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UNIT 1 INTRODUCTION TO MECHANICAL

DESIGN

Introduction to
Mechanical Design

Structure
1.1

Introduction
Objectives

1.2

The Procedure of Design

1.3

The Machine and its Designer

1.4

Mechanical Properties

1.5

Tension Test

1.6

Stress Strain Diagram of Mild Steel

1.7

Compression Strength

1.8

Torsional Shear Strength

1.9

Elastic Constants

1.10 Hardness
1.11 Fatigue
1.12 Creep
1.13 Impact Strength
1.14 Engineering Materials
1.15 Steel
1.16 Alloy Steel
1.17 Stainless Steel
1.18 Cast Iron
1.19 Non-ferrous Materials
1.20 Bearing Materials
1.21 Plastic
1.22 Manufacturing Considerations
1.23 Heat Treatment
1.24 Summary
1.25 Key Words
1.26 Answers to SAQs

1.1 INTRODUCTION
Design is a process that ends in creation of something which will satisfy some need of a
person, group of persons or society. The homes and buildings in which we reside, the
dams which store water for irrigation or generation of electricity, an engine which is
used for pumping water or a hoist for lifting loads are the things that are designed before
they are made. The design does not pertain to a single device, structure or product or
even something which can be seen to exist. The process of design can achieve a system,
which can be identified by its physical entity or by service, which is rendered by the
system.

Machine Design

The process of design will take into consideration all the factors that are likely to affect
the performance of the end system. The constraints in respect of materials to be used, the
processes for changing shapes and size, the personnel to be employed, the cost of
components and personnel, transportation of final product or establishment of final
system, etc. will be brought under consideration in the design process. If the end result is
the product then its disposal after it has served its purpose is also to be considered during
design.
Mechanical design is one of several design processes, which ends in systems that
provide for doing certain mechanical work or creating certain desired motion and often
both. Such devices will need enough strength or capacity to bear forces, which result
from doing work and creating motion. The possibility of adopting most economic and
convenient process of shaping material to build the device or system will always be the
priority of design. Keeping the cost low at every step to make end product most
economic. Creating such designs will require designer to have some specified knowledge
and experience. In this text we will try to generate requisite knowledge. Some experience
may be gained through solving problems.

Objectives
After studying this unit, you should be able to

explain what is design?

describe the machine and its designer,

illustrate the procedure of design,

know materials used in mechanical design, and

understand the considerations for manufacturing.

1.2 THE PROCEDURE OF DESIGN


The process of design which encompasses design of mechanical systems or machines
consists of a few steps to be followed in order. The discrete steps are :
Recognition
The first step is to recognize the need, i.e. what is the need to be fulfilled. All
designs require that the need should be properly and fully defined and described.
This description may become the statement of the problem.
Synthesis
This step involves identifying all possible solutions and making a list. In case of
mechanical design the step may consist in selecting mechanism or group of
mechanisms which will result in desired motion or group of motions and
transmission of forces.
Analysis
The best solution is chosen based upon knowledge and experience. The chosen
solution is analysed to see the effects of all factors. In case of mechanical design
in which each element is required to transmit some force and has definite motion
will be analysed to determine force to be transmitted and size of element. The
motion will also be analysed.
Material Selection

The analysis will be based upon important information of strength of material,


which will be used to transmit force. The material is selected upon the basis of
strength, and also its ability to undergo process of manufacture.

Calculation

Introduction to
Mechanical Design

The limits or permissible values of forces or stresses are immediately known if


material is selected. The background knowledge of stress analysis or relationship
between forces and deformations are used to determine the sizes which could be
cross-sectional dimension and length.
Revision and Modification
The availability of material in certain sizes and shapes, and joining of elements for
perfect fit has resulted into standardizations. Such standards are available from
professional institutions, government organisations and manufactures of standard
elements. Therefore, the results of calculations are to be checked against
information from the relevant source or sources. The dimension may be modified
to suit standard.
Report
After a design process has been completed the outcome may be a system which
would satisfy the needs as described in the first step. If the design is mechanical,
the sizes of end connection between the elements would have been decided. The
materials would be known and the type of manufacturing methods would have
been selected. A complete report on the problem has to be prepared. The
mechanical designs are best reported by drawings and standard methods for
specifying material and special manufacturing process on the drawing are well
known practices.

1.3 THE MACHINE AND ITS DESIGNER


A machine is understood to be a device which transmits motion and force in a controlled
manner. A machine is made up of several elements in such a way that each element will
move in coherence with other and force will be transmitted from element to element.
The motion and force at various points will constitute mechanical work or energy.
Hence, the prime function of machine can also be regarded as receiving energy at input
point and transmit it to some other body at output point. Between the input and output
points the form of energy may or may not change. For example, an internal combustion
engine is a machine. It receives thermal energy at the top of piston in the cylinder and
delivers kinetic energy at the crank shaft. A milling machine or a lathe machine receives
mechanical energy and transmits mechanical energy to work piece through removal of
material at cutting point.
In fact, in machine designing we divide activity in the separate steps. One in which only
motion is considered and analyzed without considering forces that may be the cause of
motion. For this step the elements of machines are regarded as rigid or non-deforming.
In the second step the elements are regarded as stationary and forces that are transmitted
from connecting link or created due to motion are considered to be acting on the
element. The element is supposed to be deforming and hence internal resistance called
stress is considered for calculating the size of the element. The subject of Mechanical
Design, Design of Machine Elements, Machine Design or Mechanical Engineering
Design often deals with second step. The first step as included in design procedure at
steps 2 and 3 is often taken separately which is outside the purview of the subject of
Machine Design.
Designing will appear as a decision making process in which the sizes of various
elements will be decided. In simpler designs, enough background information and
knowledge are available by way of which a particular element may be regarded to be
loaded purely axially, as a beam or as a shaft. Some may be under combined loading
when all three or two of these load conditions may exist. A designers capability is tested
by the fact that he creates a similarity between a machine element and any of the
standard loading conditions. For examples treating a gear tooth, as a cantilever beam can
be an example of ingenuity of the designer or regarding belt to be bent like a beam over

Machine Design

pulley could be another such example. In the present we will be considering several such
examples in which similarity between a machine member and another loaded in a
standard fashion (i.e. axially, bending, torsion or combination thereof) will be brought
out. And then the standard formulae of the subject of Strength of Materials or
Mechanics of Solids may be used. The designer will have to be sensitive to
determination of forces that may arise from any source. For example, a steam turbine is
designed thermodynamically for its major purpose of converting thermal energy into
mechanical energy or design of a hydraulic turbine will use principles of Fluid
Mechanics but a designer of machine will be concerned with the forces that arise from
flow of steam or water upon the elements like blades and rotors. Needless to say that
designer will find it difficult to visualise all the forces comprehensively if he does not
possess comprehensive knowledge of thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics. We may
end up by collecting various characteristics a designer must possess.
(a)

He should have sound and comprehensive knowledge in particular field of


engineering to which the design belongs (like Thermodynamics, Fluid
Mechanics, Refrigeration, etc.)

(b)

He invariably should be conversant with Mechanics, Mechanisms,


Structures, Engineering Materials and Manufacturing Processes.

(c)

Comprehensive knowledge of Mechanics of Solids for correlating stress,


deformation, forces (loads) and geometry is a must but in certain cases
where the element may not find a parallel in any of standard strength of
Material solution the designer may be required to use advanced techniques
of Theory of elasticity. The expertise in this area is an added feature.

(d)

Some situations which are out of the purview of Strength of Material may
require experimental methods like Strain Gauge Survey or Photo-elasticity.
With the advent of fast computers the Numerical Technique of Finite
Elements has become a handy and strong tool in the hands of designer of
machines.

(e)

The national and international standards and professional codes make the
job of designing much easier. Many times they are essentially to be
followed under orders of government or by law. Such standards are helpful
in infusing safety of operation and economy. It is thus imperative that a
designer is well versed with standards and codes.

(f)

A designer must be able to use his knowledge and experience and must
always be ready to learn from his own experiences and those of others.
Thus, a constant touch with current literature is required.

(g)

The ease of operation, safety during operation and convenient repairs and
maintenance along with the cost of equipment are such factors, which are
related to ultimate user. The designer must make himself aware of human
nature and preferences so that his design may be acceptable and remains
safe in all aspects of operation, repair, maintenance and final disposal.

(h)

The appearance of the product should be attractive to buyers with whose


needs in mind the design was made. The designer should have
understanding of aesthetics to make the product attractive.

1.4 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES


Properties are quantitative measure of materials behaviour and mechanical properties
pertain to material behaviours under load. The load itself can be static or dynamic. A
gradually applied load is regarded as static. Load applied by a universal testing machine
upon a specimen is closet example of gradually applied load and the results of tension
test from such machines are the basis of defining mechanical properties. The dynamic
load is not a gradually applied load then how is it applied. Let us consider a load P
8

acting at the center of a beam, which is simply supported at its ends. The reader will feel
happy to find the stress (its maximum value) or deflection or both by using a formula
from Strength of Materials. But remember that when the formula was derived certain
assumptions were made. One of them was that the load P is gradually applied. Such load
means that whole of P doest not act on the beam at a time but applied in instalments. The
instalment may be, say P/100 and thus after the 100th instalment is applied the load P
will be said to be acting on the beam. If the whole of P is placed upon the beam, then it
comes under the category of the dynamic load, often referred to as Suddenly Applied
Load. If the load P falls from a height then it is a shock load. A fatigue load is one
which changes with time. Static and dynamic loads can remain unchanged with time
after first application or may alter with time (increase or reduce) in which case, they are
fatigue load. A load which remains constantly applied over a long time is called creep
load.

Introduction to
Mechanical Design

All Strength of Material formulae are derived for static loads. Fortunately the stress
caused by a suddenly applied load or shock load can be correlated with the stress caused
by gradually applied load. We will invoke such relationships as and when needed. Like
stress formulae, the mechanical properties are also defined and determined under
gradually applied loads because such determination is easy to control and hence
economic. The properties so determined are influenced by sample geometry and size,
shape and surface condition, testing machines and even operator. So the properties are
likely to vary from one machine to another and from one laboratory to another.
However, the static properties carry much less influence as compared to dynamic
(particularly fatigue) properties. The designer must be fully aware of such influences
because most machines are under dynamic loading and static loading may only be a
dream.
It is imperative at this stage to distinguish between elastic constants and mechanical
properties. The elastic constants are dependent upon type of material and not upon the
sample. However, strain rate (or rate of loading) and temperature may affect elastic
constants. The materials used in machines are basically isotropic (or so assumed) for
which two independent elastic constants exist whereas three constants are often used in
correlating stress and strains. The three constants are Modules of Elasticity (E), Modulus
of Rigidity (G) and Poissons Ratio (v). Any one constant can be expressed in terms of
other two.
An isotropic material will have same value of E and G in all direction but a natural
material like wood may have different values of E and G along fibres and transverse to
fibre. Wood is non-isotropic. Most commonly used materials like iron, steel, copper and
its alloys, aluminum and its alloys are very closely isotropic while wood and plastic are
non-isotropic. The strength of material formulae are derived for isotropic materials only.
The leading mechanical properties used in design are ultimate tensile strength, yield
strength, percent elongation, hardness, impact strength and fatigue strength. Before we
begin to define them, we will find that considering tension test is the most appropriate
beginning.

1.5 TENSION TEST


The tension test is commonest of all tests. It is used to determine many mechanical
properties. A cylindrical machined specimen is rigidly held in two jaws of universal
testing machine. One jaw is part of a fixed cross-head, while other joins to the part of
moving cross-head. The moving cross-heads moves slowly, applying a gradually applied
load upon the specimen.
l
d

Figure 1.1 : Tension Test Specimen

Machine Design

The specimen is shown in Figure 1.1. The diameter of the specimen bears constant ratio
with the gauge length which is shown is Figure 1.1 as distance between two gauge points
l
marked at the ends of uniform diameter length. In a standard specimen 5 . The
d
diameter, d, and gauge length, l, are measured before the specimen is placed in the
machine. As the axial force increases upon the specimen, its length increases, almost
imperceptibly in the beginning. But if loading continues the length begins to increase
perceptibly and at certain point reduction in diameter becomes visible, followed by great
reduction in diameter in the local region of the length. In this localised region the two
parts of the specimen appear to be separating as the machine continues to operate but the
load upon the specimen begins to reduce. Finally at some lesser load the specimen
breaks, with a sound, into two pieces. However, the increase in length and reduction of
load may not be seen in all the materials. Specimens of some materials show too much of
extension and some show too little. The reader must be conversant with the elastic
deformation, which is recoverable and plastic deformation, which is irrecoverable. Both
type of deformations occur during the test. The appearance of visible decrease in the
diameter in the short portion of length (called necking) occurs when the load on the
specimen is highest. The machines of this type have arrangement (devices) for the
measurement of axial force, P, and increase in length, . The values of force, P and
extensions, can be plotted on a graph. Many machines have x-y recorder attached and
P
direct output of graph is obtained. The stress is denoted by and calculated as
where
A
A is the original area of cross-section. Although the area of cross-section of specimen
begins to change as the deformations goes plastic, this reduction is seen at and after the
maximum load. The separation or fracture into two pieces can be seen to have occurred
on smaller diameter. Yet, the stress all through the test, from beginning to end, is
P
represented by . The strain is defined as the ratio of change in length at any load
A

P and original length l and represented by , i.e. at all loads. Since A and l are
l
constants hence nature of graph between P and (load-extension) or between and
(stress-strain) will be same. Figure 1.2 shows a stress-strain diagram, typically for a
material, which has extended much before fracture occurred.
e
b c

or
P

d
f

or

Figure 1.2 : Typical Diagram

10

At first we simply observe what this diagram shows. In this diagram o is the starting
point and oa is straight line. Along line oa, stress () is directly proportional to strain ().
Point b indicates the elastic limit, which means that if specimen is unloaded from any
point between o and b (both inclusive) the unloading curve will truly retrace the loading
curve. Behaviour of specimen material from point b to c is not elastic. In many materials
all three points of a, b and c may coincide. At c the specimen shows deformation without
any increase in load (or stress). In some materials (notably mild or low carbon steel) the
load (or stress) may reduce perceptibly at c, followed by considerable deformation at the

reduced constant stress. This will be shown in following section. However, in most
materials cd may be a small (or very small) region and then stress starts increasing as if
the material has gained strength. Of course the curve is more inclined toward axis. This
increase in stress from d to e is due to strain hardening. Also note again that ob is elastic
deformation zone and beyond b the deformation is elastic and plastic meaning that it is
part recoverable and part irrecoverable. As the deformation increases plastic deformation
increases while elastic deformation remains constant equal to that at b. If the specimen is
unloaded from any point in the plastic deformation region the unloading curve will be
parallel to elastic deformation curve as shown in Figure 1.3.

Introduction to
Mechanical Design

e
y

a,b,c

g
d

i
p

el

% long
100
f

Figure 1.3 : Diagram for a Ductile Material

Percent Elongation
From any point g the unloading will be along gi where gi is parallel to oa. oi is the
strain which remains in the specimen or the specimen is permanently elongated by
l p. The total strain at g when the specimen is loaded is oj p el where el is
recoverable part. At fracture, i.e. at point f, if one is able to control and unload the
specimen just before fracture, the unloading will follow f k. The strain ok is an
important property because deformation is defined as percent elongation. Hence,
ok = % elongation/100. Percent elongation is important property and is often
measured by placing two broken pieces together and measuring the distance
between the gauge points. You can easily see that after the fracture has occurred,
the specimen is no more under load, hence elastic deformation (which is equal to
km) is completely recovered. However, in a so-called ductile material km << om.
If the distance between gauge points measured on two broken halves placed
together is lf, then
% Elongation

lf l
l

100

The gauge length has pronounced effect on % elongation. Since the major amount
of deformation occurs locally, i.e. over very small length smaller gauge length will
l
result in higher % elongation. After 5 the % elongation becomes independent
d
of gauge length. % elongation is an indication of very important property of the
material called ductility. The ductility is defined as the property by virtue of
which a material can be drawn into wires which means length can be increased
and diameter can be reduced without fracture. However, a ductile material
deforms plastically before it fails. The property opposite to ductility is called
brittleness. A brittle material does not show enough plastic deformation. Brittle
materials are weak under tensile stress, though they are stronger than most ductile
materials in compression.
11

Machine Design

f
x

Figure 1.4 : Diagram for a Brittle Material

A typical diagram for a brittle material is shown in Figure 1.4. The definitions like
too much and too small % elongation fail to give numerical indication. Hence
engineers regard all those materials as brittle, which show a % elongation less
than 5%. Others are regarded as ductile. Most steels low in carbon and medium
carbon range are ductile by this definition. Cast iron is a typical brittle material.
Concrete is another example of a brittle material. The failures in engineering
structures and machine elements always take place due to tensile stress and hence
brittle materials are not used for making such elements. Such components like
beds of machines and foundations can be made in cast iron. If tensile stress
carrying members have to be made in C.1 then they have to be made heavy for
making stress very low.
Ultimate Tensile Strength, Yield Strength and Proof Stress
The maximum stress reached in a tension test is defined as ultimate tensile
strength. As shown in Figure 1.3 the highest stress is at point e and ultimate
tensile stress (UTS) is represented by u. Some authors represent it by Su. The
point c marks the beginning while d marks the end of yielding. c is called upper
yield point while d is called the lower yield point. The stress corresponding to
lower yield point is defined as the yield strength. For the purposes of machines,
the part has practically failed if stress reaches yield strength, (Y), for this marks
the beginning of the plastic deformation. Plastic deformation in machine parts is
not permissible. Hence one may be inclined to treat Y as failure criterion. We will
further discuss this later in the unit.
It is unfortunate to note that many practical materials show diagrams which
do not have such well defined yielding as in Figures 1.2 and 1.3. Instead they
show a continuous transition from elastic to plastic deformation. In such cases
yield strength (Y) becomes difficult to determine. For this reason an alternative,
called proof stress, is defined which is a stress corresponding to certain
predefined strain. The proof stress is denoted by p. A diagram for a
material, which shows no distinct yield is shown in Figure 1.5. The proof stress is
determined corresponding to proof strain p which is often called offset. By laying
p on strain axis to obtain a point q on axis and drawing a line parallel to elastic
line to cut the curve at p the proof stress p is defined. Then p is measured
on stress axis. The values of proof strain or offset have been standardized for
different materials by American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). For
example, offset for aluminum alloys is 0.2%, same is for steels while it is 0.05%
for cast iron (CI) and 0.35% for brass and bronze.
12

Introduction to
Mechanical Design

p
p

q
p

Figure 1.5 : Proof Stress (p) Corresponding to Offset p

Toughness and Resilience


Since the force, which pulls the tension test specimen, causes movement of its
point of application, the work is done. This work is stored in the specimen and can
be measured as energy stored in the specimen. It can be measured as area under
the curve between load (P) and elongation (l). In case of curve area under
the curve represents energy per unit volume.
Toughness is regarded as ability of a material to absorb strain energy during
elastic and plastic deformation. The resilience is same capacity within elastic
range. The maximum toughness will apparently be at fracture, which is the area
under entire diagram. This energy is called modulus of toughness. Likewise
the maximum energy absorbed in the specimen within elastic limit is called
modulus of resilience. This is the energy absorbed in the tension specimen when
the deformation has reached point a in Figure 1.2. But since in most materials the
proportional limit, elastic limit (points a and b in Figures 1.2 and 1.3) seem to
coincide with yield stress as shows in Figure 1.3, the modules of resilience is the
area of triangle as shown in Figure 1.6.
x

MediumC Steel
Mild Steel

Modulus
of Resilience

Figure 1.6 : Resilience and Toughness for Two Materials

It can be seen that modulus of resilience is greater for medium carbon steel than
for mild steel, whereas modulus of toughness of two materials may be closely
same. Medium carbon steel apparently has higher UTS and YS but smaller percent
elongation with respect to mild steel. High modulus of resilience is preferred for
such machine parts, which are required to store energy. Springs are good
example. Hence, springs are made in high yield strength materials.

SAQ 1
(a)

Discuss the procedure of Design.

(b)

What characteristics a designer must possess?

(c)

Sketch a stress-stain diagram. What properties you can define with the help
of this diagram?

(d)

Distinguish between a brittle and ductile material. Why is a brittle material


not favoured for use as machine element?

(e)

Define modulus of resilience and modulus of toughness.


13

Machine Design

1.6 STRESS STRAIN DIAGRAM FOR MILD STEEL


Mild steel as steel classification is no more a popular term. It was in earlier days that
group of steel used for structural purposes was called mild steel. Its carbon content is
low and a larger group of steel, named low carbon steel, is now used for the same
purposes. We will read about steel classification later. Mild steel was perhaps developed
first out of all steels and it was manufactured from Bessemer process by blowing out
carbon from iron in a Bessemer converter. It was made from pig iron. The interesting
point to note is that this steel was first studied through diagram and most properties
were studied with respect to this material. The term yield strength (YS) is frequently
used whereas yield behaviour is not detectable in most steel varieties used today. It is
mild steel, which very clearly shows a yield behaviour and upper and lower, yield points.
Figure 1.7 shows a typical diagram for mild steel.
e
a,b,c

C
C

c, d

yielding

Figure 1.7 : Diagram for Mild Steel

The proportional limit, elastic limit and upper yield point almost coincide. d is lower
yield point and deformation from c to d is at almost constant stress level. There is
perceptible drop in stress from c to c. The deformation from c to d is almost 10 times
the deformation upto c. It can be seen effectively if strain is plotted on larger scale, as
shown on right hand side in Figure 1.7, in which the scale has been doubled.
The mechanism of yielding is well understood and it is attributed to line defects,
dislocations.
The UTS normally increases with increasing strain rate and decreases with increasing
temperature. Similar trend is shown by yield strength, particularly in low carbon steel.

1.7 COMPRESSION STRENGTH


Compression test is often performed upon materials. The compression test on ductile
material reveals little as no failure is obtained. Brittle material in compression shows
specific fracture failure, failing along a plane making an angel greater than 45 o with
horizontal plane on which compressive load is applied. The load at which fracture occurs
divided by area of X-section is called compressive strength. For brittle material the
stress-strain curves are similar in tension and compression and for such brittle materials
as CI and concrete modulus of elasticity in compression is slightly higher than that in
tension.

1.8 TORSIONAL SHEAR STRENGTH

14

Another important test performed on steel and CI is torsion test. In this test one end of
specimen is rigidly held while twisting moment or torque is applied at the other end.
The result of test is plotted as a curve between torque (T) and angle of twist or angular
displacement . The test terminates at fracture. The T curves of a ductile material is
very much similar to load extension or curve of tensile test except that the torque

does not reduce after attaining a maximum value but fracture occurs at maximum torque.
It is because of the fact that there is no reduction in the sectional area of the specimen
during the plastic deformation. The elastic limit in this case can be found as the point
where straight line terminates and strain hardening begins, marked as point b in
Figure 1.8. Mild steel will show a marked yielding while other ductile materials show a
smooth transition from elastic to plastic deformation. The plastic deformation zone in
torsion is much larger than in torsion because the plastic deformation beginning from
outer surface and spreads inside while in tension the stress being uniform over the
X-section the plastic deformation spreads over entire section at the same time.

Introduction to
Mechanical Design

Tmax

Figure 1.8 : Torque-twist Diagram in Torsion

The modulus of rapture or ultimate torsional shear strength is calculated form


u

3 Tmax d
4 J 2

where Tmax is maximum torque, j is polar moment of inertia of the specimen section of
diameter d. From the T diagram the slope of linear region can be found as
proportional to modulus of rigidity, which is ratio of shearing stress to shearing strain.

1.9 ELASTIC CONSTANTS


Within elastic limit the stress is directly proportional to strain. This is the statement of
Hookes law and is true for direct (tensile or compressive) stress and strain as well as for
shearing (including torsional shearing) stress and strain. The ratio of direct stress to
direct strain is defined as modulus of elasticity (E) and the ratio of shearing stress and
shearing strain is defined as modulus of rigidity (G). Both the moduli are called elastic
constants. For isotropic material E and G are related with Poissons ratio
G

E
2 (1 v)

Poissons ratio which is the ratio of transverse to longitudinal strains (only magnitude) in
tensile test specimen is yet another elastic constant. If stress acts in three directions at
a point it is called volumetric stress and produces volumetric strain. The ratio of
volumetric stress to volumetric strain according to Hookes law is a constant, called bulk
modulus and denoted by K. It is important to remember that out of four elastic constants,
for an isotropic material only two are independent and other two are dependent. Thus K
can also be expressed as function of any two constants.
K

E
3 (1 2v)

It may be understood that elastic constants E and G are not determined from tension or
torsion test because the machines for these tests undergo adjustment of clearance and
also some deformation, which is reflected in diagram ordinarily. The constants are
determined from such devices, which show large deformation for comparatively smaller
load. For example, E is determined by measuring deflection of a beam under a central
load and G is determined by measuring deflection of a close-coiled helical spring under

15

Machine Design

an axial load. Poissons ratio is normally not measured directly but is calculated from
above equation. The elastic constants remain fairly constant for a class of material and
are independent of specimens.

1.10 HARDNESS
Hardness of a material is its ability to resist indentation or scratching. This property is
the measure of resistance to wear and abrasion. Both scratch and indention methods are
used for determining this property. For engineering purposes indentation method is used.
The load that is used to cause indentation on a flat surface by an indenter is divided by
surface area of indentation to obtain a number that is called hardness number. A ball of
10 mm diameter made in hardened steel is used as an indenter under a load of 30000 N
and kept applied for 30 sec. The area of indentation is
D
2
2

(D D d )
2

with D as diameter of the ball and d as the diameter of impression on flat surface.
Different loads are used for different materials. Brinell hardness number is the ratio of
load P and area of indented surface as given above. Instead of using the area of surface
of indentation to divide the load P to obtain harness number one can use the area of
circular impression on the surface or the projected area or the depth of indentation
directly can be used as an indicator of hardness. The indenting load divided by projected
area of indentation is defined as Meyer hardness number. The depth of the indentation
mode by a conical indenter is called Rockwell hardness number. Rockwell hardness
uses different loads and indentors for having different Rockwell scales. Rockwell C is
commonly used for steels. Rockwell method is generally preferred over Brinell because
it does not require a finished surface, it can be determined on a finished part without
spoiling the surface and it gives the reading of hardness directly. Rockwell method
measures the depth of the indentation and hardness, called Rockwell hardness number is
inversely proportional to the depth of indentation.
It is no wonder that a relationship exists between hardness of a material and its strength
because both are related to bonding forces at atomic level. Because of nature of stress in
a hardness test being complex (triaxial) and effect of friction creeping in due to contact
between the indentor and the specimen such relationship is difficult to establish.
However, empirically the ultimate tensile strength and Rockwell c hardness are related
as
u 33 Rc

It is also interesting to note that techniques, which increase the ultimate tensile strength
of material also increase the hardness. Increase in strength and hardness is associated
with decrease in ductility (%age elongation), increase in yield or proof strength and
consequent increase in modulus of resilience. For this reason hardness is often used in
lieu of elaborate tension test for characterizing a material or checking effectiveness of
any treatment. Hardness is also used for calculating UTS (u) in design.
It may also be mentioned here that while the treatments given to material may alter yield
strength, ultimate tensile strength, hardness and %age elongation, the modulus of
elasticity will remain unchanged. Thats why the constants of material are to be
differentiated from mechanical properties.

1.11 FATIGUE
Fatigue is not the property but the behaviour of material under stress which changes with
time. Most interesting thing about fatigue is that a stress level which is below yield or
elastic limit is safe if applied once, but if same level is applied repeatedly upon a
16

specimen then it will fail. Such a failure under repeated stressing is called fatigue failure
and has discernible characteristics.

Introduction to
Mechanical Design

The most important characteristic of fatigue failure is that it is without perceptible


plastic deformation in the region of fracture. Even if the specimen is loaded under axial
tensile stress which reverses and whose magnitude is below yield strength, the fatigue
failure will occur and there will be no necking or elongation in the specimen. The
fracture surface has a characteristic appearance with rings (under magnification) and
rough surface (Figure 1.9).
Smooth region
rings can be seen
under magnification

Rough zone

Figure 1.9 : Characteristic Fatigue Fracture

InN

In107

Figure 1.10 : A Typical Fatigue Curve

The number of cycles after which the specimen fails is called the fatigue life at the
applied stress. If stress level is plotted against ln of number of cycles at failure the
characteristic fatigue curve is obtained (Figure 1.10). The curve indicates that at lower
stress level the specimen tends to have longer life or even may not fail. All fatigue tests
are stopped at 107 cycles and a specimen surviving 10 million cycles is regarded survival
or non-failure. The stress level at which specimen survives 10 million cycles is called
fatigue strength or endurance limit (former denoted by e is preferably used). Fatigue
life at given stress level and fatigue strength are two fatigue properties and they are
influenced by several factors such as specimen size, surface finish, stress concentration,
temperature, frequency, etc. A smooth polished specimen at frequency less than
1000 cycles/min. and room temperature will have
e = 0.5 u (steels)
e = 0.4 u (non-ferrous)
The fatigue strength is affected by several variables :
(a)

Fine finished surfaces result in high fatigue strength.

(b)

Stress concentration reduces fatigue strength but not as much as stress


concentration factor.

(c)

All treatments that improve static strength also improves fatigue strength.

(d)

Under-stressing is process of stress cycling below fatigue strength. It


improves fatigue strength. Gradually increasing cyclic stress up to fatigue
strength is coaxing.
17

Machine Design

(e)

Small size specimen (6 to 12 mm dia) have higher fatigue strength than


larger size specimen (> 6, mm dia), but after 100 mm dia, this effect levels
off.

(f)

Corrosive atmosphere, high temperature cause reduction in fatigue strength.

1.12 CREEP
Yet another important behaviour of material arises when the material is subjected to a
constant load over a long time. It is found that a body of material subjected to a load
which causes stress less than yield strength, over a long period of time, undergoes a
deformation which increases as time passess. The strain so created may ultimately cause
the failure. The behaviour of material is termed creep and the strain is known as creep
strain. The rate at which strain increases will decide after what time the material will
fail. At higher stress the strain rate will be higher and vice-versa. It may be noted from
the definition given here that the temperature is not a requirement for creep deformation
to occur. Creep occurs at all temperatures. However, the creep rate is accelerated with
increasing temperature and at temperature which is close to half of melting point
temperature on absolute scale, creep becomes an important consideration in design. Thus
theoretically though higher temperature is not an essential condition for creep yet at
higher temperature it is a real problem. The creep rate at constant temperature increases
with increase in stress and at constant stress it increases with increase in temperature.
The characteristic creep curve is plotted between creep strain and time and is
characterised by three stages as shown in Figure 1.11. A designer would prefer to load a
machine part in such a way that only secondary creep having a constant creep rate sets
in. Tertiary creep is characterized by increasing creep rate and fast ends in fracture.
Creep becomes an important consideration in gas turbine blading design because
temperature is high. The higher limit of temperature in gas turbine is limited because of
creep of blading material.

Primary

Secondary
Steady State

Tertiary

Time

Figure 1.11 : Creep Curve : Three Stages of Creep are Depicted

Sometime a quantity like creep strength is defined as a stress at a given temperature


which will produce minimum creep rate of a certain amount usually 0.0001 %/hour.
Creep rupture strength is a stress at given temperature, which will cause rupture after a
predefined life in number of hours say 1000 or 10,000 hours. Rupture is theoretically a
fracture occurring with X-sec. reduced to zero. Both creep strength and creep rupture
strength are arbitrary and not used in design but for comparing two materials.

18

A consequence of creep is a phenomenon called stress relaxation, which refers to


decrease of stress at constant strain. Problem of stress relaxation is common in bolts used
to clamp two parts at higher temperature. For example, bolts used to clamp cover on a
pressure vessel, at high temperature may lose stress after some time and thus clamping
force gets reduced.

Addition of 1.25% Cr and 0.5% Mo in 0.1% C steel improves creep resistance. Addition
of Cr in varying proportion along with Mo in steel help improve creep resistance in
general. Nickel base alloys like Inconel (C-0.04, Fe- 7.0, Cr-15.5, Ni-76) have high creep
resistance. Cobalt base super alloys are also used for various purposes against creep.

Introduction to
Mechanical Design

1.13 IMPACT STRENGTH


Impart is a rapidly applied load. A notched specimen is broken under impact loading in
an impact test. The state of stress at notch is complex, in fact triaxial and impact load
causes a high strain rate. The combination of rapidly applied load and notch makes the
material to behave in a brittle manner and raises the yield strength. Thus the fracture
occurs before yielding. It is often difficult to calculate the stress at notch and hence the
energy absorbed in fracturing the specimen is measured as the material property and is
given a name as impact strength. Such a value cannot be used for designing but it is an
indicator of the fact as to how much tendency the material has to behave as brittle
material. The machine for such a test consists of a swinging hammer, which through a
free fall is allowed to strike a notched specimen in a way to stress notch in tension. The
potential energy of hammer before striking (i.e. in its raised position) can be calculated
and also the potential energy of the hammer after striking and causing the fracture of the
specimen can be calculated from the height reached by hammer at the end of its swing.
The difference of two potential energies minus loss of energy in moving through air is
the energy absorbed by the specimen in fracturing. This energy is the impact strength of
material of specimen.
Two configuration of notched specimen are in common use and they are shown in
Figure 1.12. Charpy test uses the specimen as simply supported beam while Izod test
uses the specimen as cantilever. In both the cases the load is so applied that notch is in
tension. A 10 mm 10 mm cross-section bar supported over a span of 40 mm and
carrying a V-notch of depth equal to 1/3 of the depth of section is a common Charpy test
specimen. To compare results from different sources standardization of specimens is
necessary. An Izod specimen may be rectangular or circular in section.
Impact Load

Notch
(a) Chary test
Impact load

(b) Izod test

Figure 1.12 : Impact Test Configuration

Apart from two worst condition, viz. of impact and notch, which render specimen brittle
a third condition to be explored is temperature. The material tends to become brittle at
low temperature and hence performing impact tests on notched specimens at different
temperature is imperative. The results of such a test are depicted in Figure 1.13 wherein
the impact strengths are plotted as function of temperature. The results apparently centre
on a temperature Tr showing that for T > Tr the impact strength increase fast but for
T < Tr it reduces fast. Such a temperature is called transition temperature as it represents
the transition from ductile to brittle nature as temperature reduces. The operation of a
machine part or structural component near transition temperature on higher side carries

19

the risk that if temperature reduces slightly the material may start behaving in a brittle
manner. Impact tests are often useful in establishing transition temperature. The purpose
could be to avoid such a temperature or to select a material whose transition temperature
is higher than the operating temperature. The material most susceptible to this transition
is mild steel and this material is largely used for structures. The non-ferrous material like
alloys of Cu and A1 do not show such transition from ductile to brittle. For evaluating
performance of welded mild steel such tests are often performed because the mild steel
welded structures are often used in ship building. The ships have to operate in warm and
cool climates.

Impact energy

Machine Design

Tr

Temperature
Figure 1.13 : Influence of Temperature on Notched Bar Impact Energy

1.14 ENGINEERING MATERIALS


The materials used for structures, tools, machines and other durable goods are generally
regarded as engineering materials. These materials are variously classified. Organic and
inorganic materials are close to scientific division. Materials of both types are used for
engineering purposes. Organic substances are mostly derived from living organisms and
necessarily contain carbon as one constituent. Animal hides (leather), wood, oil
(petroleum), several chemicals, paints, man made polymers and natural resins are
examples of organic materials. All elements including metals and their alloys, acids not
having carbon as its constituent, ceramic, non living natural materials like sand and rock
are regarded as inorganic materials. Both types are found in gaseous, liquid and solid
states.
Composites are combination of materials in which neither solution nor chemical reaction
occurs but properties improve for engineering purposes purely because of mechanical
interaction between the constituents. All constituents may be organic or inorganic or
both. Reinforced concrete is a common example while reinforced plastics, cemented
carbide tools are also composites. Reduction in weight, coupled with high strength and
stiffness have opened possibilities of development of newer composites.
Because of ductility, malleability, electrical conductivity and strength the metals have
become very common and dependable engineering martial. Though most metals are
elements (like Fe, A1, Cu, Zn) very few are used in practice. Their properties improve by
alloying. The most commonly used alloy is steel which has Fe as most important
constituent and C and Si as alloying elements in very small proportion. Alloys like steel
have become very dependable materials because their properties can be altered by heat
treatment.
20

High temperature application requires the materials to remain sufficiently strong over a
wide range of temperature. The oxides, borides, nitrides and carbides of several metallic
elements have high wear resistance, high strength at elevated temperatures but have
marked brittleness. Such materials are described as ceramics.

Introduction to
Mechanical Design

Polymers or plastic have acquired a great deal of popularity for making parts of
complicated shapes but not subjected to high loads. These are organic compounds made
by chemical processes and are used in form of fibres, sheets and in various other shapes.
Most composites are made using plastics. The composites and plastics have good
resistance against corrosion.
Perhaps the most common engineering materials after bricks and concrete are alloys.
Steel is the foremost example. The elemental metals are mixed in liquid state or heated to
liquid state where they may have total or partial solubility and on cooling the solids may
have total or partial solubility. Combination of two or more metals produce alloys in
solid state in most cases they possess properties better than the constituents. Equilibrium
diagrams drawn between temperature (ordinate) and % age composition of one of the
two constituents give great deal of information about alloys. Number of phases at any
temperature and their chemical composition can be found from phase or equilibrium
diagrams.
Pure iron may contain 99.99% iron, which could be produced by very costly electrolytic
process. Though not good for much strength, pure iron is used for research transformer
cores. Commercial iron may 99% pure. While being expensive it is used for special
purposes for high corrosion resistance and electrical conductivity. Wrought iron contains
about 3% slag particles distributed uniformly in iron matrix. The presence of slag is
helpful in increasing resistance against fatigue and corrosion. This material is used for
steam, oil and water pipelines. The alloys of iron containing upto 2% carbon along with
small amounts of S, Si, P and Mn are classified as steel. Cast iron is yet another alloy of
iron containing more than 2% of carbon.

1.15 STEEL
By far the commonest engineering material, after brick and concrete, is steel. Steel is
known for its several favourable properties. It has strength and ductility, good electrical
and thermal conductivity, it is amenable to machining and other manufacturing processes
and it is comparatively easily produced.
A Steel containing C in the range of 0.04 to 1.2% along with Mn (0.3 to 1.04%), Si (upto
0.3%), S (max 0.04%), P (max 0.05%) is classified as plain carbon steel. Another group
is called alloy steel. C steel is further divided into three groups. They are described here.
Low C Steel
Carbon less than 0.27%. It is marked by high ductility, low strength, good
machinability and formability. They are weldable but do not respond to heat
treatment.
Medium C Steel
Carbon varies between 0.27 and 0.57%. This steel is heat treatable and good
strength is achievable after treatment. This steel is stronger and tougher than low
carbon steel and machines well.
High C Steel
They contain more than 0.57% C. The high C steel responds readily to heat
treatment. In heat-treated state they develop very high strength and hardness and
thus become less machinable. They also lose ductility and in the high carbon range
may become very brittle. The higher C content makes these steel difficult to weld.

21

Machine Design

Following table describes applications, the properties required for applications and the
steel which can provide such properties.
Table 1.1 : Application of Plain C Steel
Sl. No.

Application

Properties

Steel

1.

Nails, rivets, stampings

High ductility, low


strength

Low C (AISI 1010),


0.08/0.13,0.1 Max, 0.3/0.60

2.

Beams, rolled sections

High ductility, low


strength, toughness

Low C (1020),
0.17/0.20,0.10/0.20,
0.3/0.60

3.

Shafts and gears

Heat treatable for good


strength and ductility

Med C (1030), 0.27/0.35,


0.20/0.35, 0.5/0.80

4.

Crank shaft, bolts,


connecting rod, machine
component

Heat treatable for good


strength and ductility

Med C (1040), 0.36/0.45,


0.20/0.35, 0.60/0.90

5.

Lock washers, valve


springs

Toughness

High C (1060) 0.54/0.66,


0.20/0.35, 0.60/0.90

6.

Wrenches, dies, anvils

High toughness and


hardness

High C (1070), 0.64/0.76,


0.20/0.35, 0.60/0.90

7.

Chissels, hammers,
shears

Retains sharp edges

High C (1080)

8.

Cutters, tools, taps,


hacksaw blades, springs

Hardness, toughness,
heat treatable

High C (1090), tool steel

* Composition in % of C, Si, Mn (in this order) with Max P-0.04% and Max S-0.05.

1.16 ALLOY STEEL


Plain C steels contain C in the range of 0.04 to 1.2. Additionally they contain
Mn (0.3 to 1.04%), Si (up to 0.3%), S (0.04% Max) P (0.05% Max). Other than C no
element has significant effect on mechanical properties except that Mn may provide
some hardenability. S and P are undesirable elements.
Several advantages in terms of improved mechanical properties and corrosion resistance
are obtained by adding one or several alloying elements like Si, Mn, Ni, Cr, Mo, W, V,
Cu, B, A1, etc. The various advantages of alloy steel are :
(a)

Higher hardness, strength and toughness, hardness on surface and over


bigger cross-section.

(b)

Better hardenability and retention of hardness at higher temperatures (good


for creep and cutting tools).

(c)

Higher resistance against corrosion and oxidation.

The alloying elements affect the properties of steel in 4 ways :

22

(a)

By strengthening ferrite while forming a solid solution. The strengthening


effects of various alloying elements are in this order : Cr, W, V, Mo, Ni, Mn
and Si.

(b)

By forming carbides which are harder and stronger. Carbides of Cr and V


are hardest and strongest against wear particularly after tempering. High
alloy tool steel use this effect.

(c)

Ni and Mn lower the austenite formation temperature while other alloying


elements raise this temperature. Most elements shift eutectoid composition
to lower C % age.

(d)

Most elements shift the isothermal transformation curve- (TTT) to lower


temperature, thus lowering the critical cooling rate. Mn, Ni, Cr and Mo are
prominently effective in this respect.

Introduction to
Mechanical Design

Effects of individual alloying elements on properties of steel :


Sulfur
S is not a desirable element in steel because it interferes with hot rolling and
forging resulting in hot-shortness or hot embitterment. S, however, is helpful in
developing free cutting nature. S up to 0.33% is added in free cutting steel. If steel
is not free cutting S is restricted to 0.05% in open hearth or converter steel and to
0.025% in electric furnace steel.
Phosphorous
P produces cold shortness, which reduces impact strength at low temperature. So
its %age is generally restricted to level of S. It is helpful in free cutting steels and
is added up to 0.12%. It also improves resistance to corrosion.
Silicon
Si is present in all steels but is added up to 5% in steels used as laminates in
transformers, motors and generators. For providing toughness it is an important
constituent in steel used for spring, chisels and punches. It has a good effect in
steel that it combines with free O2 forming SiO2 increasing strength and soundness
of steel castings (up to 0.5%).
Manganese
12 to 14% of Mn produces extremely tough, wear resistant and non-magnetic steel
called Hatfield Steel. It is important ingredient of free cutting steel upto 1.6%.
Mn combines with S, forming MnS. For this purpose Mn must be 3 to 8 times
the S. Mn is effective in increasing hardness and hardenability.
Nickel
Ni is good in increasing hardness, strength and toughness while maintaining
ductility. 0.5% of Ni is good for parts subjected to impact loads at room and very
low temperature. Higher amounts of Ni help improve the corrosion resistance in
presence of Cr as in stainless steel. Nickel in steel results in good mechanical
properties after annealing and normalising and hence large forgings, castings and
structural parts are made in Ni-steel.
Chromium
Cr is common alloying element in tool steels, stainless steels, corrosion resistant
steels (4% Cr). It forms carbide and generally improves hardness, wear and
oxidation resistance at elevated temperature. It improves hardenability of thicker
sections.
Molybdenum
Mo is commonly present in high-speed tool steel, carburising steel and heat
resisting steel. It forms carbide having high wear resistance and retaining strength
at high temperatures. Mo generally increases hardenability and helps improve the
effects of other alloying elements like Mn, Ni and Cr.
Tungsten
W is important ingredient of tool steel and heat resisting steel and generally has
same effects as Mo but 2 to 3% W has same effect as 1% of Mo.

23

Machine Design

Vanadium
Like Mo, V has inhibiting influence on grain growth at high temperature. V
carbide possesses highest hardness and wear resistance. It improves fatigue
resistance. It is important constituent of tool steel and may be added to
carburising steel. Hardenability is markedly increased due to V.
Titanium
Addition of Ti in stainless steel does not permit precipitation of Cr carbide since
Ti is stronger carbide former and fixes the C.
Cobalt
It imparts magnetic property to high C steel. In the presence of Cr, Co does not
permit scale formation at high temperature by increasing corrosion resistance.
Copper
Atmospheric corrosion resistance of steel is increased by addition of 0.1
to 0.6% Cu.
Boron
Very small %age (like 0.001 to 0.005) of B is effective in increasing hardness
particularly in surface hardening boriding treatment.
Lead
Less than 0.35% Pb improves machinability.
Aluminum
Al in %age of 1 to 3 in nitriding steels is added to improve hardness by way of
forming A1 nitride. 0.01 to 0.06% A1 added during solidification produces
fine-grained steel castings.
We may also correlate certain desired properties with alloying elements. They are
mentioned below.

24

(a)

Hardenability is improved by addition any or more than one of the


following. Si, Mn, Ni, Cr, Mo, W, B.

(b)

Toughness, that is the capacity to absorb energy before fracture


increases with addition of Si and Ni.

(c)

The presence, of Cr, Mo and W helps steel to retain strength at high


temperatures.

(d)

Cr, Mo and W also help improve resistance against corrosion.

(e)

Wear resistance of steel increases when alloyed with Cr, Mo, W and V.

(f)

The impact strength at low temperature improves due to Ni.

(g)

Cu helps steel achieve better resistance against atmospheric corrosion.

(h)

Surface hardenability is improved by addition of Al.

(i)

V helps increase fatigue strength of steel.

(j)

Steels with S, P and Pb have better machinability.

Table 1.2 describes application, desired properties and composition of several alloy
steels.

Introduction to
Mechanical Design

Table 1.2 : Applications of Alloy Steels


Sl. No.

Application

Desired Properties

Composition

1.

Rail Steel

Strength, ductility, impact and


fatigue strength

C-04% to 0.6% Mn
and Cr- upto 1%

2.

Spring steel (tension,


compression, torsion)

Good elongation, high elastic limit


(20 to 30%, 1200-1400 MPa)

(a) C-0.6, Mn-0.9


Si-2.0
(b) C-0.5, Mn-0.8,
Cr-1.0, V-0.15
(c) C-0.5, Mn-0.9
Cr-0.5, Ni-0.6
Mo-0.2

3.

Structural steel
(bridges building,
cars, gears, clutches,
shafts)

High strength, toughness, high


temperature strength, corrosion
resistance

Wide range of alloy


steels containing
several alloying
elements

4.

Weldable steel for


welded structures

Weldability, high resistance to


atmospheric corrosion, resistance
to brittle fracture

C-0.15 to 0.3% with


some Cu and V

5.

Concrete reinforcing
steel

Bend 90o-180o, torsteel with ribs


for grater surface area.
Elong = 16%
UTS =500-650 MPa
Y.S. = 35 MPa

C-0.3 to 0.4%, Min


0.5 to 0.8%
C-0.45 to 0.6%,
Mn-0.7 to 1.1%

6.

High speed steel for


cutting tools

Resist temperature upto


550-600oC
Cutting tools requiring high
hardness at working temperature
18 : 4 : 1 steel and
6 : 5: 4: 2 steel

C-8%, W-18% Cr-4%,


V-1%
C-8%, W-6%,
Mo-5%, Cr-4%, V-2%

7.

Creep resisting steel

Application in pipeline upto


400-550oC
Other parts upto 500oC

Mo-0.4% to 0.6%
V-0.25% to 1.0%
Cr-upto 6.0%
C-low carbon

8.

Ball bearing steel

Rolling element, inner and outer


races. High hardness 61-65 Rc
high fatigue strength

C-0.9 to 1.1% Cr-0.6


to 1.6%, Mn-0.2 to
0.4%

9.

Hadfield Mn steel
excavating and
crushing machine,
railroad crossing, oil
well, cement, mining
industries. Used as
casting and hot rolled

Resistance to abrasion ad shock,


high toughness, strength ad
ductility

C-1 to 1.4% Si-0.3 to


1.0% Mn-10 to 14%
with Fe

10.

High strength low


alloy steel (HSLA)
for automotive parts

High strength/weight ratio.


Balanced properties such as
toughness, fatigue strength,
weldability and formability

C-0.07 to 1.3%, TI, V,


A1 Co less than 0.5%

1.17 STAINLESS STEEL


Stainless steel is an alloy steel but has become a class on its own because of widespread
applications. It also has several unique properties. Being steel all types of stainless steel
essentially contains C but they also contain chromium. Many of stainless steels also
contain nickel. The important properties of stainless steels are mentioned below :

25

Machine Design

(a)

They have wide range of strength and hardness accompanied by ductility.

(b)

Stainless steels resist corrosion because very thin hydrous oxide layer forms
on surface, which obstructs further penetration of oxygen.

(c)

They exhibit good creep resistance and resist oxidation at elevated


temperatures.

(d)

They have good thermal conductivity.

(e)

Stainless steels are weldable and machinable.

(f)

They can be worked hot and cold.

(g)

Since the surface is not corroded, they maintain good surface appearance
and finish.

(h)

It does not show a very steep transition (ductility to brittleness) under


impact.

Combination of these properties render stainless steels as the best possible material
against corrosion, chemical attacks, high temp, low temperature and for critical parts that
are required to be small in size. They are also capable to bear high stress concentration
as ductility help plastic deformation under increased stress at stress concentration. Gears,
shafts and springs are made in stainless steel to take advantage of high strength, ductility
and corrosion resistance if sizes have to be keeping smaller. Blades for compressors and
turbine, chemical containers, surgical instruments are made in stainless steel to take
advantage of anti corrosive properties.
There are three major types of stainless steels :
Ferritic Stainless Steel
This is the most abundantly used stainless steel and has ferritic structure because
of which it cannot be heat-treated. It has high resistance against corrosion and
oxidation. It is used in furnace as container of acids and trims of automobiles.
Carbon content of ferritic steel varies from 0.08 to 0.2%, Cr from 12 to 20,
Mn from 1 to 1.5%, and Si is 1.0%.
Martensitic Stainless Steel
This steel has martensitic structure and hence hardness. It can be hardened by
quenching. It is used for table wear, surgical instruments, springs, blades of
turbines and tools like cutting blades. The composition is C-0.01 to 1.2%, Cr-12 to
18%, Mn-1 to 1.2%, Si-0.05 to 1.0, Ni-1.0 to 2.0%. For surgical instruments
0.75% Mo is added. Free machining quality achieved big additional of 0.75% S.
Austenitic Stainless Steels
This steel has austenitic structure. C is less than 0.2 whereas Cr varies between
16 and 24% while Ni from 8 to 22%. Ni helps stabilizing austenite. Mn and Si,
respectively vary between 2 to 10% and 1 to 3%. Addition of 0.15% makes this
steel free cutting. The most widely used variety is 18.8 stainless steel which
contains 18% Cr and 8% Ni. This steel can be easily cold worked and does not
strain harden. It is used for chemical plants, mainly with joints. It is, however,
susceptible to intergranular corrosion.

1.18 CAST IRON


Cast iron plays very important role in engineering practice, as it is one of the commonest
materials for manufacturing of machines and their parts. It is being used since fourteenth
century while steel came in use during 19th century. Casting is a process in which
molten metal is poured in a mould and on solidifying the casting of the shape of mould is
obtained. General properties of cast iron are :
26

(a)

Cheap material.

(b)

Lower melting point (1200oC) as compared to steel (1380-1500oC).

(c)

Good casting properties, e.g. high fluidity, low shrinkage, sound casting,
ease of production in large number.

(d)

Good in compression but CI with ductility are also available.

(e)

CI is machinable in most cases.

(f)

Abrasion resistance is remarkably high.

(g)

Very important property of CI is its damping characteristic which isolates


vibration and makes it good material for foundation and housing.

(h)

Alloy CI may be good against corrosion.

Introduction to
Mechanical Design

CI is prepared from melting pig iron in electric furnace or in cupola furnace. Electric
furnace gives better quality.
CI contains different elements in addition to Fe. The carbon content of CI is more than
2%. Si Varies between 0.5 to 3.0%. It is very important because it controls the form of C
in CI. S content in CI varies between 0.06 to 0.12% and is largely present as FeS, which
tends to melt at comparatively low temperature causing hot shortness. Mn inhibits
formation of FeS.
Though P increases fluidity of CI a property helpful for pouring it has to be restricted
to 0.1 to 0.3% because it reduces toughness. P is present in the form of FeP.
Mn in CI varies from 0.1 to 1.0% though such a small Mn does not affect properties of
CI. It certainly helps improve upon hot shortness by taking care of S.
Several other alloying elements like Ni, Cr, Mo, Mg, Cu and V may be added to CI to
obtain several desirable properties.
CI containing C in form of cementite is called white cast iron. Microstructure of such CI
consists of pearlite, cementite and ledeburite. If C content is less than 4.3% it is
hypoeutectic CI and if C is greater than 4.3% it is hypereutectic CI. White cast iron has
high hardness and wear resistance and is very difficult to machine, it can be ground,
though. Hardness of white CI varies between 350-500 BHN and UTS between
140-180 MPa. White CI is normally sand cast to produce such parts as pump liners, mill
liners, grinding balls, etc.
CI containing carbon in form of graphite flakes dispersed in matrix of ferrite or pearlite
is classified as grey cast iron. The name is derived from the fact that a fracture surface
appears gray. Gray CI differs in %age of Si from white cast iron while C %age is almost
same. The liquid alloy of suitable composition is cooled slowly in sand mould to
decompose Fe3C into Fe and C out of which C is precipitated as graphite flakes.
Addition of Si, A1 or Ni accelerates graphatisation. The graphite flakes vary in length
from 0.01 to 1.0 mm. Larger flakes reduce strength and ductility. The best properties of
gray CI are obtained with flakes distributed and oriented randomly. Inoculant agents
such as metallic A1, Ca, Ti, Zr and SiC and CaSi when added in small amount cause
formation of smaller graphite flakes and random distribution and orientation.
Grey CI is basically brittle with hardness varying between 149 to 320 BHN and UTS of
150 to 400 MPa. Different properties are obtained by varying cooling rate and quantity
of inoculant agents. It has excellent fluidity, high damping capacity and machinability.
If grey CI is repeatedly heated in service to about 400oC, it suffers from permanent
expansion called growth. Associated with dimensional change are loss of ductility and
strength as a result of growth. When locally heated to about 550oC several times this
material develops what are called fire cracks resulting into failure.
Grey CI is used for clutch plates, brake drums, beds of machine tools and equipments,
counter weights in elevator and furnace, gear reducer casing, motor housing, pump
housing, turbine housing, engine frames, cylinders and pistons.

27

Machine Design

Iron castings are sometimes cooled rapidly on the surface to obtain white CI structure
while inside is allowed to cool slowly to obtain gray CI structure. Such a combination is
called chilled or mottled CI. Metal or graphite chillers are used to chill the casting on
outer surface. High hardness and wear resistance on the surface and low hardness and
strength at the core are obtained in chilled CI. Railroad freight car wheels, grain mill
rolls, rolls for crushing ores, hammers etc. are made in chilled CI.
High strength grey CI is obtained by addition of strong inoculating agent like CaSi to
liquid alloy before casting process. UTS in the range of 250 to 400 MPa is obtained.
This CI is called meehanite iron and can be toughened by oil quenching treatment to a
UTS of 520 MPa.
If graphite in CI is present in form of nodules or spherods in the matrix of pearlite or
ferrite the material is called nodular cast iron. The CI has a marked ductility giving
product the advantage of steel and process advantage of CI. It is basically a grey CI in
which C varies between 3.2 to 4.1%, Si between 1.0 to 2.8% while S and P are restricted
to 0.03 and 0.1%, respectively. Ni and Mg are added as alloying elements. Crank shafts,
metal working rolls, punch and sheet metal dies and gears are made out of nodular CI.
The defects like growth and fire cracks are not found in this class of iron. This makes it
suitable for furnace doors, sand casting and steam plants. It also possesses good
corrosion resistance making it useful in chemical plants, petroleum industry and marine
applications.
White CI containing 2.0 to 3.0% C, 0.9 to 1.65% Si, < 0.18% S and P, some Mn and
< 0.01% Bi and B can be heat treated for 50 hours to several days to produce temper
carbon in the matrix of ferrite or pearlite imparting malleability to CI. This class is
known as malleable cast iron and can have as high as 100 MPs of UTS and 14%
elongation. Duet to such properties as strength, ductility, machinability and wear
resistance and convenience of casting in various shapes, malleable CI is largely used for
automotive parts such a crank and cam shafts, steering brackets, shaft brackets, brake
carriers and also in electrical industry as switch gear parts, fittings for high and low
voltage transmissions and distribution system for railway electrification.
Addition of alloying elements such as Ni and Cr provide shock and impact resistance
along with corrosion and heat resistance to CI. These are called alloyed CI : 3 to 5%
Ni and 1 to 3% Cr produces Ni-hard CI with hardness upto 650 BHN and modified
Ni-hard CI with impact and fatigue resistance is produced by adding 4-8% Ni and
4-15% Cr. Ni-resist CI with 14 to 36% Ni and 1 to 5% Cr is alloy CI having good
corrosion and heat resistance.

1.19 NON-FERROUS MATERIALS

28

A typical jet turbine is made up of several metallic materials. It consists of 38% Ti,
12% Cr, 37% Ni, 6% Co, 5% A1, 1% Nb and 0.02% Ta, and others. All of them are
non-ferrous and example only goes to show that in engineering practice, the non-ferrous
materials are finding increasing applications. They represent, in certain cases, the
advantages of high strength and low weight while in some other cases they surpass the
mechanical strength of ferrous materials. In certain cases metals like copper and
aluminum have no alternative from the wide range of steel and cast iron. Electric
conductor and aircraft bodies are the examples. The aluminium alloys are exclusively
used for cooking utensils, as building materials and for aircraft bodies. Copper alleys are
used as conductor in electric machine, as transmission cables and tubing in heat
exchangers. The non-ferrous alloys also show creep resistance and resistance to
oxidation at high temperatures. However, steel may continue to dominate the scene for
its strength, heat treatability and cost. The cost ratios on per weight basis between other
materials and steel are: Ti alloys-62, Cu alloys-8, Mg alloys-13, Al alloys-80, low alloy
steel-2.4, stainless steel-5.51, gray castiron-1.22.
A large variety of alloys of A1, Cu, Mg, Ni are used for making several parts of machine.
They offer varied advantages of lightweight, favourable weight to strength ratio,
machinability, castability and formability. Al alloys are used for their high electrical

conductivity, corrosion resistance, good strength, etc. in such applications as electrical


conductors, storage tanks, marine parts and air craft parts, etc. Cu and Ti alloys are
similarly used in automotive radiators, heat exchanger, electrical machines, condenser,
builders hardware. There are innumerable uses of non-ferrous materials which may
include man made plastic materials along with metallic alloys and readers are advised to
find uses and corresponding composition of a particular alloy form numerous sources.
We take up material requirement of a particular machine element, called bearing. We
will take up design of bearings in one of units as we move ahead in our studies but
description of materials for one type of two bearings, viz. sliding contact bearing is
taken up in next section.

Introduction to
Mechanical Design

1.20 BEARING MATERIALS


Bearing is a very important part of machines and materials used for bearings assume
great importance. In general it can be said that a good bearing material should possess
following characteristics :
(a)

It should be strong enough to sustain bearing load,

(b)

It should not heat rapidly,

(c)

It should show a small coefficient of friction,

(d)

It should wear less, having long service life, and

(e)

It should work in foundry.

Generally it is expected that the journal and bearing would be made of dissimilar
materials although there are examples where same materials for journals and bearings
have been used. When the two parts are made in the same material the friction and hence
the wear are high.
Cast iron has been used as bearing material with steel shafts in several situations.
However, the various non-ferrous bearing alloys are now being used largely as bearing
materials because they satisfy the conditions outlined above more satisfactorily.
Bronzes, babbitts and copper-lead alloys are the important bearing materials that are
widely used in service. Certain copper zinc alloys, that is brasses, have been used as
bearing materials, but only to limited extent. Since brass in general is cheaper, it has
replaced bronze in several light duty bearings.
Table 1.3 describes some bearing bronzes.
Table 1.3 : Bearing Bronzes
Bronze and
SAE Number
Leaded gun
metal, 63

Phosphor
bronze, 64

Bronze
backing for
lined
bearings, 66
Semi-plastic
bronze, 67

Composition %
Cu, 86-89;
Sn: 9-11; Pb, 1-2.5; P,
0.25 max, impurities,
0.5 max
Cu, 78.5-81.5;
Sn, 9-11, Pb, 9-11; P,
0.05-0.25;
Zn, 0.75 max
impurities, 0.25 max
Cu, 83-86;
Sn, 4.5-6.0;
Pb, 8-10; Zn, 2.0; imp,
0.25 max.
Cu, 76.5-79.5;
Sn, 5-7; Pb, 14.5-17.5;
Zn, 4.0 max;
Sb, 0.4 max; Fe, 0.4
max, imp 1.0 max

Mechanical Properties
UTS
YS
%
MPa
MPa
Elong.
200
80
10

Bushing

167

80

Heavy loads

167

80

Bronze backed
bearings

133

10

Soft and good


antifriction
properties

Applications

29

Machine Design

Bearing bronzes are the cooper-tin alloys with small additions of other constituents.
Under conditions of heavy load and severe service conditions, bronzes are especially of
great advantages. They possess a high resistance to impact loading and, therefore, are
particularly used in locomotives and rolling mills bearings. However, they get heated up
fast as compared to other bearing materials, such as babbits. Bronze lined bearings are
easily removed and finished bushings are generally available in stocks.
The alloys of tin, copper, lead and antimony are called babbitts. The tin provides the
hardness and compressive strength to babbitts, copper makes them tough, antimony
prevents shrinkage while lead contributes to ductility. Bearing liners are extensively
made in babbitts for their better antifriction properties than bronzes.
When babbitt is backed up by a solid metal of high compressive strength it gives good
service under high speeds, heavy pressure, impact loads and vibrations. The backing
material could be bronze or steel. A thin layer of high-tin babbitt thoroughly fused to a
tinned bronze or steel has exceptional load carrying capacity and impact strength. In
case of cast iron bearings the babbitt is anchored in place by dovetail slots or drilled
holes because babbitt does not fuse with cast iron. Babbitt bearing linings of dependable
strength and life are made by pouring molten material into bearing, allowing to solidify
and fuse thoroughly and then machining to finished sizes. While the melting point of
babbitt varies between 180 and 245oC, depending upon composition, the pouring should
be done when metal is in fully fluid state. For example, SAE 10 babbitt has a melting
point of 223oC, it should not be poured below 440oC. Some Babbitt materials are
described in Table 1.4.
Table 1.4 : Babbitts (White-bearing Metals)
SAE No.
10.

11.

12.

13.

Composition %
Sn, 90; Cu, 4-5; Sb, 4-5; Pb, 0.35 max.;

Application
Thin liner on bronze backing

Fe, 0.08 max; As, 0.1, Max; Bi, 0.08 max.


Sn, 86, Cu, 5-6.5; Sb, 6-7.5; Pb, 0.35
Max; Fe, 0.08 max; As, 0.1 max; Bi, 0.08 max
Sn, 59.5; Cu, 2.25-3.75; Sb, 9.5-11.5;
Pb, 26.0 max; Fe, 0.08 max, Bi, 0.08 max.
Sn, 4.5-5.5; Cu, 0.5 max; Sb, 9.25-10.75;
Pb, 86.0, max; As, 0.2 max

Hard babbitt good for heavy


pressures
Cheap babbitt, good for large
bearings under moderate loads
Cheap babbitt for large bearing
under light load.

Copper-lead alloys, containing a larger percentage of lead have found a considerable use
as bearing material lately. Straight copper-lead alloys of this type have only half the
strength of regular bearing bronzes. They are particularly advantageous over babbitt at
high temperature as they can retain their tensile strength at such temperatures. Most
babbitt have low melting point and lose practically all tensile strength at about 200oC.
Typical copper-lead alloys contain about 75% copper and 25% lead and melt at 980oC.
The room temperature tensile strength of copper-lead alloy is about 73 MPa and reduces
to about 33 MPa at about 200oC.
Other Bearing Materials
An extensively hard wood of great density, known as lignum vitae, has been used
for bearing applications. With water as lubricant and cooling medium its
antifriction properties and wear are comparable with those of bearing metals.
Lignum vitae has been used with satisfactory results particularly in cases of step
brings of vertical water turbine, paper mill machinery, marine service and even
roll neck bearing of rolling mills.

30

More recently, in such cases where use of water as lubricant is necessary,


especially if sand and grit are present soft vulcanized rubber bearings have been
used. A soft, tough, resilient rubber acts as a yielding support, permitting grit to
pass through the bearing without scoring the shaft or the rubber.

Graphite, which is a form of carbon, has been used as lubricant in bronze bearing
but bearing made entirely of carbon are being used. At low speeds carbon bearings
can carry pressure as high as 6.8 MPa.

Introduction to
Mechanical Design

Synthetic and natural composite materials, plastic and reinforced plastic are being
used as bearing material. However, their characteristics are not well established as
yet. Powder metallurgy bushing permits oil to penetrate into the material because
of its porosity.

1.21 PLASTIC
Plastic have gained immense popularity as engineering materials. These organic
materials, also know as polymers lack strength of metals and can not stand temperature
higher than 150oC yet they offer the advantages of convenient manufacturing into several
shapes and sizes right from molten state. They can be machined but cannot be formed
from solid state as metals can be done. The plastics have good surface finish; they are
not corroded and are not biodegradable. Due to the last property the plastics are difficult
to dispose off. These materials do not conduct electricity hence are used for making
electrical fittings. They are also bad conductors of heat, hence are used as insulators in
and housing for instruments and equipment, which produce heat inside. The low density
is a strong property of plastic. Heaviest plastic has specific gravity of 2.3 against 7.8 of
steel and 2.7 of aluminum. The plastic content of automobile has gradually increased
from 12 kgf in 1960 to 100 kgf in 1980 and to 150 kgf in nineties. The plastic replaces
several times its weight in metals and automobiles thus become lighter. The plastics
offer advantages like low cost, elimination of finishing processes, simplified assembly,
reduction of noise and vibration.
Polymers are classified into three broad divisions, viz. plastics, fibres and elastomers.
Thermoplastic resins are usually referred to as plastics and have the property of
increasing plasticity, i.e. ability to deform plastically with increasing temperature.
They have long chain structure. Thermosetting resins on the other hand have
three-dimensional network of primary bonds. They do not soften on heating, they
become harder due to completion of any left over polymerization reaction on heating.
Thermoplastics in common use are low density and high density polyethylene, rigid
chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyproylene, ABS, Acrylic and
polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). Most of them have maximum use temperature of about
100oC. Only PTFE can be used at higher temperature upto 250oC. This material is used
for bearing. Polyethylene is used in automobile interiors. ABS is acronym for a family of
thermoplastics made of acrylonitrile, butadiene and styrene. ABS is used for making
body of business machine, telephone housing and pipe and fitting in drain waste.
Thermosetting plastics in large number are made and used in industry. They can resist
little higher temperature than thermoplastics have higher insulation against heat and
electricity and have better dimensional stability. Malamine is very popular in consumer
items particularly dinner sets. Most of these plastics like phenolic, epoxy and
malamine are used as bonding agents in plywood and particle boards. Epoxy is also
favoured coating surfaces for prevention of corrosion, improving surfaces and as primer
on automobile body.
Elastomers are the materials, which deform from double the length to ten times original
length. Rubber is an elastomer, which is obtained in liquid form trees but converted into
solid by process of vulcanisation. The use of rubber as shock absorber or vibration
dampner is well known. Styrenebutadiene is an artificial rubber.

1.22 MANUFACTURING CONSIDERATIONS


The subject concerns with the designers intimate understanding of methods of
manufacturing. Any designed object can be given required shape by different methods of
manufacturing and therefore the designer will have to specify the methods wherever he

31

Machine Design

prefers a particular method. The selected material will have to be given a renewed
consideration for manufacturing. For example, from stress consideration a gear wheel
made in stainless steel may be better and smaller but its machining and teeth cutting will
cost more as compared to medium carbon steel. The change of tools during machining
operation may cost. Even in modern computer numerically controlled machines bringing
required tool in position will not be cost free besides adding cost at programming stage.
It is therefore, to be considered by the designer if the radit of fillets and shoulders may
be kept same or they must be different. If the keyways can be cut in one setting in more
than one location the cost may be reduced for shaft manufacturing. The pulleys can be
cast or fabricated. The process needs to be examined on the basis of weight and cost.
Sometimes an increased cost may be tolerated if weight is reduced. Similarly a welded
structure from mild steel for the housing of a gear reducer may have to be compared with
the cast structure either in cast iron or steel.
Casting in sand mould or permanent may be a question before designer in many cases.
Although a permanent mould may appear to be a better choice for large number yet the
use of pressure and conditions of melting from batch to batch and high initial cost may
be prohibitive. Casting in general may pose several problems concerning rate of cooling,
change of thickness, intricate nature of product and any subsequent machining need to be
considered. The designer must consider that in casting metal at every location (i.e. a flat
wall and a corner) do not cool at the same rate. If material in adjacent location cools
differentially residual stresses are produced. They may even cause cracking. Such
consideration may require basing thicknesses and radii not only on strength but also
upon rate of cooling. The residual stress may not only cause reduction of strength but
may result into undesirable deformation during subsequent machining. Large thicknesses
or diameter in casting solidify over a much longer period and hence are prone to have
coarse structure and lesser strength. The designer may have to assign a proper heat
treatment to refine internal grain structure.
The designer ought to take note of the fact that in forging the deformation is
concentrated more on the surface and inner material is not worked. In hot forging
process therefore the structure of material is more liable to be refined on the surface
creating non-uniformity of structure in the entire body. The refinement is often
advantageous with improved strength, though defects are also some times created in
severely worked material. On the other hand process like rolling, extruding and pressing
are not confined to only surface in their effects. They result in uniform structure in the
end. Cold processes are performed on softer alloys but stronger materials like steel are
often worked hot. Cooling will eventually follow which if not controlled and slow can
result in residual stresses. Anticipating the cooling stresses the designer may recommend
the rate of cooling.
Plastic parts are often cast in moulds made individually or in pressure die cast. The
design must keep minimum thickness within limit, not below 4.5 mm. The pressure die
cast plastic may not require finishing by machining but cast parts need machining and
hence proper thicknesses are to be provided. Very few parts of plastic are made by
machining but designer must take care of temperature rise during cutting process. Slight
rise in temperature may cause material to join by the side of machine surface. Internal
threading has to be performed much more carefully. They can be better made during
casting, 13 threads per cm can be cast easily. The colour of casting is difficult to
maintain which creats problem in assembling parts. To avoid mismatch the surfaces may
be spotted or streaked.

SAQ 3

32

(a)

Classify steel and state application of stainless steel.

(b)

Why is medium carbon steel preferred for making machine parts?

(c)

What heat treatments are given to medium carbon steel? What are the
benefits from such treatments?

(d)

Differentiate between steel and CI. Contrast properties of plain C steel and
CI and state use of CI.

(e)

How could you make CI ductile?

(f)

Classify CI and mention uses of each type.

(g)

Mention non-ferrous materials, which are used in machines and structures.


What are bearing materials?

(h)

Mention compositions of phospher bronze, semi-plastic bronze and a babbit


metal, which are used on bronze backing.

(i)

Describe non-metallic materials that are used as bearing materials.

(j)

Distinguish between two classes of plastic. Mention advantages of plastics


as engineering material and describe at least five uses.

(k)

What manufacturing consideration a designer has to make? Give examples


of cutting, casting and forging processes in respect of metals. Which of
these processes will be applicable to parts made in plastics?

Introduction to
Mechanical Design

1.23 HEAT TREATMENT


Heat treatment is the process through controlled heating and cooling of metal to induce
desired properties. The process causes changes in the structural arrangements in the
structure of the metal. The structure of an alloy is made up of different phases, which
precipitate from molten mixture depending upon the rate of cooling. The reader may like
to improve familiarity with phases by revising parts of Material Science and we will
ignore such details in this text. The medium carbon steel, high carbon steel and alloy
steel are especially sensitive to heat treatment. Several handbooks describe heat
treatments of several classes of steel. It will suffice here to give brief description.
Annealing
The steel is heated slightly above the critical temperature cooled slowly, often
keeping material in the furnace and shutting off heat. The annealing will result in
uniform grain structure, reduced strength and hardness and increased ductility.
Internal stresses which might have resulted from previous treatment (mechanical
or thermal) are removed by annealing.
Normalising
The heating is same as in annealing but the metal is cooled faster by placing it out
of the furnace. This treatment removes effect of any previous heat treatment and
prepares the metal for further treatment.
Quenching
Quenching is rapid cooling at different rates. It is achieved by immersing the
heated metal from above critical temperature into cold water or any other cooling
medium. The quenching results in high hardness. Steels develop high hardness by
retaining iron carbide which forms at critical temperature and does not find time to
decompose as the cooling occurs very fast. Cooling media such as ice water, cool
water, oil, hot oil, molten salts and molten lead are used depending upon desired
cooling rate. The result of quenching is increased hardness and strength and
decreased ductility while improper quenching may result in surface cracks.

33

Machine Design

Tempering
Some of the lost ductility due to quenching is restored through tempering. In this
process the quenched metal is heated to some pre-decided temperature and metal
is soaked for some time. The range of temperature used for steel is generally from
200oC to 600oC and cooling is done in the furnace. The tempering treatment also
helps remove internal stresses, which are created due to hardening treatment. UTS,
YS and hardness reduce while % elongation, impact strength increase due to
tempering at temperatures of 300oC and above. There is little effect on these
properties below 300oC.
Casehardening
Casehardening is a surface hardening process, often applied on low carbon steels
which do not responded to heat treatment. The process consists in packing the
steel piece in charcoal powder and covered from outside. The charcoal powder
cuts of air. When heated in a furnace the carbon from charcoal penetrates the
surface and on quenching the carburized surface retains hardness. The process is
also known as carburizing and steels containing 0.1 to 0.25% C are easily
carburized. The mechanism of hardening is two fold. Firstly the carbon of iron is
very hard and due to quenching it is retained in the surface. Secondly due to
increase in C in the surface layer, the residual compressive stress is produced.
Surface hardening is advantageous in case of gear teeth since the inner bulk
material still remains softer and tougher and thus combined advantage of harder
surface and tougher core mereases the life.
It may be pointed out here that surface is the weakest region of the material in any
form. Fatigue cracks initiate late in hard surface and the wear resistance in also
better.
Besides carburizing by packing there are other methods of surface hardening of
steels. In gas carburizing the metal is heated in gas atmosphere in controlled
manner to avoid oxidation and permit absorption of the gas in the surface. The
gasses used for the purpose are natural gas, coke oven gas, butane or propane. In
the process called cyaniding the steel part is heated covered with the mixture of
potassium ferrocyanide and potassium bichromate. In some cases the mixture is
replaced by powdered potassium cyanide. A very hard case is produced by
cyaniding. A thin hardened layer is produced by immersion of part in the heated
cyanide solution. Natriding is yet another method of case hardening. It consists in
heating the part in the presence of dissociated ammonia in the range of 570oC
to 610oC.
The surface hardness of 60 Rockwell C associated with core hardness of 33 to
38 RC is produced by carburizing. Nitriding can produce surface hardness upto
70 RC and core hardness of 27 to 47 RC. Natrided parts can be tempered. All
steels can be nitrided but those containing aluminum develop very high hardness.
Nitralloy 135 and 135 modified is a highly preferred material for gears. It contains
C-0.35/0.41, Mn-0.55, Si-0.3, Cr-1.20/1.60, Al-1.00, Mo-0.20/0.35. This material
develops surface hardness of 65-70 and core hardness of 30-36 RC. AISI 4340
(C-0.40, Mn-0.70, Si-0.30, Cr-0.80, Mo-0.25, Ni-1.00) and AISI 4140 (C-0.40,
Mn-0.90, Si-0.30, Cr-0.95, Mo-0.20) are two other steels, which are nitrided and
used to make gears.
The high frequency current when passed through body of a part results in surface
heating. Once heated this way, the part is quenched in water. This treatment
resulting into hardened surface is called induction hardening for which steels
containing 0.4 to 0.5% C is good.

34

Introduction to
Mechanical Design

SAQ 2
(a)

Sketch diagram for mild steel and compare with diagram of


other ductile material.

(b)

Define elastic constants for isotropic material and give their correlation.

(c)

Define hardness and state how is the hardness of metal measured. How is
UTS related to hardness?

(d)

What do you understand by fatigue strength and enumerate factors that


affect fatigue strength?

(e)

Describe three stages of creep.

(f)

What is the use of information obtained from impact test?

1.24 SUMMARY
Design is a decision making process in which a designer formulates the problem in clear
terms, finalies several alternatives, selects the best solution, analyzes the best solution,
selects material and determines dimensions. The process allows for modification to
achieve improvement at each step. The results are presented in form of a report which
will necessarily contain drawings, instructions for heat treatment, special processes, etc.
The designer of machine is required to have comprehensive knowledge of mechanical
engineering so that he understands clearly the various forces that act upon several parts
of machines and circumstances in which the machine and its parts have to perform. The
designer must be conversant with methods of analyzing stress through theoretical,
experimental and numerical methods. He may depend upon one or two of them so that he
can analyze a part completely. The designer should be sensitive to human needs,
capabilities and sensibilities so that his design fulfills the objective, can be operated and
maintained by common person and pleases him to possess.
The engineering materials are used to make machine parts and there exist several of
them. They are all used to serve specific purpose based upon properties. The properties
that designer of machine will use will be related to strength and material behaviour under
load. The properties normally needed by machine part are yield strength, ultimate tensile
strength, percent elongation, toughness and resilience. They are determined from tension
test on universal testing machine. The hardness and impact strength, though not used in
direct calculation are used for selecting materials for specific purposes. Fatigue and
creep are behaviours and conditions of varying load and constant load acting over a long
period respectively. While latter is a condition to be considered only in case of higher
temperatures, fatigue is the type of loading to which all machines, machine parts and
structure are subjected. Fatigue strength, which is defined as the stress at which material
will never fail, no matter how many times that stress varies, then appears to be the only
important property on the basis of which machine parts must be designed. However,
while on one hand its determination is difficult, on the other hand it has a definite
relationship with ultimate tensile strength (UTS). Hence UTS can be used as design
basis after fully understanding several factors that influence fatigue strength.
Out of several metallic materials steel is the most common choice because of such
reasons as easy availability, good strength, workability, ductility and heat treatability.
Cast iron is another good ferrous material preferred to produce casting for its
availability, hardness, compressive strength and damping properties. Plain carbon steel,
containing Mn, Si, S and P in addition to carbon with large proportion of iron is divided

35

Machine Design

into three types, viz. low carbon (0.08 to 0.27% C), medium carbon (0.28-0.57% C) and
high carbon (0.58 to 1.2% C) steels. Additionally Cr, Mo, Ni, V, Co, Al, Cu, etc. may be
added to obtain series of alloy steels which have better mechanical properties with
increased cost. Three types of stainless steels (ferritic, austenitic, martensitic) are in
common use for their corrosion and oxidation resistances. Each alloying element imparts
particular characteristic to steel. Steel of all types are heat treatable except low carbon
steel. They, however, can be case hardened like medium carbon and some alloy steels.
Plastics are being used for making parts of machines because they are light in weight.
However, they cannot compete with metals in strength. Non-ferrous metals which are
mainly alloys of aluminum, copper, zinc, magnesium, nickel, etc. are used for specific
reasons of weight and properties. They are invariably used in sliding bearings.
The designer has to consider the available manufacturing processes and effects of such
processes on final product.

1.25 KEY WORDS


Mechanical Properties

: Mechanical properties of the metals are those


which are associated with the ability of the
material to resist mechanical forces and load.

Strength

: It is the ability of a material to resist the externally


applied forces without breaking or yielding.

Stiffness

: It is the ability of a material to resist deformation


under stress.

Elasticity

: It is the property of a material to regain its original


shape after deformation when external forces are
removed.

1.26 ANSWERS TO SAQs


Refer the preceding text for all the Answers to SAQs.

36

UNIT 2 DESIGN OF TEMPORARY


CONNECTIONS

Design of Temporary
Connections

Structure
2.1

Introduction
Objectives

2.2

Stresses

2.3

Calculation of Diameter of a Bar

2.4

Knuckle Joint

2.5

Cotter Joint

2.6

Summary

2.7

Key Words

2.8

Answers to SAQs

2.1 INTRODUCTION
We should understand that designing will be treated as finding dimensions or single
dimensions of a part. The input is normally available in terms of load or force to be
carried and material in which part is to be made. From the knowledge of material, mainly
the ultimate tensile strength and yield strength become known. It is understood that you
are familiar with stress and its types tensile, compressive (or bearing) and shear. The
design will be based upon the relationship between load and stress and the stress value
which is allowed to occur in a part is only fraction of yield strength or ultimate tensile
strength the joining of two parts which carry force and may be either stationary or
permanent is a common engineering practice. Bars may be joined, plates may be
connected or a pulley may be connected to shafts. Pins passing through plates may
connect them and the plates can be pulled apart by equal and opposite forces applied on
two plates. It is example of a temporary joint. Other joints will be described and sizes
calculated.

Objectives
After studying this unit, you should be able to

correlate stress and load,

learn how rods can be connected, and

know types of joints, and causes of their failures.

2.2 STRESSES
The simple definition of stress is that is force divided by area. If the force is
perpendicular to the area and pulling away from it, the stress is tensile. If the force is
perpendicular to area and pushing towards it, the stress is compressive. Both tensile and
compressive stresses come under general category of direct stress. If the force is parallel
to area to cause sliding of one area over other the stress is shearing. If two bodies are in
contact and pressed against each other the stress is bearing. The magnitude of bearing
stress will be the compressing force divided by contact area between two bodies. The
bearing stress is compressive in nature and is also called crushing stress.

37

Machine Design

Three stresses described above are illustrated in Figure 2.1.


P

P
A

AS

A
P= A
P= A

(a)

(b)

AC

P=c Ac

(c)
Figure 2.1 : Three Types of Stresses

(a)

Force P causing tensile stress on cross-section of a rectangular bar.

(b)

Force P causing shearing stress on a rectangular section.

(c)

Force P acting on a circular bar, presses it against a rectangular plate,


causing compressive or bearing stress on circular section of the bar.

The shearing stress and crushing stress are very common in circular cross-section pin
when it passes through two plates and plates are pulled apart. Figure 2.2(a) shows such
plates connected by a pin. The length of the pin equal to thickness t, of plate is subjected
to crushing force P on two cylindrical surfaces as shown in Figure 2.2(b). This surface is
pressed by cylindrical surface of hole in the plate as shown in Figure 2.2(c). Both the
surfaces of the hole in the plates and of the cylinder are subjected to the crushing stress.
The magnitude of this crushing stress is calculated as
c

P
Projected area of cylinder
P

. . . (2.1)

B
Plate 1

Plate 2
AS
P

P
2

P
P

P
2

(a)

(b)
Figure 2.2

The projected area of cylinder in contact over a length t


= dt
where d = Diameter of cylinder (pin), and
38

t = Thickness of plate.

(c)

Also note that the two forces P, acting opposite to each other on pin as shown in
Figure 2.2(b) are separated by the pin cross-section of area As. This is the area in the
plane of contact of two plates in the Figure 2.2(a). The area As is subjected to shearing
stress .
P
As

As

and

Design of Temporary
Connections

. . . (2.2)

2
d
4

The plates has been cut along the line BB and shown in Figure 2.2(c). The area upon
which force P acts normally is seen as two rectangles. This is the cross-section of plate
subjected to tensile stress, .

P
A

. . . (2.3)

A (l d ) t

l = Width of the plate.

2.3 CALCULATION OF DIAMETER OF A BAR


If a bar is subjected to a tensile force P along its axis and the maximum stress which can
be induced on the cross-section of the bar is limited to t, we can find the diameter of the
bar from definition of stress. Let A be the area of cross-section of bar, so that
As

2
d
4

If d is the diameter of the bar. The stress in the bar

P
4P

A d 2

d2

4P
t

For example, if a fan weighing 100 N is suspended at the end of a steel bar in which
stress is not allowed to exceed 10 N/mm2, find the diameter of the bar.
The diameter is calculated from
d2

4P
t

in which P = 100 N, t = 10 N/mm2


4 100
12.73
10

d2

or

d = 3.6 mm

This finding of diameter is the design of the bar.


Example 2.1
Two plates 100 mm wide and 1 mm thick are connected with a pin passing
through them as shown in Figure 2.2(a). The plates are pulled apart by a force of
10000 N. If the tensile stress in plate is t, shearing stress in pin is s and crushing
stress in pin is c, the limiting values are given below.
t = 20 N/mm2, s = 10 N/mm2 and c = 22 N/mm2
Find thickness of plate and diameter of pin.

39

Machine Design

Solution

P
(l d ) t

P
2
d
4

P
dt

or

20

or

10

or

22

10,000
(100 d ) t
4 10,000
d2

10,000
dt

. . . (2.4)

. . . (2.5)

. . . (2.6)

Since in (2.4) and (2.6) there are two unknown, use (2.5) to find
d2

4000

d = 36.25 mm

. . . (2.7)

Use this value of d in (2.4) so that


20

10,000
(100 36.25) t
10,000
7.8 mm
64 20

. . . (2.8)

So both d and t have been found. But we should check that c is not more than
22 N/mm2. From (2.5)
c

10,000
35.6 N/mm2
36 7.8

Since this stress is greater than permissible stress of 22 N/mm2. The value of d and
t are not acceptable.
From Eq. (2.6), dt = 554 which can be obtained with by increasing d or t or both.
t = 13 mm and d = 43 mm gives dt = 559 mm2 which is safe.
Check

10,000
13.5 N/mm2 (Safe)
(100 43) 13

Check

10,000
6.9 N/mm2 (Safe)

(43)2
4

Thus, d = 43 mm and t = 13 mm are finally selected dimension. The example


shows how design problems reed reiteration.
Example 2.2
Two steel rods are proposed to be connected by a pin in the same way as plates.
The force of tension to be carried by the joint is 8000 N. The joint is made by
removing metal from rod ends to create flat surfaces of depth of half the diameter
of the rod as shown in Figure 2.3. A hole is drilled in the centre of the flat in each
rod, the two parts are matched and a pin is passed through the hole. Find diameters
of rod and pin. The permissible stresses in tension, shear and crushing are :
t = 12 N/mm2, s = 7 N/mm2 and c = 14 N/mm2
40

Design of Temporary
Connections
1
2

2
1

Figure 2.3 : A Pin Joint between Two Bars

Solution
Recognise following ways in which joint can fail.
(a)

Shearing of pin

(b)

Crushing of pin against hole surface

(c)

Tensile failure of bar along section through pin.

Shearing of Pin
P

2
d s
4

8000

. . . (2.9)

2
d 7
4

d 38.2 mm

. . . (2.10)

Crushing of Pin
The pin comes in contact with the hole surface over half the diameter of the
bar. It can be seen by taking section through centre line of hole for pin.
(See Figure 2.4)
1

d
D

Figure 2.4 : Section of Bars 1 and 2 Through Pin Hole

41

Machine Design

If bar 1 is pulled out of plane of paper, the bar 2 will be pulled in the
opposite direction. Only half circular section will carry the tensile force.
Similarly only half pin will compress against the half circle. Hence, area
resisting crushing is
Ac

1
Dd
2

D is he diameter of bar.
The area resisting tensile force
A

1
2

D Dd
4

(Half hatched area).


The crushing strength of pin
P c

Dd

1
Dd
2

2 P 2 8000

1142.9 mm2
c
14

and tensile strength of rod


P t

1
2

D Dd
4

or by using value of D d
2
2 8000
D 1142.9
1333.33
4
12

i.e.

D2 (1333.33 1142.9)

D = 56.15 mm

4
3153

. . . (2.11)

It will be good idea to check what is the tensile stress in the rod when joint
has been made. The area of cross-section of rod is
2
D (56.15)2 2476.4 mm2
4
4

Hence, when joint carries a force of 8000 N, the stress in the rod
P 2
8000
D
3.23 N/mm2

2476.4
4

Note that permissible stress in the rod is 12 N/mm2, hence it is very


uneconomical as it carries almost one fourth of stress of its full capacity.
Thus, the design of Example 2.2 is uneconomical though it is easy to make.

2.4 KNUCKLE JOINT

42

Two joints one between plates and other between rods can be easily understood as
temporary joints as they can be dismantled by removing pin. Knuckle joint which is
practically used to join two bars being pulled apart is similarly a temporary joint. This
joint also consists of three parts two rods and pin. But the ends of rods are made to
have specific shapes obtained by forging. These ends merge into circular rod. The Figure
2.5 shows a knuckle joint in which 1 is fork, 2 is eye and 3 is pin. Figure 2.6 shows three
parts separated.

Design of Temporary
Connections

Rod
2. Eye

1. Fork

Rod

3. Pin

Figure 2.5 : A Knuckle Joint


Fork End

Collar

4
5

Taper Pin
3

Sq. Sec.

PIN
Eye End

Figure 2.6 : Parts of the Knuckle Joint

To hold the pin in assembly it is made with a round head at one end and a collar is
placed at the other end. The pin is tightened on the end with the help of a taper pin.

0.4 d

4d

4.5 d
1.5 d

1.2 d

3d

P
0.75d

1.1d

1.1 d

0.75d

0.6 d

2d

Split Pin

Octagon

Figure 2.7 : Assembly of a Knuckle Joint

In designing a knuckle joint we have to determine following dimensions :


Diameter of Pin
Note that pin is under shear. Also note that pin passes through two surfaces of
contact between eye and fork. Thus, at two cross-sections the pin is subjected to

43

Machine Design

shearing stress. Ideally the pin subjected to shearing stress at two cross-sections
must have twice the permissible stress is single shear but practically permissible
stress in double shear is 1.75 of that in single shear. Eq. (2.9) may be used for
calculating, d.
Diameter of Eye
The hole in the eye has the same diameter as the pin. This is d. the outside
diameter of the eye is D and its thickness is t as shown in Figure 2.8. The force P
pulls the eye to the right and force equal P is exerted by pin on the inside surface
of the hole. Thus, the section BB is subjected to tensile stress. The area of
section BB (hatched area) is (D d) t. D is the outside diameter of the eye. If
tensile stress produced in the section is t then
P t ( D d ) t

. . . (2.12)

In this equation D and t are unknown.


B
t

Section BB
B

Figure 2.8 : The Eye of Knuckle Joint

But remember the pin is compressed against inside surface of hole and contact
length is t. Hence, the projected area for crushing is dt. If c is crushing stress,
then

P t dt

. . . (2.13)

From this equation t is determined. t is then placed in Eq. (2.12) and D is


determined.
Thickness of Fork
The outside diameter of fork is same as that of eye. The pin hole diameter is also
same. The fork appears same as eye in the elevation as can be seen in Figure 2.9.
But in side view the prongs of fork will appear. Each will have diameter D and
thickness t1. The force P will pull the fork to the left which will be opposed by
crushing force P developed between pin and inside hole surfaces of prongs of
fork. Thus, section BB of the fork will be under tensile stress. Section BB is shown
in Figure 2.10 as side view. The area of tensile stress in
A ( D d ) 2t1

P t ( D d ) 2t1

. . . (2.14)

In this equation D and d are known, hence t1 can be calculated. Comparing


Eqs. (2.12) and (2.14) it can be concluded that
t1

44

t
2

The dimensions of head of pin, collar and taper pin for collar are conveniently
chosen and calculated.

Design of Temporary
Connections

P
P

B
t1

t1

Figure 2.9 : The Fork of Knuckle Joint

Bending of Pin
Pin in the fork and eye tends to act like a beam. Its has three regions of
loading two in the fork and one in the eye. It is normally fitted tight in the
P
eye and slightly loose in the fork. This causes uniform pressure in the
t
P
P
eye but the pressure in the fork varies from zero to
over the length
t
2t1
per unit length. The force on pin is shown in Figure 2.10. For convenience
the pin is shown as loaded beam at (b) in the same figure. The force on
beam is due to eye and fork will provide reaction to the force on beam in
the eye.
P/ t per unit length

P/ 2 t1 per
unit length

t1

Fork

Eye

t1
Fork

(a)
P/ t per unit length

t
t1 / 3

t1 / 3
P/ 2

P/ 2

(b)
Figure 2.10 : Pin Loaded as a Beam in the Fork and the Eye

The maximum bending moment will occur in the middle of the span which
2t
P

is equal to t 1 . The BM at the middle will be due to


at a distance
3
2

t t
of 1 and due to udl over a length of t.
2 3
M max

P
2

2
t t1 P t

2 3 t 8

For circular section beam, bending stress

32M
d

t t 1
32 P 1
8 6 d3

. . . (2.15)

This stress should be less than t for design to be safe. The equation for is
used as a check.

45

Machine Design

Example 2.3
Design a knuckle joint for a tie rod of a circular section to sustain a maximum pull
of 70 kN. The ultimate tensile strength of the rod material is 420 N/mm2. The
ultimate tensile and shearing strength of pin material are respectively 720 N/mm2
and 390 N/mm2. A factor of safety of 5 is to be used. The permissible stresses in
tension and compression are equal.
Solution
Ultimate strength
Factor of safety

First find permissible stress =

Permissible stress in tension for rod, eye and fork


t

420
84 N/mm2
5

Permissible shearing stress in pin


s

390
78 N/mm2
5

Permissible compressive stress in pin


c

720
144 N/mm2
5

Permissible compressive stress in eye and fork


c t 84 N/mm2

P = 70,000 N
Pin Diameter, d
The area of shearing

2
d
4

The pin is in double shear


2
d
4

P 1.75 s

or

70000 1.75 78

or

d2

2
d
4

70000
652.9
107.2

d = 25.6 mm

. . . (2.16)

Thickness of the Eye, t


t is determined by considering crushing. Note that while pin is under
compression from cylindrical surface of hole in the eye, opposite of it is
also true, i.e. the cylindrical surface is under compression against pin. The
surface which has lesser compressive strength is likely to fail. We have
found that permissible compressive stress for pin is 144 N/mm2, the same
for eye is 84 N/mm2. Hence, crushing of eye is to be considered.

P c dt

or

70000 84 25.6 t

t = 32.6 mm

Diameter of Eye, D
See Figure 2.8, the section carries tensile stress.
46

P t ( D d ) t

. . . (2.17)

or

70000 84 ( D 25.6) 32.6

or

D = 51.2 mm

Design of Temporary
Connections

70000
25.6
84 32.6

. . . (2.18)

Diameter of the fork will be 51.2 mm


Thickness of fork will be

32.6
16.3 mm
2

. . . (2.19)

Diameter of the Rod, D1


2
D1 t
4

70000

84 D12
4

D1 = 32.6 mm

. . . (2.20)

Check for bending stress in the pin.


Eq. (2.15),
t t 1
32 P 1
8 6 d3

1
32.6 32.6
32 70000

12 (25.6)3
8

713014
(4.075 2.72)
16777.2

= 289.8 N/mm2
It can be seen that this stress is higher than permissible stress
t 84 N/mm2 . Keeping 84 N/mm2 in Eq. (2.15), we may
calculate d.
i.e.

32.6 32.6 1
84 32 70000

12 d 3
8

d 3 713014 (4.075 2.72)

d = 38.5 mm

1
57023.7
84

. . . (2.21)

This diameter will be safe against shearing of pin. But the outer diameter of
eye and fork found at Eq. (2.19) from Eq. (2.15) will be affected. Hence, we
calculate that diameter again. Using d = 38.5 mm in Eq. (2.15).
70000 ( D 38.5) 84 32.6
70000
38.5
84 32.6

or

D = 64.1 mm

. . . (2.22)

Thus, the dimensions of the joints are :


47

Machine Design

Diameter of pin, d = 38.5 mm. Outside diameter of eye and fork = 64.1 mm.
Thickness of eye, t = 32.6 mm. Thickness of form t1 = 16.3 mm. Diameter
of rod, D1 = 32.6 mm.

SAQ 1
(a)

What is a temporary joint?

(b)

If two rods are joined through a pin, show the section, that carries tensile
stress.

(c)

Show the area of eye of a knuckle joint which is subjected to tensile stress.

(d)

How would you calculate the width of fork in knuckle joint?

(e)

Two mild steel rods are connected in a knuckle joint to carry a tensile load
of 150 kN Design the joint. Use permissible stresses in tension,
t = 77.5 N/mm2, shear, s = 38 N/mm2, compression, c = 150 N/mm2.

2.5 COTTER JOINT


You can imagine cotter to be a flat pin as shown in Figure 2.11(a). Imagine that in
Figure 2.11 it is a flat cotter that passes through a corresponding rectangular hole and
plates are being pulled. If it is difficult for you to imagine then look at Figure 2.11(b).
The force P applied on plates tends to pull two halves of cotter in opposite direction,
causing it to shear along plane of contact of two plates. The upper plate has been
removed in Figure 2.11(c) but the force P with which upper plate pushes the cotter is
shown. The cotter may shear along area in the contact surface as shown at. If the area of
shear is As, then As = b t where b is the width of cotter and t is its thickness. The
difference between the joint in Figure 2.11 and the pin joint in Figure 2.11 can be seen
that plates in Figure 2.11 can turn about pin but in Figure 2.11 plates can not turn. This
turning does not permit pin joint to carry compression but a cotter joint can carry
compression. A cotter can, likewise, replace the pin in Figure 2.12 for joining two rods.
But note that making a rectangular hole is more difficult and costlier than making a
circular hole.

P
b

(a) Cotter

(b) Two Plates Connected by a Cotter


P
P

Area of Shear of Cotter

(c) Top Plate Removed and Force Exerted by it is P

48

Figure 2.11

Cotter

Design of Temporary
Connections

Slot
Collar (D2)

Rod

Slot
Collar (D1)

Rod (d)

Spigot (d1)

Socket

Figure 2.12 : Three Parts of Cotter Joint

We do not make any calculations for joint of Figure 2.12 with a cotter in place of pin. If
you would do, you will find that the diameter of rod turns out large and joint becomes
uneconomical. A better proposition is to make a socket in one end of the rod and insert
the rod in the socket. Both the socket and inserted end of rod will have the slot in one
line through which cotter passes. The cotter is made with a slight taper so that it does not
just pass through the hole but is held in the hole.
A cotter joint for connecting two rods along which tension or compression act is made
with ends of the rod especially made. One rod end carries a spigot (the end to be
inserted) while the other rod end is finished in form of a socket. These ends are shown in
Figure 2.12. The ends are normally made by forging and rectangular hole is also created.
The rectangular hole (slot), the internal surface of socket and external surface of spigot
are finished by machining. The three parts that make a cotter joint are shown in
Figure 2.12. It is not difficult to see that to make the joint spigot is inserted into the
socket. The slots are coincided and cotter passed through the slots. You may note
features of spigot and socket. Collar of large diameter is provided at the mouth of the
socket. The internal diameter of socket (D) is same as external diameter of spigot. The
slot in the socket often passes through the collar and it is the straight edge of the cotter
that makes contact with the collar of the socket. If direction of force is reversed, the
inclined edge of cotter will not be able to make contact with the slot surface. Hence, a
collar is provided on the spigot which contacts the open surface of the mouth of the
socket. Thus, two collars bear against each other and crushing stress between them will
decide the diameter of collar on spigot (D1). The mean width of taper cotter is b which is
not much smaller than larger width as taper is 1 in 48. Parts shown in Figure 2.12 are
assembled in Figure 2.13.
The cotter joint was earlier used in steam engines to connect piston rod with cross-head.
It is still used as connector in a pump rod.
a

1
D2

D1

d d1 D

Figure 2.13 : Sectional Elevation of the Cotter Joint

Failure of Cotter Joint


Like any other machine part designer must become aware of various ways in
which this joint can fail. Remember that identifying a mode of failure will require
the critical area on which failure is likely to occur and the stress which is acting on

49

Machine Design

this area. The weakest area is the smallest area. The area of a section becomes
small if a hole or a slot passes through it. If no hole or slot passes, then whole
sectional area may be considered. For example, in spigot and socket the weakest
area is through the slot. For rod the area of section is the only area to be
considered. The weakness may arise where area of section changes. So the collars
on spigot and socket may be weak. The cotter may shear along the surfaces of
contact, hence, its area along contact surfaces may be weak. The stresses that may
cause failure may be tensile, crushing or shear. We will have to be careful to
examine if force P is pulling on one area to cause tensile stress or pushing on an
area to cause crushing or is parallel to the area to cause shearing. To make matters
easy we identify such modes of failure for cotter joint. Each will be used to
determine some dimension.
(a)

The rod may fail in tension or compression. The area of section is a


circle of diameter, d and shown in Figure 2.14(a). The equation for
force is also written by the side.
P

2
d t
4

. . . (2.23)

(a)
Figure 2.14

(b)

The spigot may fail due to tension or compression. Note, though the
spigot is a cylinder, it has a slot of width t. t is the thickness of the
cotter. So the weakest area of spigot will be through slot.
Figure 2.14(b) shows this area. Take help of Figures 2.12 and 2.13 to
understand how you draw Figure 2.14(b).

P d12 d1 t t
4

d1

(b)

50

Figure 2.14

. . . (2.24)

(c)

Failure of socket under tension or compression. Note from


Figures 2.12 and 2.13 that socket is a hollow cylinder. Its inner
diameter is same as outer diameter, d1 of spigot. The weakest section
is where slot is made.

P ( D 2 d12 ) ( D d1 ) t t
4

Design of Temporary
Connections

. . . (2.25)

d1

(c)
Figure 2.14

(d)

The cotter will fail under shear at two sections which are along
surfaces of contact between the outer surface of spigot and inner
surface of socket. For your understanding these areas have been
marked as 1-1 and 2-2 in Figure 2.13.
P bt (1.75 s )

. . . (2.26)

1.75 s is the permissible shearing stress in double shear if s is same


in single shear.
(e)

Failure of spigot under crushing against cotter or crushing of cotter


against spigot. The area over which crushing occurs is the slot area
shown at (b) of Figure 2.14 and the force on this area is P as shown at
Figure 2.14(d).
P d1 t c

. . . (2.27)

(d)
Figure 2.14

(f)

Failure of collar under compression. The collar on socket is larger


than the spigot collar and they come under crushing during
compression loading of the joint. The annular area on the spigot

51

2
( D1 d12 ) as can be judged from
4
Figure 2.13, and shown in Figure 2.14(e).

Machine Design

collar that is crushed is

2
( D1 d12 ) c
4

. . . (2.28)

This equation may be used to determine D1. For determining length of


the collar, a, we look at another possible way of failure. It is shearing
of collar on cylinder of diameter d1. The surface of this cylinder
(broken line) is shaded in Figure 2.14(e). The cylinder has diameter
d1 (the diameter of spigot) and length a. The area on which collar can
shear is d1 a .
P d1 a s

. . . (2.29)
Dia D1
Dia d1

Rod
P

Spigot Collar of
length a.

Force P uniformly
distributed annular area

(e)
Figure 2.14

(g)

Shearing of socket collar against other. The cotter pushes the collar
over the area (D d1) t as shown in Figure 2.14(c) and also in
Figure 2.14(f). The cotter may cut through the thickness, c of collar if
collar fails in shear. The cotter will face shearing resistance on its two
sides. One side is shown facing the reader in Figure 2.14(f). The other
( D2 d1 )
side is in the back. One of two shaded areas is
c . There are
2
four such areas. Hence, shearing of socket collar against cotter will be
resisted along the area 2 (D2 d1) c.
P 2( D2 d1 ) c s

. . . (2.30)

This equation will help determine c.


P/2

P/2

Collar
dia., D2

Spigot
dia. d1

P/2
C

(f)
Figure 2.14

Similar situation exists at the tail of the spigot where the cotter may
shear tail over a length, e.
52

P 2 d1 e s

. . . (2.31)

In both Eqs. (2.30) and (2.31) 2 can be replaced by 1.75 as it is the


case of double shear.
(h)

Design of Temporary
Connections

The thickness of the end of socket where rod begins is shown as f in


Figure 2.14.
There is a likelihood that if force is compressive the rod may pierce
into the end of the socket. The resistance will be offered by shearing
stress acting on cylindrical surface of diameter d and length f.
P d f s

. . . (2.32)

The use of understanding and Eqs. (2.23) and (2.32) will become
clear through a solved example. Everytime you solve a design
problem you must draw figures to show the area on which stress
(tensile, compressive or shear) is acting. P can be calculated.
It may be advisable to check cotter in bending in the same way as pin in knuckle joint. It
will be shown in solved example.
Example 2.4
Write equations for tensile and crushing failure of the spigot of a cotter joint.
Equating strengths of spigot in tension and crushing against cotter show that
d1

6P
t

where d1 is the diameter of spigot, t is the permissible tensile stress in spigot,


P is the force acting on joint. The permissible compressive stress in spigot, c is
twice t.
If P = 40 kN, ultimate tensile strength = 650 MPa and f.s = 5 find diameter of the
rod and thickness of the cotter.
Solution
See Figure 2.14(b) and use Eq. (2.24) to write the strength of spigot in tension,

P d12 d1 t t
4

Also the strength of spigot against crushing from Eq. (2.27)


P d1 t c

You may note that left hand side of the above two equations are same, but
remember P is a symbol. If we really make both strengths equal, then we create a
co-relationship between any two dimensions. Such design is known as economical
design.
If we wish to solve first equation we cannot because it contains two unknowns
d1 and t. so we use the second equations and find
d1 t

Since

P
P

c 2t

c 2 t

Then substitute for d1 t in first equation to obtain

P
P d12
t
2t
4

or

2
P 3P
d1 P
4
2
2

53

Machine Design

6P
t

d1

Note that t

. . . (2.33)

650
130 MPa or N/mm2
5
6 40000
24.24 mm
130

d1

. . . (2.33)

Thickness of the cotter is found from 2nd equation by putting d1 = 24.24 mm.

40000 24.24 t 2 130

40000
6.3 mm
24.24 260

. . . (2.34)

Example 2.5
Two rods are to be joined in a cotter joint to carry 90 kN of axial force which may
change from tension to compression and vice-versa. The ultimate strengths in
tension, compression and shear respectively are 255 N/mm2, 510 N/mm2 and
130 N/mm2. Choose a factor of safety of 5.
Solution
The permissible stresses in tension, shear and compression are
t

255
51 N/mm2
5

130
26 N/mm2
5

510
102 N/mm2
5

Diameter of Rod
Use Eq. (2.23) with P = 90000 N, t = 51 N/mm2
d2

4P
4 90000

2246.89
t
51

d = 47.4 mm

say

47.5 mm

. . . (2.35)

Spigot Diameter d1 and Thickness of Cotter t and Collar Dimensions


In Eq. (2.27) put c = 102 N/mm2
i.e.

d1 t

P 90000

882.35
c
102

. . . (2.36)

Use this value of d1 t in Eq. (2.24) to obtain

90000 d12 882.35 51


4

2 90000
d1
882.35 2647
4
51

d1

4 2647
58.1 mm

. . . (2.37)

Use the value of d1 in Eq. (2.36) to obtain


t

54

882.35
15.2 mm
58.1

. . . (2.38)

Design of Temporary
Connections

Diameter of Collar of Spigot, D1


Use Eq, (2.28) with c = 102 N/mm2
90000

2
( D1 d12 ) 102
4

4 90000

(58.1) D12 44.99

102

or

D1 = 67.1 mm

. . . (2.39)

Length of Collar, a
a is determined from Eq. (2.29). Also see Figure (2.14(e)).
Use s = 26 N/mm2 and d1 = 58.1 mm.
a

or

P
90000

d1 s 58.1 26

a = 19 mm

. . . (2.40)

Use Eq. (2.32) to obtain the length of tail of spigot


e

or

P
90000

2d1 s 2 58.1 26

l = 29.8 mm

. . . (2.41)

Thus, all dimensions, i.e. d1, D, t and a of spigot are determined.


Socket Rod and Socket Dimension
There is no need to calculate diameter of rod of socket. It is same as
diameter of spigot rod, d = 47.5 mm
The outside diameter of socket D is calculated from Eq. (2.25). Also see
Figure 2.14(c).

P ( D 2 d12 ) ( D d1 ) t t
4

Use d1 = 58.1 mm, t = 15.2 mm.

90000 ( D2 58.12 ) ( D 58.1) 15.2 51


4

or

4 90000

D2 3375.6 19.35 D 1124.42

51

or

D2 19.85 D 4498 0

D 9.925

1
394 17992.3 9.925 67.8
2

D = 77.72 mm

. . . (2.42)

The cotter compresses against the collar of the socket. The area over which
cotter bears (compresses) on cotter is made of two rectangles similar to that
shown in Figure 2.14(c) with outer diameter being D2, the diameter of
collar.

P ( D2 d1 ) t c

90000
58.1 D2
102 15.2

or

D2 = 116.2 mm

. . . (2.43)

55

Machine Design

The length of the collar, c, is found by considering penetration of cotter into


collar of socket as shown in Figure 2.14(f) and expressed in Eq. (2.30)
P 2 ( D2 d1 ) c s

or

90000
(116.2 58.1) c
2 26

c = 29.8 mm

. . . (2.44)

The thickness f of the bottom of hollow of socket is found from Eq. (2.32)
f

P
d s

90000
4.75 26

= 2.32 mm
Thus, all dimensions of socket, i.e. d1, D1, D2, c and f are determined.
Cotter Width, b
The thickness of cotter has been determined. the cotter fails in shear along
two sections, as shown in Figure 2.14(b) and the strength expressed in
Eq. (2.28).

90000 1.75 b 15.2 26

90000
130 mm
1.75 15.2 26

. . . (2.45)

The length of cotter may 1 mm more than the diameter of spigot collar on
either side. Hence, length of cotter = 136 mm. Hence, width of cotter on
top = 130 + 1.3 = 131.1 mm and at bottom 126 1.3 = 124.7 mm.
The bottom of the spigot should not touch the bottom of the hollow of the
socket. A clearance of 10 mm is desired. Thus, the length of the socket from
rod is c + e + f + b.
= 29.8 + 29.8 + 23.2 + 130 + 10
= 222.8 mm

. . . (2.46)

The spigot part of the joint has length


=a+c+b+e
= 19 + 29.8 + 130 + 29.8
= 208.6 mm

. . . (2.47)

It is difficult to imagine if cotter will bend like a beam, although it has


already been assumed to act as beam (Figure 2.14(d)). The force as shown
to act uniformly distributed between 1 and 2 are not exactly correct because
cotter is taper on right hand side. However, we take the distribution as
shown in Figure 2.14(d) and calculate bending stress with assumptions
similar to those made for pin in case of knuckle joint. So draw the beam in
Figure 2.15.
The uniformly distributed force is acting over a length of d1 (the diameter of
spigot). The cotter is supported against inside of collar of diameter D2.
D d1
P
Hence, force
is distributed over length of 1
on two sides of the
2
2
56

cotter. This distribution is assumed as triangular. Therefore, it will act at a


1 D d1
distance of 1
from the point where d1 begins. Hence, maximum
3 2
bending moment occurs at the central section of the cotter, where width = b
and thickness = t.
M max

Design of Temporary
Connections

P D1 d1 d1 P d12

2 6
2 d1 8
P/ d, per unit length

d1

P/2

P/2

D2
D2 d1

D2 d1

Figure 2.15 : Cotter Idealised as Beam

Use D2 = 116.2 mm, d1 = 58.1 mm, P = 90000 N


M max

90000 116.2 58.1 58.1 90000

58.1
2
6
2 58.1 8

= 1743000 653625
= 1089375 N-mm
Bending stress,
M b
1 3
(130)3 15.2
. , I
b t
2.783 106
I 2
12
12

1.1 106
2.78 10

130
25.72 N/mm2
2

This stress is less than permissible tensile stress, 51 N/mm2 hence, cotter is
safe in bending.
Dimensions Calculated (Figure 2.13)
Spigot

Diameter of rod, d = 47.4 mm


Diameter of spigot collar, D1 = 67.1 mm
Width of collar, a = 19 mm
Diameter of spigot, d1 = 58.1 mm
Length of collar, 208.6 mm

Socket

Diameter of socket, D2 = 116.2 mm


Width of collar, c = 29.8 mm
Outside diameter of socket, D = 77.72 mm
Length of socket = 22.8 mm
Inside diameter of socket, d1 = 58.1 mm

Cotter

Width = 130 mm

57

Machine Design

Thickness = 15.2 mm
Length = 136 mm

SAQ 2
(a)

Describe three parts of cotter joint and sketch them separately.

(b)

What materials will be used in making cotter joint?

(c)

To what stresses spigot is subjected? Draw the areas of sections of spigot on


which tensile and compressive stresses act.

(d)

If the permissible compressive stress is 1.75 of the permissible tensile


stress, then by equating tensile strength and crushing strength show
diameter d1 of spigot is given by
d1

(e)

2P
t

A cotter joint is required to carry 30 kN axial force. Following dimension


have been found.
Diameter of spigot, d1 = 34 mm
Diameter of socket collar, D2 = 75 mm
Width of cotter at mid section = 43 mm
Thickness of cotter = 10 mm
Calculate the bending stress in cotter (maximum value).

2.6 SUMMARY
In this unit, you have learnt the calculations of diameter of a bar. Knuckle joint and
cotter joint have been described in this unit. Knuckle joint is practically used to join two
bars being pulled apart. This joint consists tow rods and pin. A cotter joint is used to
connect rigidly two co-axial rods or bars which are subjected to axial tensile or
compressive forces. It is a temporary fastening.

2.7 ANSWERS TO SAQs


SAQ 1
(e)

t = 77.5 N/mm2, c = 150 N/mm2, s = 38 N/mm2, P = 150 103 N


Pin Diameter, d
150 103
d2

58

or

2
d 38
4

4 15 104
0.5 104
38

d = 71 mm

. . . (2.48)

Design of Temporary
Connections

Thickness of Eye, t
150 103 c d t 150 71 t

or

150 103
14.1 mm
150 71

. . . (2.49)

Diameter of Eye, D
150 103 t ( D d ) t 77.5 14.1 ( D 71)

or

150 103
71 208.3 mm
77.5 14.1

. . . (2.50)

Diameter of Fork, D
Same

. . . (2.51)

Thickness of the Fork


t1 = 7.1 mm

. . . (2.52)

Check for Bending Stress


t t 1
b 32 P 1
8 6 d3

32 150 103 14.1 7.1

357911 8
6

4.3 (1.85 1.18)


b 13 N/mm2

. . . (2.53)

This is less than t. Hence, design is safe.


SAQ 2
(d)

Figure 2.14(b) and use Eqs. (2.26) and (2.29)

P d12 d1 t t
4

. . . (2.54)

and

P d1 t c d1 t 1.75 t

. . . (2.55)

d1 t

P
1.75 t

Use this value of d1 t in Eq. (2.54)


P

2
P
d1 t
4
1.75

1.57 P 4
d12
t

(e)

d1

2P
t

If cotter is assumed as beam as shown in Figure 2.15


M max

P D2 d1 d1 P d12

2 6
2 d1 8

Use P = 30000 N, D2 = 75 mm, d1 = 34 mm

59

Machine Design

75 34 34 30000 34
M max 15000

2
8
6
3.57 105 1.275 105

2.3 105 N-mm

1 2
b t
12

Use b = 43 mm, t = 10 mm

1
(4.3)2 10
12
1
b
2

1 (4.3)2 10 2
3081.7 mm3
12
43

M max
2.3 105

Z
3.08 103

b 74.7 N/mm2

60

UNIT 3 RIVETED JOINTS

Riveted Joints

Structure
3.1

Introduction
Objectives

3.2

Head Forming

3.3

Types of Rivets

3.4

Types of Riveted Joints

3.5

Nomenclature

3.6

Modes of Failure of a Riveted Joint

3.7

Efficiency of Riveted Joints

3.8

Calculation of Hole Dia and Pitch

3.9

Riveted Joints in Structures

3.10 Joints for Boilers and Pressure Vessels


3.11 Design Procedure for Longitudinal Butt Joint
3.12 Design Procedure for Circumferential Lap Joint
3.13 Torsional Loading and Eccentric Loading of Riveted Joint
3.14 Summary
3.15 Key Words
3.16 Answers to SAQs

3.1 INTRODUCTION
In engineering practice it is often required that two sheets or plates are joined together
and carry the load in such ways that the joint is loaded. Many times such joints are
required to be leak proof so that gas contained inside is not allowed to escape. A riveted
joint is easily conceived between two plates overlapping at edges, making holes through
thickness of both, passing the stem of rivet through holes and creating the head at the end
of the stem on the other side. A number of rivets may pass through the row of holes,
which are uniformly distributed along the edges of the plate. With such a joint having
been created between two plates, they cannot be pulled apart. If force at each of the free
edges is applied for pulling the plate apart the tensile stress in the plate along the row of
rivet hole and shearing stress in rivets will create resisting force. Such joints have been
used in structures, boilers and ships.
The development of welding technology in 1940s has considerably reduced the riveted
joint applications. Welding is the method of locally melting the metals (sheets or plates
overlapping or butting) with intensive heating along with a filler metal or without it and
allowing to cool them to form a coherent mass, thus creating a joint. Such joints can be
created to make structures, boilers, pressure vessels, etc. and are more conveniently
made in steel. The progress has been made in welding several types of steels but large
structure size may impede the use of automatic techniques and heat treatment which
becomes necessary in some cases. Welded ships were made in large size and large
number during Second World War and failures of many of them spurted research efforts
to make welding a better technology.

Objectives
After studying this unit, you should be able to

describe the types of riveted joint,

calculate the strength of riveted joints,

61

Machine Design

explain how many different ways the riveted joints can fail,

design riveted joints for boilers, structure and under eccentric loads.

3.2 HEAD FORMING


You know that the riveted joint is created by passing the stem of a rivet through holes in
two plates as is shown in Figure 3.1(a). The creation of head by process of upsetting is
shown in Figure 3.1(b). The upsetting of the cylindrical portion of the rivet can be done
cold or hot. When diameter of rivet is 12 mm or less, cold upsetting can be done. For
larger diameters the rivet is first heated to light red and inserted. The head forming
immediately follows. The rivet completely fills the hole in hot process. Yet it must be
understood that due to subsequent cooling the length reduces and diameter decreases.
The reduction of length pulls the heads of rivet against plates and makes the joint
slightly stronger. The reduction of diameter creates clearance between the inside of the
hole and the rivet. Such decrease in length and diameter does not occur in cold worked
rivet.
d1
a
t
t

(a)

(b)

Figure 3.1 : Typical Head Forming of Rivet

3.3 TYPES OF RIVETS


For steel plates the rivets are normally made in low carbon steel. However, the rivets in
copper add to resistance against corrosion and aluminum rivets can be used to reduce the
overall weight of the structure. The low carbon steel is standardized in composition
particularly for boiler applications.
Rivets with counter sunk head as in Figure 3.2(b) and oval counter sunk rivets shown in
Figure 3.2(c) are not as strong as button head rivets. They are used only when
protrotruding rivet heads are objectionable. Pan heads and conical heads, Figures 3.2(d)
and (e) are less frequently used and are difficult to form. Tubular rivets, Figures 3.2(f)
and (g) are special deviation from solid rivet shank. These rivets are used in aircrafts.

(a)
Buton head

(b)
(c)
Counter sunk Oval counter
head
sunk head

(f)

62

Tubular rivets

(e)
(d)
Pan head Conical head

(g)

Figure 3.2 : Different Types of Rivet Heads

3.4 TYPES OF RIVETED JOINTS

Riveted Joints

The classification of riveted joints is based on following :


(a)

According to purpose,

(b)

According to position of plates connected, and

(c)

According to arrangement of rivets.

According to purpose the riveted joints are classified as :


Strong Joints
In these joints strength is the only criterion. Joints in engineering structure such as
beams, trusses and machine frames are strong joints.
Tight Joints
These joints provide strength as well as are leak proof against low pressures.
Joints in reservoirs, containers and tanks fall under this group.
Strong Tight Joints
These are joints applied in boilers and pressure vessels and ensure both strength
and leak proofness.
This classification has no sound basis and is arbitrary. However, it helps understand the
basis of design and manufacturing. The hot working of rivets is one-way of making
intimate contact between plates in the areas of joint. Further, the holes are drilled and
reamed to required tolerances and burrs removed for good contact before rivets are
placed in the holes. The edge of the plate is upset by means of a hammer and a caulking
tool so that edge is strongly pressed against the plate surface to help leak proofing
(Figure 3.3).
Caulking
tool

15-18o

Figure 3.3 : Caulking of Riveted Joint

The riveted joints are classified as (i) lap joint and (ii) butt joint according to position
of plates. In a lap joint the edges of plates are simply laid over each other and riveted.
Figures 3.4(a) and (d) show lap joints. If we pull the plates by application of tensile
forces, they do not fall in the same line and hence cause the rivets and plates to bend.
Plates placed end-to-end and jointed through cover plates form single cover butt joint.
Such joints are shown in Figures 3.4(b) and (e). You can see that pulling plates apart by
colinear tensile forces may still cause bending of rivets. Figures 3.4(c) and (f) show the
butting plates covered by two straps and then riveted. Such joints are called double
cover butt joint. Plate bending and rivet bending are eliminated.
According to arrangement of rivets, the joints are called single riveted, (Figures 3.4(a),
(b) and (c)) It may be noted that in a single riveted lap joint there is only one row of
rivets passing through both plates while in a single riveted butt joint either of single
cover or double cover type one row of rivets will pass through each of the plates.
Similarly as shown in Figures 3.4(d) and (e) when two rows of rivets pass through both
plates of lap joint it is called double riveted lap joint and two rows of rivets pass
through each of butting plates the joint is a double riveted single cover butt joint. A
double riveted double cover butt joint is shown in Figure 3.4(f).

63

Machine Design

t/2

t
d

d
t/2
m

m
(a)

(b)

(c)

t
t
d

Pb

P
m Pb

P2

Pb
Figure 3.4 : Types of Riveted Joints : (a) Single Riveted Lap Joint; (b) Single Riveted-single Cover Butt
Joint; (c) Single Riveted Double Cover Butt Joint; (d) Double Riveted Lap Joint; (e) Double Riveted
Single Cover Butt Joint; and (f) Double Riveted Double Cover Butt Joint

The arrangement of rivets in Figure 3.4(d) can be described that in both the rows the
rivets are opposite to each other while in Figure 3.4(e) the rivets in the adjacent rows are
staggered. The joint in Figure 3.4(d) is said to be chain riveted while that in
Figure 3.4(e) is zig-zag riveted joint. In zig-zag riveting the rivet in one row is placed at
the middle level of the two rivets in the adjacent row.

3.5 NOMENCLATURE
Several dimensions become obviously important in a riveted joint and a design will
consist in calculating many of them. These dimensions and their notations as to be used
in this text are described below.
Pitch
As seen from Figures 3.4(a), (b) and (c) pitch, denoted by p, is the center distance
between two adjacent rivet holes in a row.
Back Pitch
The center distance between two adjacent rows of rivets is defined as back pitch.
It is denoted by pb and is shown in Figures 3.4(d) and (e).
Diagonal Pitch
The smallest distance between centres of two rivet holes in adjacent rows of a
zig-zag riveted joint is called diagonal pitch. Denoted by pd, the diagonal pitch is
shown in Figure 3.4(e).
Margin
64

It is the distance between centre of a rivet hole and nearest edge of the plate. It is
denoted by m as shown in Figures 3.4(b), (c) and (d).

The plates to be jointed are often of the same thickness and their thickness is denoted
by t. However, if the thicknesses are different, the lower one will be denoted by t1. The
thickness of the cover plate (also known as strap) in a butt joint will be denoted as tc.

Riveted Joints

The rivet hole diameter is denoted by d. This diameter is normally large than the
diameter of the rivet shank which is denoted by d1.
A problem of designing of a riveted joint involves determinations of p, pb, pd, m, t, tc and
d, depending upon type of the joint.

3.6 MODES OF FAILURE OF A RIVETED JOINT


A riveted joint may fail in several ways but the failure occurs as soon as failure takes
place in any one mode. Following is the description of modes of failures of a riveted
joint. These modes are described with the help of a single riveted lap joint, which is
subjected to tensile load P. In general the description will be applicable to any other type
of joint. Reference is made in Figure 3.5 in which a single riveted lap joint is shown
loaded.

P
m
m

P
p

Figure 3.5 : Single Riveted Lap Joint

(a)

Tearing of Plate at the Section Weakened by Holes


Figure 3.6 shows this mode of failure. The plate at any other section is
obviously stronger, and hence does not fail. If tensile force P is to cause
tearing, it will occur along weakest section, which carries the row of rivets.
If only one pitch length p is considered; it is weakened by one hole
diameter d. The area that resists the tensile force is

At = (p d) t
If the permissible stress for plate in tension is t, then tensile strength of the
joint or tensile load carrying capacity of the joint
Pt t ( p d ) t

. . . (3.1)

If P is the applied tensile force per pitch length then the joint will not fail if
Pt P

. . . (3.2)

m
p
P

P
p

(p-d)

Figure 3.6 : Tearing of Plate at the Section Weakened by Holes

65

Machine Design

(b)

Shearing of Rivet
Figure 3.7 shows how a rivet can shear. The failure will occur when all the
rivets in a row shear off simultaneously. Considers the strength provided by
the rivet against this mode of failure, one consider number of rivets in a
pitch length which is obviously one. Further, in a lap joint failure due to
shear may occur only along one section of rivet as shown in Figure 3.7(a).
However, in case of double cover butt joint failure may take place along
two sections in the manner shown in Figure 3.7(b). So in case of single
shear th0e area resisting shearing of a rivet,
As

2
d
4

(Since the difference between diameter of hole and diameter of rivet is very
small, diameter of hole is used for diameter of the rivet).

P/2
P

P/2

(a)

(b)

Figure 3.7 : Shearing of Rivet : (a) Single Shear; and (b) Double Shear

If permissible shearing stress in single shear of rivet is s, then the shearing


strength or shearing load carrying capacity of the joint.
Ps s

2
d
4

. . . (3.3)

The failure will not occur if


Ps P

. . . (3.4)

We may also write if n is the number of rivets per pitch length,


Ps n s

2
d
4

. . . (3.5)

If the rivet is in double shear as in Figure 3.7(b) the effective area over
which failure occurs in 2 As. The permissible stress in double shear is
1.75 times that in single shear. Hence in double shear
Ps n 1.75 s

(c)

2
d
4

. . . (3.6)

Crushing of Plate and Rivet


Due to rivet being compressed against the inner surface of the hole, there is
a possibility that either the rivet or the hole surface may be crushed. The
area, which resists this action, is the projected area of hole or rivet on
diametral plane. The area per rivet is (see Figure 3.8).

Ac dt
If permissible crushing or bearing stress of rivet or plate is c the crushing
strength of the joint or load carrying capacity of the joint against crushing
is,
Pc dt c

66

. . . (3.7)

Riveted Joints

P
t

Figure 3.8 : Crushing of Rivet

The failure in this mode will not occur if


Pc P

. . . (3.8)

where P is applied load per pitch length, and there is one rivet per pitch. If
number of rivets is n in a pitch length then right hand side in Eq. (3.7) is
multiplied by n.
(d)

Shearing of Plate Margin near the Rivet Hole


Figure 3.9 shows this mode of failure in which margin can shear along
planes ab and cd. If the length of margin is m, the area resisting this
failure is,
Ams 2 mt

If permissible shearing stress of plate is s then load carrying capacity of the


joint against shearing of the margin is,
Pms 2 mt s

. . . (3.9)

The failure in this case will not occur if


Pms P

. . . (3.10)

where P is the applied load per pitch length.

m
a

P
c

Figure 3.9 : Shearing of Margin

The modes of failure discussed above are primary in nature and in certain
cases they have to be considered uniquely. One such case is when rivets are
arranged in lossenge form or diamond shape. This case will be discussed at
proper stage.
In writing down the above equations for strength of the joint certain
assumptions have been made. It is worthwhile to remember them. Most
importantly it should be remembered that most direct stresses have been
assumed to be induced in rivet and plate which may not be the case.
However, ignorance of actual state of stress and its replacement by most
direct stress is compensated by lowering the permissible values of stresses
t, s and c, i.e. by increasing factor of safety.

67

Machine Design

The assumptions made in calculations of strengths of joint in Eq. (3.1)


through (3.10) are :
(a)

The tensile load is equally distributed over pitch lengths.

(b)

The load is equally distributed over all rivets.

(c)

The bending of rivets does not occur.

(d)

The rivet holes do not produce stress concentration. The plate


at the hole is not weakened due to increase in diameter of the
rivet during second head formation.

(e)

The crushing pressure is uniformly distributed over the


projected area of the rivet.

(f)

Friction between contacting surfaces of plates is neglected.

3.7 EFFICIENCY OF RIVETED JOINTS


If only a pitch length of solid or hole free plate is considered then its load carrying
capacity will be
P1 pt t

. . . (3.11)

P1 will apparently be greater then Pt, Ps, Pc or Pms. The ratio of any of Pt, Ps, Pc or Pms to
P1 is defined as the efficiency of the joint in that particular mode. Ideally Pt, Ps, Pc and
Pms all must be equal, but actually it may not be the case. The efficiency of the joint will
be determined by least of Pt, Ps, Pc, and Pms. Thus efficiency of the joint is,

Least of Pt , Ps , Pc and Pms


Pt t

. . . (3.12)

The ideal that strengths in different modes of failure are equal is not achieved in a design
because the rivet hole diameters and rivet diameters are standardized for technological
convenience. Table 3.1 describes the average and maximum efficiencies of commercial
boiler joints.
Table 3.1 : Efficiencies of Commercial Boiler Joints
Type of Joint

Average Efficiency
%

Maximum Efficiency
%

Lap Joints
Single riveted
Double riveted
Triple riveted

45-60
63-70
72-80

63.3
77.5
86.5

Butt Joints
Single riveted
Double riveted
Triple riveted
Quadruple riveted

55-60
70-83
80-90
85-94

63.3
86.6
95.0
98.1

3.8 CALCULATION OF HOLE DIA AND PITCH


For an ideal joint the rivet should be equally strong against shearing and crushing.
Hence, from Eqs. (3.3) and (3.7), making Ps = Pc
2
d s dt c
4

68

d 1.274

c
t (in single shear)
s

. . . (3.13)

Riveted Joints

If rivet is in double shear,


d 0.637

Generally

c
t
s

. . . (3.14)

s = 60 MPa or N/mm2
c = 130 MPa or N/mm2

giving

d = 2.75 t in single shear

. . . (3.15)

d = 1.37 t in double shear


Also equating right hand sides of Eqs. (3.1) and (3.3),
( p d ) t t

2
d s
4

d2
s d
4t t

or

Substituting

s = 60 MPa
t = 75 MPa
p 0.628

d2
d
t

Using Eq. (3.15) in above equation


p = 2.73 d (in single shear)
p = 1.86 d (in double shear)

. . . (3.16)

Equating right hand sides of Eqs. (3.7) and (3.9)


2mt s dt c

d c
2 s

or

Substituting

c = 130 MPa
s = 60 MPa
m = 1.08 d

. . . (3.17)

There are several practical considerations due to which the design dimensions are
modified. Most important of these is the pressure tightness of the joint, which is mainly
achieved by caulking of the plate edges. The caulking becomes easier with short pitches
and smaller rivets. It also makes it desirable that margin should be 1.5 d but not greater.
The results in this section are indicative of calculation procedure and by no means be
treated as standard formulae. These results are valid only for particular case and
permissible stresses adopted. As a common practice for plate thickness greater than
8 mm the diameter of rivet hole is determined by
d 6 t

. . . (3.18)

This is known as Unwins formula.


It has been pointed out in the last sections that no attempt was made to derive formulae.
The expressions for various load carrying capacities were written by examining the
geometry. Therefore, you must see that in each problem the geometry is understood and
then the expressions for forces are written. In the examples here we would see how we
can approach to design a riveted joint.

69

Machine Design

Example 3.1
Design a double riveted lap joint for MS plates 9.5 mm thick. Calculate the
efficiency of the joint. The permissible stresses are :
t = 90 MPa, s = 75 MPa, c = 150 MPa
Solution
The joint to be designed is shown schematically in Figure 3.10.

pb

Figure 3.10

(a)

Dia. of Rivet Hole d : It is determined by Unwins formula, Eq. (3.18)


d 6 t

or
(b)

d 6 9.5 18.5 mm

. . . (i)

Pitch of the Joint, p : In a double riveted joint there are 4 rivets in a pitch
length. The rivet diameter will be taken as diameter of the hole as difference
between them is small. The rivets can fail in shear or due to crushing. We
will first determine the shearing and crushing strength of a rivet and equate
the smaller of two to the plate tearing strength to determine p.
Shearing strength of one rivet

d s (18.5)2 75 20.16 kN
4
4

. . . (a)

Crushing strength of one rivet


c dt 150 18.5 9.5 26.36 kN

. . . (b)

From (a) and (b) it is seen that the rivet is weaker in shear.
We will equate tearing strength of plate with shearing strength of rivets
in a pitch length. There are two rivets in the pitch length.

70

2
d s
4

t ( p d ) t 2

or

or

p = 65.55 mm say 65.7 mm

d 2 s
(18.5)2 75
d
18.5
2 t t
2 9.5 90

. . . (ii)

The pitch should be such that head forming operation is not hindered. The
practice dictates that p 3 d so that head forming is permitted.
3 d = 55.5 mm, and hence the value of p obtained in (ii) is acceptable.
(c)

The back Pitch pb : It must be between 2.5 d to 3.0 d. For chain riveting the
higher value is preferred for the reason of head forming
pb 3d 3 18.5 55.5 mm

(d)

Riveted Joints

. . . (iii)

Margin, m : m is determined by equating shearing strength of rivet (smaller


of shearing and crushing strengths of rivet). Remember that there are two
rivets per pitch length :

2mt s 2

2
d s
4

d2
(18.5)2

28.3 mm
4 t
4 9.5

. . . (iv)

The minimum acceptable value of m is 1.5 d = 27.5 mm hence


m = 28.3 mm is acceptable.
Thus the design is completed with
d = 18.5 mm, p = 65.7 mm, pb = 55.5 mm, m = 28.3 mm
The diameter is standardized, apparently based on drill size. Normally
fractions like 18.5 mm may not be accepted. The rivet diameters are less
than hole diameter by 1 mm. Yet the head formation process increases rivet
diameter. We are not yet describing standard hole and rivet diameters.
We postpone it for the time being.
(e)

Efficiency of Joint
Tensile strength of plate without holes, per pitch length
P1 t pt 90 65.7 9.5 56.2 kN

. . . (c)

Shearing strength of rivets in a pitch length


Ps 2 s

d 2 75 (18.5)2 40.3 kN
4
4

. . . (d)

Crushing strength of rivets in a pitch length


Pc 2 c d t 2 150 18.5 9.5 52.7 kN

. . . (e)

The tearing strength of plate with one hole in a pitch length


Pt t ( p d ) t 90 (65.7 18.5) 9.5 40.36 kN

. . . (f)

The shearing strength of margin


Pms 2 s mt 2 75 28.3 9.5 40.32 kN

. . . (g)

Out of all Ps, Pc, Pt and Pms, the lowest is Pm

Ps 40.3

71.7%
P1 56.2

. . . (h)

The design values are


d = 18.5 mm, p = 65.7 mm, pb = 55.5 mm, m = 28.3 mm, = 71.7%

71

Machine Design

3.9 RIVETED JOINTS IN STRUCTURES


For trusses, bridges or girders, etc. where the width of the plates is known in advance
lozenge type or diamond shaped joints are preferred. These joints have uniform or equal
strengths in all modes of failure. Marginal adjustments in calculated dimensions may
slightly reduce or increase strength in any particular mode. The joints are usually of
double cover butt type with rivets so arranged that there is only one rivet in the
outermost row and their number increases towards inner row. (See Figure 3.11). Since
the plate width is known in advance, its strength in tension can be determined. Thus the
load carrying capacity of the joint
P t (b d ) t
1

21.5

500kN

400kN
85.9 mm

322.25 mm

32.25 mm

53.75

53.75

53.75

53.75

53.75

53.75

53.75

32.25 mm

Figure 3.11

Here b is the plate width, t is thickness and d, the diameter of the hole. t is the
permissible tensile stress. The rivet diameter is determined by Unwins relationship. The
determination of number of rivets is the main task for the required force that is carried by
the member. Of course we would first determine whether the strength of rivet is less in
shear or in crushing which would depend upon relative magnitudes of s and c as well
as on the cross sectional area of the rivet and its projected area. The next step would be
to arrange the rivets in diamond shape as shown in Figure 3.11. Then we decide upon the
pitch, back pitch and margin.
The joint is designed not to tear in the outer most row, i.e. row 1 in Figure 3.11. Then the
row 2, which is the next inner row and weakened by two rivet holes, is subjected to
tearing. Note that this tearing is possible if rivet in the outermost row (or row 1) shears
or is crushed at the same time. That means this type of joint has one more possible mode
of failure which comprises tearing along an inner row accompanied by shearing or
crushing of rivets in all outer rows. The strength in this mode is denoted by Pts or Ptc and
one more suffix may be used to denote the row in which tearing will occur.
2
d
4

Thus

Pts 2 t (b 2d ) t s

or

Ptc 2 t (b 2d ) t c dt

And

Pts3 t (b 3d ) t 3s

or

Ptc3 t (b 3d ) t 3c dt

2
d
4

Example 3.2

72

Two steel plates 12.5 mm thick are required to carry a tensile load of 500 kN in a
double cover butt joint. Calculate the width of the plate if it is not to be weakened
by more than one rivet hole. Design the butt joint completely and show
dimensions on a sketch. The ultimate values of strengths are as follow :

Plates in tension

600 MPa

Rivet in Shear

490 MPa

Plate and rivet in crushing

920 MPa

Riveted Joints

Use a factor of safety of 4.5.


Also use following standards :
Rivet Holes
From 13.5 mm to 25.5 mm in steps of 2 mm and from 27 mm to 42 mm in
steps of 3 mm.
Rivets
1.5 mm less than rivet hole diameter upto 24 mm in steps of 2 mm and
2 mm less than rivet hole diameter from 25 mm to 39 mm in steps of 3 mm.
Solution
The permissible stresses are :
t

600
133 N/mm2
4.5

490
109 N/mm2
4.5

920
204 N/mm2
4.5

Diameter of the Rivet Hole : Use Unwins Formula


d 6 t 6 12.5 21.21 mm

From standards
d = 21.5 mm
Hence the rivet dia, d1 = 20 mm

. . . (i)

Compare shear strength and crushing strength of one rivet.


Ps s

d1 109 (20)2 = 34 kN
4
4

Pc c d1 t 204 20 12.5 = 51 kN

Thus rivet in crushing is stronger than in shear.


Width of the Plate
Consider the tensile strength of the weakest section of the plate, i.e. the row
which is weakened by one rivet hole.
P t (b d ) t

or

500 103 = 133 (b 21.5) 12.5

. . . (ii)

b 300.75 21.5 322.25 mm

Number of Rivets
The rivets are in double shear in double cover butt joint. The strength in
double shear is 1.75 the strength in single shear. Also we assume that the
head formation does not change rivet diameter.

73

Machine Design

Ps 1.75 s

2
d1 1.75 34 = 59.5 kN
4

n Ps P i.e. n 59.5 500 kN

Also crushing strength


n Pc P i.e. n 51 500

or

500
9.8 say 10
51

. . . (iii)

We will see that 10 rivets are better arranged.


Rivet Arrangement
Ten rivet can be easily arranged in four rows : 1, 2, 3 and 4 can be arranged
in rows 1, 2, 3, and 4 which will be a good arrangement. We should ensure
that 10 rivets should not weaken the plate. The arrangement is shown in
Figure 3.11. The pitch of the rivets is determined by geometric
consideration. The innermost or 4th row should have a margin of
1.5 d = 1.5 21.5 = 32.25 mm from the edge.
Thus, the distance between centers of two extreme rivets in row 4
b 2 m 322.25 2 32.25 = 257.75 mm

Obviously this distance is equal to 3 p


p

257.75
85.9 mm
3

. . . (iv)

The distance between the rows, pb should be between 2.5 to 3 d


pb 2.5 21.5 = 53.75 mm

. . . (v)

Cover Plate
Theoretically the cover plate may have thickness of t/2 but practically the
thickness tc = 0.62 t
tc 0.625 12.5 = 7.8 mm

. . . (vi)

The cover plates are given the diamond shape so as to accommodate all the
rivets (See Figure 3.11).
Efficiency
Shearing strength of 10 rivets is double shear
2
d1 s
4

Ps 1.75 10
1.75 10

(20)2 109 17.5 34 595 kN


4

. . . (a)

Crushing strength of 10 rivets


Pc 10 c d1 t 10 51 510 kN

. . . (b)

Tearing strength of plate along weakest section, i.e. along row 1


Pt1 (b d ) t t

74

133 (322.25 21.5) 12.5 500 kN

. . . (c)

Strength for tearing along second row and crushing of one rivet in row 1

Riveted Joints

Ptc 2 133 (322.25 2 21.5) 12.5 c d1 t

133 279.25 12.5 204 20 12.5

464.25 51 kN

or

Ptc 2 515.5 kN

. . . (d)

Strength for tearing along third row and crushing of 3 rivets in row 1 and 2
Ptc3 133 (322.25 3 21.5) 12.5 c 3d1 t
133 257.75 12.5 3 51 103 428.5 3 51 kN . . . (e)

or

Ptc3 581.5 kN

Strength for tearing along fourth row and crushing of rivets in other rows
Ptc 4 133 (322.25 4 21.5) 12.5 6 51 103

or

Ptc 4 699 kN

. . . (f)

(e) and (f) were expected to be more than (d), yet the calculations have been
made for the sake of completeness.
Strength of solid plate without hole
Pt t bt 133 322.25 12.5 535.74 kN

. . . (g)

The least of all strengths from (a) through (f) is Pt1 = 500 kN

Pt1
500
100
100
Pt
535.74

93.3%

. . . (vii)

SAQ 1
(a)

Describe types of riveted joints.

(b)

What are different modes of failure of riveted joints?

(c)

Define pitch, back pitch, margin and diagonal pitch.

(d)

Define efficiency of a riveted joint and write expression for various


strengths.

(e)

A structural joint of double cover butt type has an efficiency of 85% with
the condition that the lowest strength is in tearing mode of 10.5 mm thick
plate in outer most row which is weakened by one hole. Find the tensile
force carried by the joint and the number of rivets if permissible stresses for
plate and rivet are; t = 105 N/mm2, s = 75 N/mm2 and c = 150 N/mm2.
Design the joint completely and show d, d1, p, pb and m on the sketch. Also
give dimension of cover plate.

75

Machine Design

3.10 JOINTS FOR BOILERS AND PRESSURE


VESSELS
The boiler and pressure vessels are cylindrical in shape and withstand internal pressure.
The vessels are required to be leak proof. The maintenance of pressure and safety of
boilers have prompted several standards. ASME boiler code, Board of Trade (BOT)
Rules, Indian Boiler Regulations (IBR) and ISI standards are available for design of
boilers and pressure vessels.
The cylindrical pressure vessel is identified by two dimensions, viz., the length and
diameter. The cylinders are made from plates and whole length may not be obtained
from single sheet hence cylindrical sections are obtained by bending sheets and joining
edges by riveted joint. The sections are then joined together by another riveted joint
along circumference. Thus there are two types of joint longitudinal and circumferential
(see Figure 3.12). The longitudinal joint will bear hoop stress (h) and circumferential
joint bears longitudinal stress (l). Since h = 2l, the longitudinal joint will have to be
two times as strong as circumferential joint. Therefore, longitudinal joints are always
made butt joints whereas the circumferential joints are mode as lap joints.
Location
Longitudinal
Joint

Location
Circumferential
Joint
Length section

Figure 3.12 : Longitudinal and Circumferential Location for Riveted Joints

The steps followed in design of boiler riveted joints are same as followed in any joint
design. They are mentioned here as described in IBR.

3.11 DESIGN PROCEDURE FOR LONGITUDINAL


BUTT JOINT
Determine Thickness of Boiler Shell (t)
The efficiency of the joint is chosen from Table 3.1 and for pressure r, inner
diameter D and permissible tensile stress t, the thickness is calculated from,
t

r D
1 mm
2t

. . . (3.19)

The diameter and thickness will further guide in respect of rivet arrangement.
Table 3.2 can be used for this purpose.
Table 3.2 : Suggested Rivet Arrangement

76

Dia. of Shell (mm)

Thickness of Shell (mm)

Rivet Arrangement

610-1830

6-12.5

Double riveted

915-2130

8-25.0

Triple riveted

1525-2740

9.5-31.75

Quadruple riveted

Riveted Joints

Determine Rivet Hole Diameter (d) and Rivet Diameter (d1)


Unwins formula, giving d 6 t is used if t 8 mm. In very rare case if
t < 8 mm, d is calculated by equating shearing strength and crushing strength of
rivet. The diameter of hole must be rounded off to the nearest standard value with
the help of Table 3.3, and the diameter of rivet also established.
Table 3.3 : Standard Rivet Hole and Rivet Diameters
d
(mm)

13

15

17

19

21

23

25

28.5

31.5

34.5

37.5

41

44

d1
(mm)

12

14

16

18

20

22

24

27

30

33

36

39

42

Determine Pitch of the Rivet (p)


The minimum pitch is 2 d to accommodate the dies to form head. The pitch is
calculated by equating tearing strength with shearing or crushing strength of
rivet(s). However, the pitch should not exceed certain value for leak proof nature
of the joint. The maximum value of p is given by following equation.
pmax C t 41.28 mm

. . . (3.20)

The value of C is given in Table 3.4. If by calculation p turns out to be less than
pmax, it will be acceptable.
Table 3.4 : The Value of Constant for Maximum Pitch
Number of
Rivets

Lap Joint

Butt Joint
Single Cover

Butt Joint
Double Cover

1.31

1.53

1.75

2.62

3.06

3.50

3.47

4.05

4.63

4.17

5.52

6.00

Determine Back Pitch (pb)


(a)

For both lap and butt joints having equal number of rivets in different rows
pb is given as

and

pb = (0.33 p + 0.67 d) mm for zig-zag

. . . (3.21)

pb = 2 d

. . . (3.22)

(b)

For joints in which number of rivets in outer rows is half of that in inner
rows which are chain riveted pb should be greater of the values calculated
from Eqs. (3.21) and (3.22). However, the value of pb for rows having full
number of rivets will not be less than 2 d.

(c)

The third case arises for joints having inner rows zig-zag riveted and outer
rows having half the number of rivets as inner rows where
pb (0.2 p 1.15 d ) mm

. . . (3.23)

The back pitch for zig-zag riveted inner rows will be


pb (0.165 p 0.67 d ) mm

. . . (3.24)

The pitch p in above equations is the one in outer row, i.e. away from
butting edges.
77

Machine Design

Determine Thickness of the Cover Plate (tc)


(a)

For single butt cover with chain riveting


tc 1.125 t

(b)

. . . (3.25)

For single cover with pitch in the outer row being twice that in the inner
row
pd
tc 1.125
t
p 2d

(c)

For double cover of equal width and chain riveting


tc 0.625 t

(d)

. . . (3.27)

For double cover of equal width with pitch in the outer row being twice that
in the inner row
pd
tc
t
p 2d

(e)

. . . (3.26)

. . . (3.28)

For double cover of unequal width (wider cover on the inside)


tc1 0.75 t

(for cover on the inside)

tc 2 0.625 t

(for cover on the outside)

Determine margin, m = 1.5 d

. . . (3.29)

. . . (3.30)

Determine Caulking Pitch, pt


The pitch of rivets in the row nearest to the edge must be as small as possible to
avoid leakage. This pitch is called caulking pitch and helps edges to be caulked
effectively (see Figure 3.3). A rough rule is that this pitch should not be greater
than Stc. The caulking pitch is, however, calculated from following :
3

pc d 13.8

tc4
(12

1
)4

. . . (3.31)

This is an empirical relation in which r the pressure is used in N/mm2.

3.12 DESIGN PROCEDURE FOR


CIRCUMFERENTIAL LAP JOINT
The thickness of the shell, the diameter of the rivet hole, back pitch and margin are
calculated in the same way as for longitudinal butt joint. The other quantities are
presented under.
Number of Rivets (n)
The rivets are in single shear and all of them are subjected to shear when pressure,
r acting on the circular section of the cylindrical space tends to separate two
length sections of the vessel.

78

n s

d1 r D 2
4
4

r D 2
s d12

. . . (3.32)

Riveted Joints

Pitch, (p)
Efficiency of the lap joint can be taken as half of the efficiency of the
longitudinal butt joint. The efficiency of the lap joint is calculated on the basis of
tearing load capacity of the joint which turns out to be least of strengths in all
modes.
pd
p

Thus,

. . . (3.33)

Number of Rows, (N)


The rivets are placed all along the circumferences of the shell. Hence number of
rivets in one row.
n1

(D t)
p

Hence total number of rivets in N n1 = n.


N

np
(D t)

. . . (3.34)

Whether the joint will be single riveted or multiple riveted will be decided by N.
If N turns out to be less than 1, a single riveted joint will serve the purpose. In any
case the pitch will have to satisfy the condition of caulking.
Overlap of Shell Length Section (l)
l ( N 1) pb 2m

. . . (3.35)

Example 3.3
Inner diameter of a boiler is 1500 mm and the steam pressure is 2 N/mm2. Use a
proper joint along the length and design it completely. Use following permissible
values of stress.
Tension t = 90 MPa
Shear s = 75 MPa
Crushing c = 150 MPa
Solution
Thickness of the Shell (t)
From Table 3.2 for shell diameter of 1500 mm a double riveted butt joint is
recommended and from Table 3.1 we can use an efficiency of 80%.
From Eq. (3.17).
t

or

r D
1 mm
2t
2 1500
1 20.8 1
2 90 0.8

t 21.8 mm say 22 mm

Rivet Hole Diameter (d)


From Eq. (3.18)
d 6 t 6 22 28.14 mm

The nearest standard value of hole diameter is 28.5 mm, and corresponding
rivet diameter is 27 mm. d1 = 27 mm.

79

Machine Design

Pitch (p)
In one pitch length there are two rivets which may shear or crush
(Figure 3.13).
The shear strength of one rivet in double shear
Ps1 1.75

d1 s 1.75 (27) 2 75 75.2 kN


4
4

The crushing strength of one rivet


Pc1 t d1 c 22 27 150 89.1 kN

P=105
13.75 mm thick
22 mm thick

pb m

57

Figure 3.13

The rivet is weaker in shearing. Equating tearing strength of plate with


shearing strength of 2 rivets in a pitch length,
( p d ) t t 2 1.75
p 3.5

2
d1 s
4

75
(27)2
28.5 104.4 mm
4
22 90

Check for maximum value of pitch from Eq. (3.20). From Table 3.4 for
2 rivets in a pitch length for a double cover double riveted joint the value of
C = 3.5.

pmax C t 41.28 3.5 22 41.28 118.28 mm

The min. pitch is 2 d. Hence calculated value of p = 104.4 mm is


acceptable. We may choose p = 105 mm.
Back Pitch (pb)
pb 0.33 p 0.67 d 0.33 105 0.67 28.5
pb 34.65 19.1 53.75 mm

However, pb should not be less than 2 d or 57 mm


pb = 57 mm.
Thickness of Cover Plate (tc)
The joint has two equal cover plates. From Eq. (3.27)
tc 0.625 t 13.75 mm

Margin (m)
m 1.5 d 42.75 mm

80

Riveted Joints

Efficiency ()
The shearing strength of the joint
Ps 2 75.2 150.4 kN

The crushing Strength of the joint


Pc 2 89.1 178.2 kN

The tearing strength of plate with holes


Pt ( p d ) t t (105 28.5) 22 90
Pt 151.47 kN

or

The tensile strength of plate without holes


P pt t 105 22 90 208 kN

Ps is least of Ps, Pc and Pt

Ps 150.4

72.3%
P
208

Example 3.4
Design a circumferential lap joint for boiler shell of Example 3.3.
Solution
The thickness of the shell t and rivet hole diameter d (and rivet diameter d1) will
remain same, i.e.
t = 22 mm, d = 28.5 mm, d1 = 27 mm
Number of rivets (n) : Use Eq. (2.32)
n

r D 2
s d12

2
75

r is pressure in boiler
2

1500

82.3 say 83
27

Pitch (p)
These rivets (83 in number) have to be placed along circumference and
preferably in two rows for better leak proofing. However, arranging rivets in
two rows will alter the number of rivets. We will first determine pitch from
efficiency, making efficiency in plate tearing mode as the least. At best it is
required that efficiency of the circumferential joint should be 50% of the
efficiency of the longitudinal joint. So in the case

or

0.8
0.4
2

pd
0.4 so that p 0.4 p d
p

d
28.5

47.5 mm
0.6 0.6

Number of Rows (N)


Apparently n number of rivets are to be distributed with p = 47.5 mm
around a circumference of (D + t)

81

Machine Design

np
83 47.5

0.82
(1500 28.5) 1528.5

To make N = 2 and keeping p = 47.5 mm, n will increase,


2

n 47.5
giving n 202
1528.5

Now choosing n = 202 will alter p


p

2 1528.5
47.54 mm
202

With number of rivets 2 per pitch length the constant C from Table 3.4 is
3.06 and using Eq. (3.20)
pmax Ct 41.28 3.06 22 41.28 108.6 mm

But for convenience of caulking p should be at least 2 d.

p = 2 28.5 = 57 mm

This will further alter number of rivets as


n

2 1528.8
168.5 say 168
57

So that

2 1528.8.5
57.16 mm
168

n = 168, p = 57.16 mm, N = 2

p d 57.16 28.5

50.44%
p
57.16

22mm
thick

28.5
42.75

142.5

57

57.16
Figure 3.14

Back Pitch (Pb)


The rivets can be arranged in zig-zag rows so that
pb = 2 d = 57 mm
Margin (m) : m = 1.5 d = 1.5 28.5 = 42.75 mm
Overlap (l) : l = (N 1) pb + 2 m
or

l = 57.0 + 2 42.75 = 142.5 mm.

The joint is shown in Figure 3.14.


82

Riveted Joints

3.13 TORSIONAL LOADING AND ECCENTRIC


LOADING OF RIVETED JOINT
Plate A is riveted to structural element B. A torque is applied to the Plate A. The plate
will rotate, of course by slight elastic amount, about some point as o in Figure 3.15(a). It
is not wrong to assume that any straight line such as oc which passes through the centre
of a rivet, remains straight before and after application of the torque. Then the
deformation, hence strain and so the average shearing stress across the section of the
rivet will be proportional to the distance between o and the centre of the rivet. Since the
average shearing stress is equal to the shearing force divided by area of cross section of
the rivet, the shearing force on the rivet will be proportional to the distance between o
and centre of the rivet. The direction of this force will be perpendicular to the joining
line.
50

B
C

F1
F2

30
O

20

2
1

30

T
P

(a)

(b)
Figure 3.15

The forces F1, F2, etc. on individual rivets are shown in Figure 3.15(b). For satisfying
condition of equilibrium, components of forces in vertical direction should sum up to
zero. If the forces F1, F2, etc. make angles 1, 2, etc. respectively with y-axis, then
F1 cos 1 F2 cos 2 . . . Fn cos n 0
n

or

Fi cos i 0

i 1

But

Fi i Ai

And since

i ri or i k ri

Fi k ri Ai

ri

. . . (i)

ri Ai

. . . (ii)

Here k is a constant, i = shearing stress in ith rivet whose area of cross section is Ai and
its centre is at a distance ri from o.
Use (ii) and (i) to obtain
n

k ri Ai cos i 0
1

See from Figure 2.15(b) that ri cos i = x

k x Ai 0
1

Which is same as k x At 0 .
Where x is the x-coordinate of centroid of all the rivet and sum of their areas of cross
sections is At. And since neither k nor At is zero therefore, x 0 . If then we consider
sum of forces along x-axis we would arrive at the result y 0 . This means that o is the
point coinciding with the centroid of the rivet area system.

83

Machine Design

Example 3.5
In Figure 3.15(a) the distances between columns and rows of rivets are shown.
Each rivet is 5 mm in diameter and force P = 1 kN. Calculate the maximum
shearing stress in rivet.
Solution
The five rivets have been numbered as 1, 2, . . . , 5. Take centre of rivet 3 as
origin and x and y axes along 32 and 35 respectively. Areas of all rivets is

A (5)2 19.64 mm2. If x and y are the coordinates of the centroid, then
4
50 A 50 A 5 A x

Hence,

x 20 mm

Also,

50 A 20 A 30 A 5 A y , y 20 mm

Hence centroid is on the horizontal line through rivet 4. We can calculate various
distances of rivet centres from centroid.
r1 102 302 10 10
r2 202 302 10 13
r3 202 202 10 8
r4

202 0 10 2

r5 302 202 10 13

Now F1 = k r1 = k 10 10 , moment of F1 about O,


M1 k r12 1000 k

F2 k r2 k 10 13, M 2 1300 k
F1
r
10
1
F2
r2
13

or

F1

10
F2
13

We can find each of F1, F2, F3, F4 and F5 in terms of k or we can find each force in
terms of F2. We may like to choose F2 because F2 is grater than all other forces
because r2 is larger than all other r.
8
2
F2 , F4
F2 , F5 F2
13
13

F3

Taking moments of all forces about O and equating with the applied moment of
50 P = 50000 N mm.
2
10
8
F2 10 8
F2 10 2 F2 10 13 5 104
F2 10 10 F2 10 13
13
13
13

100 F2
13

F2

130 F2
13

80 F2
13

40 F2
13

130 F2
13

5 104

500 13
375.6 N
4.8

Maximum shearing stress

F2
375.6

19.12 N/mm2
A
19.64

This stress will be in rivets 2 and 5.


84

Riveted Joints

Example 3.6
Figure 3.16(a) shows a plate riveted on to a vertical column with three rivets
placed at three corners of an equilateral triangle of size 75 mm. A load of 37 kN
acts on the plate at a distance of 125 mm from vertical line through a rivet as
shown in Figure 3.16(a). If the permissible stress in rivet is 60 N/mm2 calculate the
diameter of the rivet.
The rivets are at corners of equilateral triangle hence their centroid will be at the
centroid of the triangle, C. Each of rivets 1, 2 and 3 will be at the same distance
from C.
r1 r2 r3

2
3

752 37.52

2
5625 1406.25 43.3 mm
3

The force of 37 kN is acting at a distance of 125 mm from vertical line through the
centroid as shown in Figure 3.16(b). Apply two forces, each equal to 37 kN but in
opposite direction at C. Combining two 37 kN forces as shown in the figure, we
are left with a couple 37 kN by 125 mm and a vertical force 37 kN acting
downward. This force will be distributed equally on three rivets, i.e. if F = 37 kN,
F
then
will be a direct shearing force acting downward on each rivet as shown in
3
Figure 3.16(b). The moment of the couple, T = 37 125 = 4625 kN mm will be
balanced by moments of forces F1, F2 and F3 about C. F1, F2 and F3 are
perpendicular to r1, r2 and r3, respectively and each is proportional to its r.
incidentally due to symmetry of equilateral triangle ri, r2 and r3 are mutually equal
and hence F1 = F2 = F3.
Equate moments

F1 r1 F2 r2 F3 r3 T
3F1 r1 T

75mm

2
F/3

F2

75mm

37
F1
C
3
F/3

1
F/3

F3

75

37

125

125

37kN

37000N

(a)

(b)
Figure 3.16

Or by putting r1 = 43.3 mm
F1

4625
35.6 kN
3 43.3

F 37

12.33 kN at an
3
3
angle of 150o. All three rivets with their forces are shown in Figure 3.17. The net
F
force on each rivet will be the resultant of
and F1, F2 or F3. Apparently the
3
largest magnitude will occur where the angle between two forces is minimum.
The angle is minimum = 30o in rivet 3.

The rivet 1 is loaded by two forces F1 = 33.6 kN and

The resultant of two forces R1 and R2 with angle between them being is given by
R R12 R22 2R1 R2 cos

85

Machine Design

Resultant force on rivet 3


2

F
F
R F32 2
F3 cos
3
3
1

2
30

F1

F2

F/3

F/3

F/3

30

F3
Figure 3.17

Put F = 37 kN, F3 = 35.6 kN, = 30o


R (12.33)2 (35.6)2 2 12.33 (35.6) cos 30
152 1267.36 761 2180.36 46.7 kN

With as permissible shearing stress and d as diameter of rivet


R

Use

2
d
4

R 46.7 103 N, 60 N/mm2


d2

4 46.7
103 991
60

d = 31.5 mm

We had assumed that all rivets have same diameter, that is how we had determined
centriod. Hence all three rivets will have the diameter of 31.5 mm each.

SAQ 2
(a)

What types of joint are used in a boiler along its length and circumference
and why?

(b)

Describe the quantities that are required to calculate for riveted joints and
show them on sketch.

(c)

What do you understand by eccentric loading of a riveted joint? Explain


with the help of sketch.

(d)

A boiler shell 1 m in diameter is subjected to steam pressure of 2.7 MPa


gauge. It is proposed to have a longitudinal double riveted double cover butt
joint with number of rivets twice in the inner row. Assume following
ultimate strength values.
Ultimate tensile strength u = 352 MPa
Ultimate shearing strength u = 256 MPa
Ultimate crushing strength uc = 512 MPa
For plate and rivet materials.
With machine riveting assume a factor of safety of 4. Sketch the joint and
show dimensions. Calculate the efficiency of the joint.

86

(e)

Determine diameter of rivets if permissible shearing stress is 65 N/mm2.


Assume all rivets have same diameter in Figures 3.18 and 3.19.

80 mm
80 mm
80 mm
80 mm

Riveted Joints

40 kN

250 mm

150 mm

75 mm

75 mm

Figure 3.18

P = 12 kN

100 mm
100 mm

Figure 3.19

3.14 SUMMARY
Riveting has been used for more than two centuries. It was predominant in structure
building where sheets and sections were joined. The bridges, boilers, ships and
aeroplanes were commonly made with riveted joints.
The joints of the types while offering as convenient technology presented a problem of
increased weight because for removing metal for making a rivet hole, at least three times
of the removed mass was added in form of screw. Further, for joints like butt joints
added more weight in form of covers. The process is not emendable to automation.
The structural problems may still be solved through this method since the alternative
welding technology is many situations require heat treatment for stress reliving which
may not become possible.
However, the process on the whole is on the decline.

3.15 KEY WORDS


Pitch

: The distance between the centre of adjacent rivets


holes.

Strong Tight Joints

: Joints which are strong and leak proof.

Caulking

: Process of pressing rivet edges against the plates


and edges of plates against other plate to ensure
leak proofness.

Lap Joints

: Two plates lapping over the edges and riveted.

87

Machine Design

Butt Joint

: Two plates buttering along the edges, covered


with straps and riveted.

Failure Modes

: The riveted joint may fail due to fail of plate or


rivet. Each failure is due to a particular stress.
Combination of stress and part defines the mode.

Efficiency

: The ratio of least load carrying capacity to the


strength of solid plate.

3.16 ANSWERS TO SAQs


SAQ 1
(e)

Follow the method of Example 3.11, Section 3.11 and determine


d = 19.5 mm, d1 = 18 mm
Width of plate = 130 mm
Number of rivets = 5
Cover plate thickness = 6.6 mm
Shearing strength of 5 rivets in double shear
Ps 5 1.75

(18)2 75 167 kN
4

Crushing strength of 5 rivets


Pc 5 18 10.5 150 141.75 kN

Tearing strength of plate along weakest section


Pt1 (130 19.5) 10.5 105 121.8 kN

Tearing in second row and crushing in outer most row, strength


Ptc 2 (130 2 19.5) 10.5

105
141.75

128.7 kN
1000
5

The strength of tearing in the third row will be still higher.


Strength of solid plate
Pt t bt 105 10.5 143.325 kN

121.8
85%
143.325

The pitch is determined from margin, m = 1.5 d = 29.25 mm


p b 2m 130 58.50 71.5 mm
pb 2.5d 2.5 19.5 48.75 mm

The arrangement of 5 rivets is 1, 2, 2 in rows as shown in Figure 3.20.


29.25

29.25
48.75

48.75

19.5
40.5

71.5

29.25

88

Figure Fig.
3.20 6.29

48.75

48.75

Riveted Joints

SAQ 2
(d)

Follow the procedure as in Example 3.1, Sections 3.13 and obtain


t = 88 MPa, s = 64 MPa, c = 128 MPa
t = 21.45 mm say 22 mm
d = 28.142 mm chose standard d = 28.5 and d1 = 27.0 mm.
p = 139.2 mm from equating tensile strength with shearing strength of
rivets in a pitch length. Check for maximum pitch
pb = 65.03 mm, greater of 0.33 p + 0.67 d and 2 d
tc 0.625 t

pd
18.52 say 18.5 mm
p 2d

m 1.5 d 42.75 mm

= 79.5%. The least strength is in shearing of rivets. The joint is shown in


Figure 3.21.

69.6 mm

139.2 mm

Boiler shell
plate
Outside Cover
Boiler shell
plate

18.5 mm
22 mm
18.5 mm

Inside Cover
42.75 65.03 42.75 42.75

65.03 42.75

Figure 3.21

(f)

Follow the method of Examples 3.1 and 3.2 of Section 3.15. The CG of
rivets group is the middle one. Rmax = 160 mm.
40
kN/mm2 acting horicontally to left.
A
The moment 40 250 = 10,000 kN mm will cause secondary shearing stress
2 k R2 160 k .

The primary shearing stress 1

There are two forces on two extreme rivets and two others on middle two
Equating moments
(2k R22 2k R12 ) A 10,000 kNmm, R1 80 mm, R2 160 mm
k (1602 802 ) A 5000

5000
0.15625

32000 A
A

0.15625 160 25

kN/mm2
A
5A

Resultant stress 1 2

5 40
kN/mm2
A

89

Machine Design

1
80
40 kN
80

Figure 3.22

45 103
65
A

A 692 mm2

2
d
4

d = 29.7 mm
(g)

Follow the same procedure as in SAQ 5.


The primary shear force acts at CG, which is obviously at the centre of rivet
group r1, r3 and r2 r4 are equal. With F = k r
F1 r1 F2 r2 F3 r3 F4 r4 12 103 (150 75) 27 105 Nmm
2k (r12 r22 ) 2k [(75)2 (100)2 ] 27 105

1250k 27 105 k 2160

F1 2160 75 162 kN

12
3 kN
4

At rivet 1 shearing force 162 3 165 kN


F4 2160 100 216 kN

A rivet 4, shearing force F42 F 2 2162 32 216.02 kN


At rivet 2 and 4 the shearing force is maximum.
A

2 216.02 3
d
10 3323.4
4
65

d = 65.1 mm.

1
3

90

Figure 3.23

UNIT 4 WELDED JOINTS

Welded Joints

Structure
4.1

Introduction
Objectives

4.2

Welded Connections

4.3

Types of Welding Joints, Strength

4.4

T-Joint

4.5

Unsymmetrical Section Loaded Axially

4.6

Eccentrically Loaded Welded Joint

4.7

Summary

4.8

Key Words

4.9

Answers to SAQs

4.1 INTRODUCTION
The problem of connecting plates was first solved through riveted connections but the
development that occurred during World War-II saw the welded joints replace riveted
joints in most applications. The ship building industry was perhaps in the fore front and
large ships in excess of 10,000 in number were build with welded structures welding
technology, indeed provided several advantages. The ease of processing and weight
reduction were the identifiable advantages in the beginning. The automation and variety
of welding processes have now become the most obvious advantages the technological
developments have included several steels and even non-ferrous metals in the lists of
weldable materials.

Objectives
After studying this unit, you should be able to

describe types of welded joints,

understand strength of weldments,

describe modes of failure of welded joint, and

design welded joints under different load conditions including eccentric


loading.

4.2 WELDED CONNECTIONS


Welding is a process of joining two or more pieces of metals. The process is of course
adopted to obtain specific shapes and sizes to perform specific function. In the process of
welding the temperature of metal to be jointed is raised to a level so that the metal
becomes plastic or fluid. When metal is just plastic then pieces to be welded are pressed
together to make the joint. When metal is melted to fluid state another metal is filled in
the region of the joint and allowed to cool to solidify.
Connections between metal plates, angles, pipes, and other structural elements are
frequently made by welding. Fusion welds are made by melting portions of the materials
to be joined with an electric arc, a gas flame, or with thermit. In fusion welds, additional
welding material is usually added to the melted metal to fill the space between the two
parts to be jointed or to form a fillet. A gas shields is provided when welding certain
metals to prevent rapid oxidation of the molten metal. A good welded joint will usually
develop the full strength of the material being joined unless the high temperature
necessary for the process changes the properties of the materials.

91

Machine Design

Metals may also be joined by resistance welding in which a small area or spot is heated
under high localized pressure. The material is not melted with this type of welding.
Other joining methods for metals include brazing and soldering, in which the joining
metal is melted but the parts to be connected are not melted. Such connections are
usually much weaker than the materials being connected. Fusion welding is the most
effective method when high strength is an important factor, and it will be discussed more
in detail.
At present time welding has become a powerful technology and almost all joining of
steels is done by welding. Welding has replaced riveting, particularly in the
manufacturing of boilers and ships, and in many cases is being preferred in construction
of structure. Some of the advantages of welding over riveting are as follows :
(a)

The plates and sections to be joined are not weakend as happens in case of
riveting. For riveting drilling or punching removes the metal from working
sections thus making them weaker. The net weight of metal making the joint
is less in case of welded joints. The weight added due to filling of metal is
much less than the weight added by way of riveting. The butt welded joints
do not require any cover keeping the weight low.

(b)

The riveted joints require a great deal of labour in marking and making
holes. There is no possibility of making the riveting process automated
whereas welding has become fully automatic particularly when long seams,
such as in boiler are to be produced.

(c)

Tight and leak proof joints are ensured by welding.

(d)

Welding is a noiseless operation whereas riveting can never be noiseless

(e)

Curved parts are easily joined by welding

However, following difficulties in producing good welded joints must be kept in mind.
Some of these may become disadvantage of welding unless special care is taken.

92

(a)

The parts to be joined have to be prepared carefully along the seam and
arranged to have sufficient clearance so that filler metal can easily be filled.

(b)

Since metal is heated to a very high temperature (to melting point in most
cases) there exists a strong possibility of metallurgical changes taking place
in parent metals, particularly in the close vicinity of the joint. These
changes may deteriorate the mechanical properties. The loss of ductility is a
major problem.

(c)

Since the metal to be joined is held by clamping, residual stresses develop


in the region of weld. These residual stresses are often tensile in nature and
greatly affect the behaviour of metal under fatigue loading.

(d)

The quality of weld is highly dependedent upon the welder if automated


process is not used.

(e)

The residual stresses may be removed and metallurgical changes reversed


by heat treatment (annealing and normalising). But very large structures are
difficult to heat.

(f)

Stress concentration is produced where filler metal joins with the parent
metal. Care must be taken in post welding clearing and grinding of joint to
eliminate such stress concentration.

(g)

The welded joints are particularly found to lose their ductility at low
temperature. Combination of possible existence of defects, stress
concentration and loss of ductility has been the reason of various structural
failure in ships, reservoirs, pressure vessels and bridge structure.

The designer has to keep above points in mind while designing welded joins.
Recommendation about treatment, grinding welds and inspection for defects must be
thoroughly incorporated in design. Further, in non-automated processes the welder
should be made to undergo rigorous skill tests before he is put on a job.

Welded Joints

4.3 TYPES OF WELDED JOINTS, STRENGTH


Two types of welding joints are clearly recognized viz. joints between two plates that
overlap and joints between two plates that butt with each other. Figure 4.1(a) shows a
fillet joint and Figures 4.1(b) and (c) show example of butt joints. Four types of fillet
joints commonly used are illustrated in Figure 4.2.
It may be of interest to note that if a weld is analyzed elastically the shearing stress
distribution in the weld turns out to be as shown in Figure 4.3(a). The stress is much
higher at ends but quickly reduces to constant minimum. But in actual practice the ends
of the weld deform plastically making distribution almost uniform. This is true if weld is
ductile which is normally true. Thus, in the design of a welded joint it is reasonable to
assume uniform distribution of shearing stress. However, the fillet welds are designed on
the assumption that failure will occur by shearing the minimum section of the weld.
This minimum section is called the throat of the weld and is shown as section AB in
Figure 4.3(b). This is true in case of both parallel and transverse welds as shown in
Figure 4.2 and is supported by experiments.

(a) Fillet Weld

(b) Butt Joint Double


Vee Groove Weld

(c) Butt Joint in Pipe


Single Vee Groove Weld

Figure 4.1 : Welded Joints

(a) Single Fillet Joint (Transverse)

(c) Parallel Fillet Joint

(b) Double Fillet Joint (Transverse)

l2

l1

(d) Compound Fillet Joint

Figure 4.2 : Types of Fillet Welded Joints

Although it is desirable to make fillet weld slightly concave, yet a reinforced weld
obtained from welding is ground to obtain a triangular section with two sides equal to
the thickness of plates jointed. Therefore, the width of the section AB in Figure 4.3(b)
will be 0.707 t and area over which shearing will occur, for a length l, will be 0.707 t l
and force of resistance will be 0.707 t l as shown in Figure 4.3(c). Here s is the
permissible shearing stress. The permissible shearing stress is chosen as 50% of
permissible tensile stress of parents metal for manual welding. In case of automated
process the permissible shearing stress in the weld is assumed as 70% of permissible
tensile stress of parent metal. If the load on the joints varies between Pmin and Pmax, the
permissible stress is multiplied by a factor , where

1 1 Pmin

4 3 Pmax
3

. . . (4.1)
93

Machine Design

Thus for a load P acting on a fillet welded joint of length l, is


P 0.707 t l s

. . . (4.2)

min

max

(a)
0.707t

p
A

B
h

A
0
.
7
0
7
lt
s

(b)

(c)
Figure 4.3

This equation will be used to calculate the design dimension l


l

P
t s
0.707

. . . (4.3)

This length is increased by 12.5 mm to take care of starting of weld in each segment.

4.4 T-JOINT
It is a case of fillet weld but a plate is welded at right angle to another. The joint may be
subject a tension, P or bending due to P acting parallel to weld, as can be seen in
Figure 4.4. Two loads are shown in this figure for convenience but they will be analysed
separately.

t
t

P
l

Figure 4.4 : A T-Joint under Axial and Eccentric Load

Axial Tension
It is a case of fillet weld. The leg of the weld is equal to thickness of the plate, t
and the cross-section of fillet is an isosceles triangle. Thus the depth of the throat
of the weld is 0.7 t as in last section. The length of the weld is l and hence the
areas to resist shearing failure
A 0.7 t l 2

94

P 1.4 t l s

where s is the permissible shearing stress in the weld.

. . . (4.4)

Welded Joints

Eccentric Load
Figure 4.4 shows an eccentric load P with an eccentricity of e which is measured
as distance between line of action P and the line joining the centers of gravity of
triangular sections of fillet welds on two sides. The load P will have two actions
on the fillet, viz. :
(a)

induce shearing along the throat plane, and

(b)

causes bending of throat plane of the weld.

The shearing stress due to P acting as a shearing force will be induced on the area
A 0.7 t l 2
P 1.4 t l

. . . (4.5)

Fore calculating bending stress, one has to consider modulus of the section of the
throat plane. This section has a width of 0.7 t and depth equal to l. There are two
such sections. Though both these sections are not perpendicular to the axis of the
joint this fact is disregarded and modulus of section is calculated as if these
sections were perpendicular to the axis.
Calling modulus of section, Z
Z 2

1
0.7 t l 2
6

Bending moment M = P . e
Bending stress

M
6 Pe

Z 1.4 t l 2

. . . (4.6)

The value of bending stress occurs at top of the fillet at point A in Figure 4.4.
At these points the shearing stress is given by Eq. (4.5). The maximum shearing
stress can be found by using the formula,
2

x y
2
max
xy
2

Here x , xy and y 0 (Eqs. (4.5) and (4.6))


2

3P . e
P

1.4 t l
1.41t l

max

or

max

P
1.4 t l

3e
1
l

. . . (4.7)

max should be equal to permissible shearing stress s for design purposes which
will be taken as 50% of permissible tensile stress in parent material for manual
welding and 70% of permissible tensile stress in parent material for automatic
welding.

4.5 UNSYMMETRICAL SECTION LOADED


AXIALLY
Figure 4.5 presents an angle section welded to a plate. If a tensile force P is applied so as
to pass through the centre of gravity of the section then the length of the fillet nearer to
CG (lb) will take greater proportion of the force P than the length of fillet weld which is
away from CG. The lengths la and lb are to be so proportioned that the forces carried by
two fillet welds exert no moment about centre of gravity axis. The two fillets are at

95

Machine Design

distances of a and b respectively from CG (see Figure 4.5) and if S is the force per unit
length carried in the welds, then
S la a S lb b 0

or

la b

lb a

or

la lb
l
ab

lb
lb
a
al
bl
and la
ab
ab

lb

where

. . . (4.8)

l la lb .
la

a
G

P
b

lb

Figure 4.5 : An Unsymmetrical Section Welded to Plate and Welded along Line of CG

4.6 ECCENTRICALLY LOADED WELDED JOINT


We have earlier talked of a T-joint under axial load. Another example of eccentric
loading is shown in Figure 4.6. In this case the force applied at a distance from the CG of
the weld group is in the plane of the fillet weld. This will cause the torsional effect in the
same way as was considered for riveted joint in Figure 3.16. Two equal and apposite
forces are assumed at CG, each being equal to P will result in a couple and a single force
downward at G. This force P at G will cause what we term as primary shearing stress
denoted by 1
P
0.707 t (2a b)

. . . (4.9)

t1
R
P

A
R
G

Figure 4.6 : Welded Joint Loaded Eccentrically

Here t is the thickness of the plate. The torque P . e will cause secondary shearing stress
2 at the weld end, A, which will be greater than shearing stress at any other point in the
weld, A is at a distance of R from CG. It can be shown that
2

96

P.e.R
JG

. . . (4.10)

Here, JG is the polar moment of inertia of fillet weld about G. AS shown in Figure 4.6,
1 and 2 at A act at an angle Q. Since nature of both these stresses is same, they can be
added vectorially. The resultant stress A is
A 12 22 21 2 cos

Welded Joints

. . . (4.11)

To solve a problem of eccentric loading such as one depicted in Figure 4.6 one would
require computing the value of JG. It is generally required to find the size of the weld, t,
whereas the width involved in calculation of JG is that of throat of the weld, say h. It is
also known that h = 0.707 t so that the section of weld is an isosceles triangle. In a given
problem the length a is given which is the distance from point A to the inner side of the
vertical fillet while distance b will be equal to the width of the plate or distance between
inner edges of horizontal fillets. To compute JG following procedure is adopted.
(a)

Determine the position of CG of weld group with reference to inside edges


of vertical and horizontal fillets.

(b)

Determine second moment of inertia Ixx1 and Iyy1, respectively first with
respect to horizontal and vertical axes passing through their CG and then
transferring them to horizontal and vertical axes passing through CG of
weld group.

(c)

Similarly for vertical fillet determine and transfer Ixx2 and IYY2 to the
horizontal and vertical axes passing through CG of weld group.

(d)

By adding the four moments of inertia obtain JG, i.e.


1 I yy
1 I xx
2 I yy
2
JG I xx

where quantities on right hand side refer to horizontal and vertical axes
through CG of weld group.
One important point if considered during calculation will greatly help achieve solution.
1 , I yy
1 , etc. will contain terms like ah3 and ha3, etc. Since h is
The expressions for I xx
much smaller than a or b, its cube can be neglected. This will greatly reduce the efforts
on computations. Finally h may be replaced by 0.707 t. The procedure will be illustrated
in one of the following solved problems. Table 4.1 gives formulae for JG in different
weld groups.
Table 4.1 : Polar Moment of Inertia of Weld Groups about Axis
Passing through Centre of Gravity
Weld Group

JG

Weld Group

ha 3
a

hb (3a 2 b 2 )

12
G

b
G

JG

p
b

hb3
12

h ( a b )3

ha (3b 2 a 2 )

p
b

8a3 6ab 2 b3

12

ha 4
2a b

G
e

97

Machine Design

Example 4.1
A steel plate strip of 150 mm width and 10 mm thickness is welded by a
compound fillet weld to another plate. The strip is required to carry an axial load
P such that P is equal to tensile load capacity of the strip with a factor of safety of
2.5 on ultimate tensile strength of strip. Calculate the length of the fillet weld and
show on diagram. Ultimate tensile strength of strip material is 380 MPa. Find fillet
P
length if Pmin
and Pmax P .
2
Solution
This is the type of the joint shown in Figure 4.2(d). The permissible tensile stress
380
in strip material is
152 MPa . Hence permissible shearing stress in the
2.5
weld, with the assumption of manual welding,
s

1
152 76 MPa
2

The axial load on the joint as shown in Figure 4.7


P (150 10) t 1500 152 228000 N

Also

P 228000 0.707 10 (2l1 l2 ) 76

150

228000 N

10 mm
150

Figure 4.7

Apparently the vertical weld length, l2 = 150 mm

l1

228000
150

137.16 mm
2 0.07 76
2

Correct l1 by adding 12.5 mm, l1 = 137.16 + 12.5 = 149.66 say 150 mm.
When P varies between Pmin

P
and Pmax = P, the factor
2

1
1
1
6

4 1 1 8 1 7
4 1 Pmin
.

3 3 2
6
3 3 Pmax

l1

6
76 65.143 N/mm2
7

228000
75 12.5 185 mm
2 0.07 65.143

Example 4.2

98

A bracket is welded to its support as shown in Figure 4.8. All welds are fillet
welds of equal thickness. Determine the fillet size if the permissible stress in the
weld is 80 N/mm2.

Welded Joints

Solution
The welded joint of Figure 4.8 is eccentrically loaded. The weld will be subjected
to two types of shearing stress. The direct primary shearing stress 1 due to
shearing force acting through CG. The shearing force is 25 kN, through CG of
weld group. The secondary shearing stress 2 due to torque P.e acting about CG.
60 mm

25 kN

50 mm
A

T2
T1
x
B

150 mm 3
O

C
2
16.7 mm

13.33

Figure 4.8

The primary shearing stress,


1

P
0.707 t (2a b)

Use a = 60 mm and b = 150 mm, t = ?, P = 25000 N


1

25000
131

MPa
0.707 (120 150) t
t

. . . (i)

Position of CG
The weld group is made up of three fillet weld, 1, 2, and 3 which are
regarded as rectangles of width h and lengths respectively 60 mm, 60 mm
and 150 mm. With o (middle of vertical fillet of height 150 mm) ox and oy
are drawn horizontal and vertical axes. Areas of fillets 1, 2 and 3 are
denoted by A1, A2 and A3 so that
A1 = 60 t, A2 = 60 t, A3 = 150 t mm2
Since the weld group is symmetrical about horizontal axis, CG will be on ox
axis. Its distance from oy is x . Then

i.e.

A1 (30) A2 (30) A3 (0)


A1 A2 A3

60 h 30 60 h 30 2 60 30

60 h 60 h 150 h
270

= 13.33 mm
Remember h = 0.707 t.
Polar Moment of Inertia of Weld Group about CG
Ixx and Iyy denote second moments of inertia of plane rectangles about
horizontal and vertical axes passing through CG of respective rectangles.
and I yy denote moments of inertia about horizontal and vertical axes
I xx
passing through CG of weld group, G. The suffixes 1, 2 and 3 will be used
to distinguish between areas as 1, 2 and 3. It may also be noted that since h
is much smaller than and also not known at the initial stage, it may be
neglected in comparison with transfer distances 13.33 mm and 75 mm, etc.
I xx1

60 h3
5h3
12

99

Machine Design

I xx 2

60 h3
5h3
12

I xx3

h (150)3
281.25 103 h
12

1 5h3 60h (75)2 5h3 337.5 103 h


I xx
2 5h3 60h (75)2 5h3 337.5 103 h
I xx
3 I xx3 281.25 103 h
I xx

I yy1

h (60)3
18 103 h
12

I yy 2

h (60)3
18 103 h
12

I yy 3

150 (h)3
12.5 h3
12

I yy1 18 103 h 60h (16.7)2 34.7 103 h


I yy 2 18 103 h 60h (16.7)2 34.7 103 h
I yy3 12.5 h3 120 h (13.33)2 12.5 h3 21.32 103 h

The polar moment of inertia of the weld group about CG.


1 I xx
2 I xx
3 I yy
1 I yy
2 I yy
3
JG I xx
5 h3 337.5 103 h 5h3 337.5 103 h 281.25 103 h
34.7 103 h 34.7 103 h 12.5 h3 21.32 103 h

(22.5 h3 1047 103 h) mm4

Since h is a small quantity, contribution of its cubes, h3, may be neglected.


Hence to the first approximation,
JG 1047 103 h mm4

. . . (iii)

The secondary shearing stress at any point on the fillet at a distance of R


from G is given as

P . eR
JG

This stress will act perpendicular to R. Obviously its value will be higher if
R is higher. R at A and C is greatest. From triangle ABG.
RA ( AB 2 BG 2 )
(752 46.72 ) 88.5 mm

e 50 BG 50 46.7 96.7 mm

Using equation for and calling its value at A as 2


2

25000 96.7 88.35

cos

100

1047 10 h
3

BG
46.7

0.53
RA
88.35

204
288.5
MPa
MPa . . . (iv)
h
t

Since 1 and 2 are of same type they can be added vectorially to obtain
resultant stress.
A

Welded Joints

12 22 21 2 cos

1
(131)2 (288.5)2 2 131 288.5 0.53
t

1
374.8
17161 832.5 40067
MPa
t
t

The stress A should not exceed 80 MPa, the permissible value

374.8
80
t

374.8
4.685 say 5.0 mm
80

SAQ 1
(a)

What is a welded joint? Compare welded joint with riveted joint.

(b)

Describe types of welded joint.

(c)

Give examples of eccentrically loaded welded joints. How are they


analysed?

(d)

Sketch a T-joint and chow how it can be loaded. What stresses will be
induced in the weld?

(e)

An L 200 150 20 steel angle is to be welded to a flat plate with long side
of the angle against the plate (see Figure 3.24). Determine the minimum
length la and lb that will cause the angle to carry maximum allowable axial
load. The allowable tensile stress for the material in the angle is 124 MPa
and allowable shearing stress in the weld material is 94 MPa. Each leg of
the weld is 15 mm.

(f)

A shaft of 20 mm diameter is welded coaxially with another shaft of much


larger diameter. The shaft is to transmit a torque, which is just safe.
Calculate the width of the peripheral fillet weld between two shafts. The
permissible shearing stress for the shaft material is 70 MPa and that for
weld is 50 MPa.

4.7 SUMMARY
The joining of plates is an important requirement of manufacturing industry. Several
examples of plate joining are found in structure parts, ships, airplanes, boilers and
pressure vessels. Welding is the process in which parent metal is almost melted by heat
from electric or gas source and filler metal is filled in the gap by melting. The joint is
then allowed to cool to develop strength, which is almost equal to that of parent metals.
In riveting holes are drilled or punched and a rivet with head on one side of the shank is
passed through two coaxial holes in two plates. A head is created on the other side to
keep plates perfectly connected.

101

Machine Design

The welding is much more developed now and can be automated to enhance production
rate and maintain quality. Both welded joints and riveted joints are loaded and tensile
forces as well as eccentric loads, which do not pass through CG. The eccentric loads
may act in the same plane as the joint in which case they tend to rotate the joint about an
axis through CG and perpendicular to the plane of the joint. This produces shearing
stress in the joint. The eccentric load may also act in a plane, which is parallel to the
plane of the joint in which case they tend to bend the joint about an axis passing through
CG in the plane of the joint. This produces bending stress in the joint.

4.8 KEY WORDS


Pitch

: Pitch is the distance between the centres of


adjacent rivets measured on the gauge line.

Eccentric Loading

: Whenever the line of application of the load does


not pass through the CG of the weld, the loading is
known as eccentric loading.

Hot-riveting

: In hot-riveting, the rivet with a single head is


heated to a plastic state (900-1000oC) and the
shank of the rivet is inserted into the hole in the
members to be fastened together.

Lap Joint

: In lap joint one plate overlaps the other and the


rivets pass through both the plates.

Butt Joint

: In butt joint, the plates are kept in alignment and a


butt strap or cover plate is placed over the joint.

4.9 ANSWERS TO SAQs


SAQ 3
(d)

Refer to Figure 4.5.


Call vertical side of the angle as 1 and horizontal side as 2.
A1 200 20 4000 mm2 , A2 (150 20) 20 2600 mm2
b

A1 100 A2 10 4000 100 2600 10

64.55 mm
A1 A2
4000 2600

a 200 64.55 135.45 mm , a and b define position of G.

Assume that uniform stress is induced in the weld. Then force in the top
weld Fa la h .
A force in the bottom weld Fb lb h , h = throat size of the weld.
Taking moments about an axis through G, and perpendicular to plane of
paper.
Fa a Fb b
la h 135.45 lb h 64.55

la
0.477
lb

Area of cross section of angle section, A = A1 + A2 = 6600 mm2


102

The permissible stress in the angle section 124 MPa.

The maximum load carried by angle section 6600 124 818400 N

Welded Joints

This load has to be carried by welds

818400 (la lb ) h s
h 0.707 t 0.707 15 10.605 mm, s 94 MPa

818400 (la lb ) 10.605 94

la lb 821

Use

la 0.477 lb
1.477 lb 821 or lb 566 mm, la 265.14 mm

Add

12.5 mm
la 277.6 mm, lb 568.5 mm

rd
Weld

d
r

20 mm
Mt

(a)

(b)
Figure 4.9

The torque that the shaft can carry safely


Mt

d s
(20)3 70 109956 Nmm
16
16

The weld has to carry the same torque.


The weld becomes a ring whose inside diameter is diameter of shaft and
width is equal to the leg of the weld. The throat is h, which is effective
width of the ring.
If an element is considered to subtend an angle d at the centre then the
length of the element is r d , where r = rad of the ring at the periphery of
the shaft.
The shearing force in the element if stress is induced in the ring
dF hr d

The moment about central axis due to dF


dM t d F r h r 2 d
2

Mt

h r2 d

50 N/mm2 , r

20
10 mm, M t 109956 Nmm
2

109956 h 50 100 2

h = 3.5 mm = 0.707 t

t = 4.95 say 5 mm, width of the fillet weld.


103

UNIT 5 DESIGN OF SCREWS, FASTENERS


AND POWER SCREWS

Design of Screws,
Fasteners and Power
Screws

Structure
5.1

Introduction
Objectives

5.2

Geometry of Thread

5.3

Mechanics of Screw and Nut Pair

5.4

Power Screw Mechanics

5.5

Application of Power Screw

5.6

Standard Threads

5.7

Design of Screw and Nut

5.8

Threaded Fastener

5.9

Failure of Bolts and Screws

5.10 Permissible Stresses in Bolts


5.11 Summary
5.12 Key Words
5.13 Answers to SAQs

5.1 INTRODUCTION
Screws are used for power transmission or transmission of force. A screw is a cylinder
on whose surface helical projection is created in form of thread. The thread will have
specified width and depth, which bear some ratio with the diameter of the cylinder. The
screw rotates in a nut, which has corresponding helical groove on the internal surface.
Thus a nut and a screw make a connected pair in which one remains stationary while
other rotates and translates axially. The helical surface of the screw thread makes surface
contact with the helical groove surface of the nut. If an axial force acts on, say screw
moving inside stationary nut, the point of application of the force will move as the screw
advances in axial direction. This will result in work being done and hence power being
transmitted. Both types one in which screw rotates and advances in a stationary nut or
one in which screw rotates between fixed support and nut is free to move axially are
used in practice. In the latter case the force acting on nut will move as nut translates.
However, the friction between the surfaces of contact will require some power to be
overcome. Hence the power delivered by the screw-nut pair will be less than the power
supplied.
The contact surfaces of screw thread and nut groove are made perpendicular to the
outside and inside cylindrical surfaces. They are sometimes given a small inclination.
Such provision keeps coefficient of friction to a reasonable low level. The coefficient of
friction may be further reduced by lubrication. However, by creating considerably
inclined surfaces in nut and screw the effective coefficient of friction is increased. Such
screw thread joint will make advancing of threaded part difficult. This combination will
be used as fastening device.

Objectives
After studying this unit, you should be able to

describe geometry of screw and nut,

define mechanics of screw and nut,

105

Machine Design

determine forces on screw and nut threads,

calculate dimensions of screw and nut for transmission of force, and

find the force on screw fastener and load transmitted to parts jointed by
fasteners.

5.2 GEOMETRY OF THREAD


Look at Figures 5.1(a) and (b) and you will get a fair idea how would a screw and a nut
appear. The screw will pass into nut by rotating either of them. For understanding how a
helical thread can be formed on a cylinder you can take a plane sheet of paper and draw
an inclined line on it. Then roll the paper to form a cylinder by bringing two opposite
edges of the paper together. The line which you drew will appear like a helix on the
surface of the cylinder. A line drawn as AC, inclined at angle with horizontal line AA1,
will be wrapped on the cylinder to AA, looking like a helix. AA1, becomes the
circumference of the cylinder and A coincides with C. In Figure 5.2, you can see two
parallel lines AC and AC drawn inclined at to horizontal and then paper wrapped to
form a cylinder and thus two threads are formed on cylinder. p is the vertical distance
between A and C or between C and C. If the paper is wrapped such that the lines drawn
are on the inside surface, you can get the idea of internal thread.
d
P/2

d1

Do

p/2

(a) A Screw

(b) A Nut

Figure 5.1 : Screw and Nut with Helical Surfaces Cut on Outside and Inside
Surfaces of Cylinders, respectively
C

C
C

C
P

A
d

Figure 5.2 : Formation of a Helix on the Cylindrical Surface

106

The distance A1C which is equal to AA and AC is called the pitch of the screw. Pitch is
apparently the distance between two corresponding points on two consecutive threads.
The angle between the base of the triangle and hypotenuse becomes the angle of helix.
Obviously,

p d tan

or

tan

Design of Screws,
Fasteners and Power
Screws

p
d

. . . (5.1)

If the helix on the outside surface ascends from right to left the thread is left hand. Such
a threaded screw will have to be turned counter clockwise to engage the mating nut. On
the other hand a right hand screw will be turned clockwise and its helix will appear to
ascend from left to right. The thread shown in Figure 5.2 is left hand. If a plane figure,
say a triangle or trapeziums placed in contact with the outer surface of the base cylinder
on which the helical line was created and then is made to rotate round the cylinder along
the helix then the helical surfaces will be formed on the base cylinder giving rise to
thread as can be seen in Figure 5.3. If the generating plane section is a square, a square
thread is created. The thread depicted in Figure 5.1(a) is a square thread. The Vee thread
is created by a triangular section while trapezoidal thread has a trapezium section. This
thread is also known as the Acme thread. Buttress thread has a triangular section but one
side of the triangle is perpendicular to the axis. The square, the Acme and the buttress
threads are used for power transmission, as they are more efficient than the Vee thread.
The square thread is most efficient but difficult to produce and hence becomes costly.
The adjustment for wear in square thread is very difficult but can be easily achieved in
the Acme threads, by splitting the nut along the axis. The Acme threads thus can be used
as power transmission element when power is to be transmitted in both the directions.

Bose cylinder
Helix created
in Figure 5.2

Thread
Generating
rectangle

Figure 5.3 : Generating a Square Section Thread on Cylindrical Surface

There is little or no backlash in the Acme threads which are commonly used as feed and
lead screws of machine tools. The buttress thread having one side flat and other sloping
combines the advantage of square thread and Acme thread. The flat side provides the
efficiency of power transmission while the inclined side provides the ease of adjustment.
However, these advantages become possible only when the power is transmitted in one
direction. Vee threads for their lower efficiency for power transmission are used as
fasteners. Due to sides being inclined the effective coefficient of friction between the
screw and the nut increases. Figure 5.4 shows Vee or triangular, the Acme and the
buttress threads with leading nomenclature.
The major diameter is the largest diameter of the screw thread denoted by d for external
thread and by D for internal thread. Minor diameter (d1 or D1) is the smallest diameter of
the screw. Some times more than one thread may be cut on the screw. These multiple
threads may be easily seen at the end of the screw where more than one thread will
appear to start. Multiple start threads give the advantage that screw can move through a
longer distance in the nut when given one rotation as compared to the screw with a
single thread or start. The distance moved by a screw along its axis when given one
rotation is called the lead. Apparently
lead = number of starts pitch

. . . (5.2)

107

Thread
angle

Machine Design

Crest
Root

45o
d

dm
d1
45o

P
Vee Thread

(a) Vee Thread

0.37

0.5p+
0.25mm
d1

dm

(b) Acme Thread


P/2

45 o

0.245P
P

0.503P

dm

d
1

0.89P

0.139P

(C) Buttress thread

(c) Buttress Thread


Figure 5.4

The V-threads are standardized by several organizations wherein nominal major


diameter, pitch and pitch diameters are described. According to IS : 1362-1962 a screw
thread (VEE type) is designated by letter M followed by nominal major diameter. An
M 1.6 thread has nominal major diameter of 1.6 mm. IS : 4694-1968 describes basic
dimensions of square threads.

5.3 MECHANICS OF SCREW AND NUT PAIR


It was mentioned earlier that the motion between nut and screw is like a body moving on
an inclined plane. Figures 5.5(a) and (b) will explain this motion. The body of weight W
is pushed up the inclined plane by a force P which acts upon the body horizontally. This
inclined plane is bent round a cylinder in Figure 5.5(b) and aome body is being pushed
up the plane while force P remains horizontal but also tangential to circular path of the
body. This illustrates how the motion of the nut on the thread is similar to motion of a
body on an inclined plane. The weight of the body on the inclined plane is replaced by
weight carried by the nut in axial direction. The force P is applied by the help of a
wrench and W may be the reaction developed between surfaces of contact.
108

Design of Screws,
Fasteners and Power
Screws

P
F

(a) Inclined Plane

Base
cylinder
r
Thread

(b) Inclined Plane Wrapped Round a Base Cylinder to Form a Thread


Figure 5.5

This is illustrated in Figures 5.6(a) and (b). Imagine that a lever is pivoted on the axis of
the cylinder and pushes the body of weight W up the incline of helically wrapped plane
on the cylinder. The lever touches the body at a radius r while a force P1 is applied on
the lever at an arm length of L. In the nomenclature we have already defined the outer
diameter of the thread as major diameter, d and the smallest diameter as the diameter of
dm
the cylinder, d1, (also called core diameter). r is
where dm is the mean diameter of
2
thread, being mean of d and d1. If P be the force applied by the lever on the body of
weight W, then by taking moments of forces, acting upon the lever, about the axis of the
cylinder.
P

2 P1 L
dm

. . . (5.3)
Threads

Coads add
upto W
Nut

W
re
n

ch
P1

(a)
dm

/2

N
P
F
W

P1

(b)
Figure 5.6

109

Machine Design

The force P has to overcome the friction as well as cause lifting of the body in vertical
direction. To find the relationship between force P, called effort, and weight of the body,
W, we have to consider the equilibrium of the body on an inclined plane as shown in
Figures 5.7(a) and (b). The free body diagram clearly shows forces along and
perpendicular to the inclined plane.
N
PC
os
P

W
S
in

W
C
osPS
in

(a) A Body being Pushed Up the Inclined Plane with Angle of Inclination a, by a Horizontal Force P
N WcosPSin

PCos
WSin

(b) Free Body Diagram of Body of Weight w


Figure 5.7

The sum of the forces perpendicular to the plane and sum of the forces along the plane
should separately be zero to satisfy the conditions of equilibrium. is taken as
coefficient of friction between the body and the plane, which is same as coefficient of
friction between the nut and screw thread surfaces. = tan where is the angle of
friction.
Summing up the forces perpendicular to the plane.
The normal reaction,
N = W cos + P sin
Hence, force of friction between the surfaces of contact
F N W cos P sin

Summing up the forces parallel to the inclined plane


P cos W sin W cos P sin

Replacing
P cos

by tan

. . . (i)

sin
cos

sin
sin
P sin W sin
W cos
cos
cos

p cos cos P sin sin W sin cos W cos sin

. . . (ii)

P cos ( ) W sin ( )

P W tan ( )

. . . (5.4)

If there is no friction, = 0 and effort in such a case is called ideal effort denoted by Pi
where
110

Pi W tan

. . . (5.5)

Hence the efficiency of an inclined plane with inclination of or the efficiency of a


screw having helix angle is

Design of Screws,
Fasteners and Power
Screws

Pi
p

tan
tan ( )

. . . (5.6)

If in a situation as shown in Figure 5.7(a), P is removed, will the body slide down?
Obviously it will depend upon the fact as to how large angle is. If W sin > W cos
the body will slide down under its own weight (Examine (i) and (ii) with P = 0). Same
thing will happen in case of a nut in Figure 5.6 (a), i.e. when effort P1 is removed from
the wrench or wrench is removed, the nut will rotate back under load W. It means the nut
is not self-locking. However, if is reduced it can be seen that at = , the downward
component (along the plane) of weight W, i.e. W sin and friction force (along the
plane) W cos become equal and the body remains just stationary or the nut does not
move down. If < , the body will need a force to act so as to push it down. If this force
is P then
P W tan ( )

. . . (5.7)

Naturally screws of > , will not be self locking or in other words they cannot act as
fasteners. If, however, the angle < , an effort P, given by Eq. (5.7) will be required to
unscrew the nut, and such screws can be used as fasteners.
The Eq. (5.6) which defines the efficiency of the screw and that the condition for screw
to be self locking is that can be used to determine the maximum efficiency of a self
locking screw and nut pair.
For self locking condition, the efficiency
s

tan
tan (1 tan 2 )

tan 2
2 tan

tan
tan ( )

1 tan 2
2

Since tan2 is always less than 1, ( = tan )


s

1
2

. . . (5.8)

The screw having efficiency greater than 50% is said to over haul, meaning the load W
will cause the nut to roll down.

5.4 POWER SCREW MECHANICS


In the preceding section the simple case of a square thread was considered. As will be
seen in the text that follows that the square thread is more efficient than the Acme thread
because in the Acme thread the effective coefficient of friction increases, yet for power
screws it is the Acme thread which is used more predominantly. The Acme thread can be
machined more easily than the square thread and more importantly the clearance in the
Acme thread can be adjusted to take care of the wear or machining inaccuracy.
Figure 5.8 shows the nuts in pair with square and the Acme threads and an adjusting
mechanism for the acme thread.

111

P
a
r
to
n
n
u
t

Machine Design

2
n
d
n
u
t

T
w
o
n
a
r
r
o
w
n
u
t

1
s
tn
u
t

(a)

(b)
2
n
dn
u
t

1
s
tn
u
t

S
c
re
w

(c)
Figure 5.8 : (a) A Square thread and Nut (b) An Acme Thread and Two Nuts for Adjusting Clearance
on Both sides of the Thread. Two Narrow nuts Threading on Outside of the nut Push the Two Nuts in
Opposite Direction (c) Adjustment of Clearance on Two Sides of thread

An Acme thread has two inclination. Firstly the plane of the thread is sloping along
angle of helix in the direction of the helix. The plane of the thread also slopes away from
the circumference of the screw, i.e. the circumference of diameter d1, The same is true
for the V-thread. Both types of threads are as shown in Figures 5.4(a) and (b). The effect
of inclination in the radial direction is to increase the normal reaction between the nut
and the screw. This inclination in the radial direction of thread gives a shape of
trapezium of angle 2 as shown in Figure 5.9 and since the motion will occur
perpendicular to the plane of paper; the force of friction will depend upon the normal
reaction.
W

Screw

Nut

W
Cos

Figure 5.9 : A Nut Moving on a Screw having Acme Thread

For a vertical force W pressing the nut on the thread of screw, the normal reaction is N.
Resolving N in the vertical direction and equating with W
N cos W or N

W
cos

W
which can
cos
also be written as W and can be called a modified or effective coefficient of
friction. No doubt you can see that

and hence the force of friction along the direction of helix is N or

112

cos

. . . (5.9)

It is because cos is less than 1. Greater the angle , lesser the cos and hence will
increase with increasing . This is what happens in V-thread. The force of friction
between nut and thread in V-threads is greater than in Acme thread. The P-W

relationship given by Eq. (5.4) stands valid for square thread and can be modified for
Acme thread by replacing by where

Design of Screws,
Fasteners and Power
Screws

tan 1

P W tan ( )

. . . (5.10)

Efficiency of the Acme thread will be


tan
tan ( )

. . . (5.11)

A word about the horizontal component of N, which is N sin will be in order.


Remember we are talking about the thread round the circumference of the screw. There
is other side of the screw on right of Figure 5.9 and N sin there will be acting to the
right. Thus the horizontal components of N are balanced.
The force P which acts as tangent to the mean circle of diameter d, between the outer
d
d d1
circle of diameter d and inner circle of diameter d1, i.e. at radius m
will cause
2
4
a moment
Mt

Pd m
2

M t W tan ( )

or

dm
2

. . . (5.12)

Here is the effective angle of friction which could be tan 1 if the square thread
is on the screw. Apparently the torque in Eq. (5.12) will twist the cylinder of screw and
cause shearing stress in it. The cylinder is acted upon by an axial compression also. The
axial compressive force causes compressive stress at any point in the section.
Example 5.1
A square threaded screw is required to work against an axial force of 6.0 kN and
has following dimensions.
Major diameter d = 32 mm; pitch p = 4 mm with single start, = 0.08. Axial force
rotates with the screw.
Calculate :
(a)

Torque required when screw moves against the load.

(b)

Torque required when screw moves in the same direction as the load.

(c)

Efficiency of the screw.

Solution
Remember the relationship between p, d and d1 which has been shown in
Figure 5.1.
p d d1

But

dm

d d1
or d1 2d m d
2

p 2 (d d m )

or

dm d

p
2

Using d = 32 mm and p = 4 mm
dm 32 2 30 mm

. . . (i)

The angle of helix is related to the circumference of mean circle and the pitch
from description of Section 5.2.

113

Machine Design

p
4

0.042
d m 30

tan

. . . (ii)

2.4o

. . . (iii)

and

tan 0.08

. . . (iv)

tan 4.57o

From Eq. (5.12) torque required to move screw against load


M t W tan ( )

dm
2

6 tan (2.4 4.57)

30
6 0.12225 15 Nm
2

= 11 Nm

. . . (v)

When screw moves in the same direction, is a case in which the body moves down
the inclined plane. In this case the fore P to push down is given by Eq. 5.7.
Hence, the torque
M t P

dm
d
W tan ( ) m
2
2

6 tan (4.57 2.4)

30
6 0.038 15 Nm
2

= 3.42 Nm

. . . (vi)

From Eq. (4.6), efficiency


tan
0.042

0.344
tan ( ) 0.12225

or

= 34.4%

. . . (vii)

Example 5.2
If in the Example 5.1, the screw has the Acme thread with thread angle 2 = 29o
instead of square thread, calculate the same quantities.
Solution
There is no difference in calculation for square and the Acme thread except that in
case of the Acme thread the coefficient of friction is modified and effective
coefficient of friction is given by Eq. (5.9).

0.08
0.08

0.0826
cos cos 29 0.968
2

4.724o

From Figure 5.2(b) for the Acme thread note that


dm d

p
0.125 mm
2

32 2 0.125

114

or

dm 29.875 mm

tan

2.44o

p
4

0.0426
dm 29.875

. . . (i)

Mt

Design of Screws,
Fasteners and Power
Screws

W
dm tan ( )
2

3.0 29.875 tan (2.44 4.724) 89.625 0.126 kNmm

or

M t 11.265 Nm

or

. . . (ii)

tan
tan 2.44
0.0426

tan ( ) tan (2.44 4.724)


0.126

33.8%

. . . (iii)

When the screw moves in the same direction as the load, the torque
M t

or

W dm
tan ( )
2
6 29.875
tan (4.724 2.44) kNmm
2

M t 3.58 Nm

. . . (iv)

Comparing the results of Examples 5.1 and 5.2 we can see that the screws have
got same major diameter and pitch and for this reason their helix angles are
different. Coefficients of friction are inherently different. But the torque on the
screw increases by 2.41% and efficiency decreases by 1.744%.

SAQ 1
(a)

Distinguish between square and the Acme threads, the Acme threads and
the V-threads. Also mention relations for pitch, various diameters.

(b)

What do you understand by multi-start thread? Define lead and the pitch
and give relation between them. If two threads are having same pitch but
one is single start and other is three starts, which one will advance more and
how much if screw is turned through one full rotation in the nut.

(c)

What reason you can put forth for preferring the Acme threads to square
threads?

(d)

A horizontally fixed nut carries a vertical screw of square thread whose


mean diameter is 50 mm, and the pitch is10 mm. On the top of the screw a
circular disc 100 N weight and 100 mm diameter is fixed and this disc has
radial hole into which a rod of 1.1 m is fixed such that 1 m length is out of
the disc. If at the end of this rod an effort of 280 N is required to lift a load
placed on the disc, calculate the load. The coefficient of friction between
the threads of the screw and nut is 0.1.

5.5 APPLICATION OF POWER SCREW


Power screws are used in machines and equipment for lifting loads, applying pull forces,
translating loaded machine parts and tools and for positioning devices. It can work in
two modes, either with a fixed nut and moving screw or with a fixed screw and moving
nut. The rotary motion can be given to any of the nuts or screw. The simplest device one
can think of is a screw jack, often used for lifting heavy loads. The load can be placed on
top of a platform (like disc as described in SAQ 1(d)), and with fixed nut the screw may
be rotated with the help of a lever. However, the load will rotate with the screw. The
alternative method would be to rotate the screw supported in vertical direction and
obstruct the screw to rotate with the nut. The two alternatives are shown in Figure 5.10.

115

Machine Design

The lead screw of a lathe machine, which moves the tool carriage, is another example of
power screw in which the screw rotates in a nut and screw is supported like a shaft
between two bearings. The thrust is caused on the nut, which is integral part of the tool
carriage. The nut moves along the length of the screw taking the carriage. The reaction
of the thrust bears on the supports of the screw. The screw can be used for accurate
positioning of the carriage if it is rotated by a separate stepper motor. The screw in
transferring of force can also be used in hand operated punching machines, as a lifter of
dam gate or as a presser of masses.
If there is a support like a collar, shown in Figure 5.10(a) on the top of which the load is
placed so that it does not rotate, then the applied torque has to be equal to the sum of the
torque required to rotate the screw in the nut and the friction torque between the surfaces
of the collar and load platform. The friction torque between the supporting bearing
surface and stationary surface may be reduced by lubrication or by providing rolling
bearing as showing in Figure 5.10(b). In any given situation the torque at bearing surface
will have to be calculated.
dc
W/2

W/2

Nut (Fixed)

W/2

W/2

(a)
W
Load
Platform

Bearing
Nut Rotating
Handle

W/2

W/2

(b)
Figure 5.10

116

If the collar surface is like a flat disc of outer and inner diameters of do and di then the
friction torque is given by

M tf

do
d
i

3
3
2c W 2
2 W d o di

c
2
2
3
3 (do2 di2 )
do
di
2 2

. . . (5.13)

Design of Screws,
Fasteners and Power
Screws

The Eq. (5.13) has not been derived here. In the above equation c is the coefficient of
friction between the collar and the platform or between bearing surfaces. Hence M tf can
also be writer as c Wrf where rf is the radius of an imaginary circle. Along the tangent of
this circle the force of friction e W is assumed to act. An approximate value of
d di
can also be used. Incidentally this value of rf may be true for unlubricated
rf o
4
surface which is not a reality.

5.6 STANDARD THREADS


Standards of threads describe pitch core diameter and major diameter. The standard
threads can be cut in standard machine tools with standard cutters and designer can use
them for calculation of sizes and ensure interchangeability. We will see in illustrated
examples how the standards are used by designer. Presently we describe Indian standard
IS 4694-1968 for square threads in which a thread is identified by its nominal diameter
which is also the major diameter. According to standard the major diameter of nut is
0.5 mm greater then major diameter of the screw which will provide a clearance of
0.25 mm between the outer surface of screw and inner surface of nut thread. The basic
dimensions of square threads are described in Table 5.1.
Table 5.1 : Basic Dimensions of Square Thread, (mm)
Pitch, p

Core Dia. d1

17

19

24

23

Major Dia. d

22

24

26

28

Pitch, p

Core dia. d1

24

26

28

30

Major dia. d

30

32

34

36

Pitch p

Core dia. d1

31

33

35

37

Major dia. d

38

40

43

44

Pitch, p

Core dia. d1

38

40

42

44

Major dia. d

46

48

50

56

Pitch, p

Core dia. d1,

46

49

51

53

Major dia. d

55

58

60

62

Pitch, p

10

Core dia. d1

55

58

60

62

65

68

70

72

Major dia. d

65

68

70

72

75

78

80

82

5.7 DESIGN OF SCREW AND NUT


Designing is calculating the dimensions, which can be seen in Figure 5.1. They are core
diameter, di, major diameter d and pitch, p. the number of threads also has to be
determined we have to realise that the load comes upon the screw as axial.

117

Machine Design

Compression causing compressive stress, which is uniformly distributed over circular


cross section of diameter, d1. As the screw rotates, in the nut it is subjected to a torque
d
d
given by P m or W tan ( ) m . This torque will cause shearing stress, which will
2
2
d
be maximum on the surface or at radius of 1 . The transfer of axial load between the
2
screw thread and nut occurs through surface of thread. The pressure is to be kept within
permissible limits, which normally is such that squeezing of oil film between contact
surface should not occur. Further the thread and the cylindrical surface of the cylinder
may tend to shear off under the load acting on the thread. Lasting we must realize that
the axial load on screw makes the screw to act like a column. This column is not allowed
to buckle. We will consider each of the above modes of failure to establish equations for
calculating dimension.
Direct Stress
The axial load (force) is W, compressive in nature and the area which carries the
force is the core cross section of diameter di. Hence, compressive stress,
4W
. We will see that this direct compressive stress combines with shearing

d12
stress to give principal and maximum shearing stresses. The resulting equations
cannot be solved for d1, hence the expression for is used to calculate d1 from
given permissible compressive stress. To account for other stresses, which we will
see in next section, the magnitude of the compressive stress is increased by 30%.
Hence

1.3W

. . . (5.14)

d12
4

As an example if W = 50 kN and permissible compressive stress is 80 MPa, then


d12

4 1.3 50 103
1.0345 103
80

By the helps of Table 5.2 you can see that nearest standard value value of d1 is
33 mm with p = 7 mm and d = 40 mm. This apparently give all the information we
require for a screw but we have to check for safety against other stresses.
Maximum Shearing Stress
dm
is required to rotate the
2
screw to cause it to move against force W or to lift weight W. the torque will cause
shearing stress in addition to direct compressive stress as stated earlier. The
shearing stress at any point on surface of core

We have already seen that torque M t W tan ( )

16 M t
d13

The state of stress at any point on the surface of core of the screw will be
compressive or a direct stress and a shearing stress as shown in Figure 5.11.

118

Figure 5.11 : State of Stress at any Point on Core Surface of Dia d1

Design of Screws,
Fasteners and Power
Screws

The maximum principal stress is given by


2

p1

2
2
2

This stress is not of much significance because it is reduced from higher


magnitude or if it becomes tensile, to a magnitude which is still not much.
However maximum shearing stress is significant.
2

max 2
2
2

4W
16 M t

3
2 d 2
1

d1

or

max

16

W2
64 d14

M t2

. . . (5.15)

d16

The permissible shearing stress will be known but solving Eq. (5.15) will be too
difficult as you can see that it contains fourth and sixth power of d1 and Mt is also
the function of dm (or d1 and d). Therefore it is recommended to calculate d1 from
Eq. (5.14) and using this value of d1, calculate max. Then you have to see that the
calculated value of max is less than permissible value of shearing stress.
Determining Number of Threads
The screw may be as long as required by consideration of geometry of machine.
For example a lead screw may be as long as the length of the lathe bed. But in all
cases the load transfer between the screw and nut will require total load to be
shared among the threads on nut, which is smaller in length than the screw. The
number of threads is decided on the basis of the load carried by thread surface
perpendicular to core cylinder as shown in Figure 5.12. All threads in contact will
carry axial force of the screw through uniformly distributed pressure pb, in a
square thread, the width and depth of each is equal to t. The thread section is
shown on left hand side of Figure 5.12 and on right hand side wherein one thread
is shown loaded by pressure. The same pressure will be acting on the thread of the
nut. Area on which pressure is acting is the area between the compressive circles
of diameters d and d1 for one thread and if there are n threads in contact or n
threads on the nut, then total area of contact to carry the pressure.
Ap n dm t n

Permissible pressure pb

2
(d d12 )
4
4W
n (d
2

d12 )

W
n dm t

. . . (5.16)

d
d1
d/2

d1
A

B
d 1/2

t
t

pb

Figure 5.12 : Pressure on Contact Surface

119

Machine Design

This equation can be used for a check if the pressure between the threads of the
nut and screw is within the permissible limit or it can be used to calculate the
number of threads, n, in contact.
Shearing of Threads from the Core Cylinder
Because of the force W, acting as uniformly distributed pressure as shown in
Figure 5.12 thread may have a tendency to shear. The area over which shear effect
will occur is shown shaded in Figure 5.13. The thread is shown in broken lines.
This area apparently is a strip of width, t, on the cylinder of diameter d1. Hence the
area
Ac d1 t

With shearing stress , which will be created at the bottom of n thread of screw,
screw

W
n d1 t

. . . (5.17)

d1

pb
t

d1
d

Figure 5.13 : The Area at the Bottom of a Thread in Screw

You must realise that the threads on the inside of the nut will also be similarly
subjected to shearing stress at their bottom. Hence, in nut
nut

W
n dt

. . . (5.18)

Normally, the screw and nut are not made in the same material. While screw is
made in steel the preferred material for nut is either cast iron or bronze. The
permissible value of shearing stress for nut material may be less and in that case
Eq. (5.18) must be used to calculate n.
The height of the nut is simply the product if n and p, i.e.
h = np

. . . (5.19)

You must realise that the nut is threaded all along its length.
The various screw-nut material combinations are described in Table 5.2.
Table 5.2 : Screw-Nut Material Combination and Safe Bearing Pressure
Application

Hand Press
Screw Jack
Hoisting Machine

120

Lead Screw

Material
Screw
Nut
Steel
Steel
Steel
Steel
Steel
Steel
Steel

Bronze
C.I
C.I
Bronze
C.I
Bronze
Bronze

Safe Bearing
Pressure
(MPa)
17.5-24.5
12.5-17.5
12.5-17.5
10.5-17.5
4.0-7.0
35.0-100.0
10.5-17.0

Rubbing Velocity
at Mean Diameter
m/min
Well lubricated
Low Velocity
Velocity < 2.5
Velocity < 3.0
6-12
6-12
> 15.0

Example 5.3
A screw press is required to exert a force of 50 kN when applied torque is
560 Nm. The unsupported length of the screw is 450 mm and a thrust bearing of
hardened steel on cast iron is provided at the power end.

Design of Screws,
Fasteners and Power
Screws

The permissible stresses in the steel screw are :


Tension and compression 85 MPa, Shear 55 MPa,
The permissible bearing pressure is 13.5 MPa for steel screw and C.I nut
The permissible shearing stress in the CI is 20 MPa
The yield strength of steel of screw, Y = 260 MPa
The coefficient of friction in screw and nut is 0.15
Determine the dimensions of screw and nut, and efficiency.
Solution
Step 1
Determine diameter d1, d, p, to define the thread
Eq. (5.14), will be used to estimate d1,

1.3W
d12
4

Use W = 50,000 N, = 85 N/mm2


4 1.3 50,000
973.54
85

d12

d1 31.2 mm

Look in the Table 5.1, close to 31.2 mm the core diameter is 33 mm with
pitch p = 7 mm. However, you may also use following rule : between
d1 = 30 and d1 = 40 mm, p = 0.2 d1.
We choose to use Table 4.1.
So

d1 33 mm, d 40 mm, p 7 mm

dm

. . . (i)

d1 p
33 3.5 36.5 mm
2

Angle of helix, tan 1

p
7
tan 1
tan 1 0.061
dm
36.5

3.5o

. . . (ii)

tan 0.15, tan 1 0.15

8.53o

Efficiency of screw,

. . . (iii)
tan
tan 3.5
0.061

tan ( ) tan (3.5 8.53) 0.213

28.6%

. . . (iv)

Number of threads in contact, i.e. threads in nut and height of nut.


121

Machine Design

Use Eq. (5.18), put t


nut
20

p
3.5 mm, nut 20 N/mm2
2

W
n d t
50,000
n 40 3.5

n = 5.684 say 6
This has to be checked for bearing pressure, pb = 13.5 N/mm2
Use Eq. (5.16)
4W

pb

n (d 2 d12 )
4 50,000

13.5 (402 332 )

9.23 say 10

This n is greater than the earlier calculated 6. Hence n = 10 is chosen.


Check for maximum shearing stress
M t W tan ( )

Use

dm

dm
2

d d1 40 33

36.5 mm
2
2

M t 50,000 tan (3.5 8.53)

16 M t
d13

16 19.4 104
(33)3

or

= 27.4 N/mm2

Also note

max 2
2

4W
d12

4 50,000
(33)

36.5
19.4 104 Nmm
2

98.8 104
3.594 104

58.5 N/mm2

855.56 750.76 1606.32

max 40.1 N/mm2

The permissible shearing stress is 55 N/mm2.


Hence screw in safe against shearing.

122

Figure 5.14

Example 5.4
Design a screw jack to lift a load of 100 kN through a height of 300 mm. Assume
u = 400 MPa, u = 200 MPa, Y = 300 MPa, pb = 10 MPa. The outer diameter of
bearing surface is 1.6 d1 and inner diameter of bearing surface is 0.8 d1.
Coefficient of friction between collar on screw and C.I is 0.2. Coefficient of
friction between steel screw and bronze nut is 0.15. Take a factor of safety of 5 for
screw and nut but take a factor of safety of 4 for operating lever.

Design of Screws,
Fasteners and Power
Screws

Solution
The screw jack to be designed is shown in Figures 5.15(a) and (b) shows the
details of the cup on which the load W is to be carried.
W
d2

L
Cup
dp

h
arm
Nut
a
H
D1

D2

(a)

d1

Body of jack

d
Screw

5d
4d
5d
ro
ri

(b)

5.14 ()Jack
Sc rew
jack assembled
Figure 5.15Figure
: (a) Screw
Assembled;
and (b) The Load Cup

The overall design of screw jack comprises designing of


(a)

Screw,

(b)

Nut,

(c)

Arm,

(d)

Cup, and

(e)

Body of the jack.

Screw
Screw becomes the central part. The other parts will be dependent upon the
screw. The screw design will decide core diameter d1, major diameter d and
pitch, p. Hence screw design will consist of calculating d1, d and p and
checking for maximum shearing stress and buckling of the screw.
Assume square thread
Use Eq. (5.14) with W = 100,000 N,

400
80 N/mm2
5

123

Machine Design

1.3W
d12
4
1

5.2 100, 000 2


d1
(2069) 2
80

or

d1 = 45.5 mm

From Table 5.1, choose next higher value as d1 = 46 mm with


p = 9 mm and d = 55 mm.
After estimated values we go to check for maximum shearing stress
and the buckling of the screw.
Maximum Shearing Stress
Compressive stress,

4W
d12

4 105
(46)

Torque on the screw, M t W tan ( )


dm

60.17 N/mm2

dm
2

d d1 55 46

50.5 mm
2
2

tan 1

p
9
tan 1
tan 1 0.0567 3.25o
dm
50.5

tan 1 tan 1 0.15 8.53o

M t 105 tan (3.25 8.53)

50.5 0.21 50.5 105

2
2

5.266 105 Nmm

16 M t
d13

16 5.266 105
(46)3

27.6 N/mm2

max 2
2
2

60.17
2
2

(27.6) 1666.87 40.827 N/mm
2

The permissible sharing stress is

u 220

44 N/mm .
5
5

Thus the screw is safe against shear.


Nut
For standard square thread the depth or thickness of the thread,
t

p 9
4.5 mm
2 2

W
with pb = 10 N/mm2, dm = 50.5 mm,
n dm t
t = 4.5 mm, W = 105 N

Use Eq. (5.16), pb


124

Design of Screws,
Fasteners and Power
Screws

105
14
10 50.5 4.5

Normally n >10 is not preferred. So we can go for higher d1, d and p. Next
standard values will be d1 = 49 mm, d = 58 mm, p = 9 mm.
Hence, dm

58 49 107
p

53.5 mm, t 4.5 mm


2
2
2
n

105
13.2
10 53.5 4.5

Since this is also greater than 10, we can go for next higher value of
d1 = 51 mm with d = 60 mm and p = 9 mm.
dm

So that

51 60 111

55.5 mm
2
2

which will also not satisfy the condition.


The last choice in the table with same p is d1 = 53 mm and d = 62 mm.
So that dm

53 62 115

57.5 mm which result in n = 12.3 mm.


2
2

Still better solution is to go for next series with p = 10 mm.


With d1 = 55, d = 65 mm, and d m

120
60 ; t = 5 mm
2

105
10.6
10 60 5

Which is very close to 10, hence can be accepted.


So the solution changes to d1 = 55 mm, d = 65 mm, p = 10 mm. You need
not check these dimensions because they are larger than the safe ones.
(It is important that the reader understands the reiterative nature of design
and how the help from standards is derived. The iterations have been done
to emphasize that the exercise in design should not be treated as a problem
in strength of materials. In design the problem serves to bring practicability
in focus.
The length of the nut, H = np = 10.6 10 = 106 mm.
Outside Diameter of Nut; see Figure 5.1(b) and Figure 5.9.
The nut is in tension. The section to bear tensile stress is
2
( D0 D 2 )
4

D = d + 0.5 mm = 65 + 0.5 = 65.5 mm


Bronze is not as strong as steel. Silicon bronze (Cu = 95%, Si = 4%,
Mn = 1%) is quite good for making nut. This material is available in
wrought condition with u = 330 MPa. If factor of safety of 5 is used, then
330
66 N/mm2 .
permissible tensile stress is
5
4W

D02 1929 4290 6219

or

D0 = 78.86 say 79 mm

( D02 D 2 )

66

4 105
( D02 6552 )

125

Machine Design

To fit the nut in position in the body of jack, a collar is provided at the top
(see Figure 5.15(a)).
The thickness of the collar = 0.5 D = 0.5 65.5 = 32.72 mm
The outside diameter of the Collar D00 can be found by considering
crushing of collar surface under compressive stress. The area under
2
compression is ( D00
D02 ) .
4
The compressive strength of bronze is same as tensile stress, 66 MPa
66

4W
2
( D00
792 )

4 105
2
( D00
6241)

D00 1929 6241 8170 90.4 mm

The nut is shown in Figure 5.16.


90.4

32.72

73.28

65.5
79

Figure 5.16

Arm
The arm is used to rotate the screw in the stationary nut. The portion of the
screw at the top is enlarged to a diameter, 2r0
where 2r0 =1.6 d1 = 1.6 55 = 88 mm (see Figure 5.15(b)).
2r0 is the outer diameter for bearing surface of collar on which will rest
the load cup. The cup will turn around a pin of dia. 2ri = 0.8 d1,
2r1 = 0.8 55 = 44 mm.
These two diameters will be used to calculate the torque of friction at
bearing surface. Call this torque Mtf and use Eq. (5.13)
M tf

c W (2r0 )3 (2ri )3
3 (2r0 )2 (2ri ) 2

c = 0.2 and all other values are described earlier


M tf

0.2 105 (88)3 (44)3 0.2 105 (44)3 8 1

3
4 1
(88)2 (44)2
3 (44) 2

6.84 105 Nmm

The arm will have to apply this torque along with the torque for lifting the
load which is given as :
M t W tan ( )

126

dm
2

8.53o , dm 60 mm, tan 1

p
10
tan 1
tan 1 0.05 3o
dm
60

Design of Screws,
Fasteners and Power
Screws

M t 105 30 tan (11.53) 6.12 105 Nmm

Total torque M M tf M t (6.84 6.12) 105 13 105 Nmm


A single man can apply 400 N of force but two men can apply 80 N with an
efficiency of 90%. Lets assume two persons work at the end of the arm, the
length of the arm
L

13 105
1805.5 mm or 1.805 m
0.9 800

Actual length will incorporate allowance for grip and insertion in collar so
arm of 2.1 m length will be appropriate.
The torque M will acts as bending moment on the arm with permissible
400
bending stress as
160 N/mm2 . The diameter of arm
2.5
1

32 M 3 32 13 105 3
da
43.75 mm

b
160

The Cup
The shape of the cup is shown in Figure 5.15(b). It can be made in C1 and
side may incline 30o with vertical. With bottom diameter as 1.2 (2ri), its
height can be decided by the geometry of load to be lifted. Since no
information is given we leave this design only at shape.
The Body of the Jack
Height = Lifting height +length of the nut length of the collar on the nut +
allowance for bottom plate of 2 mm thickness and head of the bolt
holding plate.
= 300 + 106 32.72 + (2 + 4.8)

(using a 6 mm bolt)

= 380.1 mm
Thickness, 0.25 d 0.25 65 16.25 mm
Thickness of base, 1 0.5 d 0.5 65 32.5 mm
Diameter of base, D2 4.0 d 4 65 260 mm
Diameter of base (outside), D3 5d 5 65 325 mm .
Efficiency

tan
0.05

24.5%
tan ( ) 0.204

Listing of Designed Dimensions.


Screw : Square Thread.
Core diameter of screw, d1 = 55 mm
Major diameter of screw, d = 65 mm
Pitch of Thread, p = 10 mm.

127

Machine Design

Nut
Number of threads, n = 10.6
Height of the nut, H = 106 mm
Outside diameter D0 = 79 mm
Diameter of Nut collar, D00 = 90.4 mm
Thickness of collar = 32.72 mm
Arm of the Jack
The length of the arm = 2.1 m
The diameter of the arm = 43.57 mm
The Body of the Jack
Thickness of the body, = 16.25 mm
Thickness of the base, 1 = 32.5 mm
Inside diameter of base, D2 = 260 mm
Outside diameter of base, D3 = 325 mm
Height of the body H1 = 380.1 mm

SAQ 2
(a)

Mention industrial applications of screw.

(b)

Describe steps involved in designing screw.

(c)

Draw the assembled view of screw jack designed in Example 5.4 of


Section 5.9.

(d)

For a screw of d1 = 17 mm, p = 5 mm, d = 22 mm subjected to axial


compression of 4000 N, calculate maximum shearing stress and bearing
pressure between threads of screw and nut. Calculate factor of safety in
compression of screw, shearing of screw and bearing pressure if
u = 320 N/mm2, u = 212 N/mm2, maximum pressure = 12 N/mm2.
Take = 0.12. There are 5 threads in nut.

(e)

Acme threaded screw rotating at 60 rpm pulls a broaching cutter through a


job. The tensile force in the screw is supported by a collar whose internal
and external diameters are respectively 60 mm and 90 mm. Coefficient of
friction for all contact surfaces is 0.15 and Acme thread angle is 30o. The
requirement of the tool displacement demands that the pitch of the Acme
thread should be 10 mm and corresponding major screw diameter is 55 mm.
the power consumed by the machine is 0.39 kW, calculate the axial load
exerted upon the tool.

5.8 THREADED FASTENER

128

Apart from transmitting motion and power the threaded members are also used for
fastening or jointing two elements. The threads used in power screw are square or Acme
while threads used in fastening screws have a vee profile as shown in Figure 5.4(a).
Because of large transverse inclination the effective friction coefficient between the

screw and nut increases by equation


where is the basic coefficient of
cos
friction of the pair of screw and nut, is the half of thread angle and is the effective
coefficient of friction. The wedging effect of transverse inclination of the thread surface

was explained in Section 5.4. According to IS : 1362-1962 the metric thread has a thread
angle of 60o. The other proportions of thread profile are shown in Figure 5.17. IS : 1362
designates threads by M followed by a figure representing the major diameter, d.
For example a screw or bolt having the major diameter of 2.5 mm will be designated
as M 2.5.

Design of Screws,
Fasteners and Power
Screws

The standard describes the major (also called nominal) diameter of the bolt and nut,
pitch, pitch diameter, minor or core diameter, depth of bolt thread and area resisting load
(Also called stress area). Pitch diameter in case of V-threads corresponds to mean
diameter in square or Acme thread. Figure 5.15 shows pitch diameter as dp. Inequality of
dm and dp is seen from Figure 5.17. Tables 5.3 and 5.4 describes V-thread dimensions
according to IS : 1362.
H/8

H/2

Nut

60o
H

0.708H

P/4
Bolt

H/6

H/4

dp

d1
Figure 5.17 : Profiles of Fastener Threads on Screw (Bolt) and Nut

Table 5.3 : Dimensions of V-threads (Coarse)


Designation

M 0.4
M 0.8
M1
M 1.4
M 1.8
M2
M 2.5
M3
M 3.5
M4
M5
M6
M8
M 10
M 12
M 14
M 16
M 18
M 20
M 24
M 30
M 36
M 45
M 52
M 60

p
(mm)
0.1
0.2
0.25
0.3
0.35
0.4
0.45
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
1
1.25
1.5
1.75
2
2
2.5
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5

d or D
(mm)
0.400
0.800
1.000
1.400
1.800
2.000
2.500
3.000
3.500
4.000
5.000
6.000
8.000
10.000
12.000
14.000
16.000
18.000
20.000
24.000
30.000
36.000
45.000
52.000
60.000

dp
(mm)
0.335
0.670
0.838
1.205
1.573
1.740
2.208
2.675
3.110
3.545
4.480
5.350
7.188
9.026
10.863
12.701
14.701
16.376
18.376
22.051
27.727
33.402
42.077
48.752
56.428

DC
(mm)
Nut
0.292
0.584
0.729
1.075
1.421
1.567
2.013
2.459
2.850
3.242
4.134
4.918
6.647
8.876
10.106
11.835
13.898
15.294
17.294
20.752
26.211
31.670
40.129
46.587
54.046

Bolt
0.277
0.555
0.693
1.032
1.371
1.509
1.948
2.387
2.764
3.141
4.019
4.773
6.466
8.160
9.858
11.564
13.545
14.933
16.933
20.320
25.706
31.093
39.416
45.795
53.177

Thread
Depth
(mm)

Stress
Area
(mm2)

0.061
0.123
0.153
0.184
0.215
0.245
0.276
0.307
0.368
0.429
0.491
0.613
0.767
0.920
1.074
1.227
1.227
1.534
1.534
1.840
2.147
2.454
2.760
3.067
3.374

0.074
0.295
0.460
0.983
1.70
2.07
2.48
5.03
6.78
8.78
14.20
20.10
36.60
58.30
84.00
115.00
157.00
192
245
353
561
976
1300
1755
2360

129

Machine Design

Table 5.4 : Dimensions of V-Threads (Fine)


Designation

p
(mm)

d or D
(mm)

dp
(mm)

DC
(mm)
Nut

Screw

Thread
Depth
(mm)

Stress
Area
(mm2)

M81

8.000

7.350

6.918

6.773

0.613

39.2

M 10 1.25

1.25

10.000

9.188

8.647

8.466

0.767

61.6

M 12 1.25

1.25

12.000

11.184

10.647

10.466

0.767

92.1

M 14 1.5

1.5

14.000

13.026

12.376

12.166

0.920

125

M 16 1.5

1.5

16.000

15.026

14.376

14.160

0.920

167

M 18 1.5

1.5

18.000

17.026

16.376

16.160

0.920

216

M 20 1.5

1.5

20.000

19.026

18.376

18.160

0.920

272

M 22 1.5

1.5

22.000

21.026

20.376

20.160

0.920

333

M 24 2

24.000

22.701

21.835

24.546

1.227

384

M 27 2

27.000

25.701

24.835

24.546

1.227

496

M 30 2

30.000

28.701

27.835

27.546

1.227

621

M 33 2

33.000

31.701

30.335

30.546

1.227

761

M 36 3

36.000

34.051

32.752

32.391

1.840

865

M 39 3

39.000

37.051

35.752

35.391

1.840

1028

Wide variety of threaded fasteners are used in engineering practice. These are cylindrical
bars, which are threaded to screw into nuts or internally threaded holes. Figure 5.18
depicts three commonly used fasteners. A bolt has a head at one end of cylindrical body.
The head is hexagonal in shape. The other end of the bolt is threaded. The bolt passes
through slightly larger holes in two parts and is rotated into hexagonal nut, which may sit
on a circular washer. The bolt is rotated into the nut by wrench on bolt head.
As shown in Figure 5.18(a) the two parts are clamped between bolt head and nut.

(a)

(b)

(c)

Figure 5.18 : Three Types of Threaded Fasteners

A screw is another threaded fasteners with a head and threads on part of its cylindrical
body. However, the threads of the screw are threaded into an internally threaded hole as
shown in Figure 5.18(b). While tightening of joint between two parts by bolt occurs by
rotating either bolt or nut, the screw tightens the parts, through rotation of screw by a
wrench applied at its head. In case of screw the friction occurs between bolt head bottom
and surface of the part in contact, and between threads of screw and hole. In case of bolt
the friction occurs either at bolt head or at the nut. The wrench has to apply torque
against friction between the surface of part and bolt head or nut and in the threads of
contact. Both the bolt and screw are pulled and hence carry tensile force.
A stud is another threaded fastener which is threaded at both ends and does not have a
head. One of its end screws into threaded hole while the other threaded end receives nut.
It is shown in Figure 5.18(c).
The bolts are available as ready to use elements in the market. Depending upon
manufacturing method they are identified as black, semi finished or finished. The head in
130

black bolt is made by hot heading. The bearing surfaces of head or shank are machine
finished and threads are either cut or rolled. In semi finished bolts the head is made by
cold or hot heading. The bearing surfaces of head or shank are machine finished and
threads are either cut or rolled. A finished bolt is obtained by machining a bar of same
section as the head. The threads are cut on a turret lathe or automatic thread cutting
machine.

Design of Screws,
Fasteners and Power
Screws

Besides hexagonal head the bolt or screw may have shapes as shown in Figure 5.19,
except the hexagonal and square head which are common in bolts, other forms are used
in machine screws. Those at (a) and (b) are tightened with wrench, the bolt or screw with
internal socket is rotated with a hexagonal key, at (c) and the screws carrying slits in the
head are rotated with screw driver.

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

(g)

Figure 5.19 : Heads of Threaded Fasteners; (a) Hexagonal; (b) Square; (c) Internal Socket;
(d) Circular with a Slit; (e) Button with Slit; (f) Counter Sunk with a Silt; (g) Plain with a Slit

5.9 FAILURE OF BOLTS AND SCREWS


The bolts and screws may fail because of following reasons :
(a)

Breaking of bolt shank

(b)

Stripping of threads

(c)

Crushing of threads

(d)

Bending of threads

Invariably when bolt is tightened it is subjected to tensile load along its axis. There may
be rare occasion, such as one shown in Figure 5.20 where bolt is pretentioned. The bolt
loading situations may be identified as :
(a)

No initial tension, bolt loaded during operation.

(b)

Only initial tension and no loading afterwards.

(c)

After initial tension bolt is further loaded in tension during operation.

(d)

In addition to loading initially bolt may be subjected to bending moment


and/or shearing forces.

(e)

In eccentrically loaded bolted joint, the bolts are subjected to shearing stress
which is dominant. Initial tension is additional. We will analyze this
problem as riveted joint.

The reader must see that the core section in V-thread means the same thing as in case of
square thread. It is the core section, which carries the stress and is identified by core
diameter d1. This diameter can be seen in Figure 5.3(a) and in Figure 5.17. Tables 5.3
and 5.4 also describe the area of the core section under the heading of stress area. The
design equation for the bolt or screw is same as Eq. (5.14) with the difference that the
fastener will always be in tension. So, if the permissible tensile stress is t, then
t

4 1.3W
d12

5.2W
d12

. . . (5.20)

131

Machine Design

The wrench torque can be calculated with friction between threads and between bolt
head and the washer. The former is specified as effective friction coefficient , given by
Eq. (5.9) and latter is specified as c with friction radius rf as described after Eq. (5.13).
Without going into analysis we give relationship between wrench torque, M and W.
M

W
( p d p c dc )
2

. . . (5.21)

Where dp is pitch diameter as shown in Figure 5.15 and dc

d o di
, the mean
2

diameter of washer or the bolt head contact surface.


d

Figure 5.20 : A Bolt Carrying a Crane Hook is a Bolt without Initial Tension

5.9.1 Prestrained Bolt Subjected to External Axial Load


Depending upon type of application the tightened bolt will cause pre-compression of the
members jointed. Simultaneously the bolt would have increased in length. Further
application of tensile force on bolt will release compression from the parts jointed. This
is explained clearly in Figures 5.21(a), (b) and (c). When untightened the length of the
bolt, l, between the bolt head and nut is equal to the thickness of the flanges between the
bolt head and the nut. When the bolt is tightened the length of the bolt changes to l + b
and the thickness of flanges reduces to l + m where corresponding to initial load W, b is
the extension in bolt and m is the compression in flanges. Figure 5.19(d) shows the
load-deflection relationship for bolt and flanges. When additional tensile force Wb acts
upon the bolt because the joint is subjected to external load the bolt further extends by
b making total deflection of bolt as b + b. At the same time the compression of
flanges will be released, and its deformation will reduce by b to m m. At this
stage it is essential that m m must be net compression of flanges, a situation, which
is shown in Figure 5.21(c). If m m becomes positive the joint will not remain tight.
When the load on the bolt has increased to Wi + Wb, the load on the flanges has reduced
to Wi + Wm.
b

b b

m m

(a)

132

Wi

Wi W

(b)

(c)

Forc e

Design of Screws,
Fasteners and Power
Screws

P Cos
Wb
Wn

Flanges

Wi

Bolt

Wn'
Deflection

b
b

m
Figure 5.19

(d)

Figure 5.21

(a)

bolt not tightened

(b)

bolt tightened to initial load Wi

(c)

external load W applied upon the joint

(d)

deflection in bolt and joint

Following notations are used in the analysis :


Wi = Initial load on the bolt,
W = External load applied upon the joint,
Wb = Part of the load W taken by bolt,
Wm = Part of the load W taken by jointed members,
Wo = Resultant load on bolt,
Wo = Resultant load on jointed members,
kb = Stiffness of the bolt (N/mm), and
km = Stiffness of jointed members (N/mm).
From above description and Figure 5.21(d)
W0 Wi Wb

. . . (i)

but

Wb kb b

and

Wm km m

W Wb Wm kb b km m

Since

b m
W b (kb km )

Wb
kb

but

k km
W Wb b

kb

or

Wb W

kb
kb km

. . . (ii)

Using Eqs. (ii) and (i)


W0 Wi W

kb
kb km

. . . (5.22)
133

Machine Design

Many times where calculation of kb and km is not possible as first estimate following can
be used
W0 2W

. . . (5.23)

The calculation of the minor or core diameter of the thread then can be based upon the
equation
4W0

. . . (i)

d12

Apparently the load on the jointed members


W0 Wi W

km
kb km

. . . (ii)

The joint will not remain leak proof when W0 = 0 or


Wi W

km
kb km

. . . (iii)

Using Eq. (iii) in Eq. (5.22) the condition for break down of leak proof joint is

W0 W
Substituting this relation in Eq. (5.22), the condition of initial force in the bolt for a leak
proof joint can be obtained as
Wi W

km
km kb

. . . (5.24)

5.9.2 Bolted Joint Subjected to Transverse Load


Figure 5.22 shows bolts used to connect the bearing to the foundation. The load P
coming upon the shaft is transmitted to the bearing as horizontal force and will have a
tendency to displace the bearing over the foundation. However, such a tendency is
opposed by the friction force F. The relative displacement between the bearing and
foundation will be eliminated if
F>P
Bearing

Foundation

Figure 5.22 : Transverse Loading on Bolts

If W is the force which exists in the bolt when it is tightened to make the joint and is
the coefficient of friction between two surfaces then,
F W

P
1.2
10 P
P

If n number of bolts are used in the foundation to make joint with the bearing, then
nW1

134

1.2
P

where W1 is the initial tension in one bolt. Each bolt will have to be designed for a force
W1 so that
t

i.e.

4W1
d12

Design of Screws,
Fasteners and Power
Screws

4 1.2 P
n d12

4.8 P

. . . (5.25)

n d12

5.9.3 Eccentric Load on Bolt


Depending upon the design requirement some times bolt with a jib head has to be
employed. One such example is shown in Figure 5.23 where the load W on the jib head
acts at A whose line of action is at a distance a from the bolt centre line. Two forces,
each equal to W, acting opposite to each other may be assumed to be acting along the
axis of the bolt. This results into a direct tension W and a clockwise moment on the bolt.
The bolt is thus subjected to direct stress t (tension) and bending stress b (tension or
compression). It was explained in the beginning of Section 5.11 that the effective tensile
stress in the bolt will be 30% in excess of that calculated for tensile load W. This
magnitude is given by Eq. (5.21). The resultant tensile stress on bolt due to tensile load
W and bending moment Wa is calculated as
t b

5.2W1
d12

32Wa
d13

4W1
8a
1.3
2
d1
d1

. . . (5.26)

If a = d1 then the resultant tensile stress in the bolt is 9 times nominal stress of

4w
d12

a
W

Figure 5.23

5.10 PERMISSIBLE STRESSES IN BOLTS


Bolts are often made in steel having carbon percentage varying between 0.08 to 0.25.
However, high quality bolts and particularly those of smaller diameter are made in alloy
steel and given treatment of quenching followed by tempering. Medium carbon steels
may also be improved in tensile strength by similar heat treatment. Since it is not always
possible to determine the wrench torque when bolts are fitted on shop floor, the initial
tightening torque often tends to be higher than necessary. This will obviously induce
higher stress in the bolt even without external load. Such stresses are particularly high in

135

Machine Design

case of smaller diameter bolt and reduce as the bolt diameter increases. This kind of
tightening stresses call for varying permissible stresses in case of bolt which are small
when bolt diameter is small and high when bolt diameter is large. This is unlike other
machine parts where trend of permissible stress is just the reverse. The correlation of
permissible stress and bolt diameter requires that the process of selection of diameter
will be reiterative. An empirical formula that correlates the permissible tensile stress, t,
and bolt diameter at the stress section d1, is given below
t 5.375 (d1 )0.84

. . . (5.27)

Eq. (5.27) is plotted in Figure 5.24 which can be used as an alternative to Eq. (5.27).
Both the Eq. (5.27) and Figure 5.24 are applicable to medium carbon steel bolts only.
140

Permissible stress MPa

120

100
80

60
40

20

10

15
20
25
30
Bolt m inor d ia (d 1), mm

35

40

Figure 5.24 : Permissible Bolt Stress as Function of Minor (Core) Diameter


for Medium Carbon Steel Bolts

Example 5.5
A 100 KN cover of gear reducer is to be lifted by two eye bolts as shown in
Figure 5.25. Each bolt is equidistant from the centre of gravity and lies in the
central plane. The bolts are made in steel for which permissible tensile stress is
85 MPa. Find the nominal bolt diameter.
Solution
Figure 5.25(a) shows two eye bolts in the cover of a gear reducer. An eye bolt is
shown in Figure 5.25(b).
Eye bolt

Hook

Hook

Bearing Cover

136

Figure 5.25(a) : A Gear Reducer with Two Eye Bolts in the Cover (the Upper Half of the Body)

Design of Screws,
Fasteners and Power
Screws

Minor dia d1
Major dia d

(B) The geometry of the eye bolt

Figure 5.25(b) : The Geometry of the Eye Bolt

The eye bolt is another example of a bolt in which there is no initial tension.
Hence, Eq. (5.20) is used. The weight of the cover will be equally divided between
two bolts since they are in central plane and equidistant from the centre of gravity.
Thus W = 50 kN. Use this value and t = 85 MPa in Eq. (5.20) to obtain core
diameter, d1
1

4W 2 4 50,000 2
d1

(749) 2

85

or

d1 = 27.37 mm

From Table 5.4 the nearest higher diameter of thread core dc = 27.546 mm. The
bolt in fine series is designated as M 30 2 for which d = 30 mm, p = 2 mm, d1 or
dc = 27.546, stress area = 621 mm2.

4W
d12

W
50,000

80.5 MPa
Stress area
621

Example 5.6
A pressure vessel used for storing gas at a pressure of 1.2 MPa is closed by a
cover tightened by a number of bolts. The diameter of the bolt circle is 480 mm
over a tank diameter of 400 mm. Calculate the diameter of each bolt and number
of bolts. Use relationship for permissible stress, t = 5.375 (d1)0.84.
Solution
This problem represents the example of pre-stressed bolt which will further be
subjected to tension when vessel is pressurised. Eq. (5.23) describes the force
acting axially on the bolt as
W0 2W

where W is the force acting upon the pre-stressed bolt. This force is because of the
gas pressure. If the diameter of the pressure vessel is Do then total force that
pushes the cover out is
P p

D0 1.2 4002 15.1 104 N


4
4

137

Machine Design

The joint between the cover plate and the pressure vessel is shown in Figure 5.26.
Let there be n bolts. So that the force acting on one bolt due to pressure
D1
d

P
Do

Figure 5.26 : Pressure Vessel Cover and Fastening Bolts

P 15.1 104

n
n

We make a small assumption which is a common practice that distance between


the centres of two adjacent bolts should be 4d1.
n 4d1 D1 Circumference of the bolt circle

W 15.1 104

4d1
D1

and since D1 = 480 mm


W

60.4 d1
104 400.5 d1 N
480

W0 2W = 801 d1 N

4W0
d12

3204 d1
d12

1020
N
d1

But the permissible stress in the bolt is 5.375 (d1)0.84


1020
d1

5.375 (d1 )0.84

or

1020 1.84
d1
(189.77)0.5435 17.31 mm

5.375

. . . (i)

From Table 4.4, the nearest core diameter dc or d1 is 18.16 mm for M 20 1.5 bolt
with stress area of 272 mm2.
Now permissible stress = 5.375 (18.16)0.84 = 61.4 MPa.
Working stress, t
or

138

W0
801 18.16

Stress area
272

t 53.5 MPa

. . . (ii)

D1
480

20.76 say 21
4d1 4 18.16

. . . (iii)
. . . (iv)

Thus 21 bolts M 20 1.5 distributed uniformly over circle of 480 mm dia.


M 20 1.5 bolt dimensions are, d = 20 mm, d1 = 18.16 mm, P = 1.5 mm.

Design of Screws,
Fasteners and Power
Screws

SAQ 3
(a)

Sketch standard V-thread on screw and mention different dimensions.

(b)

Mention three types of threaded fasteners, and different head shapes that are
used on threaded fasteners.

(c)

In how many ways a bolt is loaded in practice? Explain by the help of


diagram how do the strains in the bolt and joint flanges vary in a
pre-strained bolted joint.

(d)

An M20 jib headed bolt has a jib, which extends to 19.75 mm from the bolt
axis but the centre of pressure where jib reaction acts is at a distance of
15mm from the bolt axis. To what axial load the bolt must be tightened so
that stress does not exceed 5.375 (d1)0.84.

(e)

The cover of a cast iron pressure vessel shown in Figure 5.28 is held in
place by 10 M 12 steel bolts having initial tightening load of 22 kN when
the vessel is at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. If the pressure
is increased to 1.4 MPa, calculate force in each bolt. Modulus of elasticity,
steel = 207 GPa, C.I = 83 GPa, Zinc = 28 GPa. Zinc gasket is placed
between C.I flanges.

5.11 SUMMARY
A screw and a nut form a pair in which one moves relative to other and combination can
transmit force from one point to other. This is the cause of transmission of power. The
screw translates by rotating through stationary nut, the nut translates on the length of a
screw rotating between two fixed supports or the screw can translate without rotation if
the nut rotates in its position supported by bearings on to sides. In each case a force acts
axially on translating element and thus the power is transmitted.
The relationship between force required to move nut on the threads of the screw and the
axial force is derived from similar situation of a mass moving up an inclined plane. The
screw-nut combination may be used for lifting a load or moving a body like tool through
a job or applying force on a stationary object. For force transmission the threads in screw
and nut are square or trapezoidal in section in which friction is relatively less than in
case of V-threads in which case the two sides of thread are inclined at a higher angle
than even the trapezium. The V-threads provide jamming force where by they can be
used for tightening two flanges. The V-threads screw is used as fastener.
For designing the screw the compressive stress caused by axial compression is used for
determining the core diameter, which is the diameter of cylinder on which thread is
present as projection. This cylinder is also subjected to a torque due to friction between
threads of screw and nut. The direct compressive and torsional shearing stress combine
to give maximum shearing stress in the core cylinder. The diameter which is obtained
from consideration of compressive stress is checked for maximum shearing stress. If
maximum shearing stress is less than permissible shearing stress then the threaded screw
and nut are safe. The pitch of thread and the outside diameter which is core diameter
plus the pitch are decided from core diameter or standard may be consulted to find major

139

Machine Design

diameters and pitch. The number of threads on the nut which is essential number of
threads to make contact between screw and nut is determined from pressure between
threads in contact. Apparently the axial force on the screw is sum of the bearing force on
all the threads in contact.
The fastening screws are required to move in a nut or threaded hole pressing two parts
between the under side of the head on one side and a nut or the threads on the hole on
the other side. The bolts have nuts to rotate on threaded part whereas screws rotate in the
threads made in the part of joining flanges. The fastening bolt may be prestrained in the
joint or left without any pretension where bolts do not make a joint like carrying a crane
hook. In case of prestrained bolts the tension in bolt will increase to as much as twice the
initial tension before the contact surfaces of the joint may begin to separate. Determining
the torque required to tighten the screw or bolt in the joint may be achieved by
establishing the initial tension in the bolt screw.
The bolts and screws are available in the market as ready to use element. They are made
in steel with varying carbon content heads made with cold or hot heading and threads cut
on machines or rolled. The head is hexagonal square or with a socket in the round head.
A finished bolt is machined from hexagonal, square or circular bar leaving a head of
same shape as original section.

5.12 KEY WORDS


Screw

: A screw is a cylinder on whose surface helical


projection is created in form of thread.

Square Thread

: A square thread is formed if the generating plane


section is square.

Acme Thread

: The vee thread is created by a triangular section


while trapezoidal thread has a trapezium section.
This thread is also known as the Acme thread.

Pitch

: The distance measured axially, between


corresponding points on the consecutive thread
forms in the same axial plane and on the same side
of axis is known as pitch length.

Lead

: It is axial distance a screw thread advances in one


revolution.

Overhauling of Screw

: If the coefficient of friction between the nut and


screw is small or the lead is large, the axial load
may be sufficient to turn the nut, and the load will
start moving downward without the application of
any torque. Such a condition is known as
overhauling of screws.

5.13 ANSWER TO SAQs


SAQ 1
(d)

Screw-square threads, dm = 50 mm, p =10 mm, = 0.1.


W = (W1 + 100) N
Torque about the axis is

140

M t 280 (1000 50) 2.8 1.05 105 Nmm

W1

50

Design of Screws,
Fasteners and Power
Screws

1000 mm

280N

Fixed nut

Figure 5.27

This torque is equal to friction torque in the threads which is given by


dm
2

where

P = W tan ( + )
tan 1

p
10
tan 1
3.64o
dm
50

tan 1 tan 1 0.1 5.71o

tan ( ) tan (3.64 5.71) tan 9.35 0.165

Mt P

dm
d
W tan ( ) m
2
2

W 0.165

50
4.125 W Nmm
2

4.125 W 2.8 1.05 105

or

W1 71273 100 71173 N

2.8 1.05
105 71273 N
4.125

SAQ 2
(d)

Screw with d1 = 17 mm, p = 5 mm, d = 22 mm, = 0.12, W = 4000 N


M t W tan ( )
dm

dm
2

d1 d 17 22 39

19.5 mm
2
2
2

tan 1

p
5
tan 1
tan 1 0.0816 4.666o
dm
19.5

tan 1 0.12 6.843o

M t 4000 tan (4.666 6.843)

19.5
4000 0.2036 9.75
2

7940.4 Nmm

141

Machine Design

16M t

4W

d13
d12

16 7940.4
(17)3
4 4000
(17)2

8.23 N/mm2

17.62 N/mm2

17.62
2
2
max 2
(8.23) 12.05 N/mm
2
2

Bearing area = n dm t

Bearing pressure

n
5
d m p 19.5 5 765.76
2
2

4000
5.22 N/mm2
765.76

So Factors of safety are calculated for direct stress, shearing stress and
bearing pressure.
FS in direct stress
FS in shear

u
320

18.16
17.62

u
212

17.6
max 12.05

FS in bearing pressure
(e)

12
2.3
5.22

= 0.15, 2 = 30, p = 10 mm, d = 55 mm


dm = d p = 55 10 = 45 mm
0.15,

0.15
0.15

0.1533
cos cos 15

Collar friction surface dc

di do 60 90

75 mm
2
2

c 0.15

The torque due to collar friction,


M tc c W
tan 1

dc
0.15 W 37.5 5.625 W Nmm
2

p
5
tan 1
tan 1 0.0354 2.03o
dm
45

tan 1 tan 1 0.1553 8.83o

tan ( ) tan (2.03 8.83) tan 10.86 0.192

Torque to create a pull of W in screw,


M t W tan ( )

dm
W 0.192 22.5 4.32 W Nmm
2

Total torque to be applied on screw


M M t M tc (5.625 4.32) W 9.945 W Nmm

The power, H M M
142

2 N
2 600
9.945 W
10 3 Watt
60
60

624.863 W 10 3 Watt

0.37 1000

Design of Screws,
Fasteners and Power
Screws

370 103
592 N
624.863

The axial pull exerted by the screw is 592 N.


SAQ 3
Please refer the preceding text.

143

UNIT 6 KEYS AND COUPLINGS

Keys and Couplings

Structure
6.1

Introduction
Objectives

6.2

Types of Keys
6.2.1

Sunk Keys

6.2.2

Saddle Keys

6.2.3

Tangent Keys

6.2.4

Round Keys

6.2.5

Splines

6.3

Forces Acting on a Sunk Key

6.4

Strength of a Sunk Key

6.5

Effect of Keyways

6.6

Couplings

6.7

Summary

6.8

Key Words

6.9

Answers to SAQs

6.1 INTRODUCTION
A key is a piece of steel inserted between the shaft and hub or boss of the pulley to
connect these together in order to prevent relative motion between them. It is always
inserted parallel to the axis of the shaft. Keys are used as temporary fastenings and are
subjected to considerable crushing and shearing stresses. A keyway is a slot or recess in
a shaft and hub of the pulley to accommodate a key.

Objectives
After studying this unit, you should be able to

identify keys and their application,

calculate forces on keys, and

design keys.

6.2 TYPES OF KEYS


The following types of keys are important from the subject point of view :
(a)

Shunk keys,

(b)

Saddle keys,

(c)

Tangent keys,

(d)

Round keys, and

(e)

Splines.

We shall now discuss the above types of keys, in detail, in the following sections.

6.2.1 Sunk Keys


The sunk keys are provided half in the keyway of the shaft and half in the keyway of the
hub or boss of the pulley or gear. The sunk keys are of the following types :

145

Machine Design

Rectangular Sunk Key


A rectangular sunk key is shown in Figure 6.1. The usual proportions of this key
are :
Width of key, w
where

d
2w d
; and thickness of key, t

3
6
4

d = Diameter of the shaft or diameter of the hole in the hub.

The key has taper 1 in 100 on the top side only.


Taper 1: 100

Figure 6.1 : Rectangular Sunk Key

Square Sunk Key


The only difference between a rectangular sunk key and a square sunk key is that
its width and thickness are equal, i.e.
wt

d
4

Parallel Sunk Key


The parallel sunk keys may be of rectangular or square section uniform in width
and thickness throughout. It may be noted that a parallel key is a taperless and is
used where the pulley, gear or other mating part is required to slide along the
shaft.
Gib-head Key
It is a rectangular sunk key with a head at one end known as gib head. It is
usually provided to facilitate the removal of key. A gib head key is shown in
Figure 6.2(a) and its use in shown in Figure 6.2(b).
Taper 1:100

Gib head key

1.75 t
t

Shaft

1.5 t

(a)

(b)
Figure 6.2 : Gib-head Key

The usual proportions of the gib head key are :


Width,

d
;
4

and thickness at large end, t

2w d
.
3
6

Feather Key
A key attached to one member of a pair and which permits relative axial
movement of the other is known as feather key. It is a special key of parallel type
146

which transmits a turning moment and also permits axial movement. It is fastened
either to the shaft or hub, the key being a sliding fit in the key way of the moving
piece.

Keys and Couplings

The feather key may be screwed to the shaft as shown in Figure 6.3(a) or it may
have double gib heads as shown in Figure 6.3(b). The various proportions of a
feather key are same as those of rectangular sunk key and gib head key.
Feather keys

Set screw

(a)

(b)
Figure 6.3 : Feather Key

The following Table 6.1 shows the proportions of standard parallel, tapered and
gib head keys, according to IS : 2292 and 2293-1974 (Reaffirmed 1992).
Table 6.1 : Proportions of Standard Parallel, Tapered and Gib Head Key
Shaft Diameter
(mm) upto and
Including

Key Cross-section
Width
(mm)

Thickness
(mm)

10

Shaft Diameter
(mm) upto and
Including

Key Cross-section
Width
(mm)

Thickness
(mm)

85

25

14

95

28

16

110

32

18

12

130

36

20

17

150

40

22

22

170

45

25

30

10

200

50

28

38

12

230

56

32

44

14

260

63

32

50

16

10

290

70

36

58

18

11

330

80

40

65

20

12

380

90

45

75

22

14

440

100

50

Woodruff Key
The woodruff key is an easily adjustable key. It is a piece from a cylindrical disc
having segmental cross-section in front view as shown in Figure 6.4. A woodruff
key is capable of tilting in a recess milled out in the shaft by a cutter having the
same curvature as the disc from which the key is made. This key is largely used in
machine tool and automobile construction.
147

Machine Design

Figure 6.4 : Woodruff Key

The main advantages of a woodruff key are as follows :


(a)

It accommodates itself to any taper in the hub or boss of the mating


piece.

(b)

It is useful on tapering shaft ends. Its extra depth in the shaft prevents
any tendency to turn over in its keyway.

The disadvantages are :


(a)

The depth of the keyway weakens the shaft.

(b)

It can not be used as a feather.

6.2.2 Saddle Keys


The saddle keys are of the following two types :
(a)

Flat saddle key, and

(b)

Hollow saddle key.

A flat saddle key is a taper key which fits in a keyway in the hub and is flat on the shaft
as shown in Figure 6.5. It is likely to slip round the shaft under load. Therefore, it is used
for comparatively light loads.
Hollow saddle key
w

w
d

Figure 6.5 : Saddle Key

A hollow saddle key is a taper key which fits in a keyway in the hub and the bottom of
the key is shaped to fit the curved surface of the shaft. Since hollow saddle keys hold on
by friction, therefore, these are suitable for light loads. It is usually used as a temporary
fastening in fixing and setting eccentrics, cams, etc.

6.2.3 Tangent Keys


The tangent keys are fitted in pair at right angles as shown in Figure 6.6. Each key is to
withstand torsion in one direction only. These are used in large heavy duty shafts.

Figure 6.6 : Tangent Keys

148

Keys and Couplings

6.2.4 Round Keys


The round keys, as shown in Figure 6.7(a), are circular in section and fit into holes
drilled partly in the shaft and partly in the hub. They have the advantage of
manufacturing as their keyways may be drilled and reamed after the mating parts have
been assembled. Round keys are usually considered to be most appropriate for low
power drives.
Round key

(a)
Tapered pin

(b)
Figure 6.7 : Round Keys

Sometimes the tapered pin, as shown in Figure 6.7(b), is held in place by the friction
between the pin and the reamed tapered holes.

6.2.5 Splines
Sometimes, keys are made integral with the shaft which fit in the keyways broached in
the hub. Such shafts are known as splined shafts as shown in Figure 6.8. These shafts
usually have four, six, ten or sixteen splines. The splined shafts are relatively stronger
than shafts having a single keyway.
The splined shafts are used when the force to be transmitted is large in proportion to the
size of the shaft as in automobile transmission and sliding gear transmissions. By using
splined shafts, we obtain axial movement as well as positive drive.
b

d
D

Figure 6.8 : Splines

6.3 FORCE ACTING ON A SUNK KEY


When a key is used in transmitting torque from a shaft to a rotor or hub, the following
two types of forces act on the key :
(a)

Forces (F1) due to fit of the key in its keyway, as in a tight fitting straight
key or in a tapered key driven in place. These forces produce compressive
stresses in the key which are difficult to determine in magnitude.

(b)

Forces (F) due to the torque transmitted by the shaft. These forces produce
shearing and compressive (or crushing) stresses in the key.

149

Machine Design

The distribution of the forces along the length of the key is not uniform because the
forces are concentrated near the torque-input end. The non-uniformity of distribution is
caused by the twisting of the shaft within the hub.
The forces acting on a key for a clockwise torque being transmitted from a shaft to a hub
are shown in Figure 6.9.
Shaft

F1
t

F
F1

Figure 6.9 : Forces Acting on a Shunk Key

In designing a key, forces due to fit of the key are neglected and it is assumed that the
distribution of forces along the length of key is uniform.

6.4 STRENGTH OF A SUNK KEY


A key connecting the shaft and hub is shown in Figure 6.9.
Let

T = Torque transmitted by the shaft,


F = Tangential force acting at the circumference of the shaft,
d = Diameter of shaft,
l = Length of key,
w = Width of key,
t = Thickness of key, and

and c = Shear and crushing stresses for the material of key.


A little consideration will show that due to the power transmitted by the shaft, the key
may fail due to shearing or crushing.
Considering shearing of the key, the tangential shearing force acting at the circumference
of the shaft,
F = Area resisting shearing Shearing stress = l w
Torque transmitted by the shaft,
TF

d
d
l w
2
2

. . . (6.1)

Considering crushing of the key, the tangential crushing force acting at the
circumference of the shaft,
F = Area resisting crushing Crushing stress l

t
c
2

Torque transmitted by the shaft,


TF

d
t
d
l c
2
2
2

. . . (6.2)

The key is equally strong in shearing and crushing, if


l w

150

d
t
d
l c
2
2
2

[Equating Eqs. (6.1) and (6.2)]

w c

t
2

or

Keys and Couplings

. . . (6.3)

The permissible crushing stress for the usual key material is atleast twice the permissible
shearing stress. Therefore, from Eq. (6.3), we have w = t. In other words, a square key is
equally strong in shearing and crushing.
In order to find the length of the key to transmit full power of the shaft, the shearing
strength of the key is equal to the torsional shear strength of the shaft.
The torque transmitted by the key,
T l w

d
2

. . . (6.4)

and the torque transmitted by the shaft,


T

1 d 3
16

. . . (6.5)

(Taking 1 = Shear stress for the shaft material)


From Eqs. (6.4) and (6.5), we have
l w

1 d 3
2 16

1 d 2 d 1

1.571d 1
8 w
2

(Taking w

d
)
4

. . . (6.6)

When the key material is same as that of the shaft, then = 1.

l = 1.571 d

[From Eq. (6.6)]

Example 6.1
Design the rectangular key for a shaft of 50 mm diameter. The shearing and
crushing stresses for the key material are 42 MP and 70 MPa.
Solution
Given d = 50 mm; = 42 MPa = 42 N/mm2; = 70 MPa = 70 N/mm2.
The rectangular key is designed for a shaft of 50 mm diameter,
Width of key, w

d
,
4

w = 12.5 mm

and thickness of key as

d
6

t = 8.3 mm

The length of key is obtained by considering the key in shearing and crushing.
Let

l = Length of key.

Considering shearing of the key. We know that shearing strength (or torque
transmitted) of the key,
T l w

d
50
l 17 42
13125 l N-mm
2
2

. . . (6.7)

and torsional shearing strength (or torque transmitted) of the shaft,


T

d3
42 (50)3 1.03 106 N-mm
16
16

. . . (6.8)

From Eqs. (6.7) and (6.8), we have


l 1.03

106
79.25 mm
13125

151

Machine Design

Now considering crushing of the key. We know that shearing strength (or torque
transmitted) of the key,
T l

t
d
8.3
50
c l
70
7262.5 l N-mm
2
2
2
2

. . . (6.9)

From Eqs. (6.8) and (6.9), we have


106
141.8 mm
8750

l 1.03

Taking larger of the two values, we have length of key,


l = 141.8 say 142 mm.
Example 6.2
A 45 mm diameter shaft is made of steel with a yield strength of 400 MPa. A
parallel key of size 14 mm width and 9 mm thickness made of steel with a yield
strength of 340 MPa is to be used. Find the required length of key, if the shaft is
loaded to transmit the maximum permissible torque. Use maximum shear stress
theory and assume a factor of safety of 2.
Solution
Given d = 45 mm; for shaft = 400 MPa = 400 N/mm2; w = 14 mm; t = 9 mm;
yt for key = 340 MPa = 340 N/mm2.
Let

l = Length of key.

According to maximum shear stress theory, the maximum shear stress in the shaft,
max

2 F . S.

400
100 N/mm2
22

and maximum shear stress for the key,


k

2 F . S.

340
85 N/mm2
22

(Note : Yield strength for shaft and key materials are different).
We know the maximum torque transmitted by the shaft and key,
T

max d 3
100 (45)3 1.8 106 N-mm
16
16

First of all, let us consider the failure of key due to shearing. We know that the
maximum torque transmitted (T),
1.8 106 l w k

d
45
l 14 85
26775 l
2
2

1.8 106
67.2 mm
26775

Now considering the failure of key due to crushing. We know that the maximum
torque transmitted by the shaft and key (T),
1.8 106 l

t
d
9 340 45
ck l

17213 l Taking ck

F . S.
2
2
2
2
2

1.8 106
104.6 mm
17213

Taking the larger of the two value, we have


152

l = 104.6 say 105 mm.

Keys and Couplings

6.5 EFFECT OF KEYWAYS


A little consideration will show that the keyway cut in the shaft reduces the load carrying
capacity of the shaft. This is due to the stress concentration near the corners of the
keyway and reduction in the cross-sectional area of the shaft. In other words, the
torsional strength of the shaft is reduced. The following relation for the weakening effect
of the keyway is based on the experimental results by H. F. Moore.
w
h
e 1 0.2 1.1
d
d

where ke = Shaft strength reduction factor. It is the ratio of the strength of the shaft with
keyway to the strength of the same shaft without keyway.
w = Width of keyway,
d = Diameter of shaft, and
h = Depth of keyway

Thickness of key (t )
.
2

It is usually assumed that the strength of the keyed shaft is 75% of the solid shaft, which
is somewhat higher than the value obtained by the above relation.
In case the keyway is too long and the key is of sliding type, then the angle of twist is
increased in the ratio k as given by the following relation :
w
h
k 1 0.4 0.7
d

d

where k = Reduction factor for angular twist.


Example 5.3
A 15 kW, 960 rpm motor has a mild steel shaft of 40 mm diameter and the
extension being 75 mm. The permissible shear and crushing stresses for the mild
steel key are 56 MPa and 112 MPa respectively. Design the keyway in the motor
shaft extension. Check the shear strength of the key against the normal strength of
the shaft.
Solution
Given P = 15 kW = 15 103 W; N = 960 rpm; d = 40 mm; l = 75 mm;
= 56 MPa = 56 N/mm2; c = 112 MPa = 112 N/mm2.
We know that the torque transmitted by the motor,
T

P 60 15 103 60

149 N-m 149 103 N-mm


2 N
2 960

Let w = Width of keyway or key.


Considering the key in shearing. We know that the torque transmitted (T).
Assuming that length of the key is equal to length of the shaft (i.e. extension)
149 103 l w

149 103
84 103

d
40
75 w 56
84 103 w
2
2

1.8 mm

This width of keyway is too small. The width of keyway should be at least

d 40

10 mm
4
4

d
.
4

153

Machine Design

Since c = 2, therefore, a square key of w = 10 mm and t = 10 mm is adopted.


According to H. F. Moore, the shaft strength factor,
t
w
h
w
t
ke 1 0.2 1.1 1 0.2 1.1
(because h )
2
d
d
d
2d
10 10
1 0.2
0.8125
20 2 40

Strength of the shaft with keyway,

d 3 75 10 56 (40)3 0.8125 571 844 N


16

and shear strength of the key, i.e. torque carrying capacity


l w

d
40
75 10 56
840 000 N
2
2

Shear strength of the key


840 000

1.47
Normal strength of the shaft 571 844

6.6 COUPLINGS
In engineering applications there arise several cases where two shafts have to be
connected so that power from driving shaft is transmitted to driven shaft without any
change of speed. Such shafts are normally coaxial with slight or no misalignment and
can be connected through devices known as couplings. Permanent couplings, often
referred to as couplings, are the connectors of coaxial shafts and cannot be disengaged
when shafts are running. On the other hand, those couplings which can be readily
engaged or disengaged when driving shaft is running are termed as clutches. The power
is transmitted when a clutch is engaged and not transmitted when clutch is disengaged.
In this unit only permanent couplings will be considered. Figure 6.10 shows one such
coupling connecting the shaft of an electric motor with the shaft of a worm and worm
wheel reducer.

Coupling

Figure 6.10 : A Permanent Coupling Connecting Coaxial Shafts of an Electric Motor


and a Worm and Worm Wheel Reducer

Several types of couplings are used in practice. A few are described here. Muff or sleeve
coupling is shown in Figure 6.11. It is the simplest form of a permanent coupling,
consisting of a steel or cast iron sleeve fitted on the ends of shaft to be connected. The
154

sleeve is connected to the shaft by means of keys. The length of sleeve can be taken as
(3.5 to 4) diameter of the shaft while the outer diameter of the muff or sleeve, D, is
given by

Keys and Couplings

D d 2
D 1.67 d 20 mm

. . . (6.10)

where d is the diameter of shaft in mm, , the thickness of the muff (Figure 6.11).
However, the shear stress in the muss must be checked by treating it as a hollow shat of
internal diameter d and external diameter D. The muff or sleeve coupling has the
advantage of simple design and easy manufacture. However, need of perfect alignment
of shafts is apparent and if not present the connection through a sleeve will induce
bending stresses in the shafts. Yet another disadvantage is that while removing the sleeve
must move on one of the shafts at least over a distance equal to half its length. This
requires the shaft to be longer by this much amount.

3.5 - 4d

d
1cm
3

Figure 6.11 : A Sleeve Coupling

In case of split muff coupling, the sleeve is made to have two halves which are held
together on two coaxial shafts by bolts. This coupling also known as clamp coupling is
shown in Figure 6.12. When the bolts are tightened a compression is induced between
the inner surface of sleeve and outer surface of shaft. This compressive force causes
friction between the muff and the shaft which transmit the torque form one shaft to the
other. In addition, a key is also used to connect the split muff with the two shafts.

(a) Split Muff with Bolts

(b) Split Muff Tightened on Two Coaxial Shafts


Figure 6.12

Split muff coupling has a distinct advantage over ordinary muff coupling as it can be
removed or disassembled without disturbing the shafts.

155

Machine Design

The outer diameter of the muff, D, the length of the muff, L, and the bolt diameter db are
the dimensions required to be determined for split muff coupling. These dimensions can
be calculated from following empirical relations with shaft diameter, d.
D 2.5 d

or

L 1.5 D

or

D 2 d 13 mm
L 3.5 d

. . . (6.11)

db 0.2 d 10 mm

The dimensions of the key can be calculated by strength consideration or selected from
standards. Such standards will be described later in this unit. Even if the bolt diameter in
split muff coupling is calculated from last of Eq. (6.11) it will be worthwhile to check
compression force and consequent frictional torque which results from tightening of
these bolts.

6.6.1 Flange Coupling


Flange coupling, as was mentioned earlier is used to connect two strictly coaxial shafts.
One such coupling is shown in Figure 6.10 and details are shown in Figure 6.13. The two
flanges are usually made in cast iron. These flanges are separately keyed to driving and
driven shafts.
Bolt

Key

Dc Do
Dr
Shaft
Flange

Figure 6.13 : Flange Coupling

The two flanges are identical in all respects except that one has a circular projection and
other has a corresponding recess to make a register. When the two faces of flanges are
brought in contact the projection fits into recess ensuring condition of coaxiality. The
flanges are further connected through bolts placed near the periphery of the flanges. The
faces of flanges are machine finished true right angled to the axis of shafts. The power
may be transmitted by friction between the flange faces or by bolts in which case bolts
will be subjected to shearing stress.
Flange couplings are often employed to transmit great torque and are largely dependable
connections for shafts ranging in diameter between 18 mm to 200 mm. They are easily
designed and manufactured.
Flange coupling normally refers to unprotected types as shown in Figure 6.13. The bolt
head and nut, in this case are fully exposed and may present risk to operators. The bolt
heads and nuts are often protected by providing cover in the flange on them as shown in
Figure 6.14. This coupling is known as protected flange coupling.

156

While designing, the shaft diameter is calculated for transmission of torque, designated
as d. The hub diameter of the flange may be calculated by treating the hub as hollow
shaft but hub diameter D = 2d is often adopted and is found safe. The thickness of the
flange may be calculated by considering it to be in shear along the circumference where
it joins the hub. However, this thickness, t, is often taken as slightly greater than
diameter of the bolt.

Keys and Couplings

D1

Dc

Flange

Shaft
tf
Cover in Flange

(a) Cut View

(b) Sectional View

Figure 6.14 : Protected Flange Coupling

The number of bolts which are placed symmetrically in a circle is determined in advance
by an empirical formula
d
. . . (6.12)
3
50
where d is the shaft diameter in mm. The number of bolts normally varies between
4 to 8.
The diameter of bolt, d1, is determined by yet another empirical formula to obtain
approximate value d1.
n

d1

. . . (6.13)

2 n

where d and d1 are in mm.


The pitch circle diameter, Dc, is then determined from,
Dc 2d 2d1 12 mm

. . . (6.14)

The diameter of bolt is then accurately determined by taking it in single shear at the
interface of two flanges.
Mt n

D
2
d1 s1 c
4
2

. . . (6.15)

where s1 is the permissible shearing stress in bolt and Mt is the torque transmitted. The
factor of safety for the bolt is higher as compared to other parts because it is subjected to
sudden load at the start.
The keys in the coupling are designed in the normal manner and its depth is selected on
the basis of shaft diameter which is calculated for transmission of torque only. The key
dimensions for rectangular section defined w h (width height) can be chosen from
Table 6.2.
Table 6.2 : Standard Key Section Dimensions
w = h (mm2)
87
10 8
12 8
14 9
16 10
18 11
20 12
24 14
28 16
32 18
36 20

d (mm)
28, 30
32, 34, 35
36, 37, 38, 40
42, 44, 45, 46, 47
48, 50, 52
55, 58, 60
65, 68, 70, 72
64, 76, 78, 80, 82, 85, 88
90, 92, 95, 98, 100
105, 110, 115
120, 125

157

Machine Design

Example 6.4
A driving shaft is joined with coaxial driven shaft through a muff coupling. The
shaft transmits 60 kW of power at 150 rpm. Design the shaft, key and muff.
Assume a factor of safety of 5 with following ultimate strength values.
Ultimate shear strength for shaft = 300 N/mm2
Ultimate shear strength for key = 200 N/mm2
Ultimate shear strength for muff = 50 N/mm2
Ultimate compressive strength for key = 500 N/mm2
Solution
If torque transmitted by the shaft is Mt Nm, power transmitted is H Watt and
angular velocity is rad/s,
H 60 103 M t M t

Mt

2 150
60

60 103
3819.7 Nm
5

The stress caused by torque at outer surface of shaft of diameter, d


s

16 M t
d3

16 3819.7 103
d3

This stresses is not to exceed permissible value s

300
60 N/mm2 .
5

19.45 106 3
d
68.7 mm

60

This diameter is increased by 25% to take care of weakening by key so that


d = 85.9 mm say 86 mm.
From Table 6.2 choose a key with w = 24 mm and h = 14 mm. See Figure 6.15
below.

Figure 6.15 : Key

The length l of key is calculated from shear force on it.


The shear force F

M t 3819.7 3

10 88.83 103 N
d
86
2
2

The shear area = w . l = 24 l mm2


The permissible shear stress

158

88.83 103
40
24 l

200
40 N/mm2
5

or

Keys and Couplings

2.22 103
92.53 mm
24

The key has to be slightly less than the half muff length. The muff length = 3.5 d
to 4 d, i.e. 301 mm to 344 mm. Lets take muff length 301 mm, half of which is
150.5 mm hence, key length of 140 mm is safe.
We check height of the key against crushing under same force that causes
shearing.

h
l F 88.83 103 N
2

88.83 103
90.6 N/mm2
7 140

Permissible compressive stress

500
100 N/mm2
5

Thus, key is safe in crushing.


The muff is designed as hollow shaft with internal diameter as the diameter of the
shaft. The muff will transmit same power or torque as shaft.
With D as outside diameter
J

( D4 d 4 )
32

3819.7 103
t
D
J
( D4 d 4 )
2
32

The permissible shear stress in muff

50
10 N/mm2
5

D4 d 4 16 3819.7 103

1945.26 103
D
10

D4 864 1945.36 103 D


D4 1.95 106 D 54.7 106

. . . (i)

This equation can be solved by trial and error and to get an idea of starting point
take D = 2.5 d = 215 mm. With this value, the term on right hand side can be
neglected resulting in D

1
3 3
(1950 10 )

125 mm .

Choose value of 130, 140, 150, 160 mm for D. Then for D = 140 mm,
D4 = 38.4 107
Left hand side of (i) 384 106 273 106 31.5 106
For D = 130 mm, D4 = 285 106
Left hand side of (i) 285 106 253.5 106 31.5 106
For D = 135 mm, LHS 332 106 263 106 69 106
For D = 132 mm, LHS 303.6 106 257.4 106 46.2 106
159

Machine Design

For D = 133 mm, LHS 313 106 259.4 106 53.6 106
D = 133 mm comes closest to solution of (i).
The above trial and error method has been given to make reader familiar with such
method. We would rather select the outer diameter from empirical formula.
D 2d 13 mm 2 86 13 185 mm

Example 6.5
A shaft transmitting 150 kW is to be connected to a coaxial shaft through cast iron
flange coupling. The shaft runs at 120 rpm. The key and shaft are to be made of
same material for which permissible shearing stress is 60 N/mm2 and compressive
strength is 120 N/mm2. The steel bolts may be subjected to maximum shearing
stress of 26 N/mm2. Design protected type flange coupling.
Solution
Shaft Diameter d
H M t or 150 103 M t

Mt

2 120
60

150 103
12 103 Nm 12 106 Nmm
12.57

For the shaft

16 M t
d

60 N/mm2
1

or

16 12 106 3
d
100.6 mm
60

Increase diameter by 25% to take care of keyway.

d = 125 mm

. . . (i)

Bolt Diameter d1
Let there be n bolts clamping two flanges and let each bolt be subjected to
shearing stress 1. The force produced tangential to pitch circle of bolts
(The diameter of pitch circle is DC from Figure 6.13)
F n

2
d1 1
4

The torque produced by F must be equal to torque transmitted by the shaft.

Mt F

Dc
D

n d12 1 c
2
4
2

From Eq. (6.13)


n

d
125
3
3 5.5 say 6
50
50

Also from Eq. (8.24)


d1

d
2 n

125
25.5 mm
2 6

Dc can be obtained form Eq. (6.14)


Dc 2d 2d1 12 mm

2 125 2 25.5 12 313 mm

160

. . . (ii)

We calculate RH side of (ii) by using values of d1, Dc and 1 = 26 N/mm2.


Mt 6

Keys and Couplings

313
(25.5)2 26
12.47 106 Nmm
4
2

Since this value is greater than torque transmitted, 12 106 Nmm,


n = 6, d1 = 25.5 mm, Dc = 313 mm

. . . (iii)

are acceptable values.


Hub Diameter D
The hub diameter can be taken as 2d, with internal diameter = d. Then
treating hub as hollow shaft under torque Mt, the shear stress should be less
than 6.6 N/mm2 (shear stress in C.I).

( D4 d 4 )
Mt
2 with D 2d 250 mm
D
32

16 12 106 250
(250 125 )
4

15.3 109
36.6 10

4.18 N/mm2

This stress is less then 6.6 N/mm2, hence, D = 250 mm is safe.

D = 250 mm

. . . (iv)

Length of Hub, L
Length of the hub is equal to length of the key.
From Table 6.2 for shaft diameter of 125 mm, find w = 36 mm, h = 20 mm.
d
You may also choose a square key with w h 31.25 mm .
4
Shear stress in key is same as in shaft, = 60 N/mm2.

Mt l w

d
l 36 60 62.5, M t 12 106 Nmm
2

12 106
89 mm
36 60 62.5

. . . (v)

Thickness of Flange
There is possibility of failure by shear along the circumference where flange
joint the hub. If t is the thickness of the flange, the area over which shear
may occur is D t. The shear force will be D t 3, 3 being the permissible
shearing stress in cast iron flange. This, will cause the torque equal to the
torque transmitted by the shaft

D t 3

D
Mt
2

2 12 106
(250)2 6.6

18.5 mm

The bolts in holes of flange may be crushed. Of course the hole surface may
also be crushed but if bolts are safe then the hole surface will be safe since
the CI is stronger than steel in compression.

161

The area resisting crushing is d1 t and force in n bolts is n d1 t c at a radius


D
of c . Thus, the torque is
2

Machine Design

n d1 t 3

Dc
313
6 25.5 18.5 120
53 106 Nmm
2
2

This torque is much larger than 12 106 Nmm, and hence dimensions are
safe.
Thus,

t = 18.5 mm

. . . (vi)

Other Dimensions
The outer diameter of flange is calculated from
Do 2Dc D 2 313 250 376 mm

The diameter of register, Dr

Do
188 mm
2

. . . (vii)
. . . (viii)

Thickness of the protective cover on the top of the flange


tf

d
or t , Choose tf = t = 18.5 mm
4

. . . (ix)

The extension of protection should be 5 mm greater than nut height on both


flanges.
Summary of Results
Shaft diameter

d = 125 mm

. . . (i)

Bolt diameter

d1 = 25.5 mm

. . . (ii)

Number of bolts

n=6

. . . (iii)

Pitch circle diameter of bolts

Dc = 313 mm

. . . (iv)

Hub diameter

D = 250 mm

. . . (v)

Length of hub

L = 89 mm

. . . (vi)

Key dimensions

w = 36 mm, h = 20 mm, L = 89 mm . . . (vii)

Thickness flange

t = 18.5 mm

. . . (viii)

Outer diameter of flange

Do = 376 mm

. . . (ix)

Diameter of register

Dr = 188 mm

. . . (x)

Thickness of protective cover tf = 18.5 mm

. . . (xi)

SAQ 1

162

(a)

Sketch a muff coupling and identify its advantages and disadvantages.

(b)

Sketch a flange coupling and mention how strength of bolts and thickness of
the flange can be calculated.

(c)

Mention materials for shaft, flange, keys and bolt.

(d)

Show register in flange. What purpose does it serve?

(e)

Design and draw a flange coupling, to connect two coaxial shafts of an


electric motor and worm and worm wheel reducer. The shafts transmit 7 kW
of power at 300 rpm. The permissible stresses are :

Keys and Couplings

Shearing stress in shaft = 50 N/mm2


Shearing stress in key = 25 N/mm2
Shearing stress in coupling = 3 N/mm2
Shearing stress in bolt = 25 N/mm2
The results must consist of shaft diameter (d), which has to be increased by
25% to take care of keyway, number of bolts (n), diameter of bolts (d1),
pitch circle diameter of bolts (Dc), diameter of hub (D), length of hub (L),
d
assume square key of size , thickness of flange (t), outside flange
4
diameter (Do).

6.7 SUMMARY
Shaft is an important machine element and transmits power. The keyways becomes
essential feature of shafts because some part like gear or pulley has to be attached on it
to transmit power. The keys are standardised and can be selected from relevant table.
1
There is yet simpler method to use a square key of depth
of diameter of shaft.
4
Couplings connect coaxial shafts. They are formed by two discs attached to shafts
through key and jointed by bolts, parallel to shaft axis. The discs are made as flanges
integral with the hub. The flanges are often made in cast iron. Muff couplings are thick
cylinders which could be used as sleeves or split to be bolted around the shafts. The
driving force in muff coupling is friction between the inner surface of muff and outer
surface of shaft. The muff can be a single piece sleeve keyed to shafts or split in halves
which are tightened by the bolts. The muff is made in cast iron.

6.8 KEY WORDS


Shaft

: A cylindrical machine part which transmits power


and is subjected to BM and torque.

Key

: A part of rectangular cross-section which connects


gear or pulley to shaft.

Coupling

: Device to connect coaxial shafts.

Muff

: A hollow cylinder which may or may not be split


along central line.

Flange Coupling

: Flanges integral with hub which connects to shaft


via key. Plane surfaces of two flanges on two axial
shafts contact. The flanges are connected through
bolts.

163

Machine Design

6.9 ANSWERS TO SAQs


SAQ 1
(e)

Follow Example 6.4, Section 6.6 and match dimension with those shown in
Figure 6.16.
58

58
10

10

10

68
4
104
PCD

36

4
72

136

7
Figure 6.16

164

UNIT 7 SHAFTS

Shafts

Structure
7.1

Introduction
Objectives

7.2

Types of Shaft

7.3

Materials for Shafts

7.4

Shaft Strength under Torsional Load

7.5

Stresses in Bending and Torsion

7.6

Shaft Loading

7.7

Shafts under Torsion and Bending

7.8

Stiffness of Shaft

7.9

Summary

7.10 Answers to SAQs

7.1 INTRODUCTION
Shafts form the important elements of machines. They are the elements that support
rotating parts like gears and pulleys and in turn are themselves supported by bearings
resting in the rigid machine housings. The shafts perform the function of transmitting
power from one rotating member to another supported by it or connected to it. Thus, they
are subjected to torque due to power transmission and bending moment due to reactions
on the members that are supported by them. Shafts are to be distinguished from axles
which also support rotating members but do not transmit power. Axles are thus subjected
to only bending loads and not to the torque.
Shafts are always made to have circular cross-section and could be either solid or
hollow. The shafts are classified as straight, cranked, flexible or articulated. Straight
shafts are commonest to be used for power transmission. Such shafts are commonly
designed as stepped cylindrical bars, that is, they have various diameters along their
length, although constant diameter shafts would be easy to produce. The stepped shafts
correspond to the magnitude of stress which varies along the length. Moreover, the
uniform diameter shafts are not compatible with assembly, disassembly and
maintenance. Such shafts would complicate the fastening of the parts fitted to them,
particularly the bearings, which have to be restricted against sliding in axial direction.
While determining the form of a stepped shaft it is borne in mind that the diameter of
each cross-section should be such that each part fitted on to the shaft has convenient
access to its seat.
The parts carried by axle or shaft are fastened to them by means of keys or splines and
for this purpose the shaft and axle are provided with key ways or splines. The bearings
that support the shafts or axle may be of sliding contact or rolling contact type. In the
former case the journal of the shaft rotates freely on thin lubricant layer between itself
and bearing, while in the latter case the inner race of the bearing is force fitted on the
journal of the shaft and rotates with the shaft while outer race is supported in the housing
and remains stationary.
A shaft is joined with another in different ways and configurations. The coaxial shafts
are connected through couplings which may be rigid or flexible.
165

Machine Design

Objectives
After studying this unit, you should be able to

describe types of shafts,

take decisions to select the materials for shaft,

estimate shaft diameters in different segments along length, and

design couplings for shafts.

7.2 TYPES OF SHAFT


The types of shaft are mentioned in introduction. Figure 7.1(a) shows a stepped shaft
with three seats for supported parts which can be pulleys, gears or coupling. Two seats
for bearings are also indicated. These bearings will be rolling contact type. Figure 7.1(b)
shows a single crank shaft. The crank may be connected to another element like
connecting rod which may have a combined rotary and reciprocating motion. The
connection is through a bearing often called crank pin. The straight part of the shaft may
support a pulley or a gear. The connection will be through a key. Multiple crank shaft is
shown in Figure 7.1(c). Each crank pin would carry a connecting rod and each crank pin
will be between the supporting bearings. The other shaft types are explanatory.
Keyway for
Coupling

Bearing

Keyway for
Gear or pulley

Bearing

Steps or seats
for parts

(a) A Stepped Shaft


Bearing
Bearing

Crank

(b) A Single Crank Shaft


Pin

Web
Pin

Web

B
Bearing

Pin

(c) Multiple Crank Shaft

(d) Flexible Shaft

(e) Articulated Shaft


Figure 7.1 : Different Types of Shafts

166

The adjacent sections of shafts with different diameters are joined by smooth transition
fillet with as large radius as permitted by supported part or bearing that supports the
shaft. The larger radius of fillets will reduce stress concentration factor.

7.3 MATERIALS FOR SHAFTS

Shafts

From the above discussion the materials for the shaft would be required to possess
(a)

high strength,

(b)

low notch sensitivity,

(c)

ability to be heat treated and case hardened to increase wear resistance of


journals, and

(d)

good machinability.

Shafts could be made in mild steel, carbon steels or alloy steels such as nickel,
nickel-chromium or chrome-vanadium steels.
Commercial shaftings (available in stock) are generally made in low carbon steel by hot
rolling. Such shaftings could be finished to size by cold drawing are machining (turning
and grinding). Cold drawing produces stronger shaft but generally introduces residual
stresses which may result in distortion of the shaft when subjected to unsymmetrical
machining like cutting a keyway. Table 7.1 describes shafting available commercially.
Table 7.1 : Standard Sizes of Commercial Shafting (Diameter)
Upto 25 mm in increment of 0.5 mm
25 to 50 mm in increment of 1.0 mm
50 to 100 mm in increment of 2.0 mm
100 to 200 mm in increment of 5.0 mm

Carbon steel is frequently used as a shafting material and this material can be subjected
to heat treatment which can result into ultimate strength of about 800 MPa with yield
strength exceeding 550 MPa. Such steels can be tempered and hardened to a hardness of
40 to 50 RC to get a good wear resistance in the journal. Most common material is
medium carbon steel with C between 0.27% and 0.57%.
Heavily loaded shafts are often made in alloy steels which because of their high strength
would result in smaller diameters. These steels are amenable to heat treatment and
especially high wear resistance in journal is obtainable by case hardening treatment.
However, designer has to be careful while choosing such steels because they will be
highly notch sensitive. These steels also are costly. Further, the smaller diameters of
shafts may not always be advantageous, because a strong enough shaft may not have
sufficient rigidity. Due to these reasons, the high strength alloy steels have limited scope
of utility. Carbon steels are largely replacing alloy steels because of development of
methods of heat treatment and case hardening. Special purpose and large diameter shafts
are often forged. Diameters larger than 125 mm are regarded as large in this respect. The
forged shafts are subsequently machined to size.
Ductile cast iron is also finding use as a shaft material because of its low notch
sensitivity and damping capacity.
Steel castings are also used as shaft material and their strength is comparable to mild
steel.

7.4 SHAFT STRENGTH UNDER TORSIONAL LOAD


The shafts are always subjected to fatigue load hence they must be calculated for fatigue
strength under combined bending and torsion loading. However, the initial estimate of
diameter is obtained from the torque that is transmitted by the shaft. The bending
moment variation along the length of the shaft is established after fixing some structural
features like distance between supporting bearings and distance between points of
application of forces and bearings.

167

Machine Design

Following notations will be used for shaft.


d = diameter of shaft,
Mt = torque transmitted by the shaft,
H = power transmitted by the shaft (W),
N = rpm of the shaft,
s = permissible shearing stress,
b = permissible bending stress, and
Mb = bending moment.
Considering only transmission of torque by a solid shaft.
The power transmitted by shaft and the torque in the shaft are related as
H Mt

If H is in Watts and Mt in Nm. is angular velocity in rad/s and equals


H

2 N
60

M t 2 N
60
30 H
Nm
N

Mt

. . . (7.1)

The shearing stress and the torque are related as

16 M t 103
d3

N/mm2

If Mt is in Nm and d in mm.

10 3 d 3
16

Mt

. . . (7.2)

From Eqs. (7.1) and (7.2)


30 H

10 3 d 3
N 16

16 30 H
103
2

or

d3

H
d 36.5

0.33

. . . (7.3)

mm

In Eq. (7.3) H is in W, in N/mm2, N in rpm and d in mm.


For calculating shaft diameter, d, we substitute the permissible value of shearing stress in
place of . Table 7.2 describes permissible values for steel shaft under various service
conditions, when the bending are much smaller then torsional loads.
Table 7.2 : Allowable Shear Stress for Shafts
Service Condition

168

s (MPa)

Heavily loaded short shafts carrying


no axial load

48-106

Multiple bearing long shafts carrying


no axial load

13-22

Axially loaded shafts (bevel gear drive


or helical gear drive)

8-10

Shafts working under heavy overloads


(stone crushers, etc.)

4.5-5.3

Manufacturers, sometimes making shaft routinely, like to use Eq. (7.3) with value for
substituted. For example for a heavily loaded short shaft, the first in Table 7.2, Eq. (7.3)
will yield
1

d 36.5

(78) 3

or

H
d 8.543
N

H

N

Shafts

0.33

0.33

For shaft working under heavy overload, the last of Table 7.2, using = 4.9
1

d 36.5

(4.9) 3

H

N

0.33

0.33

H
d 21.5
or
N
Suppose the manufacturer wants to find diameter of the shaft of machine which is short
and likely to be overloaded with nominal power of 15 kW at 300 rpm.
15 103
d 21.5
300

0.33

79.2 mm

Thus, with handy formula the engineer can calculate the diameter in no time. Yet the
detailed calculations may have to be done for carefully designed shafts. We will consider
such design procedure now.

7.5 STRESSES IN BENDING AND TORSION


The shafts are circular section cylindrical parts that are rotating and supported in
bearings. Most shafts are subjected to bending moment and torque simultaneously. The
bending moment at different sections has to be calculated and a bending moment
diagram is drawn to locate section where bending moment is highest. The torque at this
section is also calculated. We will see in solved example how the bending moment
diagram is plotted along with torque. In this section let us assume that at any section the
BM is M and torque is Mt. Then stresses due to M and Mt can be calculated by normal
bending and torsion theories, at any point on the surface of the shaft. Figure 7.2 shows
the stress distribution over the cross-section and state of stress at a point on the surface at
d
a radius . Apparently both bending stress and shearing stress (respectively due to
2
M
and Mt) have highest magnitudes 1 and 1 at surface or point A.
1

32 M

16 M t

d3
d3

The maximum principal stress for state of stress at point A shown in Figure 7.2 is
written as
2

p1

1

1 12
2
2
16 M
d3

16 M

3
d

16 M t

3

169

Machine Design

Mt

16
d3
A

[ M M 2 M t2 ]

. . . (i)
1

Mt

x
M

x-section

Distribution
of stress

A
1

State of stress at point A.

Figure 7.2 : A Shaft under Bending and Torsion

If we assume that a bending moment Me, acting alone would induce a bending stress p1
at point A, then
p1

32 M e 1

. . . (ii)

d2

Then the right hand sides of (i) and (ii) being equal we obtain
Me

1
[ M M 2 M t2 ]
2

. . . (7.4)

Using equivalent bending moment for designing the shaft is same as using maximum
normal stress theory of failure. If b denote the permissible bending stress for the steel
shaft, then
b

32 M e
d3

M
d 2.17 e
b

0.33

. . . (7.5)

For example, we can find diameter of a shaft at a section where M = 40 kNm and
Mt = 20 kNm. Take b = 50 N/mm2.
You should be careful about units. Me is in Nmm and b in N/mm2 in Eq. (7.5).
Me

1
[40 166 106
2

402 202 ]

106 20
[2 4 1]
2

107 4.236 Nmm

Using calculated value of Me and given value of b in Eq. (7.5)

106
d 2.17 4.236

50

or

0.33

d = 94.6 mm

If we use maximum shearing stress theory then failure will occur when
max

170

16
d3

M 2 M t2

If we assume that a torque Mte acting along will cause same shearing stress as max, then
M te M 2 M t2

Shafts

. . . (7.6)

Mte is called equivalent torque. Both Me and Mte can be used to calculate shaft diameter.
While solving an actual problem the designer will have to find bending moment and
torque at various sections of shaft. It may require complete understanding of how the
forces are transmitted to shafts from attached parts like gears, pulleys and chain
sprockets or coupling. It also needs understanding as to how bearings provide support to
the shaft. The shaft can be regarded as simply supported or fixed beam for determining
the bending moments. We will consider the shaft loading now.

7.6 SHAFT LOADING


The parts that are supported by shaft have already been mentioned as gear, pulley and
coupling. Figure 7.19(a) showed the seats for these parts on shaft. Figure 7.3(a) shows
the shaft on which gear, pulley and coupling are supported. It is also shown that the
pulley and coupling are connected to shaft through key which sits in the keyway.
Figure 7.3(b) shows yet another shaft that supports a worm wheel. Two roller bearings
support the shaft and themselves are supported in the casing.

3
2

1
4

(a) Shaft Carrying 1 Gear, 2 Pulley, 5 Coupling and Supported in 3 Sliding Contact Bearing
and in 4 Rolling Contact Bearing

5
2
1

3
4

(b) Shaft 1 Supports Worm Wheel, 2 and is Supported in Bearings, 3 and 4.


Bearings are Supported in the Housing 5
Figure 7.3

171

Machine Design

Calculations of forces coming upon the shaft from gear may not be explained in detail.
The simplest gear is straight tooth spur gear, i.e. the pair of gears mounted on parallel
shaft with teeth parallel to the axes of the shafts. In helical spur gear the teeth are
inclined to the parallel axes of the shafts. In case of straight tooth spur gears the
contacting teeth are subjected to tangential and radial force components (tangent and
radial in respect of pitch circle of gear) denoted by Pt and Pr. Pt will cause the torque and
a transverse force on the shaft. Pr will act as a transverse force on the shaft. These forces
are shown in line diagram in Figure 7.4. The forces Pr and Pt will act in two planes
which are mutually perpendicular. Thus, they will cause bending moment in mutually
perpendicular plane. The resultant bending moment can be found by combining bending
moments by usual method of finding resultant of two vectors along two mutually
perpendicular directions. Alternatively the resultant of Pt and Pr can be found as Pn such
that
Pt Pn cos and Pr Pn sin so that Pr Pt tan
Pitch circle
Dia. dp

. . . (7.6)

Pt
Pr
Pt

Pt
Pt

Pr

Figure 7.4 : Loading of Shaft by Gear

Here is the pressure angle of gear teeth (You may like to revise your understanding of
pressure angle). For understanding occurrence of shaft torque two fictitious forces each
equal to Pt and opposite to each, may be assumed to act on the shaft parallel to Pt at gear
1
pitch circle as shown in Figure 7.4. Then the couple Pt with arm equal to
of pitch
2
d
circle diameter will cause a torque equal to Pt . This is the torque transmitted by the
2
shaft. Another Pt at centre of the gear will act transversely to cause bending moment.
Perpendicular to the plane of Pt, Pr will act on the shaft in similar manner. The bending
moments Mb and Mr will be calculated depending upon the distance between supports. If
the supporting bearings are narrow like ball or roller bearing, the supports may be
regarded as simple. If bearings are long like sliding contact then supports are regarded as
fixed.
As against gear a pulley is pulled by belt tension on two sides. The tensions on tight and
T
slack sides of belt, called T1 and T2 are related as 1 e where is coefficient of
T2
friction between pulley surface and belt and is angle of contact between belt and pulley
(Figure 7.5). This figure is representing the simplest case in which two belt sides are
vertical, being . The shaft will be subjected to load T1 + T2 acting transversely.
Additionally the weight of pulley will also act at the same section. If the centre line of T1
and T2 is inclined then components in vertical and horizontal planes can be found and
bending moment in vertical plane is calculated by combining weight of the pulley with
vertical component of the tension (T1 + T2). BM in horizontal plane is separately
calculated and BM in horizontal and vertical planes are combined, thereafter. The torque
D
on shaft is calculated as (T1 T2 )
where D is the diameter of pulley.
2
172

In case of chain only force tangent to sprocket will act. If the force is P, then it will
Pd p
result in torque of
and transverse force P on shaft.
2

Shafts

T1 + T 2

T2

T1
T1 + T 2

Figure 7.5 : Loading of Shaft by Pulley

The coupling is the connection between coaxial shafts through discs (called flanges as
they are integral with hub). These discs are connected to shafts through keys, the bolts
connect the discs with each other. The shear force develops in each bolt and of such
shear forces exert torque on the shaft. If there are n bolts at the pitch circle of diameter dp
nF d p
then the torque is
where F is shear force in each bolt. Figure 7.5 shows
2
schematic of coupling. No BM is caused by coupling.
Driver
shaft

Bolt

Mt

Driver
shaft

Flange

Mt

dp

Pitch circle
Mt

Figure 6.6 : Coupling

With calculation of load understood and supports of bearings known we can proceed to
make some calculations through solved examples.
Example 7.1
A shaft is required to transmit a power of 25 kW at 360 rpm. The force analysis
due to attached parts results in BM of 830 Nm at a section between bearings. If
permissible stresses in the shaft are : 60 N/mm2 in bending and 40 N/mm2 in shear
calculate the diameter of the shaft.
Solution
M = 830 Nm = 0.83 106 Nmm
Power, H 25 103 M t

Mt

2 N
2 360
Mt
M t 12 M t
60
60

25 103
663.15 Nm 0.663 106 Nmm
12

Equivalent BM from Eq. (7.4)


Me

or

1
[ M M 2 M t2 ]
2

1
[830 (830)2 (663)2 ]
2

1
[830 1062.3]
2

M e 946.15 Nm 0.946 106 Nmm

. . . (i)

173

Machine Design

Equivalent torque from Eq. (7.6)


M te M 2 M t2
1062.3 Nm 1.062 106 Nmm

. . . (ii)

The equivalent BM will cause bending stress which is not allowed to exceed
permissible value.
32 0.946 106

60

32 M e

or

d3

9.6 106
0.161 106
60

d = 54.4 mm

d3

d3

. . . (a)

The equivalent torque will cause shearing stress which is not allowed to exceed
permissible value.
16 1.062 106

40

16 M e

or

d3

5.41 106
0.1352 106
40

d = 51.33 mm

d3

d3

. . . (b)

Out of (a) and (b) the larger diameter will be selected.


Shaft diameter d = 54.4 mm.
Example 7.2
A shaft carries a 1000 N pulley in the centre of two ball bearings which are
2000 mm apart. The pulley is keyed to the shaft and receives 30 kW of power at
150 rpm. The power is transmitted from the shaft through a flexible coupling just
outside the right bearing. The belt derive is horizontal and the sum of the belt
tension is 8000 N. Calculate the diameter of the shaft if permissible stress in
bending is 80 N/mm2 and in shear it is 45 N/mm2.
Solution
The belt tensions T1 and T2 cause horizontal transverse force while weight of the
pulley causes vertical transverse force in the middle of the span as shown in
Figure 7.7. The BM diagrams in vertical and horizontal planes and torque
diagrams are also shown.
Force in vertical plane = FV = 1000 N
Force in horizontal plane = FH = 8000 N
Both FV and FH act at the mid span. Maximum BM occurs at mid span, assuming
that the bearings behave as simple support
MV

1000 2000
0.5 106 Nmm
4

MH

8000 2000
4 106 Nmm
4

Resultant BM, M MV2 M H2 106 0.52 42 4.031 106 Nmm


The shaft torque
174

Mt

H
30 103

1.91 103 1.9 106 Nmm


2 150
60

Shafts
1000 mm

1000 mm
T1

T1 + T 2

Load in vertical plane

T2

w
w = 1000N
w

B.M. in vertical plane


T1+T2 = 8000N

Load in horizontal plane

5 105 N.mm

T +T
1
2
2

T +T
1
2
2

40 105 N.mm

B.M. in horizontal plane


1.9 105 N.mm

Torque

Figure 7.7

Eq. BM

Me

1
1
[M M 2 M t2 ] [4.031 4.0312 1.912 ] 106
2
2

4.25 106 Nmm

and Eq. torque

M te M 2 M t2 4.0312 1.912 106 Nmm


= 4.46 106 Nmm

Permissible bending stress = 80 N/mm2


d3

d 81.5 mm

Permissible shearing stress = 45


d3

d3

32 4.25 106
0.54 106
80

32 M e

. . . (a)
16 M te
d3

16 4.46 106
0.5048 106
45

d 79.6 mm

. . . (b)

(a) being larger diameter is acceptable, d = 81.5 mm

SAQ 1
(a)

Describe different types of shafts. Sketch a stepped shaft to support a gear,


a pulley and coupling at one end. The shaft will be supported in ball
bearings.

(b)

Describe materials for shaft.

(c)

What are the loads that come upon shaft?

(d)

How will you calculate load upon a shaft if it supports a pulley or when it
supports a gear?

(e)

Define equivalent bending moment and equivalent torque and state upon
which theories of failure they depend.

175

Machine Design

(f)

A machine shaft is supported in ball bearings placed at a distance of


750 mm. The shaft carries a 450 mm diameter pulley at a distance of
200 mm on the right of right hand bearing and a straight tooth spur gear
200 mm pitch circle diameter on the right of left hand bearing at a distance
of 250 mm from it. 15 kW of power is supplied at spur gear at 600 rpm and
taken off at the pulley on which belt is mounted making an angle of 60o
with the horizontal. The ratio of the belt tensions is 3 : 1 and pulley weighs
800 N. The gear meshes with another gear directly located above the shaft.
The permissible bending stress is 100 MPa and permissible shearing stress
is 55 MPa. The pressure angle of gear is 20o. Determine the diameter of the
shaft.

7.7 SHAFTS UNDER TORSION AND BENDING


Most frequently shafts are loaded under torque and bending moment simultaneously. In
addition, the shafts may be loaded by axial load of tensile or compressive nature. The
bending moments on shaft may act in different planes and they have to be solved in two
mutually perpendicular planes and their resultant could be obtained by usual method.
If at any section of the shaft a bending moment Mb and a torque Mt are acting, then by
maximum principal stress theory, the equivalent bending moment can be expressed as
M eq

1
[ M b M b2 M t2 ]
2

. . . (7.7)

The diameter of the shaft then can be calculated from well known equation of bending of
beam, that is,
b

32 M eq
d3

M eq
d 2.15

0.33

. . . (7.8)

b here is permissible bending stress which could be taken as fatigue strength divided by
factor of safety.
Table 7.3 : Allowable Bending Stress for Steels
Material

Carbon Steel

Alloy Steel
Steel Casting

176

u
(MPa)

b (MPa)
Constant Load
b1

Pulsating Load
b2

Reversible Load
b3

400

130

70

40

500

170

75

45

600

200

95

55

700

230

110

65

800

270

130

75

1000

330

150

90

400

100

50

30

500

120

70

40

The torque transmitted by the shaft remains constant over a long period of time. It varies
only when power changes and power changes occurs only occasionally. Thus, the
shearing stress on the shaft cross-section changes much less frequently. On the other
hand the bending stress on the shaft cross-section changes in each cycle, which means
bending stress changes with frequency, which is equal to rpm of the shaft. Eq. (7.4),
though expresses bending stress, is function of both bending moment and torque and
hence is equally dependent upon both. It will be more logical to make it more dependent
upon bending moment and less upon the torque. This is done by multiplying torque by a
factor where < 1. Thus, the equivalent BM will be
M eq M b2 ( M t )2

where

Shafts

. . . (7.9)

b 3
for pulsating torque and = 1 for reversible torque.
b 2

b1, b2 and b3 are described as permissible stresses under three respective conditions of
(i) constant load, (ii) pulsating load, and (iii) reversible load. These permissible stresses
for some steels are described in Table 7.3.
Thus, Eq. (7.5) is rewritten as
M eq
d 2.15

b3

0.33

. . . (7.10)

Eq. (7.8) is used to determine shaft diameters at various sections along its length. The
method consists in plotting the bending moment diagrams in the plane of the forces,
resolving these bending moment diagrams into two mutually perpendicular planes and
combining them to calculate resultant bending moment. The torque diagram is similarly
plotted and equivalent bending moment is then calculated, which when substituted in
Eq. (7.10) would give the shaft diameter, d.
The axial thrust, that acts as a compressive force on the shaft cross-section, usually
causes stress that is in insignificat in comparison with bending stresses. However, if it is
considered, it reduces the tensile stress. If the axial load is tensile in nature, the resultant
stress may be taken as
b t

. . . (7.11)

where t is the tensile stress and , the same factor as defined earlier. Such designs of
shafts in which compressive axial force is produced are often preferred.
The diameters of such sections which carry keyed parts are often increased by 8 to 10%
in excess of those calculated by Eq. (7.10) to take care of the stress concentration
produced and cross-section reduced by keyway. The shaft journal diameters are also
calculated in the same way but their lengths are determined in conjunction with the
bearing. For rolling contact bearing, the length is selected, depending upon proper
bearing width. For sliding contact bearing, generally, the length varies from 0.4 to
1.5 times diameter. In revised calculation factor of safety at each critical cross-section is
checked.

7.7.1 ASME Formula


Yet another approach for shaft calculation is based upon maximum shearing stress
theory whereby equivalent torque is given by
M teq M b2 M t2

. . . (7.12)

when Mteq is used in torsion equation, shaft diameter


1

16 M teq 3
d

s is permissible shearing stress.

. . . (7.13)
177

Machine Design

The equivalent torque method is recommended by American Society of Mechanical


Engineering for calculation of shaft diameters. They suggest the modification of
equivalent torque as
M teq ( Km M b )2 ( Kt M t )2

. . . (7.13)

Recommended values of Km and Kt are described in Table 7.4 while permissible shearing
stress s to be used in Eq. (7.12) is chosen smaller of the following :
s 0.3 Y

or

s 0.18 u

. . . (7.14)

where Y is the yield strength and u is the ultimate tensile strength.


These values may be further reduced by 25% if keyway is present.
Table 7.4 : Values of Km and Kt in ASME Formula
Type of Loading

Km

Kt

1.0
1.5-2.0

1.0
1.5-2.0

1.5
1.5

1.0
1.0

1.5-2.0
2.0-3.0

1.0-1.5
1.5-3.0

Stationary Shaft :
Load applied gradually
Load applied suddenly
Rotating Shaft :
Load applied gradually
Steady load
Load applied suddenly
Minor shock
Heavy shock

The design stress in Eq. (7.12) can be further reduced by 25% if shaft failure would
cause serious consequences.
Some times it is preferred to increase the torque by using a dividing factor, K to account
for presence of a keyway. If width of the key is w and h is its depth, then
K 1 0.2

w
h
1.1
d
d

. . . (7.15)

Example 7.3
A shaft is supported in ball bearings which are placed 200 mm apart. The shaft
carries a straight tooth spur gear of 20o pressure angle at a distance of 50 mm from
right hand bearing between the supports. 3.9 kW of power is transmitted by the
shaft at 90 rpm. The pitch circle diameter of the gear is 125 mm which receives
power from a pinion placed in the same vertical plane above the gear and power is
taken off from right hand through a coupling. The shaft is to be made in steel
(carbon) for which ultimate tensile strength is 700 MPa and permissible bending
stresses in pulsating and reversible bending loading respectively are 110 and
65 MPa. These permissible values take care of stress concentration, size and
surface finish. Find diameter of the section where gear is fitted on shaft through a
key, using both bending and torsional equivalence.
Solution
Before proceeding to calculate diameter shaft loading has to be calculated.

2 N 2 90

9.425 rad/s
60
60

H 3.9 103 W M t M t in Nm

178

Mt

3.9 103
413.8 Nm 0.414 106 Nmm
9.425

. . . (i)

The torque Mt acts upon the gear at a radius of

Shafts

125
mm .
2

If a tangential force Pt acts upon the gear at this radius


Pt

M t 0.414 106

6.621 106 N
dp
125
2
2

This force will act on shaft transversely in horizontal plane (tangential force on
gear) at a distance of 50 mm from right hand bearing, which is regarded as simple
support along with left hand bearing. The schematic of the shaft is shown in
Figure 7.8. The bending moment due to Pt is calculated below.
Reaction at RH bearing R1

Pt 150 6.621 103 150

4.97 103 N
200
200

BM at section where gear sits, M1 4.97 103 50 248.3 103 Nmm . . . (ii)
The gear will be subjected to a radial force component which will be transmitted
to the shaft as transverse load in vertical plane.
The radial force,

Pr Pt tan 6.621 103 tan 20

6.621 103 0.364


Pr 2.41 103 N

or

. . . (iii)
Pinion
pt
Gear

150

Torque
diagram

Pr

50

414103
N-mm
B.M.D due
to gear
tangential
force

6.621 103N
248.3103
N-mm
2.41103N

B.M.D due
to gear
redial force

90.4103
N-mm

Figure 7.8

BM due to Pr in vertical plane in gear section


M2

Pr 150 50 2.41 103 150 50

90.4 103 Nmm


200
200

The torque BM in horizontal plane and BM in vertical plane are drawn in


Figure 7.8.
Hence, resultant BM in shaft at section where gear is mounted
M M12 M 22 103

Eq. BM M eq

249.32 90.42 264.24 103 Nmm

1
[ M M 2 ( M t )2 ]
2

179

Machine Design

M eq

reversible fat strength


65

0.59
pulsating fat strength 110

1
[264.24 264.242 (0.59 414) 2 ] 103 254.7 103 . . . (iv)
2

Using Mteq as defined in ASME formula. From Table 7.4 read for rotating shaft
and higher value for minor shock
Km 2.0, Kt 1.5

M teq ( Km M )2 ( Kt M t )2
(2 264.24)2 (1.5 414)2 103 0.28 0.386 106

816 103 Nmm

. . . (v)

The values of Meq and Mteq will be used for calculating diameter. With Meq the
permissible stress will be fatigue strength in reversible stress cycle, i.e. 65 N/mm2
(given)
32 M eq

65

or

32 254.7 103 M eq
d

65

d3
1

3
34.17 mm

. . . (a)

With Mteq the permissible stress will be fatigue strength in shear, i.e. 0.18 u
s 0.19 700 126 N/mm2

To take care of keyway stress concentration this stress is reduced by 25%.


Hence,

s 0.75 126 94.5 N/mm2

94.5

or

16 0.816 106 3
d
35.3 mm

94.5

16 M eq
d3
1

. . . (b)

Out of two diameters (a) and (b) the higher value will be chosen.

d = 35.3 mm

say 35.5 mm

The designed shaft will look like one shown in Figure 7.9.
Bearing

Bearing

Keyway for gear


Gear

Coupling

35.5

150

50

Figure 7.9

180

Shafts

7.8 STIFFNESS OF SHAFT


Shafts are often designed for strength as illustrated in theory and solved examples so far.
But all shafts have to be stiff and rigid so that their deflection and twist are within
permissible limits. If the shaft exceeds in deflection and twist limits the diameter has to
be increased. We must remember that the deflection and twists are inversely proportional
to cube of the diameter hence, lesser diameter will result in greater deflection and twist.
The problem becomes important when high strength steel is used for shaft. Such shaft
will result in smaller diameter and hence, larger deflection. Moreover, using high
strength steel requires greater care for its greater notch sensitivity.
The permissible values of displacement (in bending and torsion) are decided with respect
to the requirements of machine in which shaft is placed, hence, such values vary from
machine to machine. For example, permissible deflection of shaft in machine tool may
depend upon module of the gear fitted on the shaft while the limit in shaft of the rotor of
an electric motor will be in function of air gap. In general, however, the maximum
deflection in shaft must not exceed 0.2% of the span between the bearings in case of
machines with gears mounted on shafts. The slope due to bending at the bearings must
also be limited. Following are the limits for precision machines :
Slope 0.001 rad if bearing sliding contact type.
Slope 0.008 rad if bearing rolling contact type.
Slope 0.050 rad if bearing self aligning type.
The angular twist may become basic design consideration for shaft such as in drilling
machine where the twist should not be greater than 0.035 radius over a length of
25 diameter. The transmission shaft in a gantry crane is not allowed to twist more than
0.012 rad per meter length.
In general, the deflection of shaft is reduced by
(a)

making mounted parts lighter,

(b)

keeping mounted parts balanced, and

(c)

mounting parts close to bearing.

The angular displacement or twist in radians is given by

32 M t
G d 4

. . . (7.16)

where Mt is torque acting over length l.


The deflection can be calculated by such simple formula as

W l3
4W l 3

48 EI 3E d 4

. . . (7.17)

where W is the central load on shaft of span l and is under the load.
G and E in above equations are modulus of rigidity and modulus of elasticity
respectively. The support slope of beam is calculated as
i

W l2
4W l 2

16 EI E d 4

. . . (7.18)

It is not surprising to note that most shafts in practice may not coincide with conditions
of simple supported beams for which Eqs. (7.14) and (7.15) have been written. For one
thing their diameter is not uniform along length hence you may have to resort to method
of integration or area moment method for calculation of slope and deflection. The
equations for area moment method are :

181

Machine Design

i2 i1

A
EI

. . . (7.19)
Ax
EI

( x2 i2 y2 ) ( x1 i1 y1 )

. . . (7.20)

where 1 and 2 refer to two sections along the shaft, i and y denote the slope and
deflection and x is the distance of the section from the origin. A is the area of bending
moment diagram between sections 1 and 2 and x is the distance of centre of gravity of A
from the origin. The calculation of i and y will depend upon judicious choice of the
origin.
Example 7.4
For the shaft of Example 7.2 of Section 7.7 calculate the maximum values of
angular twist, deflection and slope. Assume E = 200 GPa and G = 80 GPa.
Solution
This is a simple case in which shaft is loaded like a simply supported beam with
l = 200 mm while d was calculated as 81.5 mm. The central load is 8000 N in
horizontal and 1000 N in vertical plane.
Use Eq. (7.14) for
H

W l3
48 EI

with l = 2000 mm, W = 8000 N, I

and

4
d , d = 81.5 mm
64

8000 (2)3 109 64

3.1 mm

48 2 105 (81.5)4
1000 (2)3 109 64
48 2 105 (81.5)4

0.3875 mm

Hence, resultant deflection


2H V2 3.12 0.38752 3.124 mm

. . . (i)

3.124

This deflection is 100 % of span


100 0.156% span
l

2000

. . . (ii)

The slope at the bearing, from Eq. (7.15)


iH
iV

4W l 2
EI d 4

4 8000 (2)2 106


2 105 (81.5)4

4 1000 (2)2 106


2 105 (81.5)4

0.046 rad

0.0058 rad

i iH2 iV2 0.0462 0.00582 0.04636 rad

. . . (iii)

The torque is constant from pulley to the coupling which is assumed at 10% l from
RH bearing. So that the length of shaft to be twisted is
1000 + 0.1 1000 = 1100 mm.
Use l = 1100 mm, Mt = 19.1 105 Nmm, G = 80 103 N/mm2 in Eq. (7.13)

182

32 19.1 105 1100


80 103 (81.5)4

0.00605 rad

. . . (iv)

Shafts

Example 7.5
3
is required to transmit 600 kW at 110 rpm, the
8
maximum torque being 20% greater than mean. The shearing stress is not to
exceed 62 MN/m2 and twist in length of three metres is not to exceed 1.4 degrees.
Determine the diameter of the shaft. Assume modulus of rigidity for shaft material
as 84 GN/m2.

A hollow shaft of diameter ratio

Solution
Note that this problem requires consideration of stress and angle of twist. We have
to keep the angle of twist, within limit. We may also understand at this point that
Eq. (7.13) is applicable to solid shaft only. If we want to find for hollow shaft
we have to recall the basic torsion formulae, i.e.
Mt G

J
l

in which J is the moment of inertia of the shaft section. And if we denote outside
and inside diameters of hollow shaft with suffixes o and i on d,
4

4 di
4
4

J
( d o di )
do 1
32
32
do

The given value of

di 3
0.375
do 8

4
do [1 (0.375)4 ] 0.0982 [1 0.02] do4 0.0963 do4
32

0.0244 rad

Mt l
GJ

where l = 3000 mm
M t1

H
600 103
mean torque
52.1 103 Nm 52.1 106 Nmm
110

2
60

The starting torque 1.2 M t1 62.52 106 Nmm


62.52 106 3000

0.0244

23.2 106 4
do
175.6 mm
0.0244

84 103 0.0963 do4

23.3 106
do4

. . . (a)

The second consideration is based on stress,


s 62 MN/m2 or N/mm2

Using

16 M t
d3
1

16 62.52 106 3
do
172.5 mm

62

. . . (b)
183

Machine Design

From (a) and (b) we see that diameter from consideration of angle of twist is
larger hence, this should be accepted. And then the stress will be lower than
permissible at

16 62.52 106
(175.6)

58.8 N/mm2

do 175.6 mm, di 65.85 mm

SAQ 2
(a)

How do you modify equivalent bending moment to take into consideration


that the bending moment varies at much higher frequency than the torque on
the shaft?

(b)

How do you account for the manner in which load is applied upon a
shaft-static, sudden or shock?

(c)

What is the stiffness of shaft in bending and torsion? How do you consider
the deflection and twist in design of shaft?

(d)

Under what condition the deflection and twist of shaft become important?

(e)

A hollow shaft with diameter ratio 0.7 is required to transmit 500 kW at


300 rpm with a uniform twisting moment. Allowable shearing stress is
60 N/mm2 and twist in 2.0 m length is not to exceed 1 degree. Calculate the
minimum external diameter and internal diameter of the shaft satisfying
these conditions and find actual value. G = 8.2 104 N/mm2.

7.9 SUMMARY
Shaft is an important machine element and transmits power. Shafts are many types and
are made cylindrical. They are subjected to torque and bending moment, hence, at any
point in the section of shaft there exists direct bending stress due to bending moment and
shearing stress due to torque. They are designed against maximum principal stress or
maximum shearing stress. The load (comprising bending moment and torque) is
converted into equivalent bending moment or equivalent torque. The diameters are
calculated by modifying the expressions for equivalent bending moment and equivalent
torque by considering condition and manner of loading. The keyways become essential
feature of shafts because some part like gear or pulley has to be attached on it to transmit
power. The keys are standardised and can be selected from relevant table. There is yet
1
simpler method to use a square key of depth of
diameter of shaft. The shafts are often
4
made in medium carbon steel which can be heat treated. Alloy steel shafts are not
uncommon if corrosive atmosphere exists. Cast iron shaft, though used rarely, will tend
to become heavier.
Couplings connect coaxial shafts. They are formed by two discs attached to shafts
through key and jointed by bolts, parallel to shaft axis. The discs are made as flanges
integral with the hub. The flanges are often made in cast iron. Muff couplings are thick
cylinders which could be used as sleeves or split to be bolted around the shaft. The
driving force in muff coupling is friction between the inner surface of muff and outer
surface of shaft. The muff can be a single piece sleeve keyed to shafts or split in halves
which are tightened by the bolts. The muff is made in cast iron.
184

Shafts

7.10 ANSWERS TO SAQs


SAQ 2
(e)

Follow Example 7.2 of Section 7.12.


Do D, Di 0.7 D

J
Mt

4
( Do4 Di4 )
D (1 0.24) 74.6 10 3 D4
32
32

H 500 103 106.5 103

15.9 103 Nm = 15.9 106 Nmm


300

2
60

M t D 15.9 106 0.5 106.5 106


.

61 N/mm2
J 2 74.6 10 3 D3
D3
1

106.5 106 3
D
12.12 mm

60

Angle of twist,

. . . (a)

Mt l
15.9 106 2.0 103

3
4
G J 8.2 10 74.6 10 D
180
1

180 5.20 106 4


D
131.4 mm

. . . (b)

The diameter at (b) will be selected.


Do 131.5 mm, di 92 mm

185

Machine Design

FURTHER READING
Joseph Edward Shigley (1986), Mechanical Engineering Design, First Metric Edition,
McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York.
V. M. Faires (1965), Design of Machine Elements, 4th Edition, The Macmillan Company,
New York.
W. Cawthorne and A. L. Mellanby, The Elements of Machine Design, Longmans Green
and Company Limited, London.
Rajendra Karwa (2006), Machine Design, 2nd Edition, Laxmi Publication (P) Ltd.,
New Delhi.
Abdul Mubeen (2005), Machine Design, 4th Edition, Khanna Publishers, New Delhi.
P. C. Sharma and D. K. Aggarwal (1987), Machine Design, 4th Edition, Katson
Publishing House, Ludhiana.

186

MACHINE DESIGN

Shafts

Design is a process that ends in creation of something which will satisfy some need of a
person, group of persons or society. The homes and buildings in which we reside, the
dams which store water for irrigation or generation of electricity, an engine which is
used for pumping water or a hoist for lifting loads are the things that are designed before
they are made. The Course on Machine Design consists of seven units. First unit will
give to you an Introduction to Machine Design. In this unit you will study about the
properties of engineering materials and procedure of designing machine elements.
Second unit is on
Design of Temporary Connections, this unit will provide you detail about the calculation
of Diameter of a Bar, Knuckle Joint, and Cotter Joint.
In third unit, you will study about Rivet Joint. In engineering practice it is often required
that two sheets or plates are joined together and carry the load in such ways that the joint
is loaded. Many times such joints are required to be leak proof so that gas contained
inside is not allowed to escape. A riveted joint is easily conceived between two plates
overlapping at edges, making holes through thickness of both, passing the stem of rivet
through holes and creating the head at the end of the stem on the other side.
Fourth unit is devoted to Welded Joint. The unit consists of Welded Connections, Types
of Welding Joints, Strength, T-Joint, Unsymmetrical Section Loaded Axially, and
Eccentrically Loaded Welded Joint.
In Fifth unit you will study about Design of Screws, Fasteners and, Power Screws.
Screws are used for power transmission or transmission of force. A screw is a cylinder
on whose surface helical projection is created in form of thread. In this unit, you will
study about Geometry of Thread, Mechanics of Screw and Nut Pair, Power Screw
Mechanics, Application of Power Screw, Standard Threads, Design of Screw and Nut,
Threaded Fastener, Failure of Bolts and Screws, and Permissible Stresses in Bolts.
Sixth unit is on Keys and Couplings in which you will study about types of keys, Forces
Acting on a Sunk Key, Strength of a Sunk Key, Effect of Keyways, and Couplings.
A key is a piece of steel inserted between the shaft and hub or boss of the pulley to
connect these together in order to prevent relative motion between them. It is always
inserted parallel to the axis of the shaft.
Last unit is on Shafts. Shafts form the important elements of machines. They are the
elements that support rotating parts like gears and pulleys and in turn are themselves
supported by bearings resting in the rigid machine housings. In this unit you will study
about types of Shaft, Materials for Shafts, Shaft Strength under Torsional Load, Stresses
in Bending and Torsion, Shaft Loading, Shafts under Torsion and Bending, and Stiffness
of Shaft

187