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# Annals of Mathematics

## On the Power Series for log (1 + z)

Author(s): T. H. Gronwall
Source: Annals of Mathematics, Second Series, Vol. 18, No. 2 (Dec., 1916), pp. 70-73
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2007171
Accessed: 24-03-2015 00:36 UTC

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BY T. H.

GRONWALL.

(1)

n~on!

## and write 1 + z = e?, or

n!+
2!+
Z
By the inversiontheoremforpowerseries,thereexistsa uniquepower
small,and
forIz I sufficiently
seriesin z withoutconstantterm,convergent
forv reducesthe above relationto an identity. This
whichsubstituted
are most
oflog (1 + z); its coefficients
serieswe nowtakeas thedefinition
readily calculated by observing that dD/dz= e-= 1/(1 + z), and we
find
log (1 +z)

??i_

ln-1

## convergentfor IzI < 1.

Zn
n
propertiesof the logarithmmay be
two fundamental
The following
provedin variousways:

(2)

n=1

as its

## I. The analytic functionlog (1 + z) definedby (2) has z =-1

onlysingularpointat finitedistance.
oflog (1 + z) alonga closedpathwinding
II. The analyticcontinuation
once in the positive sense about z =

## 1 increasesthat functionby 27ri.

by
It is the purposeof the presentnote to establishtheseproperties
the analyticcontinuationof the power series (2),
actuallyperforming
of
simpleto serveas illustrations
and theproofsemployedare sufficiently
on
the
theory
in
course
an
introductory
continuation
of
analytic
theprocess
of functions
of a complexvariable.
00
for
It is wellknownthatwhenthepowerseriesE cn(z - a) , convergent
z z-a

<K

n=O

analytically
r, is continued

theresultis

(3)

where

(4)

*n'

~~~~~~~oo

a)

rn=0

Cn

Cn(z

Zc c'(z -a

7n=O

v0

## (nt, v!a)!a +^(a'n! .

70
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a < r,

71

## ON THE POWER SERIES FOR LOG (1 + Z).

and the identity(3) is valid at least for Iz - a'! < r - la' - al, the latter
expressionbeing also a lower bound forthe radius of convergenceof the
series to the right in (3). For a
0, a' = a,, where lail < 1, and
formula(4) gives
n=
(-1)n-/n,
00

(n +
=O n! )!

n
-l1~-

J) (

)n+"-ialv

n+

*(1+

__________

v0

(n -1)!

a)

1
al)n (nY1),

## the last resultbeingobtainedby makingz

a, in the expansion

## (n = 1 and Izl < 1),

which is immediatelyverifiedby multiplyingn - 1 times by itselfthe
identity
a
1
(1

-)

(n - )!v!) z,

=vE

## it n - 1 times. Thus the analyticcontinuationof (2) to

or differentiating
the pointa,, whereJail< 1, givesthe powerseries

aln+E< +

(z -

al)n

## and its radius of convergenceis seen at once,forinstanceby the ratio test,

to be 1 + all.

The analytic continuationto the point a2, where Ia2- all < 1 + ail,
of (z - a2)n the expression
has as coefficient
a, (n + v)!
v=o n!v!

(a2-

(-1)n+v-l

a,)"

(1 + al)n+v

n+ v

(-l)-'

n(1 +a)n
n

(+

(1+

1
a2-aly

2)n

for n 1,

## so that we next obtain the power series

0&0
1n-l
(-)Ecot(
(- a)-ain + E:

-(-- a, ')a,
n)-l
n
-l
a
n
a,
n=1
+
n=1
n(1
~
1+
fl
witha radius of convergenceequal to '1 + a2l.
Proceeding thus by successive analytic continuationto the points

am, where

(5)

< 1,

Ia,

Ia,

(a2
(n

## a,-,11 < I1 + a,.1, I

v = 2,3,

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m,

72

T. H. GRONWALL.

we obtainthe powerseries

(6)

al

1+al)

1+

am-,

n=n(l

am)n(z

-a)

equal to I 1 + am
, . Thus thecircleofconver(6) passes throughthe point
genceof each of the analyticcontinuations
z = -1. Now let zo be any pointat finitedistancedistinctfrom-1;
thenwe mayjoin the originto zo by a path notpassingthrough- 1 (for
instance,the straightline from0 to zo,unlesszo lies on the negativereal
linefrom0 to 1i and thestraight
axis,in whichcasewe mayuse thestraight
linefrom-i to zo). Let 1 be the lengthof thispath,d > 0 theminimum
and m an integergreaterthan

## lid; thendividingthe lengthof the path intom equal parts,denotingthe

divisionpointsby a,, a2, *. *, am-i and makingam = zo,we evidentlyhave a

## (5), so thatthepowerseries(2) maybe consequenceofpointssatisfying

tinuedanalyticallyto the pointzo(t - 1). The onlysingularpointat
finitedistance is thereforez = - 1.

of
To establishproperty
II, we observethattheanalyticcontinuations
and wind
(2) alongtwo paths,both of whichbeginand end at theorigin,
once in thepositivesenseaboutz = - 1, yieldthesameresult. We may

...

am,

where

= O. 1, I% ml

+ e vI m

a,=-

## so that ao = am = 0. Here r is of course definedas the smallestpositive

rootofer

when
1. We findthat (5) is satisfied
a,

e2r/m

11<1,

1 + ap-1
large,sinceef/rn
whichis certainlythe case for m sufficiently
as m -- oo by (1).

1 e

## From (6) and (2) it follows,on account of ao = am = 0,

thattheanalyticcontinuation
increases(2) by theconstant

K=E(-I)

(a-^l)

or substituting
the valuesofa,,
Bu=1

K =mE(e2r/
ma

_l.

equivalentpaths,the value of
But by the remarkmade above regarding

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73

## be evaluated by lettingm tend

K is independentof m, and may therefore
to infinity. From (1) we find
m(e2ftIlm-1) - 27ri

so that

Ie2ffi/m

as

m -e

<A
m

m

n=2

I)

nfl2m

-(e2ri/m_ l)n

< m

A
m

A 2-eO

as

me

x)

## and substitutingthese resultsin the expressionfor K, we finallyobtain

K-2wri.

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