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Author(s): T. H. Gronwall

Source: Annals of Mathematics, Second Series, Vol. 18, No. 2 (Dec., 1916), pp. 70-73

Published by: Annals of Mathematics

Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2007171

Accessed: 24-03-2015 00:36 UTC

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BY T. H.

GRONWALL.

(1)

n~on!

n!+

2!+

Z

By the inversiontheoremforpowerseries,thereexistsa uniquepower

small,and

forIz I sufficiently

seriesin z withoutconstantterm,convergent

forv reducesthe above relationto an identity. This

whichsubstituted

are most

oflog (1 + z); its coefficients

serieswe nowtakeas thedefinition

readily calculated by observing that dD/dz= e-= 1/(1 + z), and we

find

log (1 +z)

??i_

ln-1

Zn

n

propertiesof the logarithmmay be

two fundamental

The following

provedin variousways:

(2)

n=1

as its

onlysingularpointat finitedistance.

oflog (1 + z) alonga closedpathwinding

II. The analyticcontinuation

once in the positive sense about z =

by

It is the purposeof the presentnote to establishtheseproperties

the analyticcontinuationof the power series (2),

actuallyperforming

of

simpleto serveas illustrations

and theproofsemployedare sufficiently

on

the

theory

in

course

an

introductory

continuation

of

analytic

theprocess

of functions

of a complexvariable.

00

for

It is wellknownthatwhenthepowerseriesE cn(z - a) , convergent

z z-a

<K

n=O

analytically

r, is continued

theresultis

(3)

where

(4)

*n'

~~~~~~~oo

a)

rn=0

Cn

Cn(z

Zc c'(z -a

7n=O

v0

70

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a < r,

71

and the identity(3) is valid at least for Iz - a'! < r - la' - al, the latter

expressionbeing also a lower bound forthe radius of convergenceof the

series to the right in (3). For a

0, a' = a,, where lail < 1, and

formula(4) gives

n=

(-1)n-/n,

00

(n +

=O n! )!

n

-l1~-

J) (

)n+"-ialv

n+

*(1+

__________

v0

(n -1)!

a)

1

al)n (nY1),

a, in the expansion

which is immediatelyverifiedby multiplyingn - 1 times by itselfthe

identity

a

1

(1

-)

(n - )!v!) z,

=vE

or differentiating

the pointa,, whereJail< 1, givesthe powerseries

aln+E< +

(z -

al)n

to be 1 + all.

The analytic continuationto the point a2, where Ia2- all < 1 + ail,

of (z - a2)n the expression

has as coefficient

a, (n + v)!

v=o n!v!

(a2-

(-1)n+v-l

a,)"

(1 + al)n+v

n+ v

(-l)-'

n(1 +a)n

n

(+

(1+

1

a2-aly

2)n

for n 1,

0&0

1n-l

(-)Ecot(

(- a)-ain + E:

-(-- a, ')a,

n)-l

n

-l

a

n

a,

n=1

+

n=1

n(1

~

1+

fl

witha radius of convergenceequal to '1 + a2l.

Proceeding thus by successive analytic continuationto the points

am, where

(5)

< 1,

Ia,

Ia,

(a2

(n

v = 2,3,

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m,

72

T. H. GRONWALL.

we obtainthe powerseries

(6)

al

1+al)

1+

am-,

n=n(l

am)n(z

-a)

equal to I 1 + am

witha radiusofconvergence

, . Thus thecircleofconver(6) passes throughthe point

genceof each of the analyticcontinuations

z = -1. Now let zo be any pointat finitedistancedistinctfrom-1;

thenwe mayjoin the originto zo by a path notpassingthrough- 1 (for

instance,the straightline from0 to zo,unlesszo lies on the negativereal

linefrom0 to 1i and thestraight

axis,in whichcasewe mayuse thestraight

linefrom-i to zo). Let 1 be the lengthof thispath,d > 0 theminimum

and m an integergreaterthan

divisionpointsby a,, a2, *. *, am-i and makingam = zo,we evidentlyhave a

tinuedanalyticallyto the pointzo(t - 1). The onlysingularpointat

finitedistance is thereforez = - 1.

of

To establishproperty

II, we observethattheanalyticcontinuations

and wind

(2) alongtwo paths,both of whichbeginand end at theorigin,

once in thepositivesenseaboutz = - 1, yieldthesameresult. We may

...

am,

where

= O. 1, I% ml

+ e vI m

a,=-

rootofer

when

1. We findthat (5) is satisfied

a,

e2r/m

11<1,

1 + ap-1

large,sinceef/rn

whichis certainlythe case for m sufficiently

as m -- oo by (1).

1 e

thattheanalyticcontinuation

increases(2) by theconstant

K=E(-I)

(a-^l)

or substituting

the valuesofa,,

Bu=1

K =mE(e2r/

ma

_l.

equivalentpaths,the value of

But by the remarkmade above regarding

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All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

73

K is independentof m, and may therefore

to infinity. From (1) we find

m(e2ftIlm-1) - 27ri

so that

Ie2ffi/m

as

m -e

<A

m

m

n=2

I)

nfl2m

-(e2ri/m_ l)n

< m

A

m

A 2-eO

as

me

x)

K-2wri.

All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

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