internet wirelessly from a
notebook computer, a smart phone, or other mobile device.

Network card
A communications device that enables a computer or device that does
not have built-in networking capability to
access a network.

Router
Communications device that connects multiple computers or other
routers together and transmits data to its correct destination on a
network.

Physical
Uses wires. Twisted-pair cable, coaxial cable, and fiber-optic cable are
all part of ________ transmission media.

Wireless transmission media


Wireless due to convenience and/or inability to install wires. Infrared,
broadcast radio, cellular radio, microwaves, and communications
satellites are all part of ________ transmission media.

Database
Collection of data organized in a manner that allows access, retrieval,
and use of that data.

database
Computers process data in a ________ into
information.

Database management systems (DBMS)


Users create a computerized database; add, modify, and delete data in
the database; sort and retrieve data from the database; and create
forms and reports from the data in the database.

Character/field/record/file
What does the hierarchy of of data consist of?

character
In the ASCII coding scheme, each byte represents a
single _________, which can be a number (4), letter (R), space,
punctuation mark (?), or other symbol (&).

field
A _____ is a combination of one or more
related characters or bytes and is the smallest
unit of data a user accesses.

Record
A group of related fields.

Primary key
A field that uniquely identifies each record in a
file.

data file
Collection of related records stored on a storage medium such as a hard
disk or optical disc.

File maintenance
The procedures that keep data current.

adding/modifying/deleting
File maintenance procedures
include ______ records to, _________ records in,
and ________ records from a file.

processing
In a typical file __________ system each department or area within an
organization has its own set of files.

Data redundancy and isolated data


Two weaknesses of a file processing system?

database
When an organization uses a ________ approach, many programs and
users share the data in the database.

Reduced data redundancy, improved data integrity, shared data,


easier access, reduced development time.
Strengths of the database approach?

complex
A database can be more _______ than a file processing
system.

vulnerable
Data in a database can be more __________
than data in file processing systems.

You fill in a form or enter search text on a Web page.


How do you access data in a web database?

Computer security risk


Any event or action that could cause a loss of or damage to computer
hardware, software, data, information,
or processing capability.

Computer crime
Any illegal act involving a computer
generally is referred to as a ________ _____.

Cybercrime
Online or Internet-based illegal acts.

Crimeware
Software used by cybercriminals

Hacker
Someone who accesses a computer or network illegally.

Cracker
Someone who accesses a computer or network illegally but has the
intent of destroying data, stealing
information, or other malicious action.

Script kiddie
Has the same intent as a cracker but does not have the technical skills
and knowledge. Often use prewritten hacking and cracking programs to
break into computers.

Cyberextortionist
Someone who uses e-mail as a vehicle for extortion.

Cyberterrorist
Someone who uses the Internet or network to destroy or damage
computers for political reasons.

Acceptable Use Policy (AUB)


At minimum, organizations should have a written __________ ____ ______
that outlines the computer activities for which the computer and
network may and may not be used.

file/printer
To protect your personal computer from unauthorized intrusions, you
should disable ____ and _______ sharing on your Internet connection.

Firewall, intrusion detection software, identifying and authenticating


users.

Safeguards against unauthorized computer access examples?

Identification
Verifies that an individual is a valid user.

Authentication
Verifies that the individual is the person he or she claims to be.

Piracy
Unauthorized and illegal duplication of copyrighted software.

license agreements
To protect themselves from software piracy,
software manufacturers issue users _______ __________.

License agreement
The right to use the software.

backup
Duplicate of a file, program, or disk that can be used if the original is
lost, damaged, or destroyed.

Optical discs, external hard-disk, RAID configuration, cloud storage,


Options for backing up computer resources?

Information privacy
The right of individuals and companies to deny or restrict
the collection and use of information about them.

Cookies
A small text file that a Web server stores on your computer.

Cookie
______ files typically contain data about you,
such as your user name or viewing preferences.

Spam
An unsolicited e-mail message or newsgroup posting sent to many
recipients or newsgroups at once.

Phishing
A scam in which a perpetrator sends an official looking e-mail message
that attempts to obtain your personal and financial information.

Pharming
A scamwhere a perpetrator attempts to obtain your
personal and financial information, except they do so via spoofing. That

is, when you type a Web address in the Web browser, you are
redirected to a phony Web site that looks legitimate.

Clickjacking
An object that can be clicked on a Web site, such as a button, image, or
link, contains a malicious program.

Spyware
A program placed on a computer without the user's knowledge that
secretly collects information about the user.

Adware
A program that displays an online advertisement in a banner or pop-up
window on Web pages, e-mail messages, or other Internet services.

Fair credit reporting act


The act limits the rights of others viewing a credit report to only those
with a legitimate business need.

Social engineering
Gaining unauthorized access or obtaining confidential information by
taking advantage of the trusting human nature of some victims and the
naivety of others.

Employee monitoring
The use of computers to observe, record, and review an
employee's use of a computer, including communications
such as e-mail messages, keyboard activity (used to measure
productivity), and Web sites visited.

Content filtering
The process of restricting access to certain material
on the Web.

System
A set of components that interact
to achieve a common goal.

Information system (IS)


a collection of hardware, software, data, people, and procedures that
work together to produce quality
information.

System development
A set of activities used to build an information system.

5 phases of the system development life cycle


1. Planning
2. Analysis

3. Design
4. Implementation
5. Operation, support, and security
PADIO
These are called?

Systems analyst
Responsible for designing and developing an information system.

Project management
The process of planning, scheduling, and then controlling the activities
during system development.

system
The goal of project management is to deliver an acceptable ______ to
the user in an agreed-upon time frame, while maintaining costs.

Data and information gathering techniques


Review documentation, observe, survey, interview, joint-application
design (focus groups), and research are all?

Low level and high level


Two types of programming languages?

low level language


A programming language that is machine dependent.

high level language


When each language instruction typically equates to multiple machine
instructions, this is called a?

Machine language
Known as the first generation of programming languages, is the only
language the computer directly recognizes.

Assembly language and machine language


Two types of low level languages?

Assembly language
The second generation of programming languages, a programmer
writes instructions using symbolic instruction codes.

Source program
The program that contains the language instructions,
or code, to be converted to machine language.

procedural (3rd gen. language)

In a __________ language, the programmer writes instructions that tell


the computer what to accomplish and how to do it.

C program language
What programming language was designed for writing system
software?

UNIX and Linux


C is most often used with ____ and _____ operating systems.

COBOL (Common business oriented language)


A programming language designed for business applications.

Java
An object-oriented programming language developed by Sun
Microsystems.

.NET framework (Microsoft)


A set of technologies that allows almost any type of program to run on
the Internet or an internal business network, as well as stand-alone
computers and mobile
devices.

C++
An object oriented programming language that is an
extension of the C programming language.

C# (pronounced SEE-Sharp)
An object-oriented programming language based on C++ that was
developed primarily by Anders Hejlsberg, Microsoft chief architect and
distinguished engineer.

F# (pronounced F-Sharp)
A programming language that combines the benefits of an objectoriented language with the benefits of a functional language.

Visual Studio
Microsoft's suite of program development tools that assists
programmers in building programs for Windows,
Windows Mobile, or operating systems that support .NET.

Visual basic
A programming language that allows programmers easily to build
complex task-oriented object-based pro grams.

Visual C++
A programming language based on C++.

Visual C#

A programming language that combines programming elements of C++


with an easier, rapid development environment.

Visual programming language


A language that uses a visual or graphical interface for creating all
source code.

Delphi
A powerful program development tool that is ideal for building largescale enterprise and Web applications
in a RAD environment.

PowerBuilder
Powerful program development RAD tool that is best suited for Webbased, .NET, and largescale enterprise object-oriented applications.

4GL
A nonprocedural language that enables users and programmers to
access data in a database.

programming
Ada, ALGOL, APL, Basic...are all Classic ___________ languages.

HTML
A special formatting language that programmers use to format
documents for display on the Web.

XHTML (extensible HTML)


A markup language that enables Web sites to be displayed
more easily on microbrowsers in smart phones and other mobile
devices, as well as on desktop and notebook computers.

XML (extensible markup language)


An increasingly popular format for sharing data that allows Web
developers to create customized tags, as well as use predefined tags,
used for developing a single Web site whose content can be formatted
to display appropriately on various devices.

WML (wireless markup language)


Allows Web developers to design pages specifically
for microbrowsers. Used on smartphones and mobile devices.

Javascript
An interpreted language that allows a programmer to add dynamic
content and interactive elements to a Web page.

Steps in program development life cycle


1. Analyze requirements
2. Design solution

3.
4.
5.
6.

Validate design
Implement design
Test solution
Document solution

Portal
A collection of links, content, and services presented on a Web page
and designed to guide users to information they likely are to find
interesting for their particular job function.

Data warehouse
A huge database that stores and manages the data required to analyze
historical and current transactions.

Electronic data interchange (EDI)


A set of standards that controls the transfer of business data and
information among computers both within and among enterprises.

Extranet
The portion of a company's network that allows customers or suppliers
of a company to access parts of an enterprise's intranet.

Enterprise technologies
Portals, data warehouses, communications, extranets, web services,
service oriented architecture, document management systems,
workflow, virtual private network are all?

Virtualization
The practice of sharing or pooling computing resources, such as servers
and storage devices.

Cloud computing
An Internet service that provides computing needs
to computer users.

Grid computing
Combines many servers and/or personal computers on a network, such
as the Internet, to act as one large computer.