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Table of CONTENTS

Overview

(Contents Section Pages 7 to 8)

PART ONE
SPORTS NUTRITION KNOW-HOW
CHAPTER 1.1 NUTRIENTS AND ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE
(Part One Section Pages 1-2 to 1-12)
Macronutrients: Meeting Energy And Growth Requirements; Thermogenesis; Macronutrient Manipulation /
Modulation; Water And Electrolytes; Micronutrients: Metabolic Cofactors; Nutrient Density; Bioavailability;
The Limiting Nutrient Concept; Nutraceutical; Research On Nutrients; Ergogenic Aids; Safety.
CHAPTER 1.2 NUTRITION PRODUCT OVERVIEW
(Part One Section Pages 1-13 to 1-25)
All Foods Are Not Created Equal; Understanding Food And; Supplement Labels; Nutrition Label Reference Values;
Super Foods: Nutrition Supplements Are Born; Dietary Supplements Versus Conventional Food; Benefits Of
Dietary Supplements Versus Conventional Foods; Dietary Supplements Versus Drugs; Claims For Dietary
Supplements / Sports Supplements; Examples Of Common Supplement Dosage Forms; Pills, Tablets And
Caplets; Capsules; Powders; Liquid Supplements; Nutrition Bars.

CHAPTER 1.3 CARBOHYDRATES - THE ULTIMATE PERFORMANCE FUEL


(Part One Section Pages 1-26 to 1-44)
Types Of Carbohydrates; Simple; Carbohydrates; Complex Carbohydrates; Fiber; Dietary Fiber; Functional
Fiber; Overview Of Some Common Dietary And Functional Fibers; Cellulose; Chitin; Chitosan; Beta-Glucans
(-Glucans); Fructo-Oligosaccharide ( FOS ); Gums; Hemicelluloses; Pectins; Digestion Of Carbohydrates;
About The Glycemic; Index (GI); Glycemic Load (GL); Carbohydrates In The Body-Glucose And Glycogen.
CHAPTER 1.4 PROTEIN AND AMINO ACIDS: MUSCLE BUILDERS AND MORE
(Part One Section Pages 1-45 to 1-80)
What Is Protein?; How Genes Direct The Production Of Proteins; The Amino Acids; Proteins/Amino Acids
And Energy; Rating The Quality Of Proteins; Complete Versus Incomplete Proteins; Protein Efficiency Ratio;
Net Protein Utilization; Biological Value; Amino-Acid Score; Protein Quality For Athletes; Nitrogen Balance;
Designing Protein And Amino Acid; Products; Free-Form And Peptide-Bonded Amino Acids; Digestion Of
Protein And Amino Acids; Amino Acid Review; Alanine & Beta-Alanine; Arginine (GH, IGF, Nitric Oxide
Stimulation And More); Asparagine; Aspartic Acid; Branched-Chain Amino Acids (Leucine, Isoleucine And
Valine); Leucine, A Key BCAA; Citrulline ; Cysteine; Cystine; Glutamic Acid; Glutamine; Glycine; Histidine;
Isoleucine ; Leucine; Lysine; Methionine; Ornithine; Phenylalanine; Proline; Serine; Taurine; Threonine;
Tryptophan; Tyrosine; Valine. Additional Information About Protein And Amino Acids; mTOR: Unlocking The
Secret Of Protein Synthesis; Discovering mTOR; The Leucine Connection; Making The Jump From
Microbes To People; L-Leucine- The Key To The BCAAs; The Anabolic Cascade; Practical Applications
Additional Information About Protein And Amino Acids; The Synergy Of Protein Supplements; Not All
Proteins Are Created Equal; Whey Protein Scores The Best; Whey Protein Has Multiple Benefits; Summary
Of Whey Proteins Key Amino Acids & Benefits; Whey Protein Gets Results It Is Money Well Spent; Whey
Protein Source Glutamine And The Athlete; BCAAs Help Increase Training Strength, Endurance And
Muscle Mass; Synergistic Effects; Effects Of Creatine Monohydrate Plus Whey Protein; Creatine And;
Protein Supplementation; Creatine And Glutamine.
CHAPTER 1.5 LIPIDS (FATS AND OILS)
(Part One Section Pages 1-81 to 1-92)
Energy And Growth Factors; Lipids-The Most Misunderstood Macronutrient; The Major Lipids; Cholesterol;
Triglycerides, Fatty Acids And Related Lipids; The Essential Fatty Acids; The Omega-3 Fatty Acids ;

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Gamma Linolenic Acid; Conjugated Linoleic Acid Is An Essential; Fatty Acid For Athletes And Weight Loss;
Glycerol; Medium-Chain Triglycerides; Phospholipids; Lecithin; Phosphatidylserine; Digestion Of Lipids; You
Are What You Eat.
CHAPTER 1.6 WATER AND HYDRATION
(Part One Section Pages 1-93 to 1-98)
Water And The Athlete; The Major Sources Of Water For The Human Body Are The Following; Liquids;
Food Water; Metabolic Water; Glycogen-Bound Water; Effects Of Dehydration On Performance; Some
Factors Effecting Rate Of Water Loss; Special Water Needs Of The Athlete; Daily Hydration Guidelines;
Hydration Guidelines For Optimum Athletic Performance; Every Day; Pre-Event; During Athletic Events;
Post-Event.
CHAPTER 1.7 VITAMINS AND MINERALS
(Part One Section Pages 1-99 to 1-126)
The Lipid Soluble Vitamins - A, D, E, And K; Antioxidants Overview; Vitamin A - Retinol And Pro-Vitamin A
(Beta-Carotene); Vitamin D; Vitamin E; Vitamin K; The Water Soluble Vitamins; Biotin; Choline; Folate;
Inositol; Niacin; Pantothenic Acid; Riboflavin; Thiamin; Vitamin B12; Vitamin B6; Vitamin C
Minerals; Boron; Calcium; Chromium; Copper; Fluoride; Electrolytes (Sodium, Chloride, And Potassium) ;
Electrolytes In Food And Supplements; Iodine; Iron Magnesium; Manganese; Molybdenum; Phosphorus;
Selenium; Zinc.
CHAPTER 1.8 BOTANICALS, METABOLITES AND OTHER SPORTS SUPPLEMENT INGREDIENTS
(Part One Section Pages 1-127 to 1-148)
Metabolites; Botanicals; Standardizing Botanical Supplements For Consistency; Dosages; Alkalinizers,
Blood Buffers ; Beta-Hydroxy Beta-Methylbutyrate (BHMB Or HMB); Bioflavonoids; Caffeine; Carnitine /
Acetyl-L-Carnitine; Coenzyme Q10 (Ubiquinone); Creatine; Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA); Echinacea
(Echinacea Purpurea, E. Angustifolia); Ferulic Acid (FRAC) Gamma Oryzanol; Garcinia (Garcinia
Cambogia); Ginkgo (Ginkgo Biloba); Ginsengs; Glucosamine And Chondroitin Sulfate (CS); Green Tea
(Camellia Sinensis); Lipoic Acid; Melatonin; Proteolytic Enzymes Improve Injury Healing; Rhodiola;
Turmeric; Wheat Germ Oil And Octacosanol.

PART TWO
FEATURE TOPICS AND
SPECIAL FEATURES
CHAPTER 2.1 FEATURE TOPICS
(Part Two Section Pages 2-2 to 2-15)
Sports Nutrition Meal Replacements, Protein Powders, Bars And Specialty Products; The Development Of
Sports-Nutrition Powders; Meal-Replacement Powders; The Advantages Of Meal-Replacement Powders
(Ready To Drink Ones Too); Meal-Replacement Powders Versus Conventional Meals; Protein Powders;
Protein Quality; Additional Factors; Sustained-Release Protein; MRP And Protein; Nutrition Bars; Specialty
Products; Metabolic Optimizers; Growth Hormone Promoters; Creatine; Nitric Oxide Stimulators.
CHAPTER 2.2 SPECIAL FEATURES
(Part Two Section Pages 2-16 to 2-30)
Special Feature: Muscle Precursor Cell Activation And Development
Special Feature: The Ultimate Bodybuilding And Strength Athlete Super-Stack
Special Feature: East Meets West In The Quest For Boosting Testosterone Levels Naturally
CHAPTER 2.3 BODYBUILDING.COMS SUPPLEMENT AWARDS
(Part Two Section Pages 2-31 to 2-36)

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PART THREE
PERFORMANCE NUTRITION APPROACHES AND
GUIDE TO ATHLETIC FAT LOSS
Solving the Weight Loss Puzzle
CHAPTER 3.1 PERFORMANCE NUTRITION APPROACHES
(Part Three Section Pages 3-2 to 3-49)
Sports Nutrition is a Skill; Dynamic Nutrition For Maximum Performance Approach; The Dynamic Nutrition
Approach, A Bio-energetic Model To Performance Nutrition; How Does Exercise Effect Your Muscle Fiber
Development And Composition?; Dietary / Sports Nutrition Supplements Are Part Of The Dynamic Nutrition
Approach; Keep It Simple And Be Consistent; RATIONALE BEHIND THE PERFORMANCE NUTRITION
PLANS; MACRONUTRIENTS SOME SUMMARY POINTS; CARBOHYDRATES; Pre-Event Meal;
Carbohydrate Intake During Long Duration Events and Exercise; Post-Event and Exercise Meal; PROTEIN
QUALITY; Whey versus soy; FATS;
DYNAMIC NUTRITION SUPPLEMENT AND EATING PLAN EXAMPLES;
30% Protein, 55% Carbohydrate, 15% Fat Performance Nutrition Guidelines;
25% Protein, 55% Carbohydrate, 20% Fat Performance Nutrition Guidelines;
20% Protein, 60% Carbohydrate, 20% Fat Performance Nutrition Guidelines;
15% Protein, 60% Carbohydrate, 25% Fat Performance Nutrition Guidelines;
FOOD LISTS; HIGH PROTEIN FOODS, FOODS HIGH IN COMPLEX CARBOHYDRATES, VEGETABLES,
and BEANS, Fruit; DAIRY, SPREADS and SAUCES; BEVERAGES; MIXED FOODS; TIPS SECTION,
Cooking Tips, Eating Out Tips, General Tips, Traveling Tips;
BODYBUILDING AND SPORTS NUTRITION SUPPLEMENTS; Sports Supplement Effectiveness and
Safety; Sports Supplement and Nutrient Intake Reference Tables.
CHAPTER 3.2 GUIDE TO ATHLETIC FAT LOSS: SOLVING THE WEIGHT LOSS PUZZLE
(Part Three Section Pages 3-50 to 3-85)
Solving The Weight Loss Puzzle; Weight Loss Demystified; Athletic Fat Loss; Understanding Where Weight
Loss Can Come From; Body Composition; Calorie Intake; Meal Frequency and Size; Fat Loss Foods;
Exercise and Fat Loss; Cycle Your Fat Loss With; Periods Of Weight Maintenance; DAILY FOOD INTAKE
GOALS; ADDITIONAL WEIGHT LOSS INFORMATION; What Are The Health Risks Of Being Overweight?;
Are You Overweight (Over-Fat)?; What Makes People Overweight/Obese?; Habits; Genes; Illness;
Medicine; The world around you; Emotions; Here Are Some Weight Loss Dieting Myths; Myth: Fad diets
work for permanent weight loss; Myth: High-protein/low-carbohydrate diets are a healthy way to lose weight;
Myth: Starches are fattening and should be limited when trying to lose weight; Myth: I can lose weight while
eating whatever I want; Myth: Low-fat or nonfat means no calories; Myth: Skipping meals is a good way to
lose weight; Myth: Lifting weights is not good to do if you want to lose weight, because it will make you "bulk
up"; Myth: Nuts are fattening and you should not eat them if you want to lose weight; Myth: Eating red meat
is bad for your health and makes it harder to lose weight; Myth: Dairy products are fattening and unhealthy;
Lessons From Those Successful At Losing Weight; Setting a Goal; Look at What You Eat Now; Start With
Small Changes; Control Portion Sizes; Know Your Fats; Make Choices That Are Lean, Low-fat, or Fat-free;
Focus on Fresh Fruit; Eat Your Veggies; Eat Your Grains Whole; Lower Sodium and Increase Potassium;
Limit Added Sugars; Differences in Saturated Fat and Calorie Content of Commonly Consumed Foods;
Some Nutrient Content Claims Found On Food Product Labels, and What They Really Mean; Additional
Weight Loss Nutrition Tips; Guidelines For Personal Exercise Programs; Making A Commitment; Checking
Your Health; Defining Fitness; Knowing The Basics; Cardiorespiratory Endurance; Muscular Strength;
Muscular Endurance; Flexibility; Body Composition; Workout Schedule Basics; WARMUP; MUSCULAR
STRENGTH; MUSCULAR ENDURANCE; CARDIORESPIRATORY ENDURANCE; FLEXIBILITY; COOL
DOWN; A Matter Of Principle; SPECIFICITY; OVERLOAD; REGULARITY; PROGRESSION; Measuring
Your Heart Rate; Controlling Your Weight; Exercise Clothing; When To Exercise; Exercise Made Easy;
Reduce Stress In Your Life. More Exercise And Physical Activity Tips; NUTRITIONAL WEIGHT LOSS AIDS;
The Ephedrine / Ephedra; Weight Loss Legacy; Why Ephedra?; Research Finds That Ephedra-Containing
Products Are Safe And Effective; Safe Use Of Ephedra Dietary Supplements Established By Medical
Experts; Ephedra Was Still Banned; The Ephedra / Ephedrine Effect; Dietary Supplement Weight Loss Aid
Summary; Nutrition / Dietary Supplement Weight Loss Aids Summary Table; Examples of Nutritional
Weight Loss Aid Products.

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APPENDIX
A1. Perpetual EXERCISE LOG SHEET
A2. Perpetual NUTRITION LOG SHEET
A3. Bodybuilding and Football Training DVD Examples
A4. Tips On Increasing Muscle Growth Rate
A5. 2005 Dietary Guidelines
A6. Creatine Research Overview Article
A7. Glossary
A8. Scientific References

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OVERVIEW
Which supplements are best for muscle building and strength?
Whats best for increasing endurance?
Are there really supplements that help with fat loss?
It is questions like these that athletes are looking for answers to.
From your review of the table of contents, you can see that this Guide contains a
wealth of bodybuilding and sports nutrition ingredient, product, and plan information. It
provides the sports nutrition know-how and is also a special how-to reference guide.
Bodybuilding and sports nutrition supplementation is a recent branch of nutrition science
and product development that I have been involved in pioneering. It has come a long
way since the first muscle building and performance enhancing supplements that began
to appear on the market starting during the mid-twentieth century.
In light all of the articles, athlete product endorsements, and advertisements for the
thousands of sports supplements, deciding on your own what works best can be an
insurmountable task. This is why this guide was written; to present comprehensive
information about sports nutrition and ingredients, based on experience and scientific
evidence.
One point of historical value is that it is easy to get caught up in an endless search for a
magic pill. This is why it is important to put your effort and resources into first
establishing a well founded sports nutrition and supplement program that is based on
scientific evidence of effectiveness. To accomplish this goal, a sports supplement
program should include both the time-tested nutrients and sports nutrition approaches,
as well as the addition of newly discovered ones.
The primary focus of this book is the ingredients used in bodybuilding and sports
supplements. In particular, the ingredients that have been proven to provide a benefit
based on independent research studies. But, as sports supplements are intended to
supplement the diet, in order for sports supplements to work their best, your daily sports
nutrition program must be adequate too. Therefore, this Guide also contains information
about sports nutrition approaches, along with additional information about the sports
supplements for improvements in bodybuilding, strength, muscle mass, reaction time,
and endurance. Also included is a special chapter on fat loss for athletes.
Once you start using and perfecting the sports science approach for your nutrition and
training programs, you can measure for yourself if a product or method has produced the
positive effects on your performance, strength, or muscle mass.
From my work in sports nutrition starting decades ago, I sought to create a model of
sports nutrition based on the bio-energetics and specific needs of athletes, versus the

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RDAs average nutrition intake approach. Athletes are above average and require
nutrition that is also above average.
To help you to achieve your winning sports nutrition program, I included a
comprehensive overview of sports nutrition and review the ingredients and nutrients
used in sports nutrition products, with the emphasis on the ingredients having
independent scientific evidence as to their effectiveness in addition to being experience
proven. Plus, as eating correctly is a vital foundation for health and athletic performance,
in Part Three I included an overview of my scientific based performance-nutrition
approaches for your reference. This includes my Dynamic Nutrition for Maximum
Performance approach, a revolutionary scientific sports nutrition model.
Part One reviews ingredients and nutrients used in sports nutrition products, along with
related sports nutrition information; over 100 ingredients. The macronutrientscarbohydrates, protein (amino acids), lipids, and water-and the primary micronutrientsvitamins and minerals are covered. Also included in Part One are the botanicals and
metabolites. This includes performance enhancing substances, such as creatine,
CoQ10, octacosanol, ferulic acid, blood buffers, carnitine, ginseng, rhodiola, and many
more.
Part Two provides a review of meal replacement powders and bars; protein powders
and bars; metabolic optimizers; specialty products, nitric oxide boosters; and detailed
reviews of specialty products.
Part Three contains easy to follow performance nutrition approaches, based on sport
specific athletic type bio-energetics and muscle dynamics. Yes, a strength athlete does
have different nutrition requirements when compared to a long-distance endurance
athlete. There are some major differences with their sports supplements too you need to
know about.
Part Three also includes a special Guide to Athletic Fat Loss. Athletes who need to
reduce their body fat need to take an approach that is healthy and performance
enhancing. Athletes need to avoid the one-size-fits-all low calorie weight loss gimmicks,
and instead need to follow a weight loss program that is more suitable for their high
performance individual requirements. Also included in this chapter is a review of
supplement weight loss aids, in particular, examples backed by scientific research.
It is my hope that you will become a practitioner of the sports science approach. Start by
getting your athletic performance and health measurements in place to keep track of
your progress. Evaluate your stats on a regular basis. Constantly strive for progressive
improvements. Create your training and nutrition programs based on proven scientific
research, topped off with new discoveries and your personal fine-tuning. The information
in this guide will help you create your state-of-the-science personalized winning sports
nutrition and supplement programs.
Be Your Best In Sport and Life

Daniel Gastelu
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ABOUT THE AUTHOR


Daniel Gastelu, M.S., MFS, Training and Nutrition Expert, President and Founder of
SUPPLEMENTFACTS International LLC and Athletic Performance Improvement LLC,
and serves as Director of Nutritional Sciences for the International Sports Sciences
Association (ISSA), is an author, a "trainer of fitness trainers", and a sports nutrition and
dietary supplement industry expert. Dan Gastelu developed and co-authored ISSA's
Specialist in Performance Nutrition certification program and course book, which is used
to certify doctors, physical therapists, fitness trainers, strength coaches and nutritionists.
He also pioneered the development of integrated bodybuilding and athletic training and
nutrition systems, and products used by millions of athletes, worldwide.
Dan Gastelu is author of several books about nutrition, dietary supplements, fitness,
sports nutrition, and training. In addition to his education & research related activities, he
has worked as an executive in the dietary supplement and sports nutrition product
industry for over 2 decades, making him an industry insider. Dan Gastelu is a graduate
of Rutgers University, where he taught science courses. Here are some of Mr. Gastelus
books and International Sports Sciences Associations Directorship Award:

During the past two decades Dan Gastelu has developed many health care products,
including: dietary supplements, sports nutritionals, nutraceuticals, weight loss products,
and other consumer health and fitness products. Additionally, he directed innovative
research programs examining the effects of different nutrition & exercise programs on
body composition, health, and physical performance.
Dan Gastelu has worked on numerous projects with prominent fitness & health experts,
such as: Ben and Joe Weider; Ed Burke, Ph.D.; Gerard Dente, Bodybuilding Champion;
Shari Lieberman, Ph.D.; Cherie Calbom, M.S., C.N.; Vincent Giampapa, M.D.; Bill Grant,
Bodybuilding Champion; Stephen Gullo, Ph.D.; Ann Louise Gittleman, M.S.; Varro Tyler;
Ph.D.; Frederick J. Vagnini, M.D.; Frederick C. Hatfield, Ph.D.; Richard Simmons; Jack
La Lanne; Denise Austin; and Tony Little.
Dan is a featured author for Bodybuilding.com, and host of the popular Awesome
Muscles podcast series; http://www.bodybuilding.com/fun/awesomemuscles.htm

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IMPORTANT NOTICE
This book is not intended for use as a substitute for consultation with a qualified medical, health,
sports training, or other health practitioner. Consult with a doctor or other licensed health care
professional before starting this or any nutrition and exercise programs. If you have symptoms of
any illness, it is essential that you see your doctor without delay. You are unique, and your
diagnosis and treatment must be individualized for you by your own doctor. This book provides
educational information about nutrition, dietary supplements and the ingredients they contain, and
exercise. Nutrition reference information is based on healthy athletic adults, and short-term
periods - a few to several months. This information is not intended for children, pregnant or
lactating women, nonathletes, or individuals with risk of disease or known illness or injury. The
guidelines presented are for illustration purposes and may not be suitable for everyone. No book
can replace the personalized care that you need. You are encouraged to work closely with your
doctor and/or other health care professionals to create a nutrition program to achieve optimum
health and athletic performance. The publishers, officers, employees, shareholders, directors,
authors, agents, distributors, and other parties to this book will not accept responsibility for injury,
loss, or damage occasioned to any person acting or refraining to act as a result of material
contained in this book, whether or not such injury, loss, or damage is due in any way to any
negligent act or omission, breach of duty, errors, interpretation of the subject matter, or default on
the part of the author or his agents. The purchaser or reader of this publication assumes
responsibility for the use of the information.
The brand names and product examples included in this book are not intended to endorse
products or any particular brand(s) of product(s). A product that is included in this book does not
imply it is any better than products not included in this book. For a wide selection of thousands
bodybuilding and sports nutrition supplements, including athletic training DVDs and exercise
accessories, visit Bodybuilding.coms store.

Copyright 2007 by Athletic Performance Improvement LLC


All rights reserved.
No part of this book may be reprinted, reproduced, transmitted, or utilized in any form by any electronic,
mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying, microfilming, image
scanning, website use, and recording, in any information or retrieval system, without written permission from
the publisher.
Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used
only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe.

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PART ONE
SPORTS NUTRITION
KNOW-HOW

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CHAPTER 1.1
NUTRIENTS AND
ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE
Every day the human body requires many nutrients for energy, growth, structure, function,
performance and health. Over the years scientists, nutritionists, and various health
professionals developed special terminology to categorize and represent many nutrition
concepts. There are several main categories of nutrients (nutritious substances) that you
need be concerned with in order to increase athletic performance and fitness. Most of the
essential nutrients are lumped into two main categories: macronutrients and
micronutrients. This chapter will first provide a quick overview of the basic nutrition jargon
and concepts you will find useful for sports nutrition success.
For example there is a growing list of substances grouped under the term nutraceutical.
This term refers to foods, the essential nutrients, and other beneficial substances found in
foods or special nutrition products that can help promote superior health, and may even
prevent some diseases. Then there is the group of nutritional ergogenic aids, which
includes sports nutrition practices, sports nutrition supplements, and other sports nutrition
products to improve athletic performance. Being aware of what is contained in the food
and supplements you are eating is vital to selecting what will be best for attaining and
maintaining superior health and peak athletic performance.

MACRONUTRIENTS: MEETING ENERGY AND GROWTH REQUIREMENTS


Macronutrients are nutrients that are required daily in large amounts, and are thought of in
quantities of ounces and grams. They include carbohydrates, protein, lipids, and water.
Macronutrients are important for providing the body with a supply of energy and serving as
the building blocks it needs for growth and repair. Macronutrients occur in all foods, but
vary in amount and proportion. For example, meats can be high in protein and fat, with
almost no carbohydrate content. Pasta, on the other hand is very high in carbohydrates,
with moderate amounts of protein and a very low fat content.
Carbohydrates and lipids are the macronutrients primarily used by the body to produce
energy, but note they also have important structural roles too. Proper energy substrate
intake is important to balance energy expenditure and maintain desired body composition
and performance. Your energy requirements will vary with age, activity, and foods eaten.
Daily energy requirements can range from a low of 1,800 (or even lower) to over 6,000
calories per day. While not an essential nutrient, for those who choose to consume
alcoholic beverages, you may be interested to know that daily alcohol consumption can
contribute large amounts of empty calories in your diet. Alcohol also has negative effects
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of alcohol on your health and performance, and should be avoided by competitive


athletes.
The approximate caloric content of the macronutrients and alcohol are as follows:

Carbohydrate
Protein
Fat
Alcohol
Water

Calories per
Gram

Calories per
Ounce

4
4
9
7
0

113.6
113.6
255.6
198.8
0.0

As you can see, on a weight basis, fat has the most calories, then alcohol, carbohydrates,
and protein. In the past it was assumed that all calories supplied by nutrients were
metabolized the same way and that their total caloric content was equally used for energy.
However, in recent years, scientists have determined that the energy content of different
macronutrients may vary slightly in the body depending upon the relative proportions of
the other macronutrients present in the diet, the type of macronutrient, the presence of
vitamin and mineral cofactors, the level of hydration, and the physical conditioning of the
individual. For example, protein is considered a protected nutrient because the body
reserves its use for the synthesis of tissues and molecules instead of energy use.
Therefore, the body has a tendency to use its fat and glycogen supply for energy instead
of using ingested protein and the protein that makes up muscle tissue. In fact, a
thermogenic response has been detected in response to eating diets high in protein,
indicating that more energy is used in the digestion and metabolism of proteins; see box
on thermogenesis for details.
THERMOGENESIS. Thermogenesis is a term used to describe when the metabolic rate increases above
normal, and generation of extra body heat occurs from increased rate of energy substrate utilization.
Thermogenesis or the thermogenic effect, is activated by a few different mechanisms including nutrition,
exercise, or stimulated by exposure to cold. Macronutrients have different effects on the thermogenic
response. When food is ingested, the metabolic rate (energy used) increases above the fasting level. In the
case of proteins, it is thought that this occurs because the body must use energy to process the proteins,
which are then used as building blocks for tissue growth and repair. On the other hand, carbohydrates and
fats function primarily as fuel, and the metabolism can more efficiently use them for energy without much
energy input to process them, when compared to protein. They therefore have a much lower thermogenic
effect. There are other nutritional and physical factors that stimulate a thermogenic effect, which will be
discussed in more detail during the chapter on fat loss. The raise in metabolic rate is also referred to as
specific dynamic action (SDA).

There are several types of carbohydrate food sources that will effect your energy and
performance depending on when you eat them and what kind of carbohydrate you eat.
There are complex carbohydrates (starches) and simple carbohydrates, like glucose and
fructose. Starch (which is made up of chains of glucose) may provide the body with a
slow and steady supply of glucose, depending on the type of food. Although, some
complex carbohydrate foods can be digested and absorbed quickly causing a rapid rise in
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blood sugar levels, similar to the simple carbohydrates. However, generally speaking,
simple carbohydrates, like glucose get into the bloodstream fast and serve as a quick
supply of energy. Fructose causes a slower raise in blood sugar levels than glucose does,
and most other foods due to its unique processing by the body. However, ingesting too
much fructose should be minimized, as well as restricting the consumption of other simple
carbohydrates. The physiological response to foods (how they effect blood sugar levels) is
referred to as the glycemic response. The glycemic index (GI) was developed to measure
how different carbohydrate containing foods effect the rise in blood sugar levels; details
about this and other carbohydrate related information is as reviewed the carbohydrate
chapter.
Lipids is a technical term that refers to fats and other plant and animal nutrients that are
insoluble in water. The fatty acids that make up fat (triglycerides) contain the highest
energy of any macronutrient on a per weight basis. Other lipids, like cholesterol, are not
important energy sources, but are major components of steroid hormones and bile acids.
Your body is always using a mixture of carbohydrate and fat for energy, plus a little
protein. This energy mixture will vary depending upon a persons program of training &
level of fitness, the intensity and duration of physical activity and the composition of the
diet. Endurance sports tend to cause the body to burn a higher proportion of fat, and
condition the body to be better at using fats for energy. Compare this to power sports, like
sprinting, football and weight lifting, which burn a greater amount of carbohydrates for
energy during these types of physical activity. Therefore, your type of physical activity will
dictate the proportion of macronutrients needed in your diet. For example, a marathon
runner will generally need a diet high in carbohydrates and moderate in fat and protein.
On the other hand, the powerlifter needs a diet high in carbohydrates and protein, with low
amounts of fat. This is one of the several aspects of the Dynamic Nutrition for Maximum
Performance approach model reviewed in Part Three.
Depending on the sport, protein utilization during and after exercise can become a more
complicated issue than the use of carbohydrates and fats for energy. You see, protein
provides the body with essential building blocks in the form of its subunits called - amino
acids. The body therefore has a tendency to avoid using protein/amino acids for energy to
reserve amino acids for molecule and tissue building purposes. However, during exercise
the body will use certain amino acids for energy and other metabolic functions. This
cannot be prevented, but it can be compensated for by ingesting proteins with higher
amounts of the certain amino acids used during exercise the branched chain amino acids
is a primary group of amino acids used for energy, in particular leucine. Research has also
shown that even during rest, the athletes well conditioned muscles will use certain amino
acids for energy, even in the presence of carbohydrates and fat. In addition to adequate
protein and caloric intake, sports nutrition supplements can be used to boost the efficiency
and utilization of dietary proteins, along with certain vitamin and mineral cofactors to
prevent muscle breakdown and encourage muscle repair, such as amino acid tablets and
protein supplement drinks and nutrition bars.

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MACRONUTRIENT MANIPULATION / MODULATION


A consistent intake of protein and the other macronutrients is needed all day long for
optimum nutrition. However, the proportions of these macronutrients may vary around
your training, time of day, and resting periods. This variation in macronutrient intake has
become know as "macronutrient modulation" or "macronutrient manipulation". This simply
refers to the practice of varying the intake of macronutrients to meet your specific nutrition
needs. For example, right before and during exercise, intake of water, electrolytes, some
amino acids, and simple carbohydrates will be desirable to maintain energy and spare
glycogen stores and muscle tissue. Fats and large amounts of proteins are not desirable
right before or during training or athletic events because they take longer to digest and
can impair performance, as they prolong digestion.
During exercise bouts or athletic competition, intake of water and or hypotonic
(carbohydrate - electrolyte) beverages is almost always needed to prevent glycogen
depletion. Of course the significance of glycogen depletion is that it can lead to causing
early fatigue and reducing exercise performance, so athletic individuals want to avoid
depletion of their glycogen (carbohydrate) body stores. For some athletes, the additional
ingestion of dilute carbohydrate drink that also contains amino acids may be beneficial
during training to help reduce amino acid depletion of tissues. Finally, studies have shown
that ingestion of carbohydrates, or a mixed meal within 60 minutes after exercise will
result in significant glycogen repletion. However, consistent meal to meal intake of the
carbohydrates and other macronutrients will also help to maintain adequate glycogen
levels. Mastering meal timing, meal consistency, meal frequency, and macronutrient
modulation can help fine-tune your performance & fitness nutrition improvement
programs.

WATER AND ELECTROLYTES


Water is the most essential macronutrient to life but provides no calories or nutrition.
Water is the universal solvent that all life on earth depends on and is the medium for
transporting the food materials to be used in the body. A person can survive several
weeks without food but only several days without water. The importance of water has
always been recognized, but recently, more and more research has shown that
maintaining optimum levels of hydration is important in maintaining peak performance and
recovery. In sports like soccer and basketball, and long distance endurance sports, the
athletes can lose several pounds of water weight in just one game. Also, all athletes
performing, long strenuous training/practice sessions can also lose pounds of water
weight. Loss of the bodys water can adversely affect performance and, in the long run,
cause peaks and valleys in the athletes performance curve if adequate hydration is not
maintained all day long, every day.
In addition to maintaining hydration, the body also needs to maintain its electrolyte
balance. The major electrolytes found in body fluids include sodium, chloride, potassium,
calcium, and magnesium. Water constitutes a small or large part of every cell, depending
on the function of the cell. Likewise, specific quantities of electrolytes are found in both
cellular and extracellular water. Water and electrolyte concentrations in the body are
closely controlled, even under extreme temperature conditions. Like water, electrolytes
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are lost through sweat and excretion. Replenishing water and electrolyte losses during
exercise and throughout the day has become an increasingly more complex task for
athletic individuals as new discoveries about the dynamics of these key nutrients are
made.

MICRONUTRIENTS: METABOLIC COFACTORS


Even more diverse than the macronutrients is the group of nutrients called micronutrients.
As the name implies, micronutrients are nutrients present in the diet and body in small
amounts. They are measured in milligrams and micrograms. They do not provide
significant amounts of calories to the body but act as cofactors in making biomolecules,
have structural roles, function as electrolytes, and function as enzymes. Broadly speaking,
the essential vitamins and minerals, the non-essential vitamins and minerals, vitamin-like
substances, and other dietary biomolecules which are important in performance, fitness
and health fall into the micronutrient category.
Vitamins are organic compounds that are required by the body for maintenance of good
health and growth. Vitamins are further classified as fat-soluble and water-soluble. By
convention the word vitamin has been reserved for certain nutrients that the body cannot
manufacture and must get through eating food. The fat soluble vitamins include vitamins
A, D, E, and K. Because they are soluble in fat (lipids), they have the tendency to store
themselves in the bodys fat tissue, fat deposits, and liver. In excess, this storage
capability makes it possible to take so much of the fat soluble vitamin that the effect on the
body could cause side effects over time. Concern over the intake of fat-soluble vitamins
should be exercised, while maintaining adequate dietary intake.
The water soluble vitamins include the B vitamins and vitamin C. In contrast to the fatsoluble vitamins, the water-soluble vitamins are not easily stored by the body. More often,
they are lost from foods during cooking or eliminated from the body. The B vitamins
function mainly as coenzymes. Vitamin C has several important metabolic roles. Vitamins
are not usually metabolized for energy, but some of them are essential for the production
of energy from the macronutrients and act as cofactors. As with the macronutrients,
vitamin research has only begun to illuminate how these nutrients benefit performance
and health beyond nutritional deficiency prevention. However, current findings provide a
good picture of how vitamins are important for health and performance.
The mineral nutrients are inorganic nutrients (or inorganic-organic complexes) that are
found in the body; and, although they only comprise about 4 percent of the bodys weight,
they are essential structural components and necessary for many vital metabolic
processes. Minerals such as calcium are required in large amounts every day, about
1,200 or more milligrams per day, while other minerals, such as chromium, are needed in
microgram amounts. A microgram is 1,000th of a milligram. Even though there is a
relatively wide range of intake observed between the different minerals, the relative
importance of each mineral is equal. Some minerals are found in the body in their
inorganic form, such as calcium salts in the bone and sodium chloride in the blood. Other
minerals are present in the body in organic combinations, such as iron in hemoglobin and
iodine in thyroxin. Absorption of minerals into the body will vary greatly depending upon
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the type of mineral. Researchers are discovering that just because a food contains a
mineral, or vitamin, does not mean that all of it will get into the body. This is another
reason why use of sports supplements and other dietary supplements are recommended.
They ensure that the exact amount of nutrients will be supplied to the body, in controlled
amounts. Additionally, you can get high quality nutrients, without the fat, salt, pesticides,
and other junk that is found in many foods.
In addition to essential vitamins and minerals, there exist a host of other bioactive
substances that the body can make on its own, and can benefit from extra amounts from
the diet. These are sometimes referred to as "accessory nutrients" or "non-essential
nutrients". When it comes to the athlete, many of these nutrients will actually improve
performance. Carbonates can improve performance in explosive power sports. L-Carnitine
is essential for the oxidation of long chain fatty acids into energy. While carnitine can be
made from the amino acids lysine and methionine, research has shown that supplemental
amounts can benefit fat metabolism and increase endurance. Another nutrient, creatine, is
widely taken by athletes in supplement form and touted for its energy enhancing effects
and usefulness in strength sports.
Furthermore, there is a growing awareness and use of substances found in plants and
animals that are purported to improve health and performance. A group of naturally
occurring plant compounds, the bioflavonoids, beneficially maintain the artery walls of the
circulatory system and have evidence of helping improve the healing process, among
other potential benefits. Then there are a variety of botanicals taken for a diverse variety
of purposes, which may include anti-stress, digestion, energy enhancement, muscle
growth, fat loss, and sleep. The importance of enzymes, both nutritionally derived and
bodily manufactured, are important for total health, digestion, and recovery. Moreover,
vitamins, minerals, and other substances used in supplements like glucosamine and
chondroitin sulfate may be important for healing and maintenance of connective tissue
health. The information in subsequent chapters will focus on reviewing the scientific
evidence that exists for these novel substances to sort out which ones have the most
independent substantiation that supports their effectiveness.

NUTRIENT DENSITY
Foods contain macronutrients and micronutrients in many different combinations and
amounts. A potato is high in complex carbohydrates, contains some protein, B vitamins, a
good source of vitamin C, some minerals, (especially potassium and phosphorus), and a
trace amount of fat. Meat, like beef for example, is high in protein with a range of fat
content, but has no carbohydrates. Beef also acts as a good source of Vitamin A, some B
vitamins, phosphorus, potassium, iron, and magnesium. Just a brief look at these two
foods demonstrates that while they contain some of the essential nutrients, they lack
others. The nutrient content of food will also vary depending upon when and where it is
grown.
In these modern times, a large amount of the food is processed. Most of these processed
foods are very low in micronutrients. For example, white pasta, which is a good source of
carbohydrates, has been stripped of most of its micronutrient content, as well as its fiber
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from the external bran layer in processing its flour. In fact, most pasta is fortified with
added vitamins and minerals to compensate for the reduced nutrient content. Canned
vegetables can also lose a lot of their vitamin content in the preparation process, including
enzymes lost from the cooking process.
Ingesting whole foods and sports supplements is necessary for attaining high quality
performance nutrition. This is a reliable solution you are in control of for achieving high
quality nutrient dense nutrition. If you are eating a lot of carbohydrates from sugar, for
example, the essential vitamin cofactors will not be present in proper amounts to get the
most efficient and highest level of energy out of this food. Too much sugar intake also can
cause imbalances in your insulin levels. These factors have a direct effect on how your
body uses nutrients for energy or for conversion to fat. Therefore, maintaining an intake of
foods that are high in quality nutrients is important for reaching top performance and
maintaining good health. Maintaining a nutrient dense diet will include combining healthy
foods with the right supplements.

BIOAVAILABILITY
It was once assumed that the presence of a nutrient in a particular food meant that the
body would make full use of it. We now know that this assumption does not hold true for
many nutrients. BIOAVAILABILITY refers to the ability of an ingested nutrient to enter the
body from the digestive tract, into the bloodstream, and on to the cells where it is utilized.
A nutrients BIOAVAILABILITY is affected in many ways. Certain nutrients compete with
each other for intestinal absorption. Food preparation can affect bioavailability. Problems
with your digestive system will interfere with nutrient absorption, and some nutrients are
absorbed better in the presence of other nutrientsthe intestinal absorption of phosphorus
by vitamin D for example. When constructing a nutrition program, picking foods and
supplements that contain highly bioavailable nutrients is a must for maximum nutrition
performance. Even the nutrients used in supplement formulation can vary. So, choosing
supplements with highly bioavailable nutrients is important.

THE LIMITING NUTRIENT CONCEPT


While the majority of the nutrients in food are usually absorbed into the body, the absence
of even one nutrient can limit the utilization of other nutrients. For example, the mineral
chromium is an essential cofactor for the proper functioning of the hormone insulin. When
you eat a meal insulin is secreted into the bloodstream and is required for the passage of
glucose and amino acids from the bloodstream to the cells. Chromium is needed for
insulin to function properly. Even if your body is making enough insulin, a shortage of
chromium can prevent the complete assimilation of dietary glucose and amino acids.
Researchers have determined that chromium is not present in optimal amounts in most
diets, especially among athletes. When chromium is not present in optimal amounts,
dietary glucose and amino acids in the bloodstream that cannot get into the cells will
circulate back to the liver and may end up being converted to fat. Additionally, muscle
cells will be deprived of amino acids for proper growth and recovery, and of glucose for
replenishment of glycogen stores. In this example chromium is a limiting nutrient because
inadequate levels limits the cellular uptake of other nutrients. Now imagine what can
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happen to the body from inadequate and unbalanced intake of many essential nutrients,
which can led to causing reduced performance and jeopardizing health.
Some of the same amino acids that build proteins can also become limiting nutrients for
the athlete. As mentioned earlier, during exercise, some amino acids are used for energy.
The amino acid leucine is one of them. Leucine is an essential amino acid. It is used to
make other amino acids and is important in metabolic pathways. For the athlete, leucine
can become a limiting nutrient and affect the utilization of the other amino acids when it is
selectively used for energy and the other amino acids are not. Amino acids are used to
build proteins, which are chains of amino acids. When one amino acid runs out, this will
inhibit and reduce the rate of protein synthesis and slow down growth and repair of the
body. One way to compensate for the disproportionate use of leucine for energy is to
ingest supplemental amounts of leucine and other amino acids that are used for energy
and can become potential limiting nutrients. It is equally important to ingest the right
amount of the "non-essential" amino acids and other "non-essential" nutrients so the body
does not have to waste time and energy making these nutrients.
You can begin to see how performance nutrition is different from just eating for survival or
optimum health. First, determine what nutrients (both essential and non-essential) the
athletes body uses and how and when it uses them. Then supply them in the diet. Its like
formulating a super-charged fuel for a high performance engine. But the engine in this
case is the human body, and its a dynamic one based on the individual and physical
activity required for the sport.

NUTRACEUTICAL
The term "nutraceutical", sometimes spelled nutriceutical, was created from the words
"nutrition" and "pharmaceutical" in the 1980s by Stephen DeFelice, MD, founder and
chairman of the Foundation for Innovation in Medicine in New Jersey. According to Dr.
DeFelice, a nutraceutical is any substance that is a food or a part of a food and provides
medical or health benefits, including the prevention and treatment of disease. This
concept of nutraceutical goes beyond the simple notion of just providing adequate nutrition
to prevent nutrient deficiency diseases or health, as it widens the view to include
prevention and treatment of all diseases. Nutraceutical products can range from whole
foods, isolated nutrients, dietary supplements and nutrition programs, to herbal products,
and processed/prepared foods such as cereals, soups and beverages.
Health Canada has taken the lead in publishing official definitions of nutraceutical and a
related term, functional foods:
A nutraceutical is a product isolated or purified from foods that is generally sold in medicinal forms
not usually associated with food. A nutraceutical is demonstrated to have a physiological benefit or
provide protection against chronic disease.
A functional food is similar in appearance to, or may be, a conventional food, is consumed as part of
a usual diet, and is demonstrated to have physiological benefits and/or reduce the risk of chronic
disease beyond basic nutritional functions.

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While the term nutraceutical is new, the concept of preventing and treating diseases is
thousands of years old. In fact there is a famous quote from an ancient Greek doctor,
Hippocrates, who is considered to be the founder of scientific medicine that goes like this,
Let food be thy medicine and medicine be thy food.
In addition to essential nutrients, some examples of foods and food substances that have
been regarded as nutraceutical include whole grain foods, fruits and vegetables, whey
protein, soy protein, garlic, onions, fish oils, green tea, soy isoflavones, lutein, lycopene,
curcumin, sphingolipids, resveratrol, isothiocynates, conjugated linoleic acid, quercetin,
beta-carotene, capsaicin, lecithin, fiber, catechins and probiotics. So, in addition to eating
the right foods and supplements to ensure optimum intake of the essential nutrients,
eating foods with nutraceutical value will serve to make your diet even healthier.

RESEARCH ON NUTRIENTS
Historically, the initial nutrition research focused on nutrient deficiencies, nutritional care
for metabolic disorders like diabetes, and other clinical nutrition applications. Nutrition
research on improving physical performance and optimum health is scanty, starting in the
1920s and 30s. However, from the late 1970s to present, more and more research is
being conducted on the ways in which nutrition affects performance and health.
Researchers are breaking the confines of traditional nutritional dogma, delving into
unexplored areas of nutrition, and looking at the relationships between human
performance, fitness, and nutrition. In fact, there are scientific journals filled with new
research on how food and supplements affect performance, and The International Journal
of Sport Nutrition is dedicated to this one subject. Also, in 1994 the National Academy
Press published its impressive report on Food Components To Enhance Performance, a
special report by the Committee on Military Nutrition Research, followed by several
additional reports about military nutrition.
In addition, thousands of research studies have been published about a variety of sports
nutrition related topics. This large and growing body of research ranges from creatines
effects on increasing muscle growth and strength, to carntines effects for increasing
endurance, to determining the best kind and amount of protein for optimal muscle growth,
and the best carbohydrates for boosting exercise performance. Then there is a variety of
specialty sports nutrition research to determine what works best for immunity, reaction
time, boosting anabolic hormone levels, improving vision, etc. This area of research is
rapidly growing, with new discoveries occurring each year, and confirmation of the sports
nutrition practices and supplements that still work best; the time-tested ones, including
scientific sports nutrition models I developed, presented in Part Three.
The good news is that many fundamental and even some quite sophisticated discoveries
have been made concerning the effects that nutrition has on athletic performance that you
can start using immediately. These important scientific findings will be included in the
following chapters about the various nutrients. It is important to note, however that most
studies conducted on the effects that different nutrition programs and supplements may
have on performance or body composition are often short in duration, several weeks to a
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few months. Therefore, it is important to understand the long-term safety of some of the
supplement loading practices, like creatine monohydrate loading, are only determined for
these short periods. So, if you or your clients practice certain supplement use and loading
techniques, it is best done under the supervision of a doctor, nutritionist or other qualified
health professional as a safeguard. There are very few cases reported in the scientific
literature about supplements causing adverse effects on healthy individuals. But you know
that many athletes do not follow balanced diets, and they may rely on certain supplements
as a majority of their food intake. This type of inadequate / unbalanced nutrition may lead
to developing performance and health problems. Remember, supplements are intended to
do just that, supplement the diet. They are not intended to replace good eating habits.

ERGOGENIC AIDS
"Ergogenic aids" is a catch all term to describe athletic performance enhancing
substances and training techniques. Ergogenic aids can be nutritional and non-nutritional,
and include special training techniques, blood doping, mental strategies, and drugs.
Substances range from water to large dosages of vitamins. In the most fundamental
sense of the definition, a nutritional ergogenic aid would cause some immediate
observable benefit for athletic performance.
While there are indeed viable ergogenic aids, as far as this book is concerned, your entire
nutrition and training program should be approached as an ergogenic aid. So, do not
focus on just one or two magic bullet supplements, thinking that this is all it takes for
peak performance. While certain short term performance enhancing methods are
employed as part of my Dynamic Nutrition for Maximum Performance approach (like
macronutrient modulation and carbohydrate loading), you must focus on perfecting your
total nutrition and training programs to increase and maximize performance to your
fullest potential. If your foundation nutrition is not optimal to begin with, then use of a
"nutritional ergogenic aid" will not allow you to derive the maximum benefits it may offer.
As you review the nutrients one by one, remember that the sum total nutrition approach
will far exceed any of the individual ergogenic nutritional factors.

SAFETY
Food and dietary supplement safety is a priory concern and involves vigilance on several
levels. Making sure the foods you are eating are fresh and free from spoilage and
microbial contamination is a top priority. Then for people with food intolerances or
allergies, making sure to consume a diet that is free from the problematic foods.
Accidental contamination of food is also a potential safety problem, but is usually difficult
to assess when purchasing food, as contaminants are typically substances that cannot be
detected by the eye or using the other senses such as taste or smell. Fortunately
accidental contamination is infrequent, and usually reported in the news immediately when
a food contamination incident occurs. So, keep tuned in to the daily news about these
types of potential food safety issues.
Review Part Three for more information about nutrient safety issues and the practical
applications of the performance nutrition concepts reviewed in this chapter.
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Some Common Food and Supplement Ingredient Standard and Label Jargon and Terminology.
Unless you are an expert, keeping track of the terminology used in nutrition and on nutrition
products can be a real chore. This summary should be helpful in understanding some of these
common terms and concepts.
Dietary Reference Intakes is a generic term for a set of
nutrient reference values that includes Estimated Average
Requirement, Recommended Dietary Allowance,
Adequate Intake, and Tolerable Upper Intake Level.

Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA): the average


daily dietary intake level that is sufficient to meet the
nutrient requirement of nearly all (97 to 98 percent)
healthy individuals in a group.

Adequate Intake (AI): a value based on observed or


experimentally determined approximations of nutrient
intake by a group (or groups) of healthy peopleused
when an RDA cannot be determined.

Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL): the highest level of


daily nutrient intake that is likely to pose no risk of
adverse health effects to almost all individuals in the
general population. As intake increases above the UL,
the risk of adverse effects increases.

Estimated Average Requirement (EAR): a nutrient


intake value that is estimated to meet the requirement
of half the healthy individuals in a group

Daily Values (DVs). A system created by the Food and


Drug Administration to help manufacturers present their
Reference Daily Intake (RDI) and Daily Reference Value
(DRV) information on food and supplement labels. The
RDI and DRV values are presented as percent Daily
Values-that is, the amount of the nutrient in the product is
described as a percentage, with 100 percent being
equivalent to the total amount of the nutrient required by
a reference individual consuming a 2,000-calorie-per-day
diet. The terms Reference Daily Intakes (DRI), Daily
Reference Values, RDI, and DRV never actually appear on
the supplement or nutrition labels.
Daily Reference Values (DRVs). Food- and supplementlabel nutrient values created by the Food and Drug
Administration for the macronutrients and two electrolytes.
DRVs, based on a reference diet of 2,000 or 2,500
calories, have been assigned to fat, saturated fat,
cholesterol, total carbohydrate, fiber, protein, sodium, and
potassium. These values, the same as the Reference
Daily Intakes (RDIs), are presented on the new nutrition
labels as percent Daily Values (DVs).

Estimated Safe and Adequate Daily Dietary Intakes


(ESADDIs). A group of nutrient values compiled by the
National Research Council that represents safe and
adequate intake levels for a number of essential nutrients
for which the data were sufficient to estimate a range of
requirements but not sufficient enough to assign RDAs.
Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs). A database
compiled by the National Research Council that has
become the accepted source of nutrient allowances for
healthy people. The RDAs serve as the basis for the
Reference Daily Intakes (RDIs) and Daily Reference
Values (DRVs). The RDAs are presented in a book entitled
Recommended Dietary Allowances, first published in
1943; the tenth edition was published in 1989, about 284
pages. In 1997 the report series was expanded under the
new heading of Dietary Reference Intakes. Under the DRI
series groups of nutrients were reviewed in several
different reports consisting of several thousand pages.
Reference Daily Intakes (RDIs). Food and supplement
label nutrient values created by the Food and Drug
Administration to replace its U.S. Recommended Daily
Allowances (USRDAs) but still based on the National
Research Council's Recommended Dietary Allowances
(RDAs). The original mandate, which grew out of a number
of proposals, was published in January 1994; and the
RDIs completely took the place of the USRDAs by
January 1997. These values are represented on the new
nutrition labels as percent Daily Values (DVs).
U.S. Recommended Daily Allowances (USRDAs). A group
of nutrient values created by the Food and Drug
Administration to help the manufacturers of processed
foods and supplements meet its nutrition-labeling criteria.
The values were based on the National Research
Council's Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs). The
FDA took the RDAs, which are the average recommended
nutrient intakes for promotion of health, and created the
USRDAs, which are the nutrient values used on food and
supplement labels. The USRDAs were phased out and
replaced with the FDA's Reference Daily Intakes (RDIs) by
January 1997. However, you may sometimes encounter
this terminology in books and elsewhere.

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CHAPTER 1.2
NUTRITION PRODUCT OVERVIEW
There are a large number of ingredients found in foods and sports supplements consisting
of essential nutrients, metabolites, and botanicals, occurring in various combinations.
Foods come in several forms, such as, whole foods, processed foods, frozen foods,
canned foods, dehydrated foods, and even aged foods. The selection of sports
supplements is also diversified and includes product types such as, vitamins, minerals,
botanicals, muscle builders, strength enhancers, energy products, specialty products, and
powdered meal replacements, found on the shelves as tablets, capsules, softgels, liquids,
bars, and powdered products.
Several decades ago at the dawn of modern sports nutrition there were only dozens of
sports nutrition companies selling hundreds of products, now there are hundreds of sports
nutrition companies selling thousands of products. This vast supply of food and sports
supplement choices often leaves the athlete bewildered, and set on a self directed journey
of sports nutrition trial and error. A journey which often leads to wasting time and money
experimenting to determine the right combinations of foods and supplements that work
best to achieve their body composition and improved athletic performance results.
Ideally, the athletes focus should be on knowing the food and sports nutrition products to
choose that will help them to achieve their body composition and athletic performance
nutrition goals. To do this successfully you need to know what your special athletic
nutrition requirements are and what foods and sports supplement ingredients and
products to look for that can help best supply you with the most effective performance
nutrition.
Yes, the food and sports supplement needs of a marathon runner are different when
compared to a football player, and so on. Then there are specialty sports like bodybuilding
where the goal is building a tremendous amount of proportioned muscle mass, followed by
a reduction of body fat to display their physiques for competition. Then there are still other
athletes who compete in weight class sports, who need to maintain peak athletic
performance, while having to deal with weight maintenance issues.
While these differences are important to recognize and deal with, they are not infinite.
When taking a close look at the bio-energetics of athletes participating in different sports
and their sport specific anatomy and physiology, bio-energetic similarities of certain sports
led to my development of a sports specific nutrition model. I started developing this model
back in the 1970s by taking a look at the actual nutrition needs of the human body based
on activity and athletic performance needs. Eventually my work led me to the development
of my Dynamic Nutrition for Maximum Performance model and performance daily intake
approach to sports nutrition. This differs from the generalized nutrition guidelines for the
population at large in several important ways that will be elaborated on in Part Three.
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To help create a point of reference, this chapter provides an overview of the different
types of nutrient sources available to athletes so that you are familiar with the various
product types, and to help demystify the products you are confronted with. The remaining
chapters will review details about the nutrients and ingredients found in sports nutrition
supplements, followed by chapters in Part Three about sports specific nutrition (and fat
loss) to provide guidelines and a framework for athletes to work from.

ALL FOODS ARE NOT CREATED EQUAL


From the start you should know that the nutrient content of food varies considerably. This
variation can occur from location to location and even within the same location from year
to year. This has been one major flaw in the nutrition approaches taken at the institutional
level, which assume a potato from Idaho has the exact same nutrient content as a potato
grown in Maine. In the past, dealing with this unknown nutrient content variable was
difficult; but with the help of todays modern food technology, meeting your special athletic
nutrient demands is now more effectively accomplished. The use of special food
preparations and sport supplements makes getting the performance nutrition you need
more reliable and economical too.
To add to this food saga, some foods tend to be healthier than others. The term
wholesome has become a popular way to describe foods that are supposed to be fresh,
healthy, and packed with nutrients. However, many marketing companies use
wholesome to describe whatever food they are selling, including high fat baked goods,
so double check those labels for the actual nutrition content and ingredients.
The primary good foods to look for are fresh fruit and vegetables, whole grains and whole
grain products, beans, lean meats, fish, and poultry, for example. In response to a growing
demand to offer the consumer healthier foods, health foods and health food stores have
begun to emerge since the mid 1900s. It is estimated that in the United States alone there
are over 20,000 health food stores, and many grocery stores have created health food
sections.
But even when eating healthier foods, you need to watch the kind and the amounts that
you are eating. A common misconception is that you can eat as much as you want of
every food found in a health food store. Well, eating even too much of even a healthy food
can become unhealthy and eventually slow your progress down, plus add extra pounds of
fat to your waistline. If you check the labels, some health foods are even high in fat
content, albeit the healthy unsaturated fat, but whether it is saturated or not, fat is one
nutrient you want to keep your eye on and be sure not consume too much of, and make a
daily goal to consume the healthy fats as discussed in Chapter 1.5.

UNDERSTANDING FOOD AND SUPPLEMENT LABELS


How do you know what your are getting from the foods you eat? This is a good question
with no simple answer. Take a look at the foods that you have around your house. While
most packaged foods have nutrition content information, most whole foods do not have
any nutrients listed, or those that do usually only list the bare minimum nutrients that are
required by labeling laws. So, all of the healthy whole foods, the good food that should
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constitute the majority of your diet, like fresh fruits, vegetables, fish, lean meats, etc., do
not always have adequate labels on them showing the nutrients they supply.
This can make figuring out exactly what is supplied by the foods you eat a part-time job,
and therefore requires nutrition training on your part. You should make an effort to start
learning what foods are good sources of the nutrients you need. This can be
accomplished by starting to read the nutrition labels of products that have Nutrition Facts
labels. Start keeping track of what you are eating as part of your quest to master your
nutrition program.
By reading labels you will be able to decide for yourself if you should be eating a particular
food. You will also be surprised how much fat and calories, and low nutrient content some
of your favorite foods may contain, and how few calories, low in fat, and high nutrient
content most healthy fruits and vegetables contain. Part Two provides example food lists
with average nutrition content of common whole foods. You can use these tables to add
your favorite whole health foods to, and use the recommended nutrition database sources
to look up their nutrition content.
Under the Food and Drug Administrations (FDA) nutrition labeling regulations, certain
ingredients and nutrition information should be listed on packaged foods and on a
limited/voluntary basis for some whole foods. When nutrition content labels are present,
they need to have the information presented in a special format, the Nutrition Facts panel
(see below for some examples). The Nutrition Facts panel contains nutrient content
information; like the amount of fat, protein, carbohydrates, and certain vitamins and
minerals.
Usually under the Nutrition Facts panel you will find the ingredient listing. This part of the
label lists the ingredients contained in the foods that the nutrition content listed in the
Nutrition Facts panel is provided from. The ingredient listing part of food labels will list
ingredients in descending order of predominance. For example, if water is the first
ingredient, then water is the most prevalent ingredient. However, the ingredient listing
does not list the actual amounts of the ingredients.

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Example of Generalized
Nutrition Facts Panel

Example of Nutrition Facts Panel


and Ingredients Listing
From Actual Food Packaging

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Examples of Other Nutrition Facts Panel Formats

Nutrition Label Reference Values


When you start reading the nutrition labels closely, you will notice they make use of some
special terms; for example, % Daily Value(s). The % Daily Value is derived from certain
reference values for key essential nutrients. From the start it is important to realize that
these Daily Values are based on average dietary intakes of the population at large, and
are not specific to the special nutritional needs of athletes.
Caution: These Government Reference Values Are Only
The Bare Minimum For Survival
There are two reference diets used for labeling purposes, 2,000 and 2,500 calories per
day. Most athletes expend calories 2 or 3 or more times these amounts on a daily basis.
Furthermore, these nutritional reference amounts represent only the minimum amounts of
nutrients to theoretically reduced the risk of nutrient deficiency related diseases, not the
amounts needed for optimum health or to promote maximum athletic performance.
The below Reference Values for Nutrition Labeling table provides these minimum
amounts of nutrition information that are used on nutrition labeling. As most food labels do
not list the actual amounts of most vitamins and minerals, just the % Daily Values, you can
use this information to determine actual amounts from the percentages. You will notice the
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other amazing part of the standardized nutrition label values is that they are supposed to
be suitable for a wide range of age groups, for adults and children 4 or more years of age.
Definitely not enough for athletic people or active people, or even for optimum health, but
is nevertheless the national reference standard.

Reference Values for Nutrition Labeling


Based on a 2000 Calorie Intake; for Adults and Children 4 or More Years of Age. These represent the
government recommended minimum intakes reference values for the general population, for use on food
and dietary supplement labels. Refer to Part Three for additional reference values.
NUTRIENT
Total Fat
Saturated fatty acids
Cholesterol
Sodium
Potassium
Total carbohydrate
Fiber
Protein
Vitamin A
Vitamin C
Calcium
Iron
Vitamin D
Vitamin E
Vitamin K
Thiamin
Riboflavin
Niacin
Vitamin B6
Folate
Vitamin B12
Biotin
Pantothenic acid
Phosphorus
Iodine
Magnesium
Zinc
Selenium
Copper
Manganese
Chromium
Molybdenum
Chloride

UNIT OF MEASURE
grams (g)
grams (g)
milligrams (mg)
milligrams (mg)
milligrams (mg)
grams (g)
grams (g)
grams (g)
International Unit (IU)
milligrams (mg)
milligrams (mg)
milligrams (mg)
International Unit (IU)
International Unit (IU)
micrograms (g)
milligrams (mg)
milligrams (mg)
milligrams (mg)
milligrams (mg)
micrograms (g)
micrograms (g)
micrograms (g)
milligrams (mg)
milligrams (mg)
micrograms (g)
milligrams (mg)
milligrams (mg)
micrograms (g)
milligrams (mg)
milligrams (mg)
micrograms (g)
micrograms (g)
milligrams (mg)

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DAILY VALUES
65
20
300
2400
3500
300
25
50
5000
60
1000
18
400
30
80
1.5
1.7
20
2.0
400
6.0
300
10
1000
150
400
15
70
2.0
2.0
120
75
3400

SUPER FOODS: NUTRITION SUPPLEMENTS ARE BORN


When people think of supplements, they sometimes tend to relate them more to drugs
than to food. This is partly due to the way they look, (tablets, capsules, etc.,) and from
their origins in clinical settings used to treat nutrient diseases and other disorders.
Technically speaking dietary supplements are, in fact, super foods and super nutrients.
They are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration as a subcategory of foods.
The first use of nutrients as supplements originated from medical applications, primarily to
treat nutrition deficiencies. In the early 1900s, when vitamins were first discovered, the
medical community quickly caught on to the benefits of using supplements to improve the
health of their patients. Doctors and clinical nutritionists have long utilized special nutrient
solutions to feed their patients back to health. These products mainly consisted of
intravenous solutions that delivered a liquid nutrient mix right into the blood stream.
Today, doctors prescribe dietary supplements to many patients for numerous health
reasons, particularly for post surgery patients, young people, old people, pregnant women
and people with certain diseases. Use of nutrients to accelerate healing is also practiced
in hospitals as a result of new research demonstrating the rapid recovery of patients who
had surgery and took supplements to promote faster healing.
Right from the start of the discovery of essential nutrients like vitamins, scientists
determined that most people were not getting the nutrition they needed from foods. This
realization led to starting the practice of adding essential nutrients, like protein, vitamins
and minerals to foods to boost the nutrition content; referred to as fortification. So, one of
the most widespread use of vitamins and minerals in is the fortification of foods. For
example, iodine in salt, B-vitamins in grain products, vitamin D in milk, calcium in orange
juice, etc. In fact, the importance of adding essential vitamins and minerals to foods is
recognized by the FDA, and they have a special set of guidelines for adding 21 essential
nutrients to foods. Here is a quote from the FDAs food fortification policy:
The addition of nutrients to specific foods can be an effective way of maintaining and
improving the overall nutritional quality of the food supply.
While adding nutrients to foods is a good idea, the amounts added to foods may not be
enough for optimum health and maximum performance. Also, you may not want to eat
these types of foods. So, using dietary supplements is a way to ensure nutritional intake
certainty.
Moving on with this short nutrient supplement evolution overview, in the early years, aside
from these clinical uses of vitamin, mineral and other supplements, progressive scientists
and nutritionists leading the optimum health through optimum nutrition movement began
to advocate the use of dietary supplements to ensure adequate intake of the essential
nutrients, and even higher amounts for boosting health, energy, and all bodily functions.
During these early days, the majority of the research using nutrient supplements was
being conducted in medical settings, with people having diseases or nutrient deficiencies.
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While some of the early nutrition research was being conducted with athletes and
physically active people, it was not until the space program that mass market potential use
of supplements would become a reality. Thats right. Among the many other spin-off
benefits derived from the space program, dietary supplements is another group of
products with astronaut appeal. When scientists leading the space-age were preparing
to send people into space for the first time, they had no idea how the digestive system
would react to a zero-gravity environment. They also wanted to make sure to supply a
nutritionally complete performance diet to the astronauts to ensure their peak mental and
physical performance during their strenuous space flights.
This space program nutrition research was a breakthrough for human nutrition because
scientists had the funding to experiment on healthy, athletic individuals. Previous dietary
supplement and other nutrition research relied mainly on laboratory animals and ailing
hospital patients. For the first time, research would be conducted on healthy individuals to
optimize their performance. The astronauts were subjected to numerous experiments in
which their body weights, blood chemistry, and caloric output was measured along the
way. Much vital information on nutrition and human physiology was gathered during this
nutritional space age research.
Looking back to initial research published in the 1950s, laboratory animals were first used
to formulate what was to become known as chemically defined diets. Chemically defined
diets are nothing more than liquid meals containing a full profile of essential nutrients that
are required to sustain life; amino acids, vitamins, minerals, fatty acids, etc. Through this
research, much was learned about nutrition, growth, and health of laboratory animals.
Once the hypotheses were tested, formulations were made for and supplied to humans for
testing, evaluation and refinement.
Going from a clinical setting to the mass market was a step that also occurred in the
1960s with weight loss related products. Researchers discovered that subjects eating
only chemically defined diets would experience an immediate loss of body weight. It was
also interesting to note that the initial weight loss of up to 11 pounds would occur only
after a short several days. Scientists attributed this weight loss to clearance of bulk from
the gastrointestinal tract, and drop in water weight. This contention was supported by the
observed abrupt weight gain following the first week of normal food after the break with
the experimental liquid diets. Typically, subjects gained weight equal to that amount lost
during the first week. This partially explains why many of the meal replacement products
now available on the market will produce an initial rapid loss of body weight, followed by a
period of slower loss of body weight.
Ever since the 1960s, nutritional supplements have become increasingly widespread.
Many categories of products have evolved as more and more research discovered how
nutrients can benefit health and performance. One of the first categories of sports
supplements began with protein rich powdered drinks. Widespread use of these products
continues by bodybuilders, athletes, and teenagers looking to increase body weight and
help to pack on more muscle and increase strength.
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In addition to athletes, an emerging subculture of health conscious individuals also uses


supplements and eats healthy foods too. Supplements are used by almost every person in
the United States at some point in their life. Sports nutrition represents one of the largest
and fastest growing supplement use categories because athletes know that they can
derive better results when using these super foods as part of their total sports nutrition
program.
In the early years sports supplement use was mostly based on the logic that people who
are larger, and two or more times active then the average person, have extra nutritional
needs. Scientific research has confirmed that athletes have special nutrition needs, and
thousands of research studies provide evidence about how sports nutrition practices and
certain sports supplements are effective to promote health, growth, recovery, strength,
speed, energy, reaction time, healing, and overall athletic performance.
In addition to all of the research about how dietary supplements help promote athletic
performance and wellness, recently the FDA has reviewed scientific evidence about the
relationship of food and supplement nutrient ingredients and their ability to reduce the risk
of and prevent certain diseases. From the review of the research, FDA recognizes the
ability of taking dietary supplements to help prevent a number of diseases, such as
calcium reducing osteoporosis, soy protein reducing cardiovascular diseases, selenium
reducing certain cancers, fish oils reducing cardiovascular diseases, potassium reducing
high blood pressure, chromium picolinate reducing insulin resistance, and so on.

DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS VERSUS CONVENTIONAL FOOD


Technically speaking dietary supplements are considered a subcategory of foods, and the
manufacturing, labeling, and distribution are indeed regulated by the Food and Drug
Administration, similar to conventional food products. The general definition of dietary
supplements that the U.S.A. Congress developed is as follows:
The term "dietary supplement" means a product (other than tobacco) intended to supplement the diet
that bears or contains one or more of the following dietary ingredients: vitamin; mineral; an herb or other
botanical; an amino acid; a dietary substance for use by man to supplement the diet by increasing the
total dietary intake; or a concentrate, metabolite, constituent, extract.

This general definition of dietary supplements makes it loud and clear that they are a valid
group of products recognized by the government. A major distinction between
conventional foods and dietary supplements is that dietary supplements are meant to
supplement the diet. While this is one of those fine-line regulatory details that does not
mean much to consumers, it makes a difference to companies making and selling food
and dietary supplement products. One of the obvious distinguishing features between a
conventional food and dietary supplement is they way they are labeled. Conventional food
products use the Nutrition Facts panel and dietary supplement products use the
Supplement Facts panel. The following are some examples of Supplement Facts panels.

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There are other behind-the-scenes issues when making and labeling conventional foods
and dietary supplements. When you look on the shelves, all tablet, capsule, and softgel
type products are labeled as dietary supplements. But then there are some types of
products, like powdered drink mixes, ready to drink beverages and nutrition bars, among
which some are labeled with Nutrition Facts panels and others are labeled with
Supplement Facts labels.

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Benefits of Dietary Supplements Versus Conventional Foods


To supplement right, you must first eat right, and nutrition information is provided in
subsequent chapters for your reference to assist in your goal of attaining a healthy sports
nutrition eating plan. However, when it comes to eating for optimum health and athletic
performance, conventional foods can be an unreliable source of key essential nutrients.
Also, conventional foods are typically low in specialty ingredients, like creatine and
carnitine. Furthermore, conventional foods are not designed for specific nutritional
biochemical purposes, such as promoting optimum energy or growth hormone and
testosterone production. There are some differences in the way nutrients from foods are
supplied when compared to supplements, this table will summarize some of the major
points, keeping in mind that dietary supplements are not intended to replace foods, but to
supplement the diet to ensure adequate nutrition and for sports specific athletic
performance specialty purposes.
FOOD NUTRIENTS

DIETARY SUPPLEMENT NUTRIENTS

Random amounts in the diet.


Nutrients supplied indiscriminately.
Small, inconsistent nutrient amounts.
Varied bioavailability.
Contains calories.
May dislike food supplying nutrients .
Costly, time consuming, perishable.
Often more expensive, and a nutrient basis.
Usually no instructions.
May have to overeat to get the nutrients you need.
Mandatory, we must eat healthy foods.

Controlled, consistent amounts.


Target specific requirements.
Concentrated, specific amounts.
Designed to be highly bioavailable.
Contains no calories or controlled caloric content.
No taste to tablet type supplements.
Convenient, long shelf life.
Often less expensive, on a nutrient basis.
Label/manufacturer use instructions.
Nutrient dense, can avoid overeating foods.
Specific and supplementary use.

DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS VERSUS DRUGS


When comparing dietary supplements to drugs here is where some lines get crossed
because much of the research conducted using dietary supplement ingredients, such as
vitamins, minerals, glucosamine, etc., was performed in medical settings to treat people
with diseases. This body of research has led many consumers to often self-prescribe
dietary supplements to help treat or manage their diseases. However, turning our attention
to the marketplace, dietary supplements cannot be sold by companies to treat diseases.
If a company wants to sell a nutrient ingredient to treat a disease, they have to get it
approved by the FDA for a specific use.

CLAIMS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS / SPORTS SUPPLEMENTS


Certain claims can be made for dietary supplement products. As previously mentioned,
the FDA has a special category of disease prevention claims, referred to as Health
Claims. Health Claims have to be approved by the FDA before they are made in
association with selling products.
Then there are a group of claims that can be made for dietary supplements that do not
have to be approved by the FDA. The most commonly encountered claims for dietary
supplements that are permitted for dietary supplement products come under the general
heading of statements of nutritional support, and include such claims as:
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Claiming a benefit related to a classical nutrient deficiency disease and discloses the prevalence of
such disease in the United States;
Describing the role of a nutrient or dietary ingredient intended to affect the structure or function in
humans, characterizes the documented mechanism by which a nutrient or dietary ingredient acts to
maintain such structure or function, or
Describes general well-being from consumption of a nutrient or dietary ingredient.

The most widely used dietary supplement product claims being used are ones that
describes the role of a nutrient or dietary ingredient intended to affect the structure or
functions of humans. These have become know as structure function claims.
When you think about it, sports nutrition supplements are designed to provide the body
with are reliable source of essential nutrients to ensure adequate nutrition, and they can
also be formulated to beneficially affect the structure and function of the human body to
result in enhanced athletic performance, by promoting bigger, faster, and stronger
muscles, and peak energy production, for example. So, when you review the numerous
ingredients used in sports supplements, they can have multiple functions to benefit health,
structure, and function of your body to help attain your athletic performance and
bodybuilding goals.
So dietary supplement product users wont confuse these supplement related claims for
disease treatment claims, labels for dietary supplement products that contain statements
of nutritional support need to have the following statement required by FDA regulations:
"This statement has not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This
product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.".

EXAMPLES OF COMMON SUPPLEMENT DOSAGE FORMS


Dietary supplements and specialty sports supplements come in several dosage forms.
Supplement forms are also sometimes referred as delivery systems.
Pills, Tablets and Caplets. These start out as a powder blend of nutrients which are
then pressed by machines into the characteristic pill or tablet form. By manufacturing
definition, a pill is different than a tablet. Pills are generally smaller than tablets, and are
made by using a special procedure devised by individual pharmacists. Tablets are more
commonly used today. There are many sizes of tablets, but there is an upper limit based
on the maximum size a person can safely swallow. Tablets are also made in chewable
forms. The term caplet is used to describe tablets that are shaped like capsules.
Originally, the caplet was a tamper proof, one piece capsule with a hard outer layer and
loosely bound contents.
Tablet delivery systems very. Current manufacturing technology allows tablets to digest
quickly, or provide sustained release of nutrients, or even time released nutrients. These
features give tablets an advantage over other dosage forms. Tablets also have a long
shelf life, typically 2 or more years. Tablets need to be manufactured properly by
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experienced manufactures to perform these dynamic delivery functions. Tablets are


usually coated. Coatings can be as simple as transparent glaze or colored. Some special
coatings are sometimes used to delay the digestion of the tablet until it passes through the
stomach and is in the intestines. This type of coating is called enteric coating.
Capsules. The capsule dosage forms are primarily hard capsules and soft capsules. The
hard capsules are delivery systems that consist of two halves into which the contents is
injected. The two halves are brought together to form the completed capsule. Hard
capsules can be filled with many types of contents, including powders, granules, pastes,
oily liquids, suspensions, and solutions. Soft capsules, also called softgels, were
developed to contain primarily liquid or semi liquid contents. Historically the primary
substance hard and soft capsules is made of is gelatin, which is of animal origin. A recent
development in capsule technology is to use materials of botanical origin to make
vegetarian capsules, primarily using cellulose substances.
Powders. There are many types of powder type dietary supplements made for many
different reasons, containing a wide diversity of nutrients. The most common powder
formulations are multivitamin/minerals, protein powders, amino acids, energy powders,
fiber, and weight gain powders. Supplement powders are a convenient way to get high
quality nutrition in the exact amounts you need, when you need it. Powdered nutrition
supplements therefore provide a convenient high density source of nutrition to meet your
individual needs.
Liquid Supplements. Liquid sport supplements include protein drinks, carbohydrate
drinks, weight gain drinks, herbal extracts, herbal tinctures, liquid vitamins, and minerals.
Many of these concoctions are also available in dry form, either as powders or pills. Most
common to the athlete are the host of carbohydrate drinks and protein rich weight gain
drinks. Herbal preparations are somewhat new to the American athlete, and offer a very
concentrated source of botanical ingredients.
Nutrition Bars. Nutrition bars for athletes have been around for many years now, but are
currently becoming popular as more athletes recognize their value. They are designed to
offer a way to get a scientifically developed snack that is high in healthy carbohydrates
and protein, and low in fat. This is the opposite of what most mass market candy bars
offer. Nutrition bars should become part of your daily performance diet. They are a perfect
delivery system for high density nutrition. Keep a few with you to fill in those in-between
meal snacks.

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CHAPTER 1.3
CARBOHYDRATES - THE ULTIMATE
PERFORMANCE FUEL

Carbohydrates are a high energy producing fuel source for muscles.


Glucose is the major carbohydrate in the diet and used by the body for energy.
Complex carbohydrates should be eaten more than simple carbohydrates.
Carbohydrate ingestion before, during and after exercise needs to be timed properly.
The body stores glucose in the form of glycogen.
Carbohydrates are involved in maintaining blood glucose levels, which is vital to physical performance
and health.
Glucose also has a structural role, used to make glucosamine, which is used to form connective tissues.

Most athletes eating for top performance should consume at least 55 to 60 percent of their
total daily calories from carbohydrates for maximum performance. For some athletes the
percentage can even be higher, in particular on competition days. In addition, research
has shown that the type of carbohydrate and food source ingested can affect
performance, so consuming the right carbohydrate containing foods and supplements is
important for maximum energy.
In addition to maintaining a balanced diet rich in carbohydrates from meal to meal, with
special emphasis on the pre-exercise/competition meal, carbohydrate energy beverage
consumption timing can be a key factor for improving athletic performance. Properly timing
consumption of a carbohydrate energy drink at the start of athletic activity or training, and
continuing consumption during exercise can help maintain support energy levels and help
to spare the bodys glycogen stores.
Providing the body with an external source of carbohydrate during exercise may increase
the time it takes the body to become exhausted, in particular for athletes who train or
compete or train strenuously for 45 minutes or longer. In other words, it increases athletic
performance and duration, and delays the onset of fatigue. When timing is right, if the
body is exercising when the ingested carbohydrate starts to enter the blood stream, it is
more readily used for energy and does not cause a rapid rise in insulin that could conflict
with glucagon function. More information about this topic is provided later in this chapter to
help you to master the nutrient exercise balancing act.
The most recent research continues to show that carbohydrates are the body's primary
high-energy fuel source for all athletic activities. Fat is important too, especially for
endurance athletes. But lessons learned from researchers in the early 1900s who studied
the effects of nutrient intake among runners and labor work performance revealed when
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carbohydrates were temporary reduced or eliminated from the diet, physical activity and
work output was reduced. By putting their subjects on a variety of experimental nutritional
regimens, ranging from outright starvation to diets consisting of different proportions of fat,
protein, and carbohydrates, these early researchers found a few interesting dynamics.
When the body runs out of its stored glycogen and is forced to just use fatty acids as the
primary source of energy, physical performance can decline dramatically. Endurance
athletes call this "hitting the wall." Historically long distance athletes experienced the
performance reducing effects of glycogen depletion before the performance enhancing
benefits of carbohydrate loading, glycogen maintenance, and ingesting carbohydrate
drinks during exercise was discovered.
Since the initial research, more insights about the importance carbohydrates have for
athletic performance and health have been made. So while the annual barrage of weight
loss fad diets might cause some confusion about carbohydrates, when it comes to
optimum health and peak athletic performance, there is no confusion: adequate
carbohydrate consumption is essential.
Also important is consuming an adequate daily supply of carbohydrates as part of your
comprehensive, mixed nutrient diet and from use of sports supplements. So, for peak
performance and health, athletes must consider the type of carbohydrates they eat, the
time of day they eat them, their intake of nutrient cofactors, and adequate intake of the
other essential nutrients. All these elements together help to maintain the bodys glycogen
stores and enhance energy production during exercise. Glycogen is a complex molecule
that contains glucose, and is found in muscle, the liver and other tissues. Glycogen,
therefore acts as a reserve of glucose energy, which is released when needed to provide
energy for exercising muscles, and other parts of the body. As the glycogen stores are
small, and quickly depleted, daily carbohydrate consumption is mandatory to ensure
maximum glycogen stores for peak energy production.
Among the significant aspects of dietary carbohydrates and athletic performance include
their rate of digestion, absorption from the digestive system, rise in blood sugar levels,
utilization as energy substrates, and storage in the body as glycogen. To gain a better
understanding of these dynamics of carbohydrates in the body, the glycemic index was
created, followed more recently by the development of the concept of glycemic load,
which will be reviewed herein.

TYPES OF CARBOHYDRATES
There are several types of carbohydrates. These different types of carbohydrates are
usually divided into three general categories based on their chemical structures:
monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides.
Monosaccharide carbohydrates are single molecules. Examples of
monosaccharide type carbohydrates include glucose (also referred to as dextrose),
fructose, sorbitol, galactose, mannitol, and mannose.
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Disaccharides are carbohydrates that have two monosaccharide molecules linked


together. Examples of disaccharides include sucrose, which is made of one
molecule each of glucose and fructose; maltose, made of two molecules of
glucose; and lactose, made of one molecule each of glucose and galactose.
Polysaccharides are complex carbohydrates that have three or more
monosaccharide molecules linked together. Polysaccharides are sometimes also
referred to as glucose polymers. Examples of polysaccharides include starch,
dextrin, cellulose, and glycogen, which are all made of chains of glucose. Other
common terms include glucose polymers and maltodextrin. Inulin is a unique
complex carbohydrate made of multiple molecules of fructose. Note that the term
oligosaccharides is a general term used to refer to short monosaccharide chains of
3 to 10 units in length.
Another kind of carbohydrate is fiber, which is composed mainly of the indigestible
polysaccharides that make up a plant's cell walls. These polysaccharides include
cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin, and a variety of gums, mucilage, and algal
polysaccharides.
The following information reviews some more details about the different types of
carbohydrates. One point of interest about carbohydrates is how they behave and function
in the body and how to use this knowledge to your athletic performance advantage. In
addition to the different rates of absorption from the digestive system, the two main
monosaccharides, glucose and fructose behave differently in the body, with glucose being
used more rapidly and efficiently by muscles.
Getting the carbohydrate balancing act perfected is vital for intensively training elite
athletes. This is also important for recreational athletes and fitness exercisers, but less
critical when compared to competitive elite athletes who have to maintain championship
peak performance.

SIMPLE CARBOHYDRATES
The term sugar is a catch all term that can actually be referring to different types of
carbohydrates. For example, table sugar is sucrose, and blood sugar usually refers to the
glucose present in the blood. This means that your blood sugar levels, glucose levels, are
influenced from the type of carbohydrate glucose sources you ingest; complex
carbohydrates, sucrose, maltose, lactose, and glucose (dextrose).
The principal monosaccharides in food are glucose and fructose. Glucose, which is also
called dextrose or grape sugar, is found commonly in fruit, sweet corn, corn syrup, certain
roots, and honey. Glucose, is also contained in starch / complex carbohydrates. Fructose,
which is also called levulose or fruit sugar, is found occurring with free glucose or as part
of the sucrose molecule in honey and fruit.
While glucose has traditionally been a frequently encountered dietary sugar, fructoses
popularity began due to the discovery that it does not cause the rapid rise and fall in the
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blood-sugar level that glucose does. Researchers realized this in the early 1980s when
they undertook the first extensive comparisons of the different carbohydrates and
carbohydrate containing foods. They found that the main reason fructose is easier on the
blood-sugar level is that the body absorbs and metabolizes fructose at a slower rate than
it does glucose. In fact, fructose has to be converted to glucose in the liver before being
used by most cells in the body, which further explains why it causes a slower rise in blood
glucose levels. Because of the slower utilization of fructose, and slower rise in blood sugar
levels, it was thought that fructose ingestion could help people with blood sugar control
problems or issues, like diabetics, manage their blood sugar levels. Keep in mind that
useful for nutritional management of diabetics does not necessarily mean good for health
or improved athletic performance.
Fructose containing products began to appear on the market in health food stores,
promoted as a healthy alternative natural sweetener to table sugar. While fructose may
seem to have benefits over the other sugars from a blood glucose response point of view,
it is still a sugar and supplies raw energy without much other essential nutrition. Another
issue with fructose is that when increasing the amount being consumed, it can have the
tendency to increase fatty acid production in the liver, leading to fatty liver, higher levels of
fatty acids in the bloods stream, and an increase in total body fat stores. Furthermore, the
athletic benefits of increasing consumption of fructose are not clearly apparent. Glucose
can be used by all cells, but fructose primarily has to be metabolized in the liver first, then
is metabolized for energy. This is important in muscle cell bio-energetics, because muscle
cells can use glucose at a faster rate than fructose.
In addition, remember that eating too much of any sugar can lead to tooth decay. Concern
over cavities is not just for children. Adult athletes with tooth decay may end up with
disrupted athletic seasons due to root-canal surgery or tooth extractions.
Fructose does have its place in nutrition in minor amounts. In addition to its slow rising
effects on the blood-sugar level, it has also been found to help replenish the glycogen
stores in the liver at a fast rate; note that glucose replenishes both liver and muscle
glycogen at a fast rate. This is important because the brain derives most of its energy
supply from the liver, which is especially low in glycogen in the morning. Perhaps the
desire to drink juices high in fructose in the morning is more than coincidence, since these
juices provide the mental surge of energy that so many people need to start the day. Note
that once fructose is mixed with food, its benefits on blood-sugar level becomes less clear
depending on the other carbohydrates contained in the meal. Some recent research
indicates that there may be benefits when adding small amounts of fructose to glucose
containing exercise energy beverages, when the exercise intensity is low to moderate,
which will be elaborated upon in a following section of this chapter.
The blood sugar balancing act gets a little tricky based on information that is in circulation,
primarily weight loss related. Weight loss is a special subject treated in a different chapter,
which should not be confused with nutrition for maximum athletic performance. Athletes
need to consume 2 or more times the number of calories per day than nonathletic people.
Athletes need to be eating foods that are more easily digested and can be utilized by the
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body for fuel and growth. Athletes typically have the opposite problem compared to
overweight people, meaning that athletes use calories at a faster rate and may have
trouble ingesting adequate amounts of calories.
Overall glucose, principally from complex carbohydrates, is the primary carbohydrate
energy source for athletic people, but the strategic consumption of sucrose, glucose, and
fructose can also have a role in sports nutrition. Pure fructose containing products can be
useful to help slow down the rise in blood sugar level and has applications for people with
weight maintenance concerns or diabetes. Occasional consumption of fructose containing
foods may be useful for athletes who need to closely manage their weight, such as
athletes who compete in sports with weight classes. More details about the practical
applications of glucose and fructose are provided in the section about carbohydrates for
athletic performance.
These days in the food supply fructose and glucose come together in a few different ways
in prepared foods.
As sugar, which is 50% fructose and 50% glucose
As high fructose corn syrup, which is about 42 to 55% fructose, and the remaining
portion glucose.
Different amounts in energy drinks, sports drinks, nutrition bars and other prepared
foods.

COMPLEX CARBOHYDRATES
Starch and other polysaccharides are also called complex carbohydrates. The two
polysaccharides that are the most important energy contributors to the body are starch
from foods and from glycogen stored in the body. Processed forms of polysaccharides
include maltodextrin and glucose polymers, which are shorter glucose polymers than
starch, and are commonly used in sports drinks because they are more soluble in water
than starch is. Starch occurs in various parts of plants and consists of long chains of
glucose units. The primary forms of starch molecules are amylose and amylopectin.
Starch occurs in varying amounts in plant foods, such grains, fruits, roots, vegetables,
pasta, bread, and legumes.
Some research indicates the amylopectin is digested faster than amylose, and the glucose
from amylopectin is absorbed into the blood faster. This may explain why different
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complex carbohydrate containing foods have different glycemic index values, and effect
the rise in blood sugar levels at different rates. However, there are other factors, such as
fiber content that effect digestibility of carbohydrate foods. Also the size of how fine flour is
ground; the finer the flour the higher the glycemic index becomes. Finer flour means
smaller complex carbohydrate particle sizes, which can be digested quicker.
When starch containing foods are eaten, the are usually digested at a slow to moderate
rate, releasing glucose molecules from the intestines into the bloodstream at a steady
rate. This is unlike simple glucose, which is absorbed quickly from the digestive system
into the bloodstream. Quick absorption leads to a high blood-sugar level. You will read
below there are certain times when a rapid absorption of glucose is advantageous, but for
the general population and weight conscious athletes, for most meals a slower to
moderate rate of carbohydrate digestion is more desirable. For athletes who are
consuming higher amounts of calories, a few to several thousand calories per day, they
many need to maintain a higher rate of digestion and nutrient absorption, so consuming
meals that have a moderate to high rate of carbohydrate digestion can be more desirable.

FIBER
Fiber is another type of polysaccharide, but one that cannot be digested in the human gut
and that does not act as an energy source. Fiber does, however, play an important role as
the main contributor to the roughage content of the diet. Among its protective qualities,
roughage, which is also known as dietary fiber, helps promote efficient intestinal
functioning and aids the absorption of sugars into the bloodstream. A formal definition of
fiber developed in the U.S.A. by the Institute of Medicine is:
Dietary Fiber consists of nondigestible carbohydrates and lignin that are intrinsic
and intact in plants. Put another way, Dietary Fiber consists of nondigestible food
plant carbohydrates and lignin in which the plant matrix is largely intact.
Functional Fiber consists of isolated, nondigestible carbohydrates that have
beneficial physiological effects in humans. Functional Fibers may be isolated or
extracted using chemical, enzymatic, or aqueous steps. Synthetically manufactured
or naturally occurring isolated oligosaccharides and manufactured resistant starch
are included in this definition. Although they have been inadequately studied,
animal-derived carbohydrates such as connective tissue are generally regarded as
nondigestible. The fact that animal-derived carbohydrates are not of plant origin
forms the basis for including animal-derived, nondigestible carbohydrates in the
Functional Fiber category, chitosan is an example of a fiber of animal origin.
Total Fiber is the sum of Dietary Fiber and Functional Fiber.
Fiber is found along with digestible simple and complex carbohydrates in various plant
foods, such as fruits, leaves, stalks, and the outer coverings of grains, nuts, seeds, and
legumes. Dietary fiber helps soften the stool and encourages normal elimination. Fiberrich diets also promote satiety. In addition, research has shown that people who eat highPart One Page 1 - 31
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fiber diets experience reduced rates of cardiovascular disease, colon cancer, and
diabetes. A high-fiber diet works best when it includes plenty of fluids.
How much dietary fiber do adults need to get these benefits? The National Research
Council established the daily adequate intake range of fiber for adults ranges from 21 to
38 grams. Some health experts recommend even a higher daily fiber intake. The
estimated average fiber intake for men and women is only 12 to 18 grams per day. So,
many people are eating diets that are too low in fiber. You can achieve this intake goal by
eating foods high in fiber and by adding a fiber supplement to your diet.
It is important to note that there is some concern that diets high in fiber may interfere with
mineral and other essential nutrient absorption. This interference, however, can be offset
by a daily dietary supplement or even by the nutrients already present in the high-fiber
foods themselves. Another reason for consuming nutrient dense foods.
Overview of Some Common Dietary and Functional Fibers
The following is a short overview of the common dietary fibers and functional fibers found
in whole foods, processed foods, specialty foods, and dietary supplements.
Cellulose. Cellulose is a nondigestible polysaccharide consisting glucose molecules
linked together with a special bond. Cellulose is the main structural compound of plant cell
walls. The beta-(1,4) bond that links the glucose molecules, cannot be digested by
humans, as humans lack digestive enzymes to break the beta-(1,4) linkages. In addition to
cellulose that occurs naturally in foods, it is also separated out to make powder cellulose
to use in food and supplement formations. Some uses of powdered cellulose include
being added to foods as a thickening agent.
Chitin. Chitin, chemically know as (poly-N-acetyl-glucosamine) is one of the most
common natural polymers. Chitin is present in the group of animals called arthropods. It
occurs in the shells of crustaceans and insects. Chitin is also found in other organisms
including fungi, algae, and yeast. Commercially, chitin is isolated from the shells of
crustaceans after the edible parts have been removed, such as shrimp, lobsters and
crabs. Chitin is an amino-polysaccharide that contains the beta-(1,4) linkages present in
cellulose.
Chitosan. Chitosan, chemically know as poly-D-glucosamine, also occurs naturally and is
produced commercially from chitin using a simple manufacturing process. Chitosan is
sometimes used in dietary supplements for its fat binding abilities. Some research has
shown that ingesting chitosan may slow down the absorption of cholesterol and fatty
acids.
It is interesting to note that in the manufacturing processing of chitin and chitosan, the
glucosamine found in supplement products can also be produced. As an aside, there is
also a process that produces glucosamine from plant sources.

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Beta-Glucans (-Glucans). -glucans are polysaccharides of branched glucose resides.


These -linked D-glucopyranose polymers are found in fungi, algae, and other plants.
Barley, oat, and psyllium products contain beta-glucans. Beta-glucans are considered a
soluble fiber, and have cholesterol binding properties. Therefore foods high in betaglucans are recognized for their cholesterol lowering properties.
Fructo-oligosaccharide ( FOS ). Fructo-oligosaccharides are polymers of fructose, and
can contain a terminal molecule of glucose at the end of their chains. They are also
referred to as fructans. Inulin and oligofructose are examples, and naturally occurring in a
variety of plants. Some plant sources of fructans include, chicory root, onions, Jerusalem
artichoke. As most fibers, the human digestive system lacks enzymes to digest them.
However, certain bacteria in the colon can metabolize fructans. Fructans tend to be the
preferred food for the beneficial intestinal bacteria. Fructans, like inulin, are used in
dietary supplements aimed at improving gastrointestinal wellness. As dietary supplement
ingredients, they are also referred to probiotics, because they cause the beneficial
intestinal bacterial to increase in number.
Gums. Gums consist of a diverse group of polysaccharides. They are typically derived
from seeds for commercial applications. Gums characteristically viscous in texture. One
type of gum used in foods and supplements is called guar gum, which is produced by the
milling of the endosperm portion of the guar seed, and is high in galactomannans.
Galactomannans are highly viscous, soluble fibers and are typically used as food
ingredients for their thickening and gelling properties. Guar gum is also a common
ingredient used in some fiber supplements.
Hemicelluloses. Hemicelluloses are a group of polysaccharides found in plant cell walls.
These polymers can consist of glucose, arabinose, mannose, xylose, and galacturonic
acid. One type of hemicellulose you will see used in food or supplement products is
glucomannan. Glucomannan is a viscous soluble fiber that absorbs water, and is
sometimes used in the treatment of constipation or to promote intestinal regularity.
Glucomannan may also have cholesterol lowering effects similar to beta-glucan. Some
research indicates that it may help with appetite control. Similar to other fiber supplement
type products, glucomannan products are usually ingested by adding the glucomannan
powder to water then ingesting the beverage.
Pectins. Pectins are found in the cell wall and intracellular tissues of many fruits and
berries. Pectins consist of galacturonic acid units with rhamnose interspersed in linear
chains. Pectins are also water soluble, viscous fiber. Fruits and vegetables contain about
5 to 10 percent naturally occurring pectin. Commercially, pectins are typically extracted
from citrus peels and apple pomace. Isolated pectins have gelling properties, and are
added to jams, jellies, and other foods. Pectins, are sometimes added to dietary
supplement and other food products to increase the fiber content, typically along with
other types of fibers.

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An interesting aside concerning pectins is their use in some cough and sore throat
lozenge products. They have the ability to soothe inflamed and irritated tissues, and this
helps to alleviate sore throat and mouth.

DIGESTION OF CARBOHYDRATES
The chemical digestion of carbohydrates begins immediately in the mouth via enzymes
that are present in the saliva and continues in the intestines where digestive juices further
break down the long chains of glucose that make up disaccharides or polysaccharides.
Maximum absorption occurs once the stomach empties its contents into the intestines. It is
important to note that depending on the composition and amount of the beverage, food, or
meal being digested this will determine the rate at which the stomach empties, also called
the gastric emptying rate.
Starting with pure water, in general water can empty from the stomach quickly. Depending
on the amount and temperature of the water being ingested, water can leave the stomach
and enter into intestines within a few minutes to several minutes in most cases, and
perhaps up to 30 minutes. Keep in mind that this is an approximate range of stomach
emptying for water, and will vary depending on the individual. Also, when it comes to just
water intake, in general and during exercise, a larger quantity of ingested water generally
empties from the stomach faster than a smaller quantity.
More details about hydration will be reviewed in Chapter 1.6, but some basics are needed
here too as drinking a carbohydrate beverage can be useful for most athletes during their
training, and many types of athletes depending on the length of the athletic event.
Maintaining adequate hydration is important for all athletes and fitness exercisers for all
sports and training. Therefore it is mandatory to begin exercise in a well hydrated
condition, and periodically drink water during exercise and athletic events.
When it comes to regular meals, snacks and other solid foods, depending on their size
and contents, it can take one to a few hours for the stomach contents to completely empty
into the intestines. Keep in mind that the stomach usually empties the contents of a meal
slowly in squirts of digested fluid, a little at a time. Once in the intestines, it can take
another one to few hours for the nutrients to be absorbed into the body.
So, from start to finish it can take hours for nutrients ingested in a meal to clear the
gastrointestinal tract and be completely absorbed into the body. This rate of digestion
varies based on the meal size and food/nutrient composition, but also based on the
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individuals digestive system abilities and rate. A nutritional digestion challenge for most
athletes is to ingest foods for a healthy, but faster rate of digestion to absorb the nutrients
they need, which is typically double or more compared to non-athletes. The faster rate of
digestion is required to nourish and replenish the body on a daily basis, and for some
athletes who need to consume calorie containing beverages during exercise to maintain
their peak performance.
For athletes who consume higher amounts of calories, digesting meals at a faster rate can
be an important factor to properly nourish the body, while having a cleared gastrointestinal
track of the previous meal eaten to enable peak performance. During digestion, fluids from
the body are utilized, and blood flow is diverted to the digestive system. As these are also
vital bodily resources needed for the exercising muscles, if the body is still digesting a
meal when exercise begins, this can reduce the amounts of fluids and blood flow available
to muscles for peak performance. Noting that some sports require strategic ingestion of
energy containing beverages during competition and training that work in harmony with
the digestive system functioning. Also, the rules for fitness exercisers have some flexibility
due to the fact that peak athletic performance is not required, although desirable.
When focusing on just carbohydrates, compared to fat, proteins, and a mixed meal,
carbohydrates can usually be digested at a faster rate. In fact, one of the biggest areas of
athletic performance research starting in the early 1900s was to figure out ways to keep
long distance runners and other athletes carbed up (and well hydrated) to maintain peak
athletic performance.
As an aside, throughout history this was also a nutritional quest of others who require
peak physical output, such as workers, and the ultimate athlete, that is, military
personnel. But, it was primarily from working with athletes that most of the modern
nutrition performance connections were made and fine-tuned.
These issues of the relationship between what is being ingested and the rate of digestion
is of particular importance to competitive athletes wanting to make sure they are properly
fueled for maximum performance. This is also important for training sessions and fitness
exercisers. So, start thinking about how a pre-competition or pre-exercise meal or
beverage is going to be digested and absorbed to be available in your body for utilization
and not still in your stomach and or intestines being digested. Also, think about how your
competition or workout beverage is being digested to be utilized during physical activity.
Ask yourself; is my pre-exercise meal just sitting in my stomach causing belching
and other gastrointestinal disruption?
Is it slowing down the emptying rate of my stomach as to cause dehydration and
early onset of fatigue, or blood flow conflicts between the digestion system and
muscles?
One goal in endurance performance sports nutrition was to figure out how to best provide
maximum hydration and also provide some energy to spare the bodys supply of glycogen
during athletic competition and training that lasted long enough to deplete the bodys
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glycogen stores. During strength and aerobic exercise, glucose is a primary high energy
source, and it is beneficial to prevent the depletion of the bodys supply of glucose during
physical activity. More will be explained about this below.
So, for some athletes, and other people who are undergoing physical activity for
prolonged periods of time, ingesting a carbohydrate containing beverage can help the
body maintain a supply of high energy carbohydrates for maintaining peak physical
performance; mental performance too, as glucose is the primary fuel for the brain, as well
as the exercising muscles. As the duration of exercise progresses, the bodys use of fatty
acids for fuel increases, but high energy glucose is still used at a high rate during exercise
as long as it is present.
Research continues to focus on determining what type and amount of carbohydrates
could be added to water that would not reduce the fast stomach emptying rate that is
possible with water alone. Keeping in mind that most of the initial and majority of research
was conducted using endurance athletes, it was determined experimentally that very
dilute, low concentration carbohydrate containing beverages were able to pass through
the digestive system quickly during exercise, and be absorbed at a rate that could both
rehydrate and supply an external source of carbohydrate energy. It was also determined
that providing an ingested source of carbohydrate beverages during exercise can reduce
fat metabolism during exercise. This may be a concern of athletes with a primary goal of
losing body fat, and perhaps may want to maximize fat utilization during exercise for fat
loss purposes.
Regarding ingestion of a carbohydrate beverage during exercise, generally, dilute, 4% to
8% glucose solutions, empty the stomach at a fast enough rate to supply meaningful
amounts of water and energy during exercise, to help maintain high physical performance
longer. As the concentration of the solution increases the rate of stomach emptying can be
slower. This depends on the individual and their conditioning. Most studies examining the
effects of carbohydrate energy beverages during exercise were conducted during single
event observations; the athletes show up that day, with no prior experience drinking the
beverage during exercise. This limits the scope of results, as there is evidence that the
gastrointestinal system can become conditioned over a period of carbohydrate drink
training to be better at absorption during exercise. In other words, when athletes make
drinking beverages part of their practice, their gastrointestinal system will become better
conditioned to digest and absorb the beverage during exercise. So, when practicing to be
better on-the-run it is important to also practice being better at drinking-on-the-run.
Also, other ingredients added to the beverage must be considered, as their presence will
increase the total concentration of the beverage solution. These usually include mineral
electrolytes, such as sodium, chloride, magnesium and potassium that are lost via sweat
during exercise or may help increase the rate of water and carbohydrate absorption.
Sometimes amino acids and other ingredients are added to the exercise energy drinks. As
most drinks report the nutrition ingredient content in grams and liquid contents in both
ounces and milliliters, you can make a rough estimate of the percent concentration of your
exercise beverage using this label information.
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For estimating the percentage of a solution, you total up carbohydrate and other nutrient
contents on a gram basis for a serving size, and divide this number by the mL (milliliters)
of the serving size, then multiply this number by 100, you will get the approximate
percentage of the solution. For example, 8 grams divided by 200 mL = 0.04. Then, 0.04
times 100 = 4 percent. For multiple servings, use the same approach, adding up the
nutrient contents and fluid volume of all of the servings. You can also check with the
company that made the product, which is highly recommend for competitive athletes who
need the most accurate nutrient content information.
I should point out that as more research is being conducted on the upper range of
beverage concentration, there is some indication that under certain circumstances higher
concentrations may also be feasible. For the competitive athlete, this is something you
can experiment with in conjunction with your health professional to determine what works
best for your body.
Intensity and duration of exercise also plays a role in the hydration and carbohydrate
utilization dynamics. First it must be realized that there is a replenishment limitation of
hydration and carbohydrate beverage intake, where at high performance levels, water loss
and carbohydrate utilization exceeds what can be replenished during exercise. This
becomes especially important for athletes and individuals undergoing physical activity for
a few to several hours, during which meal breaks are needed. For ultra-endurance events,
this means conditioning the body to eat-on-the-run, in addition to consumption of
adequate hydration beverages, and becomes an important part of the overall training and
conditioning program.
So, drinking / eating is part of practice for most athletes. Yes, dont wait until the day of the
competition to start ingesting beverages or eating performance foods during physical
activity. Conditioning your body during practice and training to ingest drinks and or
performance foods is required to determine what works best with your digestive system.
Realize that it can take several days or longer for your digestive system to adjust. For long
distance athletes who are performing their physical activity on a continuous basis,
ingesting fluids is usually not a problem. However, for athletes who are in stop and go
sports, like soccer, basketball, tennis, and football, or jumping sports like volleyball,
there may be certain challenges associated with stomaching an exercise beverage that
may be swishing around until the stomach empties. Therefore, development of
individualized exercise / competition hydration and energy beverage consumption
strategies are often needed.
Use of carbohydrate beverages becomes more important in athletic events that are
longer, which may result in depleting the bodys muscle and liver glycogen stores. This
also depends on how adequate the glycogen stores are at the beginning of exercise. So it
is therefore extremely important to maintain proper caloric and carbohydrate intake all day
long, each day, to ensure adequate glycogen replenishment and maintenance. Assuming
glycogen stores are adequate to begin with, glycogen depletion to the point of reducing
athletic performance may become an issue after about 45 minutes of continuous,
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strenuous exercise. This will be elaborated on in the following sections. Also, for fitness
exercisers who are not exercising at a maximum rate, and athletes needing to lose body
fat, there are some interesting dynamics that will also be reviewed later in this book.
Once carbohydrates reach the intestines, glucose and fructose are absorbed at their
respective rates, with glucose taken up more quickly than fructose; galactose is absorbed
similar to fructose. When complex carbohydrates are eaten, either alone or with sugars,
their short chains of glucose polymers release glucose for absorption at the rate of
digestion and digestive enzyme action. This rate of digestion and absorption is usually
slower when compared to ingesting pure glucose, and can provide a prolonged supply of
glucose to the bloodstream and a supply of nutritional energy that further spares and
replenishes muscle glycogen. One measure of the differential absorption rates of
carbohydrates and carbohydrate foods and their effect on blood glucose levels is
measured using the glycemic index, reviewed below in detail.
The intensity of exercise also effects the metabolism of carbohydrates during exercise, to
maintain a balance of glucose production from liver and muscle glycogen stores and
glucose uptake and utilization by the cells for energy. In the early days it was observed
that exercising muscles (contracting muscles) had what appeared to be an insulin
independent ability to take up and utilize glucose.
Upon closer examination, from research with athletes, also with diabetics, this is partially
the case, but insulin levels and function during exercise appears to be more important
then previously thought. With low to moderate intensity continuous exercise, insulin
production and levels are present at a baseline level that is usually lower than measured
when compared to levels stimulated from nutrient ingestion during rest. As exercise
progresses, the insulin levels eventually begin to decline as the duration of exercise
progresses. Some researchers point out that the insulin production and levels during
exercise may be skewed on the low side due to rapid insulin use from exercising muscles.
Whatever the case may be, when glucose becomes present in the blood stream from
ingesting an exercise beverage, or from glucose released from the bodys glycogen
stores, the production of insulin is expected to be stimulated at some level.
Another group of substances in the body associated with glucoregulation during exercise
is the catecholamines; epinephrine and norepinephrine. As moderate exercise
progresses, the catecholamine levels have been measured to increase. However, a more
significant rapid rise in catecholamines occurs during higher intensity continuous exercise,
and intensive anaerobic, explosive type exercise and athletic performance.
It is thought that the catecholamines simulate a rapid production of glucose from the liver,
based on experimentally measuring rates of catecholamine levels and glucose production
during exercise. In addition to the production of glucogon stimulated glucose, this
catecholamine induced glucose production enables the exercising muscles a plentiful
supply of high energy glucose needed for anaerobic metabolism, and seems to provide a
dual control mechanism to endogenous glucose production.

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More research about glucoregulatory mechanisms is needed to sort out some of these
intricate physiological details. Of significance regarding the glucose production and
glucose utilization model during exercise is that after intense exercise, a rapid increase in
insulin levels is observed. The need for the increase of post-intense exercise insulin levels
is thought to be a result of the high intensity exercise stimulated endogenous liver
production and rapid glucose release and subsequent rapid rise in blood glucose levels.
Under intense exercise conditions the strenuously exercising muscle contractions
stimulate glucose uptake, independent of insulin, so during exercise this surge in blood
glucose can be delivered and utilized by the intensively contracting muscles. However,
once exercise stops, the muscle contraction stimulated uptake of glucose stops, and the
body needs to increase insulin levels to clear the blood stream of the exercise induced
high levels of glucose to prevent prolonged hyperglycemia; high blood sugar levels.
These differing effects of exercise intensities are of interest to athletes, and underscores
the importance of properly warming up and cooling down at the physical and physiological
levels. Understanding of the rates of glucose production and glucose utilization influenced
by exercise is especially important for the diabetic athlete or fitness exerciser, and other
people who need to keep tight control over their blood sugar levels for health reasons.
The concern about the presence of high insulin levels at the beginning of exercise is that it
tends to suppress the liberation of glucose from glycogen, and fats from body fat stores,
and favors the storage of the ingested nutrients. When the body needs energy, between
meals for example, the levels of the hormone glucogon increase to liberate glucose from
glycogen stores and fat from fatty acids stores. However, it appears that the presence of
glucose, from ingestion or liberation from glycogen can stimulate the release of insulin.
One concern regarding insulin levels is not to be starting exercise or athletic events with
insulin levels being too elevated at the start of exercise as caused by the pre-exercise
meal or beverage. When insulin levels are high, this can suppress the liberation and use
of energy in the body during exercise, as insulins function is to favor cell uptake of
nutrients. High insulin levels can also cause a temporary hypoglycemic state; low blood
sugar levels. As glucose is a primary fuel for all physical activity this could reduce athletic
performance. In the traditional athletic competition model, starting ingestion of a
carbohydrate containing beverage at the beginning of physical activity and during physical
activity, lessens the carbohydrate ingestion insulin level effect, because exercising muscle
has the ability to stimulate the uptake of glucose independent of insulin. The ability of
muscle to do this appears to increase with increasing levels of exercise intensity / effort.
Carbohydrates are more quickly released from the stomach to the intestines than either
protein or fat. The more protein and fat that you eat, the longer your stomach will take to
empty. Logically, therefore, you should eat and drink foods that are very high in
carbohydrates before and during exercise to take advantage of this process. Again, this is
why specially designed sports-nutrition drinks can help increase athletic performance
during competition and practice.

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About The Glycemic Index (GI)


The glycemic index is a method used to group carbohydrate foods based on their effect on
blood glucose levels. When a carbohydrate containing food is eaten and digested, as it is
absorbed from the intestines to the blood stream a rise in blood sugar occurs, namely
glucose. This rise is usually accompanied by a rise in insulin. This rise of blood glucose
and insulin that occurs after consumption of carbohydrate containing foods, is then
followed by a fall in blood glucose and insulin levels. This rise and fall in blood glucose
can be rapid or slow, depending on the types and amounts of carbohydrate contained in
foods and sports nutrition products.
So, as different carbohydrates and different carbohydrate foods have different rates of
digestion and absorption, researchers wanted to devise a way of classifying carbohydrate
foods according to their effect on blood glucose levels. This initial interest was primarily
motivated to gain a better understanding of the food intake insulin production
relationship to help improve dietary management of diabetes. But, as with most research,
there are other applications, namely for athletes, fitness and general health.
The glycemic index is defined (determined) as the area under the curve for the increase in
blood glucose after the ingestion of a set amount of carbohydrate in a particular food, in
the 2-hour post ingestion period compared to a reference food. The standard amount is
typically 50 grams, and the reference foods are either glucose or white bread. For
example, using glucose as the standard, the GI for glucose would be 100, and the other
foods would be compared to this reference curve.
David Jenkins and coworkers reported in their 1981 study, titled Glycemic index of foods:
a physiological basis for carbohydrate exchange, the first research for measuring blood
glucose response to foods. A copy of this pioneering research can be found at:
http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/content/abstract/34/3/362. For the majority of the foods and sugars tested,
50 grams was used. Blood samples were taken at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 minutes
after the meals were eaten. Comparing the area under the plotted data curve for each
food versus glucose the Glycemic Index was born. As the reference point the GI for
glucose is 100. Most foods measured are below this value, with few exceptions.

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The International table of glycemic index and glycemic load values was created and
updated by scientists Kaye Foster-Powell, Susanna H.A. Holt, and Janette C. Brand-Miller
and is located at: http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/content/full/76/1/5. When you review this
comprehensive data, you will notice that some of the foods use a 3 hour evaluation period,
in addition to the original standard 2 hour period. Also, it is important to realize that while
the reference tables are useful, the GI is food specific. So similar foods and products may
differ from region to region, and between different brands of the same types of foods. This
will become apparent when you review the table.
The initial interest in the glycemic response of foods was thought to have practical
applications for creating diets to help people with diabetes control their blood sugar levels.
Eventually this glycemic response research provided important insights about
carbohydrate digestion and metabolism that have applications for planning diets for
health, athletic performance, and management of other diet related diseases, such as
heart diseases and obesity. Some points to keep in mind about the GI reference
information is that the 50 gram reference values are small when compared to the amount
of foods people eat, especially athletes. Also, a mixed meal will obscure the GI of an
individual food. Typically a meal of different GIs will end up being a weighted average, the
final GI of the mixed meal usually being somewhere between the highest and lowest of the
individual GI food values.
Glycemic Index (GI) Examples of Common Foods
GI 100%
Glucose
GI 91% to 99%
Lucozade (Sports Drink)
GI 80% to 90%
Corn Flakes
Carrots
Parsnips
Instant Potatoes
Honey
GI 70% to 79%
Whole Meal Bread
Millet
White Rice
Broad Beans
Potato

GI 60% to 69%
White Bread
Brown Rice
Muesli
Shredded Wheat
Ryvita
Water Biscuits
Bananas
Raisins
Mars Bar
GI 50% to 59%
Buckwheat
Spaghetti
Sweet Corn
All Bran Cereal
Oatmeal Biscuits
Tea Biscuits
Peas

GI 40% to 49%
Oranges & Orange Juice
Whole Meal Spaghetti
Porridge Oats
Sweet Potato
Beans
Peas

GI 20% to 29%
Kidney Beans
Lentils
Fructose
GI 10% to 19%
Peanuts
Soya Beans

GI 30% to 39%
Butter Beans
Tomato Soup
Haricot Beans
Blackeye Peas
Chick Peas
Golden Delicious Apples
Ice Cream
Skim or Whole Milk
Yogurt

Source of GI data: David J. A. Jenkins, Thomas M. S. Wolever, Rodney H. Taylor, Helen Barker, Hashmein Fielden, Janet M. Baldwin,
Allen C. Bowling, Hillary C. Newman, Alexandra L. Jenkins, and David V. Goff. Glycemic index of foods: a physiological basis for
carbohydratre exchange. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 34: March 1981, pp. 362-366.

Glycemic Load (GL)


Since the development of the glycemic index, a related concept was more recently
developed called the glycemic load, abbreviated as GL. While, the glycemic index of a
food provides an expectation of how fast a food will raise blood sugar levels, the GL is a
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calculation that considers the amount of the carbohydrate from food being ingested. But, it
is ultimately how much of the food that matters from a blood sugar elevation standpoint.
Eating a mouthful of a high GI food will have very little short-term effects on raising blood
sugar levels. However, eating large amounts, many mouthfuls of a high GI food will cause
a rapid and sustained high blood sugar level, with accompanying stimulation of high
insulin levels.
The GL is calculated as follows:
(GI value of the food times the quantity of carbohydrate of the food serving)/100
For example, for a food with a GI of 54, and an available 20 grams of carbohydrate per
serving, the GL would be (54 x 20) / 100 = 10.8
It is important to note that the practical applications of using the GI and GL are still in a
developmental stage from the nutritional big-picture. One thing is certain though, both
the glycemic index and glycemic load measures can be useful for determining the
potential behavior that carbohydrate containing foods or meals have in the body as it
relates to blood sugar levels and the accompanying rise and eventual fall of insulin levels.
There is some growing evidence at the general population level that people who are
eating diets with higher than average GI and GL values, are more prone to become
overweight or obese. This notion makes metabolic sense, as the average persons body
who is overeating a diet abundant in high GI foods will have higher insulin levels causing a
tendency to store more body fat, and hold on to it. The growing consensus is that diets
with low to moderate in GI and GL values will be digested and processed in the body at a
slower rate, and cause a lower average blood sugar levels and insulin levels. Additionally,
the thinking is that this also allows the body to process the calories more effectively for
energy use, opposed to the rapid influx of calories from high GI meals, that may cause a
surplus of caloric load that encourages fat storage.
When it comes to athletes and physically active people, the picture changes. Athletes are
better at using calories and use more of them when compared to sedentary people, who in
contrast are leading a low physical activity lifestyle, with little or no exercise. As indicated
herein, there are times where athletes will benefit from ingesting higher GI beverages and
foods. Also, considering the large amount of foods athletes have to consume each day for
meeting caloric and nutrient needs, consumption of a diet that is easily digested and
absorbed is warranted for many athletes; a diet that consists of foods and meals with
moderate to high GI and GL ratings, with times when low GI meals may be also be useful,
as reviewed in Part Three.
For the athletic person knowing which carbohydrate foods and sugars will provide a quick
supply of energy, or for replenishing glycogen stores rapidly has led to many studies
examining the different effects of sugar and carbohydrate containing beverages and foods
and their effects on athletic performance, glycogen status, muscle growth, immune system
function, and other measures of health and performance.

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CARBOHYDRATES IN THE BODY-GLUCOSE AND GLYCOGEN


Glycogen is similar to the starch that is found in plants in that it consists of chains of
glucose units. However, glycogen and starch differ in structure. In addition, while starch
occurs only in plants, glycogen occurs only in animals. Very little glycogen is found in
food, however. This is mainly because meat contains only small amounts of glycogen.
Due to the human body's small storage capacity for glycogen, it needs a relatively
constant supply of carbohydrates throughout the day. The body normally converts a
portion of all ingested complex carbohydrates into glycogen, thereby replenishing its
limited glycogen supply. It is estimated that depending on a persons size, the total
glycogen supply is about 1,800 to 2,600 calories. As control of blood sugar levels is
important for normal metabolism and health, the body is constantly storing and releasing
glucose based on the influx of glucose from ingestion, between meals, or during physical
activity when energy demands dramatically are increased.
In the human body, glycogen is found in all the cells. However, it is present in greater
percentages in the muscle fibers and liver cells. In this way, the liver and muscles act as
reservoirs for glucose. The liver's glycogen supply is used to regulate the blood-sugar
level. Furthermore, the glucose that is fed into the bloodstream from the liver's glycogen
supply is the main source of energy for the brain. The brain can use over 400 calories per
day of glucose from the liver's glycogen. Athletes and other physically active individuals
sometimes have a feeling of being bogged down. Many times, this feeling is due to a low
level of liver glycogen. Eating a good amount of complex carbohydrates, especially at
night, will replenish the glycogen supply and restore mental alertness and physical energy.
High-fructose drinks also replenish the liver glycogen.
Glycogen is not stored by itself in the liver. Rather, it is stored together with water. In fact,
every 1 ounce of glycogen is stored with about 3 ounces of water. This means that when
glycogen is used, water is also removed from the body. Many fad diets take advantage of
this phenomenon by requiring a low caloric intake coupled with a high protein
consumption, which causes liver and muscle glycogen to be depleted in twenty-four to
forty-eight hours. This glycogen depletion can result in a loss of several pounds of water,
which many dieters mistake for a loss of body fat.
Moreover, because most weight-loss diets are low in calories, the body eliminates a few
pounds of gastrointestinal bulk within a few days. Dieters usually mistake this, too, for a
loss of body fat. So, a week or two of fad dieting may result in a loss of several pounds of
water weight and gastrointestinal bulk but perhaps only a mere pound or two of body fat.
This is one reason why fad dieters quickly, almost overnight, gain back the weight they
lost. Understanding this is especially important for weight-conscious athletes, who typically
deplete their glycogen supplies on low-calorie diets, blow up when they return to a normal
diet, and then have to lose several pounds again a few days later. By keeping their caloric
and carbohydrate intakes at normal levels, athletes can help their bodies work better and
can maintain their glycogen supplies for better overall performance.
Glycogen depletion followed by glycogen replenishment, which is also known as
carbohydrate loading, can cause the muscles to increase their water content considerably
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in association with the increased glycogen stores. When glycogen replenishment is


complete, the increased body weight may induce the muscles to feel heavy and stiff. This
may interfere with physical performance in certain athletic events, particularly in
connection with sports that rely on repeated short bursts of all-out effort, such as sprinting,
football, and basketball. Bodybuilders can take advantage of this phenomenon, however,
and experienced bodybuilders know how to add size and hardness to their physiques on
contest days for an added competitive edge.
Understanding glycogen storage and dynamics is a cornerstone of improving athletic
performance nutritionally. Knowledgeable athletes recognize that they must keep their
muscle and liver glycogen stores filled up. They acknowledge that they must follow a daily
nutrition program that encourages glycogen replenishment and spares glycogen
utilization.
Refer to Part Three for information about sports specific carbohydrate
intake guidelines; carbohydrate intake approaches before, during and
after exercise or competition; and carbohydrate food sources.

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CHAPTER 1.4
PROTEIN AND AMINO ACIDS
MUSCLE BUILDERS AND MORE

Protein is a source of amino acids.


Athletes require a higher intake of protein.
Amino acids are essential building blocks for growth, recovery, and production of many proteins
occurring in the body.
Branched Chain Amino Acids are a special group of amino acids that can be used for energy and are
required in extra amounts.
Individual Amino Acids can elicit targeted effects, for example, increasing growth hormone, IGF,
testosterone, and nitric oxide production.
Collagen -- connective tissue -- makes up one third of total body protein content, making it one of the
most common proteins in the body.

The relationship between protein and the athlete has become of legendary importance.
Dating back to the first Olympic games in ancient Greece one of the earliest recorded
athletic nutritional practices was that of consuming large amounts of protein to improve
strength and performance. The most recent research confirms protein's role as a vital
component of health and performance. However, studies have also established that diets
that are too high in protein may be as counterproductive as diets that are too low in
protein. One thing is certain-athletes require at least twice as much protein as nonathletes
do.
Protein is an essential part of the diet and plays many roles in the body. Protein's roles are
primarily structural, but can be used by the body for energy during intensive exercise or
when nutrition is inadequate. In these situations, to meet its metabolic needs, the body
breaks down precious muscle tissue, which is a setback for an athlete who has been
training hard to make gains. In addition, athletes need to eat just the right amount of
protein to minimize the formation of metabolic waste products. When too much protein is
consumed, the body converts the excess to fat and increases the blood levels of ammonia
and uric acid. Ammonia and uric acid are metabolic waste products.
The athlete's goal therefore is to maintain proper protein intake based on their body
weight, activity level, and muscle fiber composition. In general endurance athletes with a
higher level of slow-twitch muscle fibers require more protein than nonathletes, but not as
much as strength athletes. Strength athletes, have larger muscles, and more of the fasttwitch muscle fibers, requiring increasing the amount of protein intake. Then there are the
athletes that are somewhere between these two extremes of endurance and strength. In
addition to muscle fiber growth and repair, there are also different bio-energetics that need
to be considered among the different athletes, which will be reviewed in Part Three. In this
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chapter the basics of protein are reviewed and about the building blocks of proteins,
amino acids.

What Is Protein?
Protein is a large molecule called a macromolecule or super-molecule. It is a polypeptide,
a compound containing from ten to one hundred amino-acid molecules. The amino acids
are linked together by a chemical bond called a peptide bond.
When we consider protein from a nutritional standpoint, we are concerned with the aminoacid subunits. There are about twenty-two amino acids that are considered biologically
important, but many more exist in nature, including in the body. Amino acids are important
not only for being the building blocks of protein, but also for the individual roles that they
play in the body. For example, some amino acids are used by the body in metabolic
processes such as the urea cycle, and others act as neurotransmitters; the chemical
substances that help transmit nerve impulses.
Protein is needed for the growth, maintenance, and repair of cells, including muscle cells,
and for the production of enzymes, hormones, and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
expression. It occurs in various sizes and shapes and is divided into two main categoriessimple proteins and conjugated proteins. Simple proteins consist only of amino acids,
while conjugated proteins also have nonprotein molecules as part of their structures.
Some simple proteins are serum albumin, which is present in blood; lactalbumin, which is
present in milk; ovalbumin, which is present in eggs; myosin, present in muscle; collagen,
present in connective tissue; and keratin, present in hair. Examples of conjugated proteins
are nucleic acid, found in chromosomes; lipoprotein, found in cell membranes;
glycoprotein, chromoprotein, and metaloprotein, all found in blood; and phosphoprotein,
found in casein (milk protein). Protein constitutes the majority of the dry weight of most
body cells.
Some of the major properties of proteins include:
Contractile, such as actin and myosin found in skeletal and other muscles, required for movement.
Hormonal, such as insulin, growth hormone, and insulin-like growth factors.
Structural, such as collagen, a component of connective tissues.
Transporter, such as hemoglobin for transporting oxygen.
Enzymes, for digestion and required as catalysts for many biochemical reactions in the body.
DNA/Gene expression, as the information stored in genes is replicated into proteins.
Receptors, protein molecules that are imbedded in cell membranes and detect signals.

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How genes direct the production of proteins.


Most genes contain the information needed to
make functional molecules called proteins, While
just a few genes produce other molecules that
help the cell assemble proteins. Going from gene
to protein consists of two major steps:
transcription and translation. Together,
transcription and translation are known as gene
expression.
During the process of transcription, the
information stored in a genes DNA is transferred
to a similar molecule called RNA (ribonucleic
acid) in the cell nucleus. Both RNA and DNA are
made up of a chain of nucleotide bases, but they
have slightly different chemical properties. The
type of RNA that contains the information for
making a protein is called messenger RNA
(mRNA) because it carries the information, or
message, from the DNA out of the nucleus into
the cytoplasm.
Translation, takes place in the cytoplasm of the
cell. The mRNA interacts with a specialized
complex called a ribosome, which reads the
sequence of mRNA bases. Each sequence of
three bases, called a codon, usually codes for
one particular amino acid. A type of RNA called
transfer RNA (tRNA) assembles the protein, one
amino acid at a time. Protein assembly continues
until the ribosome encounters a stop codon (a
sequence of three bases that does not code for
an amino acid).

The Amino Acids


The following table is a summary of the amino acids thought to be of nutritional
importance, as reported in the Institute of Medicines, Dietary Reference Intake report.
Indispensable refers to the amino acids the body cannot synthesize. Conditionally
indispensable amino acids are those requiring a dietary source when the bodys rate of
synthesis cannot meet metabolic needs. Five amino acids are categorized as dispensable,
which implies that the body can make them in sufficient quantities on an as needed basis.
Keep in mind that most foods contain proteins with most of the amino acids present as
well as most protein supplements. Maintaining a nutritional source of all of the amino
acids, indispensable, conditionally dispensable, and dispensable, will help provide the
athlete with a rich supply of all of the amino acids for immediate use.
The following amino acids are the major ones that are important to the body and
commonly encountered in supplements. As amino acid nutritional science has evolved the
past few decades, so has the terminology and concepts. For example, originally the amino
acids were considered to be either essential or non-essential, depending if the body can
make them or not. Now the new terminology is Indispensable and dispensable.
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Amino Acids and Their Current Nutritional Classification


Indispensable (Essential)
Conditionally Indispensable
Dispensable (Non-essential)
Histidine
Arginine
Alanine
Isoleucine
Cysteine
Aspartic Acid
Leucine
Glutamine
Asparagine
Lysine
Glycine
Glutamine Acid
Methionine
Proline
Serine
Phenylalanine
Tyrosine
Threonine
Tryptophan
Valine
Note: The letters D and L sometimes precede the name of the amino acid and indicate which form is present;
or isomer. In general, the L form of amino acids is the biologically active form and used to make proteins. In
nutrition products, however, two DL mixtures of amino acids reported to have metabolic advantages are
reported for the amino acids phenylalanine and methionine. There is inconsistent use of these letters on
products and in the research. Check with the manufacturer if you have a question about the amino acids
contained in their products.

In the 1980s I introduced the concept of amino acids being conditionally or semiessential, depending if the body can manufacture them at a rate sufficient to meet the
bodys needs. I believed that this was of particular importance for athletes, undergoing
strenuous physical activity that may exceed their bodys ability to produce certain amino
acids. As with most innovative ideas, it takes time for the body of scientific evidence to
accumulate and then to convince other experts.
I am glad to report that in the recent Institute of Medicines Dietary Reference Report on
protein, they introduced a new classification of amino acids called conditionally
indispensable, as shown in the above table. This acknowledges that some amino acids
that the body can make, are needed in the diet too, as the body might not be able to make
enough of them. Keep in mind that the Dietary Reference report is primarily for the general
population. So, even at non-athletic levels of activity, the list of conditionally indispensable
amino acids has grown to 6. From this progression in amino acid research and
development, it is easy to acknowledge how ingesting specialty protein and amino acid
products for athletes has a scientific basis and importance for promoting health and
performance.
Another important amino acid nutrition concept I have been a practitioner of, is designing
nutrition programs and sports nutrition products that enable fortification of certain amino
acids or groups of amino acids to maintain the higher demands of an athletes protein
building, or stimulate the bodys production of certain hormonal and metabolite
substances. For example, providing the body with extra branched-chain amino acids,
which are essential (indispensable) amino acids, but get used for energy at a higher rate
by athletes, will help to offset the amounts used for energy. This way adequate branchedchain amino acids will be available for growth.
Then there are the amino acids that help to support and promote peptide hormone
production growth hormone, insulin and insulin-like growth factors. One of the recent uses
of certain amino acids is for boosting the production of nitric oxide, important in blood
circulation and other functions. However, please note that while the following information
is comprehensive, many of the amino acids also have many disease uses that are not
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included. These uses are mainly in the treatment of clinical and metabolic disorders, which
are beyond the scope of this book.

Proteins/Amino Acids And Energy


In addition to the functions discussed above, protein-the same as fat and carbohydratescan also be used for energy, but this occurs in a minor role. Under conditions of severe
calorie restriction and starvation, the body releases amino acids from muscle tissue for
use as energy or in energy cycles. In a well fed state, athletes use some amino acids for
energy at a higher rate during exercise and even at rest. This catabolism (breakdown) of
protein occurs during exercise-especially during intensive workouts, in particular power
exercises and prolonged endurance activities-or when the body runs out of carbohydrates
from the diet or glycogen from its muscle and liver stores. Even though the body can
depend on the fat that it has stored, it still may use some muscle protein, unless it is fed
protein as food. When dietary circumstances cause the body to use amino acids as a
source of energy, it cannot also use these amino acids for building muscle tissue or for
performing their other metabolic functions. This is why a proper daily protein intake is
essential for the athlete.
Even if you do consume a proper diet, your body will still use certain amino acids as fuel
during grueling exercise bouts. The muscles use the branched-chain amino acids
(BCAAs)-isoleucine, leucine, and valine-to supply a limited amount of energy during
strenuous exercise. However, research has shown that although the body can utilize all
three BCAAs for energy during exercise, it uses leucine the most. As demonstrated by
studies, a trained person's muscles use leucine even while that person is at rest. This
disproportionate use of leucine, as well as of the other BCAAs, affects the body's overall
use of amino acids for growth. Here, the BCAAs, especially leucine, are limiting nutrientsthat is, nutrients that, through their absence or presence, restrict the utilization of other
nutrients or the functioning of the body.
For optimum muscle growth, cellular growth, metabolism, and recovery, the body needs to
receive the amino acids in the proper proportions. Merely eating amino-acid sources, such
as meat and eggs, does not ensure that the amino acids they supply will be available for
muscle growth or for the formation of other proteins. For example, suppose you consume
a total of 100 grams of protein, with all the essential amino acids present in equal
amounts. How will your body use these amino acids? To begin, it will utilize a
considerable percentage of the leucine for energy for exercising muscles. This means that
a reduced amount of leucine will be available for growth and repair purposes. When your
leucine supply runs out, your protein formation will be negatively affected because leucine
is an essential amino acid-that is, your body cannot manufacture it. The result is that
perhaps only a portion of the original 100 grams of protein will be available for growth and
repair.

RATING THE QUALITY OF PROTEINS


Just as there are differences among the carbohydrates, the various proteins are not
created equal. Some proteins have a more complete amino acid content than others and
are therefore better suited for growth purposes. Scientists are currently using a number of
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methods to rate proteins. Most of these rating methods do not take into account the extra
protein and the specific amino acids that are required by athletes, but they offer a baseline
of information to work from. The following reviews some of the approaches and methods
used by scientists to rate the quality of proteins for the general population.

Complete Versus Incomplete Proteins


Due to the fact that adequate protein intake is essential for optimum growth in children,
the World Health Organization (WHO) has conducted significant research on protein
requirements. What the WHO researchers determined was that not all proteins supply the
proper amounts and proportions of the amino acids necessary for adequate growth and
development. Complete proteins are proteins that contain the essential or indispensable
amino acids in amounts that are sufficient for the maintenance of normal growth rate and
body weight. Indispensable amino acids that the body cannot make, and therefore
requires a constant dietary supply of. Complete proteins are therefore said to have a high
biological value. Most animal products have complete proteins.
Incomplete proteins are usually deficient in one or more of the indispensable amino acids.
This amino-acid deficiency creates a limiting-amino-acid condition, which adversely affects
growth and development rates. Most plant proteins are incomplete. However, considering
the dynamics of amino acids in the body, even high-quality proteins can be incomplete for
athletes' needs. Furthermore, research indicates that the proper proportions of both the
essential and nonessential amino acids are required for optimum growth and recovery.
This means that athletes should consume protein supplements as well as high-quality
food protein sources. Their dietary goals should be to eat a diet fortified with the amino
acids that are used for energy and nongrowth functions and to ensure an adequate intake
of the amino acids that are necessary for optimum performance, growth, and recovery.

Protein Efficiency Ratio


Another method of determining the quality of protein is the protein efficiency ratio (PER).
The PER is calculated using laboratory animals. It refers to the amount of weight gained
versus the amount of protein ingested. For example, casein has a PER of 2.86, which
means that 2.86 grams of body weight are gained for every 1 gram of casein eaten.
One criticism of the PER system as a method for determining the quality of proteins for
human consumption is that the values were derived through testing on animals, mostly
rats. Does a rat's growth rate correlate to a human's? Perhaps not. Additionally, rats and
other laboratory animals have a large amount of fur all over their bodies. This places an
extra demand on amino acids such as methionine, which is used in fur growth and which
is a common limiting amino acid in plant protein sources. Moreover, we now realize that
athletes need higher amounts of certain amino acids, such as the BCAAs. Therefore, the
PER and other similar data should be used only as guidelines for determining minimum
intakes of protein for nonathletes. Additionally, different proteins can be combined to
improve the quality of the individual proteins. This is commonly done to increase the PER
of plant proteins. Many powder supplements now include a mixture of two or more of the
less-expensive lesser-quality proteins, such as soy and casein, which boost each other's
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PERs when used together, instead of using one of the more-expensive high-quality
protein sources, such as egg white.
An interesting note is that the WHO recommended that newborns need complete dietary
proteins containing about 37 percent of the protein's weight in indispensable amino acids.
Adults, on the other hand, require complete dietary proteins containing just 15 percent of
the protein's weight in indispensable amino acids. This demonstrates that the proportion of
essential to nonessential amino acids is an important factor in growth and development.
Athletes training to develop stronger and bigger muscles should try to maintain higher
proportions of the essential amino acids in their diets.

Net Protein Utilization


Net protein utilization (NPU) is a way of determining the digestibility of a protein. It does
this by measuring the percentage of nitrogen that is absorbed from a protein's amino
acids. Generally, the more nitrogen that is absorbed from a protein, the more digestible
the protein is.
The NPU of a protein is calculated by measuring an individual's intake of nitrogen from
amino acids, comparing that amount to the amount of nitrogen that the individual excretes,
and determining how much of the protein in question is needed to balance out the two
amounts. If a protein has a low NPU, more of it is needed to achieve nitrogen balance.
(For a more complete discussion of this, see "Nitrogen Balance," below.) Therefore,
proteins with high NPU values, such as egg and milk proteins, are more desirable for
athletes.

Biological Value
While the methods used to determine a protein's biological value (BV) are not entirely
standardized, the one that most scientists prefer is described as "the efficiency with which
that protein furnishes the proper proportions and amounts of the indispensable amino
acids needed for the synthesis of body proteins in humans or animals."
The general formula for determining BV is as follows:
BV = nitrogen retained divided by nitrogen absorbed x 100

The BV value does not indicate the ultimate fate of the amino acids in the body-that is, it
does not show whether they will be used for muscle growth or enzyme synthesis. In
addition, BV measurements vary for the same protein according to the animal species
tested. For example, chickens have different amino-acid needs than do rats due to,
among other things, the fact that chickens have feathers and rats have fur. Because
feathers require different amino acids than fur does, the two animals need different
proportions of the amino acids. Therefore, unless the BV for a particular type or brand of
protein was determined specifically for humans, that protein may not offer any advantages
to humans, even though it may have a high BV according to the testing done with animals.

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Amino-Acid Score
The previous protein quality methods and research made scientists realize that the
primary magic of proteins is the amino acids that they contain, as well as digestibility of
the proteins being digested. Due to the limitations of using biological testing to evaluate
the protein quality of different foods, there was a movement toward developing a protein
quality rating system based on the amino acid content, in relationship to what would be an
ideal protein for humans.
In the 1980s the concept of using a system based on amino acid content began to
emerge. This eventually evolved into the development of what has become know as the
PDCAAS (Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score. The PDCAAS is based on
creating a reference standard of the indispensable amino acid composition that would be
considered ideal for humans. This method therefore considers the indispensable
(essential) amino acid composition of a protein, the digestibility, and the ability of the
protein source to supply the indispensable amino acids in adequate amounts required by
humans.
It is interesting to note that when a type of protein gets a low rating, it can have the rating
improved with fortification of the low content amino acid(s). In fact, many plant proteins are
limiting in one or more of the essential amino acids, thereby giving them low ratings on an
individual food basis. However, when these plant protein sources are fortified with the
essential amino acids, or combined with other plant proteins that have amino acid content
profiles that fill-in each others amino acids gaps, the end result can be a higher quality
plant protein source.

Protein Quality for Athletes


For athletes, trying to ingest high quality proteins based on the ratings systems for the
general population is mandatory. In addition to this, using protein and amino acid
supplements to fortify the athletes diet has led to the development of a variety of products
to help athletes meet their total protein needs, and also their amino acid specific needs. In
addition to the basic protein needs that athletes have to maintain, the increased ingestion
of certain amino acids to help further boost metabolic processes has become common
place. In addition to the branched-chain amino acids, the extra ingestion of amino acids
like arginine, glutamine, lysine, and glycine is practiced to enhance anabolic hormone
production, immunity, boost protein synthesis, increase strength, improve body
composition, better healing, and improve athletic performance. So as scientific discoveries
continue, so will the evolution of the athletes diet and sports nutrition. Part Three contains
information about putting todays science into practice for creating the ultimate sports
nutrition and supplement plans.

Nitrogen Balance
Nitrogen balance is a topic that is frequently encountered when reading articles about
athletes' protein and amino-acid requirements. In addition to carbon and hydrogen, amino
acids also contain nitrogen as part of their molecular structure. This is a unique
characteristic, one that we can use to our advantage, since it allows us to determine if our
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protein intake is adequate. Specifically, nitrogen balance refers to the condition in which
the amount of dietary nitrogen taken in is equal to the amount of nitrogen excreted. A
nitrogen balance that is positive indicates a possible net growth in body tissues. A nitrogen
balance that is negative indicates an inadequate protein intake and the possibility that the
body is cannibalizing its muscle tissue. An important nutritional goal for athletes is to aim
for achieving and maintaining a positive nitrogen balance.
Determining nitrogen balance is not an easy task, however. Because nitrogen from
broken-down amino acids can be excreted in both the urine and the feces, and because
some is lost as sweat, all these excretions must be collected and analyzed. In addition, all
the nitrogen ingested from protein must be accurately measured. This is impractical for
most individuals. However, some companies have now developed methods that enable
athletes to get a rough idea of their nitrogen balance by taking measurements using just
their urine and measuring their nitrogen ingested as protein. This approach makes
assumptions about the relative amount of nitrogen lost in feces and sweat. Although you
would have to spend time making calculations every day, you would probably find it
interesting to learn what your nitrogen balance is to give you an approximate guideline for
what your daily protein intake should be. You could then experiment with combining
different food and supplement protein sources to tailor-make an efficient protein-intake
program for yourself.

Designing Protein and Amino Acid Products


The future for protein and amino-acid sports science lies in designing an amino-acid
source that brings about nitrogen balance using a minimum amount of protein. This goal
can be reached in several ways, and manufacturers have already developed pioneering
ingredients and products that accomplish it. Creating an amino-acid profile that has all the
essential amino acids with extra BCAAs and the nonessential amino acids is a start.
Products with a variety of amino-acid combinations are available. Among their benefits are
growth-hormone (GH) stimulation, blood-ammonia detoxification, increased mental
alertness, and mental relaxation.
Absorption is also an important factor. Some protein manufacturers are inventing better
ways to purify the protein from milk and other sources. The development of whey protein
isolate is an example of improving the quality of a food source protein. Adding nonprotein
ingredients can further improve utilization, as well as supply other growth factors, such as
glucosamine for connective tissue, along with other cofactors, including the basics like
vitamins and minerals. Explosive Growth Blend is a comprehensive product for
bodybuilders and strength athletes that is designed based on this scientific sports nutrition
product development approach. The diversity of amino-acid combinations possible and
the benefits that they offer make protein and amino acids a very interesting field of
research and a very important part of the athlete's nutrition program.
The take home lesson about protein quality is that while some protein sources are
naturally higher quality than others, by combining different types of proteins and/or adding
specific amino acids, the quality of any protein can be improved. Part Three will review top
quality protein sources.
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Free-Form And Peptide-Bonded Amino Acids


When referring to the amino-acid content of food or supplements, the terms free form and
peptide bonded are used. In fact, the debate seems to be constant over which supplement
form is better. Free-form amino acids are amino acids that are in their free state, or single.
When protein is digested, some of its amino acids are eventually broken down into their
free forms for transport and use in the body. Peptide-bonded amino acids are amino acids
that are linked together. Di-peptides are two amino acids linked together, tri-peptides are
three amino acids linked together, and polypeptides are four or more amino acids linked
together. Interestingly, the intestines can absorb free-form, di-peptide, and tri-peptide
amino acids but not polypeptides.
Because the body has the capacity to digest protein, it can make use of whole-protein
supplement sources. However, many supplements now contain free-form amino acids or
combinations of free-form and peptide-bonded amino acids. Some also contain
hydrolyzed proteins. Hydrolyzed proteins are already broken down, usually by enzymes,
and are a mixture of free-form, di-peptide, and tri-peptide amino acids. Many people
consider them better than nonhydrolyzed proteins because their partial digestion possibly
makes them more easily absorbed by the body.
The use of free-form amino acids is still common in clinical applications when intravenous
solutions are used to supply amino acids directly into the bloodstream. Free-form amino
acids can also be used to fortify food proteins. Taking the BCAAs with meals can be
useful for compensating for the amino acids already used for energy. Additionally, when
you just want to take extra amounts of one or several amino acids, a free-form amino-acid
formulation makes perfect sense. Free form amino acids are also sometimes added to
protein products to selectively increase the amount of specific amino acids.
Another reason why a mixture of free-form and peptide-bonded amino acids is better than
free-form amino acids alone is that the intestines can better absorb mixtures for transport
into the bloodstream. While it might seem logical that free-form amino acids could be
absorbed more quickly, the upper part of the small intestine is better able to absorb amino
acids in twos and threes. If you choose to up your protein intake, you should use whole
proteins or hydrolyzed proteins from foods and supplements as your primary sources of
protein.

DIGESTION OF PROTEIN AND AMINO ACIDS


The mechanical digestion of protein begins in the mouth during chewing. In the stomach,
the enzyme pepsin joins in, breaking down the protein into shorter peptides. The partially
digested protein then passes into the intestines, where the free-form, di-peptide, and tripeptide amino acids are absorbed, beginning immediately. Enzymes continue to digest
any polypeptides as they travel down the intestines.
Once the free-form, di-peptide, and tri-peptide amino acids enter the bloodstream, they
are transported to the liver, where a few things may happen to them. They may be
converted into other amino acids; they may be used to make other proteins; they may be
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further broken down and either used for energy or excreted; or they may be placed into
circulation and continue on to the rest of the body.
Proteins empty from the stomach in two to three, or even more hours, depending on how
much fat is present and how much food was consumed. This means that you should keep
the protein content of precompetition meals on the low side, fat too, to enable your
digestive system to clear of meal, and to pass nutrients into your bloodstream and cells
before you begin your athletic event. More about meal composition and timing will be
reviewed in Part Two, in addition to protein sources, such as whey, casein, soy, etc.

AMINO ACID REVIEW


The following provides an overview of the primary amino acids of nutritional and biological
importance. This includes the indispensable, conditionally dispensable, and dispensable
amino acids. When applicable, the athletic performance significance is noted.
While most of these amino acids have well established functions and importance based
on historical use and over a hundred years of research, there is always new functions of
amino acids being discovered, especially for athletic performance. Therefore some of the
amino acid entries include some highlights of recent research discoveries relating to
athletic performance, as well as reviewing the well established, time-tested functions.
When reviewing the functions of amino acids, most amino acids have multiple functions
and multiple benefits to health and athletic performance. Some amino acids are just part
of proteins, others function in the body as biochemical intermediates or precursors of other
amino acids or substances, then there are some amino acids that can function in the body
as part of proteins, as metabolic intermediates, or directly in their intact form. Whatever
the functionality of these amino acids may be, it will be easy to appreciate their use in
sports nutrition products; ranging from single amino acid products, to multiple amino acid
products, to a variety of multiple ingredient sports nutrition products that use amino acids
is different ways to create comprehensive and balanced sports nutrition products for
specific uses.

Alanine & Beta-Alanine


Alanine is a dispensable amino acid found in high concentrations in most muscle tissue
and is grouped with the dispensable amino acids because it can be manufactured by the
body. Alanine is involved in an important biochemical process that occurs during exercisethe glucose-alanine cycle. In the muscles, glycogen stores are broken down to glucose
and then to a three-carbon-atom molecule called pyruvate. Some of the pyruvate is used
directly for energy by the muscles. Some of it, however, is converted to alanine, which is
transported through the bloodstream to the liver, where it is converted once again into
glucose. The glucose is then transported back to a muscle and again used for energy. The
glucose-alanine cycle serves to conserve energy in the form of glycogen. Sports
physiologists postulate that this helps maintain the glucose level during prolonged
exercise. In this way, supplementing with L-alanine may be useful in a similar way to
supplementing with the BCAAs -the supplemental L-alanine may help to spare muscle
tissue, as well as liver glycogen. However, research studies exploring the exact dosages
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and benefits of supplemental alanine need to be conducted on athletes to clearly confirm


athletic performance benefits. In the general population dietary intake of alanine is
reported to be approximately a mean of 3.6 grams per day, to a high of 8.5 grams per day.
Beta-alanine is a relatively new comer in sports supplements, it differs in molecular
configuration from the conventional alanine molecule. Attention was directed toward betaalanine when it was found that taking beta-alanine supplements can increase the bodys
supply of carnosine. Carnosine is found occurring in skeletal muscles and other tissues of
animals including humans. So, carnosine is present in the diet. Carnosine is synthesized
in the body from beta-alanine and L-histidine. Carnosine is reported to have a few
biological functions including antioxidant activity, activation of myosin ATPase activity,
enhance copper update, and of particular interest to athletes, buffering the pH of
exercising muscle. Research by R.C. Harris and coworkers published in 2006 observed
an increase in muscle carnosine from a few weeks of dietary supplementation of betaalanine.
Regarding athletic performance effectiveness from dietary supplementation of betaalanine, scientific evidence is beginning to be reported. For example, C. A. Hill and
coworkers reported that 4 to 10 weeks of Beta-alanine supplement use increased
carnosine levels and increased total work done in exercise tests using males who
undertook a cycle capacity test. The Beta-alanine taking group increased total work done
by 13% at 4 weeks, compared to the placebo group, then an additional 3.2% increase was
observed at 10 weeks, a total of 15.2% increase. Another group of researchers, J. R.
Stout and coworkers, reported that 28 days of Beta-alanine supplementation improved
submaximal cycle ergometry performance and time-to-exhaustion in young women. This
was attributed to an increased buffering capacity due to elevated muscle carnosine
concentrations.
It is important to note that beta-alanine is different than creatine, and some articles have
mistakenly reported beta-alanine as being the next creatine. Metabolically, creatine
functions differently than beta-alanine. Additionally, creatine has hundreds of scientific
studies backing its effectiveness, while the research indicated benefits of beta-alanine are
in the early stage.
Keeping these differences in mind, some research was aimed at determining what effects
would occur by combining creatine and beta-alanine. One research study examined the
effects of 28 days of beta-alanine, creatine, and beta-alanine & creatine supplementation
compared to a placebo group. The researchers wanted to measure the effects of the
supplements of the onset of neuromuscular fatigue in untrained men. After 28 days the
Beta-alanine and Beta-alanine & creatine taking groups exhibited a delay of
neuromuscular fatigue using a continuous incremental cycle ergometry test. Keeping in
mind that other research reported that creatine loading may delay the onset of fatigue.
Another research study examined the effects of creatine and beta-alanine
supplementation on performance and endocrine responses in strength athletes, football
players. The football players followed a 10 week resistance training program. They were
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divided into groups who ingested either creatine, creatine & beta-alanine, or a placebo.
Significant changes in lean body mass were measured in the group of football players
taking creatine & beta-alanine together, football players taking either creatine or creatine &
beta-alanine together experience significant increase in strength performance, and football
players taking just creatine also experience an increase in testosterone levels.
This initial research is encouraging for the use of beta-alanine supplements by strength
and endurance athletes as part of a total sports supplement program. While more studies
are needed to determine the dosages and duration of use, dosages used in the studies
ranged from a few to several grams per day.

Arginine (GH, IGF, Nitric Oxide stimulation and more)


Arginine is a conditionally indispensable amino acid that influences several metabolic
factors that are important to athletes. Arginine is most popular for its role in stimulating the
release of human GH (somatotropin) and related Insulin-like Growth Factors (IGF) levels.
Several studies have measured the ability of supplemental L-arginine, both alone and in
combination with other amino acids, to increase the GH level in athletic and non-athletic
individuals. Potential benefits of an increased GH level include reduction in body fat,
improved healing and recovery, and increased muscle growth rate and muscle mass.
Other major benefits of arginine supplementation include improving immune system
function; protein synthesis; nitrogen detoxification (reducing ammonia levels/ ammonia
removal, and increasing the production); creatine synthesis; and levels of nitric oxide
(NO).
Arginine dosages used in research studies vary considerably; a gram, a few grams,
several grams, or even higher daily dosage amounts. Based on the results of numerous
arginine studies, a variety of favorable responses is reported, ranging from minor
responses to larger significant improvements in the attributes being measured. This would
be expected when you consider that the human body can manufacture arginine, but as it
is a conditionally indispensable amino acid, this indicates that from time to time people
may not be able to produce enough of it. For the athlete, especially strength athletes,
supplemental arginine is considered to be essential.
Some of the types of the arginine containing molecules used in supplements, include:
Arginine HCl, Arginine AKG, Arginine-2-pyrrolidone-5-carboxylate. The primary purpose of
these arginine containing molecules is to increase the bodys levels of arginine. Arginine
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has also been combined with other amino acids in research studies, such as lysine,
glycine, ornithine, and aspartate, and is found naturally occurring with all of the other
amino acids.
In addition to the other benefits reported from consuming arginine supplements, the nitric
oxide (NO) boosting effects are among the most recent addition of interest to certain
athletes. It is first interesting to note that previous to the athletic performance interest,
when researchers discovered that arginine supplements can stimulate NO production,
they immediately began testing it for treating erectile dysfunction. Nitric oxide in the blood
stream causes relaxation of the vascular tissues and vasodilatation, thereby promoting
improved blood flow. Some cases of erectile dysfunction are thought to be related to poor
NO production. As NO is made from arginine, researchers wanted to evaluate if male
subjects with erectile dysfunction would show improvements from taking arginine
supplementation. After taking 2,800 milligrams of arginine a day for a 2 week period, 6 of
15 subjects reported an improvement of erection function from taking the arginine
supplements. The responders were the younger males of the experimental group, age
rage 25 to 43. Other researchers have also evaluated arginine supplement taking for
improvement in patients with cardiovascular disorders with promising results.
From an athletes perspective, maintaining good blood flow is essential for athletic
performance and recovery. The NO stimulating action of arginine supplements, as it
relates to increasing athletic performance is a new area of research. A recent study in
2006 revealed that taking an arginine supplement, in the form of Arginine AKG, daily for 8
weeks increased blood levels of arginine. At the end of the study period it was determined
that the strength training athletes significantly increased their 1RM bench press and peak
power performance. This is consistent with previous studies of strength athletes ingesting
arginine containing supplements.
Based on the numerous research studies, supplemental intake of arginine can benefit
athletes because of its ability to detoxify nitrogenous wastes, increase GH & IGFs,
increase nitric oxide, increase creatine production, improve immune system function, and
improve the rate of healing. L-arginine supplementation can especially help athletes
involved in strenuous sports or training. In addition to athletics, arginine supplementation
may have benefits for people with diabetes, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome.
Existing research reports measurable responses from daily arginine supplement dosages
ranging from 1,000 to 5,000 milligrams for time periods up to 4 months. Higher amounts
may be required based on individual needs. Note that in the majority of studies, arginine
supplements were taken during the day, and improvements in GH, IGF and NO were
observed during the day, as well as also being reported in the evenings. In the general
population dietary intake of arginine is reported to be approximately a mean of 4.2 grams
per day, to a high of 10.1 grams per day.

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Asparagine
Asparagine is a dispensable amino acid that is manufactured in the body from aspartic
acid. Asparagine appears to be involved in the proper functioning of the central nervous
system because it helps prevent both extreme nervousness and extreme calmness. Lasparagine supplementation by athletes has not yet been evaluated. Asparagine can be
found occurring naturally in foods and supplements containing whole protein ingredients.
In the general population dietary intake of asparagine is reported to be approximately 7.4
g/100 g of dietary protein consumed.

Aspartic Acid
Aspartic acid, also referred to as L-aspartic acid or L-aspartate, is a dispensable amino
acid that has been shown to help reduce the blood-ammonia level after exercise. Aspartic
acid occurs naturally in plants and animals and is found in the diet. Also, the artificial
sweetener aspartame contains aspartic acid. Aspartic acid is an amino acid that is
typically present in products containing whole proteins, such as whey protein, but occurs
in all protein containing foods, both animal and plant origin.
Aspartic acid is metabolized from glutamic acid in the body. It is involved in the urea cycle
and in the Krebs cycle. In the Krebs cycle, energy is released from glucose, fatty-acid, or
protein molecules and used to form adenosine-triphosphate (ATP) molecules, which are
the form of energy that the body can utilize. The exact benefits of single ingredient
aspartic acid supplement use for well conditioned athletes in active training have not been
proven based on the research reviewed. In the general population dietary intake of
aspartic acid is reported to be approximately a mean of 6.5 grams per day, to a high of
15.4 grams per day.

Branched-Chain Amino Acids (Leucine, Isoleucine and Valine)


The branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are the indispensable amino acids isoleucine,
leucine, and valine. Together, these three amino acids make up about 35 percent of the
amino-acid content of muscle tissue. Each of these amino acids is also used by the body
for energy. Studies confirm that under conditions of stress, injury, or exercise, the body
uses a disproportionately high amount of the BCAAs to maintain nitrogen balance.
Studies also indicate that leucine is used at a rate two or more times greater than those of
isoleucine and valine. Many amino-acid formulations on the market therefore have about
twice as much leucine as the other two BCAAs.
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The BCAAs have a history of use starting in medical settings with patients in stressed
states, such as burn victims, surgical and trauma patients, and starvation. These patients
were given BCAAs to stimulate their protein synthesis and nitrogen balance. Then, during
the 1980s, sports-nutrition companies picked up on these clinical practices and
sponsored research using animals and athletes that revealed that the BCAAs are used for
energy, especially by exercising skeletal muscle. The researchers hypothesized that
taking supplemental BCAAs would compensate for the BCAAs used for energy, promote
muscle growth, and restore nitrogen balance. Additionally, leucine was found to have
other growth-related metabolic effects including releasing GH and insulin, and a role in
controlling protein production.
Eventually, research began to examine the benefits that taking in supplemental amounts
of the BCAAs would have on athletic performance, body composition and health. Some of
the exercise related benefits observed in research studies include:
Increase exercise endurance
Reduction of exercise related fatigue
Improve mental performance
Increase energy levels
Stimulate protein synthesis
Improve nitrogen balance
Improve immune system function
Increase lean body mass
Increase strength
The amounts of the BCAAs supplied vary with the different products available. Some
products contain just the BCAAs, others have the BCAAs as well as a few additional
ingredients, and still others contain the full spectrum of amino acids with extra amounts of
the BCAAs.
Athletes, especially bodybuilders, report muscle growth and strength benefits from
effective BCAA formulations. However, the BCAAs are not just for bodybuilders and
power athletes. Endurance athletes can also benefit from BCAA supplementation.
Research has determined that endurance athletes use over 50 percent of their total daily
leucine for energy purposes. This means that endurance athletes might need to eat
several times the normally recommended amount of protein to maintain nitrogen balance.
An alternative method these athletes can use is to fortify their base diet of food proteins
with supplement BCAAs.
Leucine, a Key BCAA
It is important to note that in addition to being a key BCAA use for energy production, the
most recent research has shown that leucine plays a major role in protein synthesis. In
addition to taking BCAA supplements in capsules, powdered protein products contain
extra leucine, in addition to other key amino acids of athletic importance. The special
report at the end of this chapter reviews this important research and product development
trend.

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In the general population dietary intake of the BCAAs is reported to be approximately 6.1
grams per day for leucine, to a high of 14.1 grams per day; 3.6 grams per day for
isoleucine, to a high of 8.2 grams per day; and 4 grams per day for valine, to a high of 9.1
grams per day.
Based on a recent scientific conference about BCAAs, it was determined that BCAAs are
very safe. A wide range of BCAA supplement intake has been experimented with. The
exact amount of BCAA will depend on your level of activity, protein intake, and other
protein/amino acid supplements you are taking. In addition to the BCAA product
manufactures instructions you may be using, here are some additional guidelines. In
general, daily intake of between 10 to 30 grams of BCAAs, which are high in leucine, has
been reported to be safe and effective. BCAAs are typically ingested in divided dosages
taken 2 or more times a day. This way, your body will be supplied a constant supply of
BCAAs, in particular leucine, which plays a important role in protein synthesis control.
One approach to getting more BCAAs into your diet is to include a product that is high in
BCAA content, before or with meals. This can include protein powders fortified with
BCAAs, products that just contain BCAAs, or high quality multi-ingredient specialty
products like Explosive Growth Blend that contain extra BCAAs, protein, other amino
acids, and a variety of additional clinically proven muscle building and fat metabolizing
ingredients. This will ensure that you have enough of these vital essential amino acids
during meal time, to maximize protein synthesis, growth and recovery of muscle.
Another approach for taking BCAA supplements is before and after exercise.
Supplemental amounts of the BCAAs could range from 1,500 to 6,000 milligrams for Lleucine and 1,000 to 3,000 milligrams each for L-isoleucine and L-valine. Divide the
dosage between two servings a day. Depending on your rate of stomach emptying,
experiment with taking a serving about sixty to thirty minutes before exercising and
another serving after exercising on training days, or along with meals on nontraining days,
to fortify the dietary proteins.
The special overview article at the end of the chapter reviews some of the research
related to protein and BCAAs. In addition to this, the following provides two short research
summaries of interest to both endurance and strength athletes.

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Citrulline
Citrulline is a dispensable amino acid and has a role in the urea cycle for the removal of
ammonia from the blood. The benefits of citrulline supplementation have not been clearly
established at this time, but some research reports preliminary observations of citrulline
containing supplements used in experimental settings increasing nitric oxide levels. Based
on these reports some nitric oxide boosting supplements are including citrulline as an
ingredient. However, the exact benefits for improving athletic performance need to be
confirmed with research using athletes.

Cysteine
Cysteine is a conditionally dispensable sulfur-bearing amino acid. The body manufactures
it from methionine and serine. Cysteine is important in the production of protein, hair, skin,
connective tissues, connective tissue growth factor, glutathione, taurine, and insulin.
Besides its major role as a component of proteins, it functions as a detoxifying agent,
helping rid the bodys dangerous chemicals. In addition, it helps form glutathione, which is
an important antioxidant and detoxifying agent. Cysteine also plays a role in energy
production. Like other amino acids, it can be converted to glucose and either used for
energy or stored as glycogen. As it is naturally occurring, L-cysteine is a common
ingredient found in protein and multi-amino acid formulas. Some supplements also contain
the N-acetyl-L-cysteine form. In the general population dietary intake of cysteine is
reported to be approximately 1 gram per day, to a high of 2.2 grams per day.

Cystine
Cystine is another conditionally dispensable sulfur-bearing amino acid related to cysteine
as it is made from two molecules of cysteine, and typically considered together for
nutritional evaluation purposes. Cystine plays a vital role in helping many protein
molecules hold their shape as they are carried around the body. It is generally poorly
absorbed when taken in supplemental form and is more effectively derived by formation
from cysteine. The same as cysteine, cystine is important in the formation of hair and skin.
It is also a detoxifying agent. The athletic benefits of supplementation with free-form
cystine have not yet been evaluated.

Glutamic Acid
Glutamic acid, also known as glutamate, is a dispensable amino acid occurring in
proteins. It acts as an intermediary in the Krebs cycle and is therefore important for the
proper metabolism of carbohydrates. It is also involved in the removal of ammonia from
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the muscles. It does this by combining with the ammonia to form glutamine. Glutamic acid
is also needed for the production of energy from the BCAAs. In fact, some research has
indicated that the amount of energy produced from the BCAAs may depend upon the
supply of glutamic acid that is available. Fortunately glutamic acid is plentiful in the diet
and easily made by the body. Similar to glucose, glutamic acid can pass readily through
the blood-brain barrier, a semi permeable membrane that keeps the blood that is
circulating in the brain away from the tissue fluids surrounding the brain cells. Glutamic
acid is typically present in full profile amino acids products like protein powders and other
protein containing products. In the general population dietary intake of glutamic acid is
reported to be approximately a mean of 15 grams per day, to a high of 33.7 grams per
day.

Glutamine
Glutamine is a conditionally dispensable amino acid found in dietary proteins and made by
the body. Glutamine is generally one of the most plentiful amino acids present in the body.
However, researchers observed in medical settings from people who were under stress
from injury or disease that their glutamine levels were decreased below normal levels.
Eventually doctors determined that this decrease in glutamine among stressed patients
was related to poor immune system function and reduced protein synthesis. When
patients were provided with supplemental amounts of glutamine, their immune system
function was improved and their nitrogen balance was restored, indicating anabolic
effects.
Glutamine is also reported to have anti-catabolic effects, reduce cortisol levels, improve
wound healing, act as an energy source in certain cells, elevate growth hormone levels,
stimulate glycogen synthesis, combat overtraining syndrome, promote protein synthesis
(anabolic effects), support the blood buffering system, and promote gastrointestinal tract
health. From this list of the primary benefits of using glutamine supplements in research
studies it is easy to understand why use by athletes eventually caught on.
Like the BCAAs, glutamine got started in medical settings. Eventually the ability of
glutamine to restore immune system function attracted attention by the athletic
community. Researchers in the mid 1990s from Oxford University, UK, are credited with
being among the first to hypothesize that amino-acid imbalances may result from
strenuous exercise and, as a consequence, induce a number of phenomena that are
collectively referred to as the "overtraining syndrome."
The initial athlete glutamine supplement research was conducted among long distance
athletes, like marathon runners, who were known to have lower glutamine levels after their
races, suppressed immune system function, and subsequently were thought to be at
higher risk for a higher rate of infections. When athletes were given 5 grams of glutamine
supplement after running a marathon, the researchers observed a reduced number of
infections among the athletes taking glutamine during the 7 days following exercise. In
other similar research a similar result was observed, where the athletes taking glutamine
supplements experienced a reduced rate of infection, compared to athletes not taking
glutamine.
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While these benefits are of importance for all athletes, in addition to the endurance
athletes tested, using glutamine supplements has become very common among strength
athletes, in particular bodybuilders. This common use has been promoted from
glutamines reported benefits in boosting protein synthesis, having anti-catabolic effects,
blood buffering effects, growth hormone boosting, and other muscle building related
benefits, in addition to use based on case studies.
Similar to the other amino acids, glutamine products range from single ingredient to multiingredient mixtures. In research studies, glutamine has been shown to be effective in
dosage ranges as low as 2 to 5 grams per day. Athletes typically consume supplemental
amounts of glutamine in the 5 to 10 gram a day range. With some athletes periodically
ingesting even higher daily amounts of glutamine, such as bodybuilders. Glutamine is best
taken in dividing the total daily dosage into 2 to 3 smaller dosages during the day, to help
maintain adequate levels.

Glycine
Glycine is a conditionally dispensable amino acid that is synthesized from serine, with
folate acting as a coenzyme (enzyme cofactor). Glycine gets its name from the Greek
word meaning "sweet." It is a sweet-tasting substance. Glycine is an important precursor
of many substances in the body, including protein, DNA, phospholipids, collagen, and
creatine. It is also a precursor in the release of energy and has been shown to increase
growth hormone levels. Glycine is found in high amounts in connective tissues; collagen
and gelatin.
Additionally, glycine is used by the liver in the elimination of toxic substances and in the
formation of bile salts; exhibiting hepatoprotective effects. It is necessary for the proper
functioning of the central nervous system and is an inhibitory neurotransmitter. During
rapid growth, the body's demand for glycine increases. Studies have confirmed that the
use of glycine supplements causes an increase in growth hormone. Some studies have
also noted that glycine ingestion causes an increase in strength, possibly due in part to its
elevation of the GH level or increased collagen synthesis. Supplemental glycine has
additionally been shown to increase body creatine levels.
The use of supplemental glycine for increasing athletic performance is still in the early
stages of development. However, short-term use of 1 to 6 grams per day, in divided
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dosages may be beneficial for power athletes and bodybuilders training for increased
strength and muscle mass, as well as connective tissue repair and maintenance. Like with
all free-form amino acids, use glycine supplements with caution. In full profile amino acid
products, glycine is typically contained in protein supplements and supplements that
contain hydrolyzed collagen and gelatin. In the general population dietary intake of alanine
is reported to be approximately a mean of 3.2 grams per day, to a high of 7.8 grams per
day.

Histidine
Histidine is an indispensable amino acid, important in the growth and repair of human
tissue. Histidine is also important in the formation and maintenance of hemoglobin, the
oxygen transport protein in red blood cells. In addition, histidine is used in the body to
make histamine and carnosine (as previously reviewed in the Alanine entry). Carnosine is
chemically beta-alanyl-L-histidine.
The benefits of prolonged use of supplemental free-form histidine by athletes has not
been established in terms of improved athletic performance, beyond histidines role as a
required amino acid to promote growth and health. Histidine is typically found in all
proteins and you will see it listed on protein supplement labels along with the other
common amino acids. The mean dietary intake is 2.2 grams per day with the highest
intake about 5.2 grams per day in the general population.

Isoleucine
Isoleucine is an indispensable acid that, along with leucine and valine, is one of the
BCAAs. Isoleucine is found in proteins and is needed for the formation of hemoglobin. It is
involved in the regulation of blood sugar and is metabolized for energy in muscle tissue
during exercise. Supplemental intake of L-isoleucine, along with the other BCAAs, has
been shown to help spare muscle tissue, maintain nitrogen balance, and promote muscle
growth and healing. For dosage recommendations, refer to The Branched-Chain Amino
Acids heading.

Leucine
Leucine is an indispensable amino acid found in proteins that is, like the other BCAAs,
important in energy production during exercise. For many years, the three BCAAs were
assumed to contribute equally to energy. Recent studies, however, have shown that both
exercising and resting muscle tissue uses far more leucine for energy than either of the
other two BCAAs. According to estimates, over 50% percent of dietary leucine may be
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used for energy in exercising muscles. This makes leucine a very limiting amino acid if
supplemental amounts are not taken to compensate for the loss. Leucine may also
stimulate the release of insulin, which increases protein synthesis and inhibits protein
breakdown. The most recent new function attributed to leucine is in controlling protein
synthesis, via the mTOR pathway. Review the special article at the end of this chapter for
more details about this. For supplemental L-leucine dosage recommendations, refer to
"The Branched-Chain Amino Acids" heading.

Lysine
Lysine is an indispensable amino acid that is found in large quantities in muscle tissue. It
is needed for proper growth and bone development, and it aids in calcium absorption.
Lysine has the ability to enhance immune system function and is reported to be useful for
fighting cold sores and herpes viruses. It is required for the formation of collagen,
enzymes, antibodies, and other compounds. Together with methionine, iron, and vitamins
B1, B6, and C, it helps form carnitine, a compound that the body needs in the production
of energy from fatty acids. Mean dietary intake of lysine is 5.3 grams per day and the
highest intake is about 12.6 grams per day in the general population.
Lysine deficiency can limit protein synthesis and the growth and repair of tissues, in
particular the connective tissues. Lysine has been shown to increase growth hormone
levels, usually in association with other amino acids, like arginine. Lysine should be part of
all full-spectrum amino-acid supplements and in protein powders. Beyond its importance
as an indispensable amino acid for good nutrition and health, the effects of the use of
supplemental free-form L-lysine by athletes have not yet been determined for measures in
significant training or performance.

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Methionine
Methionine is an indispensable sulfur-bearing amino acid. It is involved in
transmethylation, a metabolic process that is vital to the manufacture of several
compounds, is involved in the synthesis of creatine, and important in muscle performance.
In transmethylation, an amino acid donates a methyl group to another compound. These
methyl donors often function as intermediaries in many biochemical processes.
Methionine is the major methyl donor in the body. Mean dietary intake of methionine is 1.8
grams per day, with the highest intake about 4.1 grams per day in the general population.
Methionine is a limiting amino acid in many proteins, especially in plant proteins. It
functions in the removal of metabolic waste products from the liver and assists in the
breakdown of fat and the prevention of fatty buildup in the liver and arteries. It is used to
make choline, which makes taking supplemental choline a mandatory practice for athletes
to spare methionine for its other functions. Methionine is commonly added to mealreplacement drinks and other nutrient beverages containing soy protein because it
increases the quality of the protein.

Ornithine
Ornithine is a dispensable amino acid that does not occur in proteins. Ornithine's primary
role in the body is in the urea cycle, which makes it important in the removal of ammonia.
It is formed from arginine in the urea cycle. Like arginine, ornithine has been proven to be
an effective GH releaser. It is this role that has brought it widespread recognition among
athletes in recent years.
Supplementation with L-ornithine in various dosages, ranging from 2,000 to 4,000
milligrams per day, has been studied. Research using L-ornithine with other amino acids
has also been conducted. Recently, a study using 1,000 milligrams of L-ornithine and
1,000 milligrams of L-arginine per day along with five weeks of weight training showed a
decrease in body fat and an increase in muscle mass. However, indications are that the
effective dose of L-ornithine may be higher. Another study examining the effects of
bodybuilders taking just ornithine supplements reported an increase in growth hormone
levels. More research needs to be conducted to determine the exact dosage, as well as
the specific benefits. Ornithine containing supplements may be particularly beneficial for
bodybuilders, powerlifters, sprinters and other strength athletes.
Ornithine is also an important component of ornithine alphaketoglutarate, a compound that
is gaining popularity among bodybuilders and power athletes. Ornithine
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Alphaketoglutarate (OKG). OKG is used in clinical nutrition based primarily on its anabolic
action. Studies report the use of OKG in Europe for a number of years -- as far back as
the early seventies -- mainly for the treatment of burn victims, trauma, post-surgical
healing, and cases of severe malnutrition. OKG consists of two ornithine molecules and
one alphaketoglutarate molecule. OKG is a stimulus for a variety of metabolic functions. It
acts as an ammonia scavenger; improves nitrogen balance; increases glutamine pool in
muscle tissue, thereby reducing muscle break down (catabolism); elevates growth
hormone levels; increases protein synthesis; increases insulin secretion; plays a role in
glutamine synthesis; and provides an anti-catabolic effect. OKG is used in multi-ingredient
formulas from 1 gram to a few grams; and in single ingredient formulas at higher dosages,
typically a few grams or more, 2 times a day.

Phenylalanine
Phenylalanine is an indispensable amino acid and a precursor of the nonessential amino
acid tyrosine. Ingestion of supplemental tyrosine therefore spares phenylalanine for its
other functions. Mean dietary intake is 3.4 grams per day, with the highest intake about
7.7 grams per day.
Phenylalanine has many functions in the body and is a precursor of several important
metabolites, such as the skin pigment melanin, and several catecholamine
neurotransmitters, such as epinephrine and norepinephrine. The catecholamines are
important in memory and learning, locomotion, sex drive, tissue growth and repair,
immune-system functioning, and appetite control. Phenylalanine suppresses appetite by
increasing the brain's production of norepinephrine and cholecystokinin (CCK). CCK is the
hormone that is thought to be responsible for sending out the "I am full" message. These
functions of phenylalanine can be of tremendous value to athletes, especially those who
need to stimulate mental alertness or who need to lose weight or maintain low levels of
body fat.
DL-phenylalanine (DLPA) has been shown to be useful in combating pain. This can be
beneficial for athletes who suffer from acute or chronic pain from injury. Dosages of 500 to
1,500 milligrams of DLPA per day have been reported to be effective for this purpose. The
theorized mechanism is that DLPA "protects" the endorphins in the body from destruction,
thereby allowing them to distribute their morphine like pain relief. Endorphins are a
thousand times more powerful than morphine. Remember, however, that more is not
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always better. If you experience just partial pain relief, contact your health-care
practitioner to evaluate your condition. Do not take mega doses of DLPA, especially
without medical supervision.
Dosages of supplemental L-phenylalanine ranging from 100 to 500 milligrams, taken once
to 3 times a day, have been reported to produce no side effects. However, note that
higher dosages have been reported to cause headaches in some people. Cofactors that
appear to be necessary in phenylalanine metabolism include vitamin B3, vitamin B6,
vitamin C, copper, and iron.
A word of caution: The artificial sweetener aspartame is a di-peptide made up of
phenylalanine and aspartic acid. Soft drinks containing aspartame carry warnings that are
aimed at people with phenylketonuria (PKU), a disease in which phenylalanine is not
properly metabolized and can be very damaging. People with phenylketonuria should not
take any supplemental L- or DL-phenylalanine.
People who drink a lot of caffeine-containing beverages or take energy supplements with
caffeine-containing herbs, such as guarana, may need more phenylalanine. Caffeine
tends to cause some of the neurotransmitters that are made with phenylalanine to become
depleted in the central nervous system. This is one of the reasons why people sometimes
feel mentally fuzzy after drinking a lot of coffee. Taking supplemental L- or DLphenylalanine may help offset the depletion, or reduce your caffeine consumption.

Proline
Proline is a conditionally indispensable amino acid. It occurs in high amounts in collagen
tissue. It can be synthesized from and also converted to glutamic acid. Hydroxyproline,
which is also abundant in collagen, is synthesized in the body from proline. Proline is
important in the maintenance and healing of collagen tissues such as the skin, tendons,
and cartilage. Proline and hydroxyproline are typically provided in supplements from
hydrolyzed collagen or gelatin, which contain high amounts of these amino acids, in
addition to other amino acids. Hydrolyzed collagen and gelatin have been used in studies
and found to promote improved joint function, improved mobility and reduced pain and
stiffness, in particular in knee joints. The mean dietary intake of proline is 5.2 grams per
day, with highest intakes reported to be about 12 grams per day.

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Serine
Serine is a dispensable amino acid found in proteins and derived from glycine. Its
metabolism leads to the formation of many important substances, such as choline and
phospholipids, which are essential in the formation of some neurotransmitters and are
used to stabilize membranes. It is part of an important phospholipid called
phosphatidylserine found in cell membranes, and also reported to have anti-catabolic
effects and important in brain and nervous system health and function. Serine is important
in the metabolism of fat and the promotion of a healthy immune system. Serine is usually
found occurring in supplements from whole proteins. The mean dietary intake of serine is
3.5 grams per day, with a highest reported intake of about 7.9 grams per day.

Taurine
Taurine is a dispensable sulfur-bearing amino acid that plays a major role in brain tissue
and in nervous-system functioning. It is involved in blood-pressure regulation and in the
transportation of the electrolytes across cell membranes. It is found in the heart, muscles,
central nervous system, and brain. Taurine is also found in the eye and may be important
for maintaining good vision and eye functioning. Other reported functions of taurine
include: bile acid function, detoxification of xenobiotics (foreign substances in the body),
membrane stabilization, antioxidant activity, osmoregulation, cell proliferation, modulation
of neuronal excitability, and intracellular and extracellular calcium regulation. A more
recent suspected function of taurine is as a constituent of mitochondrial tRNA. Taurine is
made in the body from cysteine and methionine, with vitamin B6 as a cofactor. Taurine is
typically found in sports nutrition products and energy drinks due to its diverse and
important functions to ensure adequate levels in strenuous training athletes.

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Threonine
Threonine is an indispensable amino acid found in proteins. It is an important component
of collagen, tooth enamel, protein, and elastic tissue. It can also function as a lipotropic
agent, a substance that prevents fatty buildup in the liver. Mean daily dietary intake of
threonine is about 3 grams per day with a high intake of 7.1 grams per day.
Supplemental threonine has a reported use in the treatment of depression in patients with
low threonine levels. Studies still need to be undertaken to determine the exact benefits of
taking extra threonine supplementation for athletes, besides the expected benefits
associated with its essential functions in protein synthesis and other tissues.

Tryptophan
Tryptophan is an indispensable amino acid necessary for the production of vitamin B3 and
neurotransmitter serotonin. Taking supplemental vitamin B3 can help conserve tryptophan
for its other functions. The mean daily intake of tryptophan is about 0.9 grams per day,
with an upper intake of 2.1 grams per day in the general population.
Supplemental tryptophan has been taken for years by millions of people for its
pronounced calming effects, which include the promotion of sleep and the treatment of
depression. Serotonin helps control the sleep cycle, causing a feeling of drowsiness.
Research reported that taking supplemental trytophan was effective in correcting certain
sleep disorders. Tryptophan has also been reported to increase the GH levels and was a
popular ingredient in night-time GH releasing supplement products.
Tryptophan is one of the least abundant amino acids in food, which makes it one of the
limiting essential amino acids. Some foods that are high in tryptophan are cottage cheese,
pork, wild game, duck, and avocado. Eating these foods along with vitamin B3 and the
cofactors vitamin B6 and magnesium may help athletes derive some of the benefits that
tryptophan offers.
Tryptophan has been commercially used as a single form amino acid for many years. It
has been used by doctors and self prescribed for treating depression, managing pain, and
helping with sleep. In 1989, there was a sudden outbreak of a rare blood disorder
observed in the United States. The national health department quickly linked development
of the disorder to use of certain tryptophan supplements. As a result of this occurrence,
the US Food and Drug Administration limited the use of tryptophan as an individual
supplement and only allowed its use to fortify protein and other limited applications. The
vast majority of supplement users were surprised, because based on decades of use, the
rare blood disease was never before linked to tryptophan. Almost immediately during the
investigation, health officials found that the tryptophan supplements used by people who
developed the blood disease came from the same manufacturer in Japan. Upon further
investigation, it was finally discovered that there was a contaminant in several batches of
tryptophan and the contaminant was responsible for causing the blood disease, not the
supplemental tryptophan. After a period of time, tryptophan products are beginning to
appear on the market again.
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Tryptophan is also found in many protein and amino acid products in the amino acid
profile information section of the nutrition labels. Tryptophan, like many amino acids, is a
naturally occurring essential amino acid found in all dietary proteins. In fact, you cannot
live without it. As a result, many of the supplements you purchase indicate that the
tryptophan content is from natural sources, not to be confused with the synthetic form of
tryptophan. However, some companies have begun to sell single ingredient tryptophan
supplements again.

Tyrosine
Tyrosine is a conditionally indispensable amino acid that is made from the essential amino
acid phenylalanine. Supplementation with L-tyrosine can have a sparing effect on
phenylalanine, leaving phenylalanine available for functions not associated with tyrosine
formation. Mean daily intake of tyrosine is reported to be about 2.8 grams a day, with high
daily intake of 6.4 grams per day in the general population.
Tyrosine plays many roles in the body. It is a precursor of the catecholamines dopamine
and norepinephrine, regulates appetite, and aids in melanin skin pigment production.
These functions are similar to the ones with which phenylalanine is associated as a
precursor of tyrosine. However, tyrosine is believed to be better at stimulating these
effects because it is one step closer as a precursor. An antidepressant effect and an
increased sex drive in men have also been observed with tyrosine supplementation.
Studies have not yet reported any improved athletic performance from ingesting tyrosine
supplements under experimental conditions. A word of caution: tyrosine supplement use
may trigger migraine headaches in some people when it is broken down into a product
called tyramine.

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Valine
Valine is an indispensable amino acid and a member of the branched-chain amino acids.
The same as the other BCAAs, isoleucine and leucine, valine is an integral part of muscle
tissue and may be used for energy by exercising muscles. It is involved in tissue repair,
nitrogen balance, and muscle metabolism. For supplemental L-valine dosage
recommendations, refer to "The Branched-Chain Amino Acids" heading.
Refer to Part Three for more information about protein and amino acids,
including protein intake based on sport specific bio-energetics and food
sources.

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ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ABOUT PROTEIN AND AMINO ACIDS


mTOR: Unlocking the Secret of Protein Synthesis
My search for anabolic truth started over 3 decades ago. Like you, I was training hard and long hours to
build muscle and strength, and wanted to do my nutrition right for maximum results. This was back in the
days when attention was becoming more focused on anabolic steroids. But not wanting to turn to drugs to
reach these goals, my focus was and still is on determining how the body works, then based on what the
body needs, designing an exercise and nutrition plan that works best to get the body to respond in that
direction.
I always thought that turning on the power of the trillions of cells and thousands of biochemical pathways
that make up the body was more involved then just taking a drug or two. Imagine what effects you can elicit
in your body by making these trillions of cells and biochemical pathways work to achieve your athletic goals.
This is what the science of athletic training nutrition is really about. This approach goes way beyond
steroids, and is healthier for you too.
During my search for anabolic truth, a few times each decade, major discoveries are made that reveal the
marvelous inner workings of the human body. In the past few years such a major discovery has been made
in providing vital insights to protein synthesis and muscle growth. While the details on this biochemical
pathway are still being sorted out, one thing is certain, a key player in the regulation of protein synthesis is
certain amino acids. When you think about it, this makes perfect sense, as amino acids are the building
blocks of muscle and other biochemicals. If they are present in the body in adequate amounts, then the
bodys mechanisms would be activated to build tissues. When amino acid intake is deficient, then it would
follow that protein synthesis would suffer.
The biochemical pathway I want to review with you in this article is called mTOR, which stands for
mammalian target of rapamycin. How it got this name is not as interesting as what discovery it lead to
concerning amino acids. There are many amino acids, all having different functions, most having multiple
functions. Early in my research and product development efforts, the group of amino acids referred to as
BCAAs caught my special attention. Why, because early on it was realized that these BCAAs could be
used for energy as well as for anabolic processes. Logic would dictate that a nutrition plan which
compensates for this non-anabolic use of BCAAs would result in maintaining positive nitrogen balance, as
well as increasing the rate of protein synthesis.
The mTOR pathway discovery and other research has supported that this logic is correct. The reality being
that amino acids are not only building blocks of proteins, but they are also involved in providing nutritional
signals to activate translation initiation and protein synthesis. As an aside, this quick take home lesson
supports the athletic eating approach of spreading out nutrient intake over several meals/snacks per day.
Discovering mTOR
As it turns out, this protein synthesis biochemical pathway was not discovered by exercise physiologists
experimenting on making the best muscle building discovery. It was almost by accident that the mTOR
discovery was made, at least as far as how it relates to its role in protein synthesis; research in the field of
microbiology that lead to this important discovery.
As previously mentioned mTOR stands for mammalian target of rapamycin. Rapamycin is a drug that is
actually manufactured by a microorganism called Streptomyces hygroscopicus, which lives in the soil. What
attracted the attention of the medical community was that researchers observed S. hygroscopicus secreted
something that inhibited the growth of another microbe, Candida albicans. So, the original use of rapamycin
was thought to be potentially as an antibiotic. But, upon clinical study, researchers found that rapamycin had
potent undesirable immunosuppressive activities, which made it unsuitable for use as an antibiotic drug for
humans. However, due to rapamycins effects it is being used on a limited basis in other medical
applications, but thats another story.
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During the course of all this early research to determine what it was about rapamycin that made it inhibit the
growth of certain microbes, scientists found that it blocked the activity of a substance that was involved in
controlling cell growth and protein synthesis. This is where the name mammalian target of rapamycin came
from. The mTOR molecule is actually a protein kinase, a type of enzyme that drives biochemical reactions.
The Leucine Connection
As more and more research was conducted to see just how mTOR functioned in protein synthesis, it was
discovered that the essential amino acid leucine was involved in regulating this biochemicals activity. The
mTOR substance is actually just one player in a series of biochemical reactions that includes other familiar
anabolic substances like insulin and IGF-1 for example.
Making the Jump From Microbes to People
There are many studies which have been previously conducted using BCAAs, which report beneficial
effects of significance to bodybuilders and other athletes. Some of these benefits include: reduction of
fatigue, inhibit post exercise immunosuppression, and of course, increased muscle protein synthesis.
The new research direction from the mTOR perspective reveals how leucine works at the cellular control
level. The most recent research reveals that leucine, and other amino acids, may have unique roles in
metabolic regulation beyond the role of protein synthesis. For example some researchers have found that an
additional role for leucine is in the control of glucose balance by enhancing the recycling of glucose and a
direct link to insulin signaling. These additional nutritional insights of leucine may have important
applications in weight management and also in prevention and management of diabetes. As a side note, I
always contented that the average intake of protein in our country was too low and needed to be increased
across the board, because amino acids have multiple functions in the body, including precursors of
neurotransmitters, which control the way the entire body works, DNA expression, and serum proteins.
L-Leucine- the key to the BCAAs
L-leucine is the only BCAA that can be completely oxidized by muscles for energy, and each molecule yields
3 acetyl groups. By contrast, L-isoleucine and L-valine provide relatively little energy for muscles, and a
molecule of either yields only one acetyl group. During strenuous exercise, L-leucine is oxidized at a greatly
accelerated pace. Supplemental amounts of L-leucine act to compensate for those losses. In addition, Lleucine has the benefits of conserving glucose (blood sugar), the bodys primary energy source, as well as
sparing the other amino acids in muscle.
The result is greater endurance throughout the duration of a strenuous workout, and a net increase in
muscle growth (due to diminished catabolism of muscle protein both during and after a workout). Ironically,
well-conditioned athletes and bodybuilders have an even greater need for supplemental L-leucine, since
trained muscle uses more L-leucine than untrained muscle. However, all three amino acids need to be
ingested for optimum health, the point here is focusing on which one or ones are needed in vastly greater
amounts.
The Anabolic Cascade
Is mTOR and Leucine the anabolic salvation? It is part of what has become known as the anabolic cascade.
You see there are many nutritional and biochemical factors involved in the anabolic (tissue and substance
building) processes in the body. So, yes leucine is beneficial, along with all the other essential and semiessential nutrients.
Practical Applications
As we learn more about the way the body works, it becomes clearer that a comprehensive nutrition plan is
indeed the foundation of health and getting great results from your training efforts. For me, one area of
applying these scientific discoveries to nutrition practice has been in the development of sports nutrition
supplements that do just that, they supplement the diet to make it better for a particular goal. In the case of
mTOR, extra leucine in protein supplements makes perfect sense, as leucine is also used by the body for
energy, so extra amounts make the protein supplement more anabolic.
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With athletes being more active, using more leucine disproportionately, they therefore need to take in more
from supplements. This will actually make your total diet more anabolic. But more leucine is not the entire
answer to athletic diet perfection. This entails eating and supplementing right. Supplementing right means
more than taking a magic pill. It means including a variety of supplements to top off what your diet cant
accomplish alone, plus fortifying your diet with the essential vitamins, minerals, lipids, amino acids, etc. to
ensure all your vital nutrition needs are covered.
Another practical application from this mTOR and other biochemical discoveries is to learn what not to do.
Regarding leucine and mTOR, researchers found that alcohol impairs skeletal muscle protein synthesis.
Apparently alcohol blocks the ability of leucine to trigger the mTOR protein synthesis pathway. So, those
alcoholic drinks you may look forward to consuming, are actually canceling out all of your hard training and
muscle building nutrition efforts. What is most amazing is that there are dozens of things like this that
otherwise hard working, diligent bodybuilders are doing wrong, which if prevented would result in massive
muscle gains.

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ABOUT PROTEIN AND AMINO ACIDS


The Synergy of Protein Supplements
When I first embarked in developing protein and amino acid supplements, I just didnt want to go through the
motions. I wanted to roll-up my sleeves, and get elbow deep in to the research. This was back in the 1980s,
and what I discovered to be true back then about protein, continues to be proven over and over again today.
This was during the pioneering days when scientists did not believe that taking supplements of any kind
could produce benefits above and beyond eating a healthy diet. Were they wrong about this general
statement, especially when it concerns sports nutrition and protein!
Not All Proteins Are Created Equal
Protein is essential for all living things, especially humans. Our bodies are mostly made up of various
proteins. But not all of the proteins we eat are created equal. What proteins are made of has an impact on
whether or not they work well in your body. Your bodys activity level, and the type of activity you perform,
will dictate what type of protein you need. Whey protein has gotten the reputation of being the king of all
proteins, especially as a supplement for athletes. Its reputation is well-deserved, as the benefits of whey
protein are confirmed in medical research, including sports performance scientific studies by some of the
worlds leading researchers, universities and medical centers: from Shanxi Medical College in China to
Harvard University, USA.
Whey Protein Scores the Best
But how do scientists know what proteins are best? During the mid 1990s, when researchers were
experimenting with proteins from plant and animal sources, they discovered that some proteins have all the
essential amino acids in proper proportions to support growth and health while others do not. After years of
testing and retesting, they determined that whey protein not only scored the highest in amino acid
composition, but more importantly it also had a high biological value, or BV, a measure of how much of a
protein is actually used by your body. Premium quality whey protein isolate also scores high on other rating
scales as well.
Whey Protein Has Multiple Benefits
Like with all proteins, there is more to the whey protein story. As scientists continued researching proteins,
they started to focus on their building blocks, the individual amino acids. As they tested each amino acid
separately, they were amazed to learn that individual amino acids exerted profound beneficial effects on the
body. In fact, most amino acids have multiple benefits.

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Below are some of the functions of the main amino acids in high-quality whey protein that occur in significant
amounts to promote beneficial effects. These functions are not only important to your good health; they are
also of particular interest to the fitness-minded.

Summary of Whey Proteins Key Amino Acids & Benefits


Whey protein contains a full profile of amino acids, and is high in several of the key amino acids that are important to athletes
and other physically active people. For example:
Phenylalanine
Arginine
* Maintains nervous system health
* Increases growth hormone levels
* Relieves depression
* Protects against heart disease
* Elevates mood
* Reduces cholesterol
* Decreases pain
* Lowers blood pressure
* Boosts memory
* Improves poor circulation
* Suppresses appetite
* Aids in the production of creatine, an important source of energy
* Lowers ammonia levels, which can be increased in athletes due
Tryptophan
to frequent exercise
* Relieves mild to moderate depression
* Boosts NO production
* Relieves insomnia and promotes restful sleep
* Promotes weight loss by suppressing appetite
BCAAs (Branched-Chain Amino Acids: Leucine, isoleucine,
* Reduces overall sensation of pain (i.e. migraine headaches,
& valine)
fibromyalgia, general muscle pain)
* Increase endurance
* Prevent fatigue
Proline
* Improve mental performance
* Rebuilds cartilage and bones
* Increase energy levels
* Speeds injury repair
* Stimulate protein synthesis
* Promotes tissue recovery following exercise
* Improve nitrogen balance
* Protects against overuse injuries (sprains, strains, tendonitis)
Glutamine
* Boosts immune system function
* Maintains muscle mass
* Prevents muscle catabolism (breakdown)
* Enhances glycogen storage
* Aids recovery from exercise
* Promotes healing
* Increases growth hormone levels

Whey Protein Gets Results It Is Money Well Spent


While high-quality whey protein isolate is the most expensive of the primary protein sources used in protein
products, it has some distinct nutritional advantages. It enhances the production of glutathione, one of the
bodys most powerful natural antioxidants. It has the highest levels of BCAAs and has been shown to boost
immune system functioning and promote and support protein synthesis. It is high in glutamine and arginine.
It has a good proportion of essential and nonessential amino acids.
Additionally, whey protein has been clinically proven to build muscle and improve athletic performance. It
has also been shown to help reduce body fat, while at the same time increase lean muscle mass when
taken as part of an exercise program. Another important benefit of the protein is its ability to raise levels of
IGF-1, a muscle-building biochemical, and decrease levels of cortisol, a muscle & tissue degrading
substance.
Whey Protein Source Glutamine and the Athlete
Dr. Eric Newsholme and his associates at Oxford University in the United Kingdom were among the first to
hypothesize that an amino acid imbalance may result from strenuous exercise and as a consequence
induce a number of phenomena that are collectively referred to as the over-training syndrome. Decreased
performance, depressed mood and increased incidence of infections are among the many symptoms that
are related to the syndrome, which has been described by runners, cyclists, swimmers, skiers, ballet
dancers, rowers and even racehorses. Dietary glutamine plays a role in counteracting these phenomena
because, as has been shown repeatedly, prolonged exercise decreases the plasma glutamine level,
suggesting that the muscles cannot provide enough of the nutrient.
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Inadequate amounts of circulating glutamine may lead to impaired immune function and increased
susceptibility to infection among athletes suffering from over-training syndrome. In addition, glutamine use
by the small intestine has been found to occur at a very high rate. Observations of gastrointestinal disorders,
particularly of diarrhea and food allergies may be due, at least in part, to low concentrations of circulating
glutamine. Recently, it was also shown that glycogen storage in the muscles occurred significantly faster
when study subjects consumed protein together with carbohydrates as compared to carbohydrates alone.
One of the responsible dietary factors for this faster glycogen recovery is thought to be glutamine.
BCAAs Help Increase Training Strength, Endurance and Muscle Mass
A study reported in the journal Medicina Dello Sport looked at the effect of taking supplemental BCAAs on
athletic progress. The study involved thirty-one male bodybuilders between the ages of eighteen and thirtyfour, all of whom were drug-free, or natural, bodybuilders. The subjects were divided into two groups:
sixteen took a placebo and fifteen took a BCAA supplement. The results showed that while both groups
experienced increases in body weight, the BCAA group had greater weight gains. An analysis of the weight
gain in the BCAA group showed increases in the lean body mass in both the legs and arms, with no
changes in the trunk area of the body. In contrast, the group taking the placebo showed no lean-mass gains
in these areas. The BCAA group also showed strength gains in both the squat and bench-press exercises,
while the placebo group gained strength only in the squat exercise. In addition, the BCAA group showed
improvements in measures of exercise intensity.
From my experience developing protein and amino acid products, and the most recent research, using
BCAAs to fortify whey protein can further enhance the anabolic and strength boosting actions. In July 2004
independent researchers reported findings of their newest research that serves to reconfirm my earlier
discovery that fortification of whey protein with BCAAs, in particular leucine, will result in greater gains in
strength and muscle size. D. J. Housh, and coworkers conducted their study at the exercise physiology lab
at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. Men were divided in to either a placebo group or a leucine fortified
whey protein group. Subjects trained 3 times a week for 8 weeks. At the end of the 8 weeks the males who
were strength training and ingesting the leucine fortified whey protein had significantly greater increases in
strength and muscle size when compared to the males who were taking a placebo.
There are specific bio-energetic and physiological control mechanistic reasons why extra amounts of leucine
and the other BCAAs, isoleucine and valine, help to boost anabolism.
Synergistic Effects
The word synergistic gets used a lot in ad and brochures for sports nutrition products. By strictest definition,
as it applies to nutrition or pharmacology, synergistic refers to the phenomenon of the simultaneous action of
ingredients having total effect than the sum of their individual effects. For example, creatine and whey
protein taken together produce an increase in strength and lean body mass when compared to the sum of
their individual effects.
So when it comes to proteins, the amino acid composition of some, like whey protein isolate, may indeed
have some synergism going on. Ideally, you want your entire nutrition program to be synergistic, and strive
to have optimum amounts of all of the known nutrients and performance enhancers. This has been the way I
have approached sports nutrition for over 2 decades, to understand what makes the body work, then provide
a synergistic nutrition plan. When the synergy kicks in, your bodys performance will make a giant step
forward in progress.
Effects of Creatine Monohydrate Plus Whey Protein
A study conducted by D.G. Burke and co-workers sought to measure muscular developments during 6
weeks of resistance training, among 36 males who were randomly assigned to supplementation with whey
protein, whey protein and creatine monohydrate, or a placebo (maltodextrin). At the end of the 6 week study
period the following results were observed:

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Lean body tissue mass increased to a greater extent in the whey-creatine group compared to the
other groups; and also in the whey group when just compared to the placebo group: + 4 kg, 6.5% in
the whey-creatine group; +2.3 kg, 3.8% in the whey group; and +0.9 kg, 1.5% in the placebo group.
Bench press strength increased to a greater extent in the whey-creatine group compared to the
other groups: +15.2 kg, 17% in the whey-creatine group; 6.3 kg, 7% in the whey group.
Knee extension peak torque increased significantly with training in the whey-creatine and whey
groups, but not for the placebo group.
The researchers also observed that continued training for an additional 6 weeks without supplementation
resulted in maintenance of strength and lean tissue mass in all groups. The results of this study revealed a
synergistic effect among males taking the whey protein and creatine supplement, which resulted in greater
increases in lean tissue mass and bench press performance.
Creatine and Protein Supplementation
W. Derave and co-workers wanted to determine the effects of creatine monohydrate and creatine plus
protein supplementation on GLUT-4 and glycogen content of human skeletal muscle. Note that GLUT
stands for glucose transporter. There are 5 main GLUTs which tend to be tissue specific, and GLUT-4 is
more abundant in skeletal muscle tissue and also adipose tissue. This double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
was performed on 33 young healthy subjects (26 men and 7 women). The subjects' right legs were
immobilized with a cast for 2 wk, followed by a 6-wk resistance training program for the right knee extensor
muscles.
The research participants were supplemented throughout the study with either placebo (maltodextrin) or
creatine & maltodextrin, or with creatine plus protein during immobilization and creatine plus protein,
maltodextrin, amino acid blend, and multivitamin blend during retraining. Needle biopsies were bilaterally
taken from the vastus lateralis (a muscle of the Quadriceps group, of the thigh). GLUT-4 protein expression
was reduced by the immobilization in all groups. During retraining, GLUT-4 content increased in both
creatine (+24%) and creatine-protein (+33%) groups, which resulted in higher post training GLUT-4
expression.
When compared with the placebo group, the muscle glycogen content was higher in the trained leg in both
creatine and creatine-protein groups. Supplements had no effect on GLUT-4 expression or glycogen content
in control legs. Area under the glucose curve during the oral glucose tolerance test was decreased from 232
mmol. per liter per minute at baseline to 170mmol. per liter per minute at the end of the retraining period in
the creatine-protein group, but it did not change in the creatine or placebo groups. The researchers
concluded that creatine intake stimulates GLUT-4 and glycogen content in human muscle only when
combined with changes in activity level, and that combined protein and creatine supplementation improved
oral glucose tolerance.
Creatine and Glutamine
This was an interesting study conducted by M. Lehmkuhl and co-workers who recruited twenty-nine athletes,
17 men and 12 women, who were collegiate track and field athletes. Ten were randomly assigned to take
creatine monohydrate, ten to take creatine monohydrate and glutamine, and nine to take a placebo. The
creatine monohydrate taking group received 0.3 grams creatine per kilogram of body mass per day for 1
week, followed by 0.03 g creatine per kilogram of body mass per day for 7 weeks. The creatine
monohydrate glutamine taking group received the same creatine dosage scheme as the creatine
monohydrate taking group plus 4 grams of glutamine per day. All 3 treatment groups participated in the
same strength and conditioning program during preseason training. Measurements observed during the
study included body composition, vertical jump, and cycle performances before and after the 8-week
supplementation period. After the study period it was determined that body mass and lean body mass
increased at a greater rate for the creatine monohydrate and creatine monohydrate glutamine taking
groups, compared with the placebo treatment. Additionally, the creatine monohydrate and creatine
monohydrate glutamine taking groups exhibited significantly greater improvement in initial rate of power
production, compared with the placebo treatment.

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The field of nutritional synergy is fascinating, as it opens up a whole new frontier of performance nutrition
opportunity. So when you are deliberating over which supplements you want to purchase, shop with your
primary goal in mind (muscle gain, strength gain, endurance improvement, fat loss, etc.) and think synergy
to help guide your way. Special, high quality, multi-ingredient sports supplements like Explosive Growth
Blend are scientifically developed to promote greater results from your training and nutrition programs.
Scientific References for Additional Information Section. Refer to the Reference Sections for Additional References
Applegate EA. Nutritional considerations for ultraendurance performance. Int J Sport Nutr. 1991 Jun;1(2):118-26.
Beltz SD, Doering PL. Efficacy of nutritional supplements used by athletes. Clin Pharm. 1993 Dec;12(12):900-8.
Burke, D.G. et al. The effect of whey protein supplementation with and without creatine monohydrate combined with resistance training
on lean tissue mass and muscle strength. Int J Sport Nutr. 2001, 11, 349-364.
Derave W, Eijnde BO, Verbessem P, Ramaekers M, Van Leemputte M, Richter EA, Hespel P. Combined creatine and protein
supplementation in conjunction with resistance training promotes muscle GLUT-4 content and glucose tolerance in humans. J Appl
Physiol. 2003 May;94(5):1910-6. Epub 2003 Jan 10.
Economos CD, Bortz SS, Nelson ME. Nutritional practices of elite athletes. Practical recommendations. Sports Med. 1993
Dec;16(6):381-99.
Evans WJ. Muscle damage: nutritional considerations. Int J Sport Nutr. 1991 Sep;1(3):214-24.
Gastelu D. The Complete Nutritional Supplements Buyers Guide. 2000. Three Rivers Press: New York.
Gastelu D and Hatfield F. Dynamic Nutrition for Maximum Performance. 1997. Avery Publishing Group: New York.
Holt WS Jr. Nutrition and athletes. Am Fam Physician. 1993 Jun;47(8):1757-64.
Housh, D. J., et al. Effects of leucine and whey protein supplementation during 8 weeks of dynamic constant external resistance
training on strength and thigh muscle cross-sectional area: a preliminary analysis. National Strength and Conditioning Association
annual conference, July 2004.
Lands, LC, et al. Effect of supplementation with a cysteine donor on muscular performance. J. Appl. Physiol. 1999, 87(4): 1381-1385.
Lemon PW, Proctor DN. Protein intake and athletic performance. Sports Med. 1991 Nov;12(5):313-25.
Lehmkuhl M, Malone M, Justice B, Trone G, Pistilli E, Vinci D, Haff EE, Kilgore JL, Haff GG. The effects of 8 weeks of creatine
monohydrate and glutamine supplementation on body composition and performance measures. J Strength Cond Res. 2003
Aug;17(3):425-38.
Lemon PW. Effect of exercise on protein requirements. J Sports Sci. 1991 Summer;9 Spec No:53-70.
Lemon PW. Is increased dietary protein necessary or beneficial for individuals with a physically active lifestyle? Nutr Rev. 1996
Apr;54(4 Pt 2):S169-75.
Lemon PW. Protein and amino acid needs of the strength athlete. Int J Sport Nutr. 1991 Jun;1(2):127-45.
Maffucci DM, McMurray RG. Towards optimizing the timing of the pre-exercise meal. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2000 Jun;10(2):10313.
Millward DJ. Optimal intakes of protein in the human diet. Proc Nutr Soc. 1999 May;58(2):403-13.
Nieman DC. Physical fitness and vegetarian diets: is there a relation? Am J Clin Nutr. 1999 Sep;70(3 Suppl):570S-575S.
Nuviala Mateo RJ, Lapieza Lainez MG. The intake of proteins and essential amino acids in top-competing women athletes. Nutr Hosp.
1997 Mar-Apr;12(2):85-91.
Phillips SM, Atkinson SA, Tarnopolsky MA, MacDougall JD. Gender differences in leucine kinetics and nitrogen balance in endurance
athletes. J Appl Physiol. 1993 Nov;75(5):2134-41.
Probart CK, Bird PJ, Parker KA. Diet and athletic performance. Med Clin North Am. 1993 Jul;77(4):757-72.
Shephard RJ, Shek PN. Immunological hazards from nutritional imbalance in athletes. Exerc Immunol Rev. 1998;4:22-48.
Tarnopolsky MA, Atkinson SA, MacDougall JD, Chesley A, Phillips S, Schwarcz HP. Evaluation of protein requirements for trained
strength athletes. J Appl Physiol. 1992 Nov;73(5):1986-95.
Tarnopolsky MA, Bosman M, Macdonald JR, Vandeputte D, Martin J, Roy BD. Postexercise protein-carbohydrate and carbohydrate
supplements increase muscle glycogen in men and women. J Appl Physiol. 1997 Dec;83(6):1877-83.

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CHAPTER 1.5
LIPIDS (FATS AND OILS)
ENERGY AND GROWTH FACTORS

Essential fatty acids are required for growth, recovery, and overall health.
Essential fatty acids are part of each cell, including muscle cells.
Fatty acids are an important source of energy, especially for endurance athletes.
Intake of saturated fats and cholesterol should be kept at healthy intake levels to avoid development of
coronary heart diseases.
Daily intake of fat metabolizing vitamin and mineral cofactors is necessary for efficient fat metabolism.
Omega 3 fatty acids, such as Gamma Linolenic Acid, DHA, and EPA cause beneficial effects on the
cardiovascular system, act as moderators of inflammation, and play possible roles in improvement of
strength and aerobic performance.

The third major macronutrient category, along with carbohydrates and protein, is lipids.
Similar to carbohydrates, lipids are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Lipids
are necessary in the human body for numerous reasons. They contain the fat-soluble
vitamins A, D, E, and K. They are a source of the essential fatty acids, which play many
vital roles in maintaining the functioning and integrity of cell membranes. They serve as
concentrated sources of energy, add palatability to meals, and are important in
biochemical and biophysical functions such as steroid-hormone synthesis.
The most prevalent type of lipid is triglyceride (also know as triacylglycerol). As an energy
source, triglycerides vary in importance according to the type of exercise performed. For
endurance sports, such as marathon running, triglycerides are a major source of energy,
in addition to carbohydrates, and to a minor extent the branched-chain amino acids. For
power sports, such as sprinting, glycogen is the primary fuel, but some triglycerides are
also used. It is important to understand that the body is constantly metabolizing
triglycerides for energy; the only thing that changes is the degree to which it does this.
Power athletes are prone to becoming over-fat because of this differential use of energy
sources-that is, because their bodies use mostly glycogen for energy and just a minor
portion of body fat. These athletes must therefore follow nutrition programs that are low in
fat and high in fat-metabolizing nutrients. But even though endurance athletes, such as
marathon runners, can get away with eating high-fat diets, they will definitely find their
performance impeded and health negatively affected if their diets are too high in fat.

LIPIDS-THE MOST MISUNDERSTOOD MACRONUTRIENT


In recent years, dietary lipids have gained a bad reputation. Medical research has linked a
diet high in total lipids to many diseases. Certain lipids are essential to health, however,
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and exert beneficial effects. Rather than cut lipids out of your diet completely, you should
learn how to increase the consumption of the good lipids and reduce intake of bad lipids in
your diet.
Lipids serve many essential functions in the body. Their main functions are:
To provide fuel.
To provide insulation.
To aid in the absorption of the fat-soluble vitamins.
To act as energy storehouses.
To supply essential fatty acids.
To provide protective padding and insulation for body structures and organs.
To serve as components of all cell membranes and other cellular structures.
To supply building blocks for other molecules.
The main problem with lipids in the diet is simple- most people consume too much total
lipid, too much of the wrong lipids, and not enough of the good lipids. While lipids are
necessary for health, too much of the wrong kinds of lipids can have negative effects on
the body and can lead to certain cancers and cardiovascular diseases. The common
culprits are saturated fats, trans fats and cholesterol. Most experts recommend a total
dietary-lipid intake of less than 30 percent of total daily calories; some recommend
keeping lipids under 20 percent. Because athletes generally consume over 4,000 calories
a day, they can easily get an overdose of lipids in their diets. Keeping total lipid intake
down, maximizing the good lipids, and minimizing the bad lipids are therefore the major
focus of sports nutrition.

THE MAJOR LIPIDS


Lipids occur in both plants and animals, but plant lipids vary slightly in chemical
composition from animal lipids. By definition, lipids are compounds that are soluble in
organic solvents but not in water. Mammal fats tend to be more saturated than fish oils or
plant oils. Beef tends to be more saturated than pork or poultry. The degree of hardness
that a fat displays at room temperature is an indication of how saturated it is. Compare
hard beef fat, soft fish fat, and vegetable oil. Vegetable oil has a low amount of saturated
fat and a high amount of polyunsaturated fat.
The major lipids found in the diet and body are cholesterol, triglycerides and fatty acids,
and phospholipids.

Cholesterol
Cholesterol is a member of a group of fats called sterols. It is made by the body and
occurs naturally in foods only of animal origin. The highest concentrations of cholesterol
are found in liver and egg yolks, although high levels are also present in red meat, poultry
(especially the skin), whole milk, and cheese.
Cholesterol has many important functions in the body. It is a component of every cell; a
precursor of bile acids, various sex and adrenal hormones, and vitamin D; and an
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important aid in brain and nervous-system tissues. The body needs a constant supply of
cholesterol for proper health and performance. However, a high cholesterol level has been
linked to a variety of cardiovascular diseases.
For good health, doctors recommend keeping cholesterol intake to under 300 milligrams
per day. Since most meats contain about 90 milligrams of cholesterol in every 3 ounces,
this is an almost impossible task for athletes, who generally need to consume high levels
of protein. To meet both these needs, athletes must take special care to include plant
protein sources, egg whites, and other high-protein, low-fat, low-cholesterol foods and low
cholesterol protein supplements in their diets. However, there are also individual
tolerances to cholesterol intake, meaning that some people can remain healthy, with
higher intakes of cholesterol. This can be determined with your doctor, based on your
family history and measuring your blood cholesterol levels.

Triglycerides, Fatty Acids and Related Lipids


Triglycerides are the major class of lipids in the diet and body. They are the lipids that
make up the fats and oils in the diet and the fat that is stored by the body. They include
about 98 percent of all the dietary fats.
The difference between fat and oil is simple-fat is solid at room temperature and oil is
liquid. This difference in solidity gives an indication of composition. Triglycerides are
composed of three fatty acids attached to a three-carbon-atom glycerol molecule. There
are hundreds of different fatty acids, and they come in various lengths, from four to
twenty-four carbon atoms long. A short-chain fatty acid has four to five carbon atoms; a
medium-chain fatty acid has six to twelve carbon atoms; a long-chain fatty acid has
thirteen to nineteen carbon atoms; and a very long chain fatty acid has twenty or more
carbon atoms.
Fatty acids are also rated according to the hydrogen atoms that are attached to their
carbon chains. Saturated fatty acids have the maximum number of hydrogen atoms that
they can hold, with no unsaturated carbon molecules. This is why saturated fatty acids are
more solid. Hydrogenation is the process of taking unsaturated fatty acids and saturating
them with hydrogen atoms to make them more solid. An example is margarine, which is
made of vegetable oil, a liquid fatty acid. Monounsaturated fatty acids have one
unsaturated carbon molecule, and polyunsaturated fatty acids have more than one
unsaturated carbon molecule.
Saturated fatty acids tend to be solid at room temperature. Therefore, fats are high in
saturated fatty acids. Polyunsaturated fatty acids tend to be liquid at room temperature.
Oils are high in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Saturated fatty acids are always either used
for energy or stored as body fat, as are fatty acids containing sixteen or fewer carbon
atoms. The fewer carbon atoms a fatty acid has, the easier it is to use that fatty acid for
energy. The longer fatty acids can also be used for energy or stored as body fat, but they
have other functions as well. For example, they serve as components in the structure of
cell membranes, which is important for growth.
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Among the fatty acids, the healthy ones are the essential fatty acids, the omega-3 fatty
acids, and gamma linolenic acid.

The Essential Fatty Acids


Of the many fatty acids that exist, only two are essential and only one is conditionally
essential. Linoleic acid (an omega-6 fatty acid) is a primary essential fatty acid. It is
necessary for normal growth and health. Therefore, since the body cannot manufacture it,
it must be obtained from the diet. Another fatty acid, arachidonic acid, is made in the body
from linoleic acid. Arachidonic acid (an omega-6 fatty acid) only becomes essential when
a linoleic-acid deficiency exists. However, because arachidonic acid has to be made from
linoleic acid and because it is a polyunsaturated fatty acid, arachidonic acid has a linoleicsparing effect when it is present in the diet. This may be beneficial to athletes because
arachidonic acid is also an important structural fatty acid that is present in cell
membranes.
Alpha-linolenic acid (an omega-3 fatty acid) is the other essential fatty acid. Alpha-linolenic
acid is similar to linoleic acid in structure. Among its functions, it is important in growth and
is the precursor of two other important fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and
docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). As with protein and the amino acids, the body would rather
use the essential fatty acids for growth and functional needs than for fuel needs. A diet
that is high in the essential fatty acids and low in the nonessential fatty acids therefore
increases metabolism and discourages increased body-fat formation, assuming that
overeating is not a factor. Remember, excess carbohydrates and amino acids can be
converted to body fat.
The essential fatty acids are important to existence and performance. Some of their
specific functions are:
Presence in phospholipids, which are important in maintaining the structure and the
functioning of cellular and subcellular membranes.
Service as precursors of eicosanoids, which are important in regulating a wide diversity
of physiological processes.
Involvement in the transfer of oxygen from the lungs to the bloodstream.
Formation of a structural part of all cells.
Reduction of the time required for recovery by fatigued muscles after exercise by
helping clear away lactic acid.
Maintenance of proper brain and nervous-system functioning.
Production of prostaglandins, a group of hormones important in metabolism.
Formation of healthy skin and hair.
Assistance in wound healing.
Growth maintenance and enhancement.
Linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid are both unsaturated fatty acids and eighteen carbon
atoms long. While scientists recognize that the body requires these two fatty acids for
health, they have not yet established RDAs for them for adults because deficiencies in the
essential fatty acids are rare.
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The Omega-3 Fatty Acids


During the 1980s, there was a resurgence of attention focused on two fatty acids
belonging to the omega-3 family-eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid
(DHA). Previously, researchers in the 1950s documented the cholesterol-lowering effects
of EPA and DHA. However, it was not until the 1970s, when the low rates of
cardiovascular diseases were documented among the fish-eating Greenland Eskimos,
that conclusive results were proven about the circulatory system health benefits of diets
plentiful in EPA and DHA.
EPA and DHA can be made in the body from linoleic acid, also a fatty acid, and are found
in human tissue as normal components. Despite this, when they are obtained from food
sources that are part of a diet that is low in saturated fatty acids, they have beneficial
cardiovascular effects. They have the tendency to disperse fatty acids and cholesterol in
the bloodstream, which seems to be how their presence helps prevent arteries from
clogging. They have a blood-thinning effect and discourage excessive blood clotting. They
lower the blood-triglyceride level and raise the level of high-density lipoproteins (HDLs),
the good lipoproteins that help prevent cholesterol buildup in the arteries. In addition, EPA
and DHA have an anti-inflammatory effect and work by competing with arachidonic acid,
which forms pro-inflammatory compounds.
Besides all their known health benefits, EPA and DHA have also been documented to
improve athletic performance. Recent studies using 2,000 to 4,000 milligrams per day of
EPA and DHA from supplements and fish have reported significant increases in strength
and aerobic (with oxygen) performance. The improvements included increased benchpress repetitions, faster running times, reduced muscular inflammation, and longer
jumping distances. Scientists believe that these improvements were due to the combined
effects that EPA and DHA have on the body, including improved GH production, antiinflammatory action, enhanced oxygen metabolism, lowered blood viscosity (thickness)
leading to better oxygen and nutrient delivery to the muscles, and improved recovery.
EPA and DHA are found in high amounts in cold-water fishes such as cod, salmon,
sardines, trout, and mackerel, and in lower amounts in tuna. They are also available in
supplemental form, specifically as gelatin capsules and liquid supplements. Aim for a
combined intake of 2,000 to 4,000 milligrams of EPA and DHA per day from supplement
and food sources.
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Gamma Linolenic Acid


Gamma linolenic acid (GLA) is another important fatty acid that can be made in the body
from the main essential fatty acid, linoleic acid. GLA is an important precursor of the
series-1 prostaglandins, a group of hormones that regulate many cellular activities. The
series-1 prostaglandins keep blood platelets from sticking together, control cholesterol
formation, reduce inflammation, make insulin work better, improve nerve functioning,
regulate calcium metabolism, and function in the immune system. While studies on
athletes have not confirmed any performance-enhancing effects, the ingestion of foods
and supplements high in GLA does benefit overall health.
Foods containing GLA are not that easy to find, however. GLA is not present in many
foods. In fact, the major sources are evening primrose oil, borage oil, and black currant oil,
which are also high in linoleic acid. GLA taken in dosages of 100 to 400 milligrams per
day, in association with the essential fatty acids and omega-3 fatty acids, may benefit
physical performance and health, especially during the season.

Conjugated Linoleic Acid Is an Essential Fatty Acid for Athletes and Weight
Loss
One very interesting athletic supplement that has gained popularity is CLA; conjugated
linoleic acid. The fatty acid CLA occurs naturally in a number of foods, primarily beef and
dairy products. The word "conjugated" in its name refers to the variation in chemical
structure that sets it apart from the essential fatty acid linoleic. Linoleic acid belongs to a
family of essential fatty acids called the omega-6 fatty acids and performs a number of
important metabolic functions in the body. A slight change in the double bonds that hold its
atoms together transforms it from linoleic acid to CLA. This molecular reconfiguration has
profound effects on its function and bestows upon CLA nutritional benefits different from
those of regular linoleic acid.
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CLA's rising popularity among athletes stems from its ability to significantly increase
muscle mass and help to stimulate reduction of body fat stores. Additionally, scientists
foresee broader applications for human health. So far, research has reported that CLA
acts as a powerful antioxidant, benefits the immune system, and possesses other
beneficial health properties.
CLA supplementation has benefits for people who need to burn fat while preserving or
building muscle mass, particularly athletes such as bodybuilders and other strength
athletes. Based upon the research to date, the recommended daily dose of CLA ranges
from 3,000 to 6,000 milligrams per day.

Glycerol
Glycerol is a three-carbon-atom molecule that is the backbone of triglycerides and
phospholipids. Triglycerides consist of three fatty acids attached to a glycerol molecule,
and phospholipids consist of two fatty acids attached to a glycerol molecule, with a
phosphate-containing compound attached to the third carbon atom. When glycerol is
removed from these fats by hydrolysis, it is a clear, syrupy liquid. The liquid has been
utilized in a variety of ways over the years, but it is especially popular as an emollient in
skin-care products and cosmetics and as a sweetening agent in pharmaceuticals.
As a supplement, glycerol has been found by researchers to possibly help the body
remain better hydrated. Studies have shown that athletes training for prolonged periods
(more than one hour) are able to run cooler and longer when they ingest a water-glycerol
mixture. Preliminary studies have suggested that glycerol acts like a sponge, absorbing
water into the bloodstream and holding it there. However, researchers are still trying to
determine appropriate dosages; the current estimates range from 10 to 60 grams, taken
with the amount of water recommended for the activity, over a period of a few hours.
A word of caution: Some side effects, including bloating, nausea, and lightheadedness,
have been reported with glycerol use. If you choose to try a glycerol-containing beverage,
test it out at least several times before competition to see how your body reacts to it.

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Medium-Chain Triglycerides
Medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) formulations were first made in the 1950s using coconut
oil. MCTs contain saturated fatty acids with chains of six to twelve carbon atoms. MCT
formulations are high in caprylic acid and capric acid, which are saturated fatty acids.
They are just now coming to the attention of athletes because they are relatively new on
the market.
MCT formulations were originally developed as calorie sources for individuals who have
certain pathologic conditions that do not allow normal digestion and utilization of longchain fatty acids. MCTs tend to behave differently in the body than long-chain triglycerides
(LCTs) do. They are more soluble in water, and they can pass from the intestines directly
into the bloodstream. Fatty acids usually pass from the intestines first into the lymphatic
system, then into the bloodstream. Because MCTs get into the bloodstream quicker than
LCTs do, they are more easily and quickly digested. In addition, it has been reported in
the medical literature that although MCTs can be converted to body fat, they are not
readily stored in fat deposits and are quickly used for energy in the liver. They can also
pass freely, without the aid of carnitine, into the mitochondria of cells. MCTs are therefore
a potentially quick source of high energy for the body. MCTs reportedly also have a
thermogenic effect, estimated to be 10 to 15 percent higher than their caloric value, but
only when the MCTs in the diet exceed 30 percent of the total calories. Thermogenesis is
the process by which the body generates heat, or energy, by increasing the metabolic rate
to above normal.
These features of MCTs have attracted the attention of athletes, especially bodybuilders.
Bodybuilders feel that these features benefit their restricted contest-preparation diets,
which are aimed at reducing body fat and sparing muscle tissue. The implications of the
use of large amounts of MCTs by athletes on restricted diets are not clearly evident,
though. Some bodybuilders report that they are able to get "super lean" when they eat
about 400 calories per day of MCTs as part of pre-contest low calorie diet. Remember,
though, that bodybuilders are not concerned with physical performance. In athletic
contests, just physique is judged. Long-term use of MCTs is of a concern due to their
saturated fatty acid content.
Do MCTs have a place in every athlete's diet? More research is needed to determine the
exact benefits of MCTs for athletes in general. While bodybuilders appear to derive
certain benefits, some people can experience mild side effects from eating too much MCT.
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The most common complaints are abdominal cramping and diarrhea. Prolonged use may
also be of concern to cardiovascular wellness. MCTs are saturated fatty acids, and
consuming more than 10 percent of total daily calories from saturated fatty acids is not
recommended because of the link to various diseases. Additionally, in recent research,
individuals who ingested only moderate amounts of MCTs developed elevated triglyceride
and cholesterol blood levels. This concern will depend on the individuals total saturated
fat intake, sensitivity to saturated fat intake, and duration of use. If you plan to experiment
with MCTs, you should use formulations that also contain the essential fatty acids and the
omega-3 fatty acids, or just try using a healthy essential fatty acid, EPA and DHA
containing oil product.

Phospholipids
Phospholipids are a second major class of lipids. Phospholipids are manufactured by the
body. They are a major structural lipid in all organisms, a part of every living cell. In
combination with proteins, they are constituents of cell membranes and the membranes of
subcellular particles.
Phospholipids consist of two fatty acids attached to a three-carbon-atom glycerol
molecule, with a phosphate-containing compound attached to the third carbon atom. Their
main function is maintaining the structural integrity of cell membranes. They also act as
emulsifiers in the body to help disperse fats in the gastrointestinal system during digestion.
They are important structural components of brain and nervous-system tissue and of
lipoproteins, the conjugated proteins that transport cholesterol and fats in the blood.
Phospholipids are generally contained in the "invisible" fat of plants and animals, not in the
visible fat. Lecithin is the most well known phospholipid. Studies have also been
conducted on the inositol-containing phospholipids, the phosphoinositides. The
phosphoinositides' primary role is as a precursor of messenger molecules. In this capacity,
they have a profound effect on cellular functioning and on metabolism, particularly the
metabolism of fats. The research into the phosphoinositides was prompted by
observations made about choline- and inositol-deficient diets. Choline and inositol are
nutrients that are important in fatty-acid metabolism and are said to help defat the liver.
Nutrients that have this defatting action on the liver are called lipotropic agents. Choline
also functions in memory, with diets deficient in choline associated with memory
impairment. For the athlete, all of these important structural, metabolic, memory, and
lipotropic roles of phospholipids are vital for peak performance and health.
Of the many phospholipids that exist, lecithin and phosphatidylserine are currently sharing
the spotlight regarding supplemental use.

Lecithin
Lecithin (phosphatidylcholine) is a type of phospholipid that has choline attached to the
phosphate molecule. Lecithin supplies the body with choline, which is essential for liver
and brain functioning. Lecithin is also high in linoleic acid. Egg yolks, liver, and soybeans
are rich in lecithin. In addition, lecithin is manufactured by the body.
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The use of lecithin supplements came into vogue when researchers made the connection
between choline and memory functioning. Lecithin's emulsifying properties are also
thought to help keep the blood system clean of fatty deposits. Researchers have
documented reduced choline levels in athletes running in the Boston Marathon and have
speculated that a low choline level may adversely affect performance as well as have
detrimental long-term effects on the nervous system. (Note that choline is now considered
an essential nutrient and details are in Chapter 1.7). Studies on athletes using high
dosages of 20 to 30 grams milligrams of lecithin have produced mixed results; some have
reported beneficial effects on muscular power, performance, and endurance.

Phosphatidylserine
Recently, attention has turned to another phospholipid, phosphatidylserine (PS). In PS,
serine is attached to the phosphate molecule. Serine is an indispensable amino acid
whose metabolism leads to the synthesis of PS. Serine functions in fat metabolism and is
vital to the health of the immune system. Intake of 200 to 300 milligrams of PS has been
associated with improved memory and learning. Intake of 400 to 800 milligrams has been
linked to a reduced level of cortisol, which is a catabolic hormone, as well as improved
muscle growth and recovery after exercise.
A double-blind, crossover study measured the effects of 800 milligrams a day of
phosphatidylserine (PS) compared to a placebo on the serum-hormone level of cortisol,
the perception of well-being, and muscle soreness during two-week intensive training
sessions. In this study, the subjects were given either a PS supplement or a placebo for
the first two-week session, then the opposite for the second two-week session. The
subjects rested for three weeks in between the two sessions. During both of the two-week
sessions, the subjects did five sets of exercises, each set consisting of ten repetitions of
thirteen exercises, four times a week. Well-being and muscle soreness were estimated
using a ten-point scale. PS supplement taking subjects experienced reduced delayed
onset muscle soreness and improved state of well-being.

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DIGESTION OF LIPIDS
Lipids take the most time and effort to be digested by the human body because of their
insolubility in water and their complex structures. As lipids pass through the mouth and
stomach, they are treated mechanically and chemically in preparation for the main
digestive processes, which take place in the intestines.
Lipids take longer than the other macronutrients to empty from the stomach, about three
to four hours or more, depending on the size of the meal. Their digestion takes place
chiefly in the small intestine, where bile from the liver helps to bring them into contact with
fat-splitting enzymes from the pancreas and the intestinal wall. In the intestines, the fatty
acids are separated from the glycerol molecules; these components are then reassembled
after they pass through the intestinal walls. Along the way, they are coated with protein.
They then pass into the lymphatic system. Under normal conditions, about 60 to 70
percent of ingested fat is absorbed into the portal circulation via the lymphatic system.
However, medium- and short-chain fatty acids are absorbed directly from the intestines
into the bloodstream.
Once in the bloodstream, fats and cholesterol are transported to the liver in conjunction
with lipoproteins. The liver is the main processing center for lipids. In the liver, lipids may
be converted for energy use or they may be modified-for example, the carbon chains of
fatty acids may be shortened or lengthened or the degree of saturation may be increased
or decreased. Any lipids that are not immediately needed by the body are converted into
fat stores. The liver also synthesizes triglycerides, lipoproteins, cholesterol, and
phospholipids.
Lipids are constantly being broken down, resynthesized, and used for energy in the body.
They are in equilibrium when caloric intake is in balance with energy needs. However,
when caloric intake from lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates exceeds energy needs, bodyfat stores are increased.

YOU ARE WHAT YOU EAT


The type of lipid that you eat actually affects your body's fatty-acid composition. All cell
membranes contain fatty acids. However, comparisons between vegetarians and meat eaters
have revealed that a vegetarian's body is composed of more unsaturated fatty acids and a meat
eater's body is composed of more saturated fatty acids. Also revealed was that people who

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consume diets high in saturated fat have bodies composed of more saturated than unsaturated
fatty acids.
Saturated fatty acids tend to be less stable than unsaturated fatty acids and are therefore more
susceptible to damage from free radicals and toxic metabolic waste products. This means that a
body made of more unsaturated than saturated fatty acids may be more resistant to certain cellular
damage. Since athletes are subject to high amounts of free radicals and metabolic toxins, they
may be able to reduce muscle damage and increase recovery rates by consuming diets that have
more unsaturated than saturated fats.

Refer to Part Three for more information about lipids, including fat
intake based on sport specific bio-energetics and food sources.

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CHAPTER 1.6
WATER AND HYDRATION

Water replenishment is the most important performance factor during exercise.


A reduction of your body water content as little as 1% can start to reduce performance.
Adequate water intake should be especially emphasized by all athletes during hot/humid days.

Water is one of the most important nutrients for health and performance. Studies have
verified that even minute fluctuations in the body's water balance can, and often do,
adversely affect performance. In spite of this, many people take water for granted or
neglect it. This is equally true for athletes and nonathletes. When the body starts to lose
just 1% of its weight in water, this leads to reduction in athletic performance, that gets
worse as more water is lost. So, job one is staying adequately hydrated 24 hours a day.

WATER AND THE ATHLETE


Water (or H2O) consists of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. It is the aqueous
medium used for transporting the body's food materials and the place where the body's
biochemical reactions occur. Water is found throughout the body, and depending on an
individual's body fat, it can vary in content from about 45 percent in very obese individuals
to 70 percent in very lean individuals. The different parts of the body also vary in water
content. For example, blood normally has the highest water content, at about 83 percent;
muscle tissue has a water content of about 75 percent; bone is about 22-percent water;
and fat tissue is only about 10-percent water.
A body's degree of hydration is affected by the person's balance of water intake in
relationship to water loss. Water loss is less under resting conditions than under
conditions of high-intensity exercising. Water is obtained from fluids that are ingested as
liquids, from the water content present in solid foods, and also as a result of metabolic
activity within the body. It is estimated that the average-sized man, weighing about 170
pounds and performing moderate nonathletic activities, requires about 80 ounces of water
per day to match his water loss. However, water loss in marathon runners can be between
0.5 milliliters and 2 liters an hour.
The moral to the water intake balancing act is to determine what your specific
requirements are, under different exercising conditions and climates. This may take a little
work, but is vital for achieving and maintaining peak athletic performance and health. It is
a simple matter of keeping track of your body weight a few to several times a day, in
particular before an after exercise. The differences in body weight that occur during
exercise are mostly from water, as body weight from calorie expenditure in an exercise
session is not very significant for most athletes. Use your bodyweight data to get your
water intake perfected. One important point when determining your exercising water
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intake requirements, is to make sure to be well hydrated at the start of the exercise
session. Otherwise, if you begin exercising in a dehydrated state, then just replacing the
water lost during exercise will not be adequate intake for total rehydration.
The major sources of water for the human body are the following:
Liquids. Liquids are by far the most abundant source of water for the body, accounting for
about two-thirds of a person's water intake per day. Liquids can be readily taken in by the
body without much digestive effort. Pure water is taken in the fastest. As the carbohydrate
and electrolyte contents of a liquid increase, the length of time that it takes the liquid to
empty from the stomach increases. The exact concentration of carbohydrates and
electrolytes that an athlete needs depends upon the sport and the level of physical
activity.
Food water. All foods consist of water and solids. The amount of water that a food
contains depends on what the food is. For example, fruits, vegetables, cooked cereals,
and milk are 80- to 95-percent water. Meat cooked rare is about 75-percent water, while
meat cooked well done is about 45-percent or less water. Ready-to-serve cereals are
about 3- to 5-percent water. Generally, approximately one-third of daily water intake is
from food.
Metabolic water. Metabolic water is the water that is produced in the body as a result of
energy production. Often overlooked, it totals approximately 10 ounces per day,
depending on how many calories are burned. Metabolic water is produced from oxygen
and hydrogen atoms. The oxygen atoms are obtained from the atmosphere and brought
into the body via the lungs during breathing. The hydrogen atoms are obtained from
carbohydrates, fatty acids, and other carbon molecules that are broken down in the body
for energy.
Glycogen-bound water. Glycogen-bound water is stored in the muscles along with
glycogen. About 3 ounces of water are stored along with every 1 ounce of glycogen.
Glycogen-bound water becomes important when the glycogen supply is in the process of
being depleted for energy use. This occurs during training and endurance events lasting
more than one hour and during periods of calorie restriction. During intensive endurance
activities, about 16 fluid ounces of water may be released per hour. However, this water
will be released only for as long as the glycogen to which it is bound remains stored in the
body. Glycogen-bound water must be replenished when it is used. Altogether,
approximately 3 to 4 pints of glycogen-bound water can be stored. For endurance athletes
and athletes performing in day-long tournaments, glycogen-bound water is an important
source of hydration during physical activity. It can be maximized through carbohydrate
loading.
Water intake varies with the size of the individual, the duration and intensity of the activity,
and the weather. Water loss is affected by factors such as the weather, the ability to
acclimate to the temperature, the duration and intensity of the activity, the rate of

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sweating, the weight of the clothing worn, health, gastrointestinal problems, alcohol and
caffeine consumption, the use of diuretics and other medications, and body fat.

EFFECTS OF DEHYDRATION ON PERFORMANCE


Dehydration can and does affect athletic performance. As the body loses water, its core
temperature rises. This affects all the metabolic pathways, interferes with cardiovascular
functioning, and reduces total exercise capacity. When the water losses reach 1 to 3
percent of the body weight, athletic performance is reduced, more than this, and health is
also in jeopardy. During a race, marathon runners can lose several quarts of water,
representing 6 to 10 percent of their body weight. If they do not properly rehydrate during
the race, they will find that this amount of water loss can significantly impair their
performance and possibly even put their well-being at risk. Nonendurance sports such as
football, basketball, hockey, and soccer can cause similar water losses. During
tournaments, no matter what the sport is, athletes must make sure they increase their
water intake to compensate for the prolonged exercise over the one or two days of
competition.
Sports in which participants must meet weight-class requirements-boxing and wrestling,
for example-are also associated with dehydration. Wrestlers typically dehydrate
themselves to make a lower weight class. This type of chronic dehydration decreases
performance and adversely affects health.
Chronic dehydration will develop in any athlete who does not make an effort to remain
adequately hydrated. The thirst response in humans is not as finely tuned as it should be.
This means that the body can enter a state of dehydration and the person may not feel the
sensation of thirst for several hours. Therefore, you should not rely solely on your thirst
response but should, instead, make a point to keep rehydrating your body all day long.
Some Factors Effecting Rate of Water Loss:
Hot Weather
High Rate of Sweating
Inadequate Acclimation to heat
Intensive Exercise Heat-trapping Clothes
Diarrhea/vomiting Alcohol/caffeine Consumption
Obesity

High Humidity
Exercise Longer Than 30 Minutes
Disease, Illness
Diuretics and other drugs

SPECIAL WATER NEEDS OF THE ATHLETE


The amount of water you need varies greatly according to your initial level of hydration,
the climate, and the duration and intensity of your activity. As a general rule, measure your
water intake by your water loss-namely, your frequency of urination. If you are well
hydrated, you should be urinating about once every one and a half to two hours. If you
urinate only a few times per day, you probably need to increase your water intake.
Because thirst is not a good indicator of hydration level, you should get in the habit of
drinking water or other fluids frequently through the day.
The other indicator of dehydration is the color of your urine. Urine under conditions of
being well hydrated is clear to light yellow, like lemonade. When urine is dark, this
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indicates dehydration. When you are taking supplements, keep in mind that some of the
vitamin ingredients can cause coloration of your urine, this is typically a bright, light yellow.
Individualized daily hydration guidelines are important for all athletes to follow. Studies
have shown that endurance athletes who compete for periods longer than thirty minutes
improve their performance by drinking fluids during the activity. Athletes competing in
shorter events need to be properly hydrated from the start to achieve and maintain peak
performance. Some athletes, who compete in stop-and-go sports may find it difficult to
stomach drinking water or other fluids during their practice or events, but the payoff is
worth the effort of finding the perfect hydration regimen that works best for you.

Daily Hydration Guidelines


Daily hydration is vital for everyone-endurance athletes, power athletes, and even
nonathletes. Table presents water-intake guidelines for healthy, active individuals who
exercise on a regular basis. Researchers have found that one way to determine the
recommended daily water intake is to look at daily energy expenditure. This takes in to
account the size and activity of the athlete, as caloric intake is dependent on these factors.
The following table provides a minimum daily water-intake range to accommodate
individual differences as well as climatic differences. As the temperature climbs above 70
degrees Fahrenheit (F) and the humidity above 70 percent, water loss will be increased
due to increased sweating, especially during exercise. Each athlete working with their
coach, doctor, trainer or other health professional needs to determine their exact hydration
needs for best results.
Daily
Energy
Expenditure

Minimum
Daily
Water Intake (Estimate)

2000 calories

64 to 80 ounces

3000 calories

102 to 118 ounces

4000 calories

138 to 154 ounces

5000 calories

170 to 186 ounces

6000 calories

204 to 220 ounces

Hydration Guidelines for Optimum Athletic Performance


Attaining and maintaining a peak hydration level starts by following the daily hydration
guidelines discussed above. For athletes competing in endurance events lasting more
than thirty minutes, and other sports, ensuring adequate hydration status before and a the
start of an event as well as hydration maintenance during the event have been shown to
maintain athletic performance. Athletes participating in shorter duration events should
make sure that they properly maintain their hydration levels leading up to the event, but
they do not necessarily need to concern themselves with drinking water during their
events. One exception is athletes competing in tournaments that require participation in
several events per day or several events over several days.
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Guidelines for optimum athletic performance to be observed every day plus before, during,
and after athletic events are as follows:
Every day. During your athletic season, keep track of your water intake on a daily basis. In addition,
weigh yourself at least in the morning, before and after practice to keep track of your daily bodyweight fluctuations. In general, the human body can lose only a maximum of a half pound of fat per
day, so if you find yourself losing several pounds of body weight on a particular day, it is most likely
from water loss.
Pre-event. Whether you are participating in an endurance or nonendurance event, you should
achieve adequate hydration by drinking water starting about two hours before your competition.
Depending on your body weight, you should consume between 14 and 24 ounces of water. This will
allow you to "top off" your body with water and still give yourself enough time to urinate the excess
before your event. Additionally, fifteen to twenty minutes before your event, drink another 12 to 20
ounces of water, depending on your individual needs. Athletes exercising or competing for over 30
minutes in duration can also benefit from drinking water during the event or exercise. Avoid
ingesting foods, supplements or drugs that have diuretic effects before athletic events.
During athletic events. Remember that the main reason for drinking water during endurance
events or other sports long in duration is to replace the water lost from sweating. Sweating is
essential for cooling the body. If your body temperature increases too much during your event, your
performance will suffer.To prevent this, you need to encourage sweating and make sure that the
sweat evaporates from your body. Take special care on hot, humid days, which are the worst for
athletic activities because they cause the most sweating with the least amount of evaporation.
During your event, try drinking 6 to 12 ounces of water every fifteen to twenty minutes, depending
on your body size and rate of sweating. Larger amounts may be required as determined by the size
of the individual and climate condition. For athletes with competition events or during training that is
over 60 minutes in duration, ingesting a carbohydrate / electrolyte containing drink will help to
maintain and boost athletic performance. Refer to Part Three for additional information about this.
Note that the temperature of the water may effect the stomach emptying rate. Cool water (about 40
degrees F) may increase the speed of the rate at which the water empties from the stomach.
However, this may vary depending on the person and type of athletic event, and should be tested in
advance of competitions to determine what works best for the individual athlete.
Post-event. Give your body a chance to cool down and your heart rate a chance to normalize, then
start drinking water and/or an energy rehydration drink, which contains carbohydrates and
electrolytes. Drink amounts of water/ drinks that approximate net water lost during exercise, based
on body weight. Depending on the amount of water weight to replenish, the rehydration quantity
may have to be in divided dosages after the few hour post-exercise period. Make sure to eat a postevent / workout meal within 30 minutes to two hours after your event and consume the appropriate
supplements for your sport, and continue to drink water. Depending on your rate and amount of
sweating, consumption of higher amounts of salty foods, or adding salt to foods may be required to
replace the sodium lost during exercise. Also, the extra sodium can help to retain more of the
ingested water. Eating a meal, and taking multivitamin and multimineral supplements will help to
replace the other minerals and nutrients lost during exercise.

Note that you should practice and perfect your hydration program during training to
determine what works best for competition. This way your body will have a chance to
adjust to ingesting the recommended amounts of water before the day of competition. You
will also be able to determine the ideal pre-exercise, during exercise, and post exercise
rehydration approach that works best for you. This will include replenishment of nutrients,
which you can refer to Part Three for information about this topic.
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Severe side effects from over consumption of water rarely occurs, but is sometimes
reported. Avoiding over consumption of water will be based on learning what amount of
water intake works best on an individual basis.
Note that normally functioning kidneys can process for excretion about 0.7 Liters (24
ounces) or more per hour. But for water loss and intake calculation purposes during
exercise and for post-exercise replenishment, you need to also consider water lost from
sweating, and the amount needed to replenish total lost body water.
Symptoms of water intoxication from severe water over consumption include
hyponatremia, which can result in heart failure, and rhabdomyolosis (skeletal muscle
tissue injury), which can lead to kidney failure. Consult your team physician with any
concerns about the healthy limits of hydration.

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CHAPTER 1.7
VITAMINS and MINERALS

Vitamins are needed for normal metabolism, growth and maintenance of tissue.
Adequate vitamin intake is essential for performance and health.
When vitamin intake is low, performance is decreased.
Performance improvements are seen with vitamin supplementation.
Dietary surveys show that most athletes are deficient in one or several vitamins.
Optimum vitamin intake is attained from food and supplements.

Vitamins are a group of naturally occurring nutrients found in food and supplements that
are required in the diet for maintenance of good health, normal metabolic functioning,
growth, recovery, and performance. They are organic compounds, which means they are
biologically produced and contain carbon atoms as part of their chemical structure. By
definition, vitamins are necessary in trace amounts for health (micrograms to milligrams)
and are essential in the diet because the human body either does not make them at all, or
does not make them in adequate quantities.
If any one of the vitamin nutrients is lacking in the diet, metabolism will be affected and
symptoms can arise or dysfunction. The body also makes hundreds of organic substances
that are essential to proper functioning. While the body can manufacture these
substances, scientists have determined that supplemental amounts can be beneficial
under certain circumstances. These metabolic intermediaries (metabolites) are sometimes
referred to as pseudovitamins or vitamin-like molecules or conditionally essential
nutrients. Some of these substances include choline and inositol and will be included in
this and other chapters.
Traditional nutrition views have focused primarily on providing minimum amounts of
vitamins to prevent deficiency symptoms. This is the nutrition for survival approach. New
research has determined that greater amounts of vitamins can offer other benefits for
health and performance. However, while higher amounts may be better, there is an upper
limit of safety and efficacy. As mentioned in Chapter 1.1, essential nutrients have a safe
range of intake and this range depends on the specific nutrient and person. This chapter
will present information about the essential vitamins and present information about their
form and function. Refer to Part Three for additional information.
Vitamins are grouped into two groups based on their solubility characteristics. There are
the fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamins. This categorical grouping was devised back
when researchers were first working on isolating nutrition factors that prevented nutritional
diseases. Scientists called the fat-soluble fraction, fraction A and the water-soluble
fraction, fraction B. Vitamin A was the first vitamin identified in the fat-soluble fraction,
thus the name. Similarly, the B vitamins were the first identified in the water-soluble
fraction. As research progressed, other vitamins were found in each fraction and the letter
system was used to name the vitamins.
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THE LIPID SOLUBLE VITAMINS - A, D, E, AND K


The fat soluble vitamins are vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E, and vitamin K. These
vitamins are soluble in lipid and organic solvents. This fat soluble property allows them to
be stored in the body in large amounts along with body fat stores in the liver. Water
soluble vitamins can also be stored, but usually in much smaller amounts as they have the
tendency to be flushed out of the body easily.
The fat soluble vitamins, especially vitamin A, have been posted with a warning sign due
to the fact that their levels can be built-up in the body. There is a concern that this build-up
may reach levels producing side effects, although very few vitamin toxicity cases have
been reported. However, this concern has grown during recent years and peaked with the
emerging use of supplements and the popularized practice of megadosing vitamins to
combat and prevent diseases and aging. Although vitamin toxicity is rarely reported, you
should be aware of its potential occurrence, especially when striving for peak
performance. Even though you may not develop a clear case of vitamin toxicity, overdoing
it may impair performance. When it comes to nutrition, more is not always better.
Additionally, proper digestion and absorption of the fat-soluble vitamins may require the
presence of fat in the diet. Athletes on low fat and low calorie diets should be cautioned
that deficiency of these vitamins is possible due to absorption malfunctions. Those taking
supplements as a source of fat-soluble vitamin should look toward the ones in an oil base
or take them with a meal. The following will review the basics on the fat-soluble vitamins.
Antioxidants Overview
During progressive research on the possible metabolic roles that nutrients may play in
addition to prevention of nutrient deficiency disorders, a group of vitamins, minerals and
enzymes called antioxidants have been identified that protect the body from chemical
damage. Because free radicals damage biomolecules, they are responsible for aging
and causing diseases like cancer, degenerative diseases, and environmental reactive
contaminants. Oxygen itself also causes damage. Because athletes are over exposed to
more free radicals, it is very important that every athletes diet contain the antioxidant
nutrients for protection. Specifically, antioxidants protect against free radical damage and
oxidation. The antioxidant group of nutrients is growing, and the following are important as
antioxidants or antioxidant cofactors: beta carotene and other carotenoids, vitamin C,
vitamin E, cysteine, glutathione, selenium, bioflavonoids, bioflavonoids, polyphenols,
proanthocyanidins, and SOD (super oxide dismutase).

VITAMIN A - Retinol And Pro-Vitamin A (Beta-Carotene)


Vitamin A is actually a group of substances that have vitamin A activity in the body. The
principal vitamin A compound in the diet is retinol and belongs to a class of chemicals
called retinoids, which have varying degrees of vitamin A activity. Retinol is the standard
to which the other compounds that display vitamin A activity are rated against. In the body
retinol can be converted into other substances with vitamin A activity, for example, retinal
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and retinoic acid. Dietary preformed retinoids occur naturally in animal source foods, and
either naturally from animal source ingredients or added to fortified foods, processed
foods, and dietary supplements.
The carotenoids are another class of chemicals, also know as provitmain A, as they can
be made in to retinol in the body. The carotenoids can build up in the body, but do not
usually appear to develop signs of side effects, because the body produces the active
form of vitamin A as needed from the carotenoids. Persons desiring to maintain high
vitamin A intake will usually combine a moderate amount of preformed vitamin A, such as
retinol, with a higher intake of the carotenoids, such as beta-carotene from foods and
supplement. Beta-carotene is the most popular carotenoid and has about one-half the
biological vitamin activity of retinol in supplement form, and about one-sixth or less the
activity of retinol from food sources. Other carotenoids include alpha-carotene and betacryptoxanthin, which display a lower vitamin A activity when compared to beta-carotene.
In addition to having vitamin A activity, the carotenoids are also considered to be an
important group of dietary antioxidants that protect the body from damage at the cellular
level. High levels of beta-carotene, and other carotenoids, in the body has been
associated with improved antioxidant activity.
As the carotenoids are yellow-red plant pigments, and taking high amounts of them may
affect a persons skin color with a yellow tint due to accumulation in subcutaneous fat at
high levels of intake. This condition is called carotenemia. Coloration disappears when the
high dosages are discontinued. If carotenemia develops, just cut back on your dosage of
beta-carotene.
Vitamin A has many functions and is essential for vision; cellular growth and development;
reproduction - involved in testicular and ovarian function; integrity of the immune system;
white blood cell production; formation and maintenance of healthy skin, hair, and mucous
membranes; cell division and cell differentiation; promotion of bone growth, teeth
development; and promoting normal epithelial cells, like those found in the lungs and
digestive system. In addition to these important functions of Vitamin A, beta-carotene
functions as an antioxidant, having the ability to neutralize free radicals, particularly singlet
oxygen. This will help reduce cellular, molecular, and tissue damage of free radicals,
which are greatly increased by exercise and increased oxygen uptake.
Deficiency signs of Vitamin A include development of night blindness; glare blindness;
rough, dry skin; dry mucous membranes; loss of appetite; reduced immune system
function; increased susceptibility to infections; and slow growth. Side effects of ingesting
too much vitamin A, include headaches, vomiting, dryness of mucous membranes, bone
abnormalities, and liver damage. Signs of side effects in healthy adults may start to
appear after prolonged daily intakes of very high amounts of preformed vitamin A (retinol),
15,000 micrograms (50,000 IU) of retinol, and in children 6,000 micrograms (20,000 IU).
Signs of side effects have been reported to appear in lower dosages in people with know
liver problems.

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The vitamin A in supplements that is most commonly used is Vitamin A acetate and
palmitate, but other forms will also be present. These are effective and economical
synthetic forms of retinol. Natural vitamin A retinol forms are available but are more
expensive because they are concentrated and extracted from natural animal sources,
such as from fish liver oil. Beta-carotene, and the other carotenoids are also used in
supplements to provide vitamin A activity. Both vitamin A and beta-carotene are found in
gel caps, capsules, and tablets.
Note that ingestion of over 30 milligrams per day of beta-carotene may lead to yellow or
orange coloration of the subcutaneous fat. However, the coloration is reported to be
harmless. Additionally, a note of caution to women who are pregnant or planning on
becoming pregnant. High amounts of Vitamin A have been associated with the incidence
of certain birth defects. Consult your doctor about supplementation before and during
pregnancy. A general recommendation is to limit Vitamin A intake below 5,000 IU per day
for women who plan on becoming pregnant or are pregnant. Some reports indicate that
there may be an incompatibility of smokers ingesting high amounts of beta-carotene, but
also indicate that more research is needed to resolve the issue clearly.
The primary goal for athletes is to maintain adequate intakes of preformed vitamin A and
the carotenoids from foods and supplement sources.
Refer to Part Three for Vitamin A and beta-carotene dietary reference intakes.

VITAMIN D
Vitamin D was originally revealed as the active nutrient in cod liver oil that was used for
the treatment of rickets and other disorders. Later, researchers also determined that
ultraviolet light from sunlight or lamps could cure rickets. We know that vitamin D occurs
in high amounts in cod liver oil and that the body can make vitamin D when exposed to
ultraviolet light. There are several compounds that exert vitamin D activity. The most
commonly encountered are calciferol, cholecalciferol, and ergocalciferol. Cholecalciferol is
the major form of vitamin D that is formed in the body. Ultraviolet light induces the
conversion of a compound called 7-dehydrocholesterol into vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol).
Vitamin D2, ergocalciferol, is produced commercially by ultraviolet irradiation of the plant
sterol, ergosterol.

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The body can utilize these forms of vitamin D in the body by converting them to the
biologically active form, 25-hydroxycholcalciferol. Vitamin D has several important
functions and is essential for normal growth and development. Its main function is the
metabolism of calcium and phosphorus to support normal mineralization (hardening) of
bone. Vitamin D is involved in many aspects of calcium and phosphorus metabolism,
including mediating intestinal absorption and utilization. Maintenance of the appropriate
level of serum calcium is also necessary to promote proper functioning of the
neuromuscular system and heart action. There is also some evidence that vitamin D
functions to improve muscle strength.
Deficiency signs of vitamin D are characterized by inadequate mineralization of bone and
associated abnormalities such as soft bones, bowed legs, poor teeth, and various skeletal
deformities. In children, this can result in severe deformation of the skeleton (rickets). In
adults, bone loss and an increased susceptibility to fractures can occur. Although vitamin
D deficiencies are rarely seen due to fortification of milk and other foods with vitamin D,
the condition is of concern in some infants who are breast fed without supplemental
vitamin D or adequate exposure to sunlight. Characteristic biochemical changes include
low blood calcium and phosphorus levels. For the growing child, normal adults, and
athletes, vitamin D is a very important nutrient. Elderly people and persons who spend
most of their time indoors should make an effort to get at least the RDA amount from
dietary sources. Excess vitamin D intake is potentially harmful, especially for young
children. The effects of excessive vitamin D intake can lead to calcium build-up in soft
tissues and irreversible kidney and cardiovascular damage. Because exposure to sun
forms vitamin D, intake of this nutrient should be closely monitored. While higher than
average intake may be beneficial for athletes, megadosing of this vitamin should be
avoided, unless under the prescription and supervision of a doctor.
Refer to Part Three for Vitamin D dietary reference intakes.

VITAMIN E
Vitamin E is an antioxidant that protects cell membranes against oxidation, inhibits
coagulation of blood by preventing blood clots, retards oxidation of the other fat-soluble
vitamins, participates in cellular respiration, and treats, and prevents vitamin deficiency in
premature or low-birth-weight infants. It is involved in immune system function and repair
of chromosomes - DNA repair. Research has shown that vitamin E helps to promote
cardiovascular health in adult populations. Some studies with athletes have also reported
reduction in pain and inflammation, especially in combination with other nutrients.

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Of interest to athletes, vitamin E supplementation has been shown to lower blood lactate
levels, decrease lipid peroxidation products formed during exercise, reduce oxidative cell
damage, maintain muscle tissue, and play a possible role in testosterone production.
High experimental intakes of vitamin E has been found to benefit athletes by improving
energy functioning, reducing cellular damage, and stabilizing membranes.
Also, vitamin E supplementation has produced beneficial effects on physical performance
and tissue protection at high altitudes. For athletes in high altitudes (over 5,000 feet above
sea level), during the athletic season. Higher than normal intakes of vitamin E are also
indicated when recovering from an injury or surgery.
Several related compounds have vitamin E activity. Alpha-tocopherol tends to the most
active form. The natural forms have the letter D, for example, D-Alpha Tocopheryl
Succinate is one type of natural vitamin E and is generally preferred due to its higher rate
of absorption. However the synthetic forms of vitamin E, are also bioavailable, and usually
designated with DL at the start of the name. Using a combination of the two forms in
supplement products is common.
Vitamin E deficiencies are rare in humans. One condition of what appears to be vitamin E
related deficiency is muscle weakness. Increased destruction of cellular membranes is
suspected, as well as abnormal disposition of fat in muscles and rupture of red blood cells
from reduced anti-oxidant protection. Clear determination of vitamin E deficiencies in
humans is complicated by the additional factor that the mineral selenium plays a role in
vitamin Es metabolism, and that symptoms in animals sometimes disappear by the
addition of selenium or the sulfur containing amino acids. Vitamin E is clearly an important
essential nutrient that should be ingested in higher amounts by athletes.
Compared to the other fat-soluble vitamins, vitamin E is relatively safe when over
consumed. This is fortunate considering the large number of people that self prescribe
megadoses of vitamin E in the hopes of curing or preventing many disorders.
Refer to Part Three for Vitamin E dietary reference intakes.

VITAMIN K
Vitamin Ks major function is the formation of prothrombin, which is vital for blood clotting.
Without vitamin K, the entire blood clotting process cannot be initiated. It is therefore
essential for maintenance of prothrombin levels and blood clotting. More recently, vitamin
K has also been determined to be important in bone formation and maintenance. As

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athletes undergoing strenuous training are constantly damaging tissue, a supplemental


amount of vitamin K is warranted to insure adequate vitamin K daily intake.
Deficiency of vitamin K is rarely encountered. However, deficiency can develop if green
vegetables are restricted from the diet or drugs are taken that inhibit the formation of
vitamin K by intestinal bacteria. Most instances of vitamin K deficiency are encountered
with infants, also the elderly and people who have poor nutrition. It is sometimes given to
patients before surgery to aid in blood clotting. Ingestion of too much aspirin can interfere
with the metabolic pathways vitamin K is involved in and prevent normal blood clotting.
Deficiency can develop if green vegetables are restricted from the diet or drugs are taken
that inhibit the formation of vitamin K by intestinal bacteria, such as oral antibiotics. A
deficiency of vitamin K would decrease the amount of prothrombin made by the body and
increase the tendency for hemorrhage (bleeding). Excessive intake of vitamin K, even
over long time periods, has not readily yielded major side effects. Excessive dosages in
experimental animals and in infants has been shown to cause hemolytic anemia
(separation of the hemoglobin from red blood cells). The synthetic water soluble forms will
have an obvious wider margin of safety.
Refer to Part Three for Vitamin K dietary reference intakes.

THE WATER SOLUBLE VITAMINS


The water soluble vitamins consist of the variety of B vitamins, vitamin C, choline and
related vitamin-like substances. Being water soluble these vitamins are easily and quickly
excreted from the body. They tend to have a wider margin of safety, with higher amounts
of intake not causing any major side effects. This is the group of vitamins that has been
traditionally sometimes taken in mega-doses due to their safety, and the thought that
higher intake may be needed to attain and maintain optimum tissues levels. Vitamin C is
the most known and widely used water soluble vitamin at what would be considered
mega-dosing amounts. As with all nutrients, there is an upper limit of safe intake, and
while the water soluble vitamins have a wider margin of safety, the best dosage levels are
ideally determined working with a health professional.

BIOTIN
Biotin is a water soluble B vitamin. It is a sulfur containing vitamin that is involved in
energy metabolism, urea formation, protein synthesis, glucose formation, and fatty acid
synthesis. Biotin exists in foods and supplements and is also manufactured by intestinal
bacteria. Biotin plays an important role in energy production and fat metabolism. It
functions in the biosynthesis of fatty acids, replenishment of tricarboxylic acid cycle,
gluconeogenesis, coenzyme for a number of carboxylase enzymes, and amino acid
metabolism.
Deficiency symptoms can be produced from dietary sources of biotin being low or from
ingestion of large amounts of a biotin-binding glycoprotein found in raw egg whites. Biotin
deficiency is characterized by nausea, vomiting, mental depression, pallor, dry scaly

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dermatitis, increased serum cholesterol, and loss of muscle tone. Biotin has a good safety
record and reports of high dosages have not reported any major side effects.
Refer to Part Three for biotin reference intakes.

CHOLINE
Choline is one of the most recent nutrients being classified as essential from research
reporting about cholines important role in health, growth and development. It is involved in
fatty acid metabolism and has special roles in nervous system function, among other
functions. The term lipotropic was used to describe the effects of choline and other
substances that prevent deposition of fat in the liver.
Choline is a component of the phospholipid, phosphatidylcholine (lecithin) and a part of all
cell membranes and lipoproteins. Choline is also used by the body to make the
neurotransmitter, acetylcholine, which is critical for optimum brain and nervous system
development and functioning. Exercise can deplete the supply of choline and this may
theoretically impair acetylcholine amounts in the nervous system, so maintaining adequate
intake is very important for athletes. Research has shown that ingestion of choline can
restore levels, and is reported to enhance performance in long distance athletes, however
choline is essential for all athletes.
Choline deficiency can cause liver dysfunction; impaired memory and nerve functioning,
and adversely effect normal growth. Very excessive intakes of choline can result in
causing diarrhea, depression, fishy body odor, reduced blood pressure and dizziness.
Refer to Part Three for choline dietary reference intakes.

FOLATE
Folate is another water soluble B vitamin. Folic acid is the common form used in
supplements. Folate compounds function metabolically as coenzymes that transport
carbon molecules from one compound to another in amino acid metabolism and nucleic
acid synthesis. In this way, folate is very important as a cofactor in DNA (deoxynucleic
acid) and RNA (ribonucleic acid) formation, protein synthesis, and cell division. Folate
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also stimulates the formation of red blood cells and vitamin B12. In particular, folate
affects tissues that grow rapidly, such as the skin, lining of the gastrointestinal tract, bone
marrow where blood cells are formed, and regenerating muscle tissue. Studies have also
indicated that increasing the intake of folate during pregnancy has reduced the incidence
of premature births and birth defects.
Deficiency of folate can result in anemia, birth defects, sore tongue, digestive problems,
growth problems, fatigue, poor memory, and megoblastic anemia. Increased levels of a
substance called homocysteine has also been related to low folate intakes, which is a risk
factor for cardiovascular diseases. For pregnant women, maintaining adequate folate
intake is a must, as folate deficiency during pregnancy can increase certain birth defects.
Excessive folate is rarely reported. One concern reported is among people who have
vitamin B12 deficiency, in which excessive intake of folate could compound related
nervous system side effects. There is also a concern for people who are taking anticonvulsant medications.
Refer to Part Three for folate reference intakes.

INOSITOL
Inositol, also referred to as myo-inositol, is not yet considered an essential nutrient for
adults, but dietary intake can be important. The importance of inositol is underscored as it
an approved ingredient for use infant formulas, and recognized for its health and growth
benefits during this rapid developmental stage of life. Various studies with adults have
reported beneficial effects. The most recently discovered roles for inositol that are getting
attention include a role in nitric oxide formation and as an antioxidant of oxygen radicals.
Inositols other functions include lipotropic activity, and is reported to be involved in fatty
acid metabolism; carbohydrate metabolism; neurotransmitter activity; cell signaling; part of
phosphatidylinositol molecule found in cell membranes and converted to other substance
leading to production of second messenger molecules; and functions in promoting
intracellular calcium mobilization.
Deficiency of inositol production results in a build up of fat in the liver and may be related
to poor nervous system function. Inositol appears to be relatively safe in healthy
individuals.

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NIACIN
Niacin, vitamin B3, is a water soluble B vitamin that includes certain substance with niacin
activity such as nicotinic acid and nicotinamide. Niacin is functionally active in the body as
two very important coenzymes; NAD (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) and NADP
(nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate). NAD and NADP are present in all cells
and function in many vital metabolic processes, such as energy production, glycolysis,
carbohydrate and protein metabolism, fatty acid synthesis, and reduction of both
cholesterol and fatty acids in the blood. Niacin can also be synthesized by the body from
the amino acid tryptophan.
Niacins role as a cholesterol controlling nutrient brought it major acclaim as a miracle
nutrient, and resulted in its widespread use in mega dose quantities. Nicotinic acid seems
to perform better than niacinamide for lowering cholesterol and fatty acid blood levels.
However, nicotinic acid in amounts over 50 milligrams causes the blood capillaries to
dilate, resulting in what has become known as the niacin flush. This flushing produces a
temporary red skin, itching, and heating of the skin. This is not observed with the
niacinamide form of niacin.
For athletes niacin intake is important, for some types of athletes high niacin intake may
impair performance. It is interesting to note that, although niacin is very essential for
cellular respiration, energy production research conducted with athletes clearly shows that
it may reduce performance in some instances. The higher amounts of niacin administered
before exercise caused glycogen to deplete at a faster rate and caused earlier onset of
fatigue for long distance athletes. Niacin apparently blocks the release of fatty acids from
adipose tissue, thus making this source of energy less available during exercise. Thus,
niacin mega dosing should be avoided by endurance athletes. However, there is some
evidence that higher than average dosages of niacinamide given before anaerobic
(strength) exercise may improve performance. Due to the fact that strength athletes get
more energy from stored glycogen, and faster glycogen liberation may result in faster
anaerobic energy production. More research is warranted to confirm this.
Deficiency symptoms of niacin include depression, confusion, headaches, elevated body
fats, fatigue, and development of pellagra. Pellagra is a disease characterized by
dermatitis, inflammation of mucus membranes, dementia, and inflamed and discolored
skin. There is a long history of use of high dose niacin in medical settings for cholesterol
lowering, with risks and benefits clearly determined. Mega dosing niacin in daily dosages
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of 3 grams or more a day, has been associated with leading to developing serious side
effects, including liver health issues and should be avoided.
Refer to Part Three for niacin dietary reference intakes.

PANTOTHENIC ACID
Pantothenic acid is another member of the B vitamin group, also referred to as Vitamin
B5. Pantothenic acid plays many important metabolic roles, primarily as a component of
coenzyme A and phosphopantetheine, which are involved in fatty acid metabolism.
Pantothenic Acid is also involved in steroid and cholesterol synthesis.
Studies conducted among athletes ingesting high dosages of pantothenic acid have
yielded performance enhancing effects when taken by endurance athletes over 14 days, 2
grams per day. However, other research with athletes taking lower amounts did not result
in significant benefits in performance. Short-term mega dosing of pantothenic acid may be
beneficial for endurance athletes for short time periods (7 to 14 days) before athletic
competition. However, more research is needed to fine tune the optimum intake for this
potential short-term, high dosage use.
Deficiency of pantothenic acid is rare. Side effects reported from people being fed
pantothenic free diets include: restlessness; fatigue; irritability; malaise; sleep
disturbances; gastrointestinal upset and distress; muscle cramps; hypoglycemia.
Pantothenic acid is relatively safe with no side effects with average intake. Higher mega
dosages have been associated with causing gastrointestinal upset.
Refer to Part Three for pantothenic acid dietary reference intakes.

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RIBOFLAVIN
Riboflavin (Vitamin B2) is involved in energy production and growth. In the body, riboflavin
functions primarily as part of two coenzymes; flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin
adenine dinucleotide (FAD). These coenzymes are involved in many oxidation-reduction
reactions which produce energy from carbohydrates, fatty acids, and some amino acids.
Because of riboflavins role in energy producing reactions, it is a vital nutrient for the
health of all tissues, in particular the skin, eyes, and nerves. Apart from these essential
functions, riboflavin taken in 10 mg/per day amounts was reported to produce a lowering
of neuromuscular irritability after electrical stimulation of muscles. This indicates that
riboflavin taken in higher amounts may improve muscular excitability and result in better
overall performance. Deficiency is associated with developing tongue swelling; weakness;
skin irritation; anemia; and sore throat. Short-term studies using higher than normal
intakes of riboflavin have been reported to be well tolerated.
Refer to Part Three for riboflavin acid dietary reference intakes.

THIAMIN
Thiamin (as thiamin pyrophosphate or TPP), also called vitamin B1, also spelled thiamine.
In the body, thiamin joins with phosphate to form thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP) and
functions as a coenzyme required in carbohydrate metabolism. Thiamin is converted into
coenzymes that aid in the complete breakdown of carbohydrates, along with other B
vitamins. Other functions of thiamin include the production of ribose, which is needed for
the synthesis of nucleic acids (RNA and DNA) and appetite simulation. As athletes eat
more calories and carbohydrates, thiamin requirement is increased.
Athletic performance improvements have been reported among endurance athletes
ingesting higher amounts of thiamin. Maintaining the integrity of nervous system
functioning is also of great benefit to any athlete. Some research indicates that endurance
athletes may derive acute performance enhancing effects by ingesting mega doses of
thiamin for short periods, several days to several weeks. Other research reports that
supplemental thiamine may significantly improve firing accuracy in marksmen. Based on
an eight week study where athletes who consumed a vitamin B1, B6 and B12 combination
preparation an improvement in fine motor control of slow movements was determined to
reduce tremor, and result in significant improvements in target shooting accuracy.
Signs of deficiency include abnormalities of carbohydrate metabolism, fatigue, loss of
appetite, constipation, depression, confusion, poor coordination, and a disease called Beri
Beri. Beri Beri is the traditional disease associated with prolonged intake of a diet low in
thiamin. Primary symptoms involve the cardiovascular system and nervous system.
Symptoms include muscular weakness, atrophy, heart failure, and depression. Since the
cells of the nervous system are sensitive to carbohydrate metabolism, this may be why
this system is the first to show signs of thiamine deficiency. Thiamin deficiency is also
observed in individuals who drink alcohol excessively. Thiamin is safe and side effects are
rarely reported in healthy adults, and high dosages have been reported to be safe in a
limited number of studies. This does not mean that benefits will be incurred from mega
doses of thiamin all year around; but short-term use of higher dosages could be beneficial
during the athletic season.
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Refer to Part Three for thiamin acid dietary reference intakes.

VITAMIN B12
Vitamin B12 forms essential coenzymes that are necessary for neural tissue development,
folate metabolism, DNA synthesis along with folacin, energy metabolism, new cell growth,
and red blood cell synthesis. Vitamin B12 and cobalamin are terms used to describe a
group of cobalt-containing compounds that display vitamin B12 activity. In the body, the
predominant active cobalamin coenzymes are methylcobalamin and
5-deoxyadenosylcobalamin. A common form of B12 used in supplements is
cyanocobalamin. Only minor amounts of B12 can be absorbed directly from the digestive
system. For optimum absorption B12 needs to be bound to a substance called intrinsic
factor.
Studies conducted re-energizing non-athletes experiencing tiredness thought to be from
low B12 status, are credited with prompting widespread mega dosing of oral B12
supplements and B12 injections among athletes. These studies usually used injections of
B12, although some report responsiveness with oral B12 intake. Thus far, B12s role in
promoting its essential metabolic functions, and like the other nutrients, is needed in
higher than average amounts by athletes and physically active people to maintain healthy
levels in the body.
Also, as people age it has been observed that digestive system function needed for
maximum B12 activation and uptake starts to decline. Therefore as people get older, their
need for dietary B12 increases. Vitamin B12 has been regarded in athletic circles as the
primary energy vitamin. In fact, it is a common practice for athletes to get vitamin B12
shots during the athletic season. Vitamin B12 is only part of the performance nutrition
picture, but does play a very essential role in maintaining health and promoting
performance.
Some attention has also focused on a coenzyme form of B12 called cobamamide, or
dibencozide. This has been touted as an anabolic nutrient form of B12. A study was
conducted on children with growth deficiency disorders, and cobamamide improved
growth. Cobamamide has been reported by athletes to increase perceived energy levels
and increase appetite. Cobamamide is not a replacement for B12, but could be combined
with conventional B12, and the other essential nutrients.
Similar to folate and vitamin B6, B12 plays an important role in being able to lower and
maintain healthy blood levels of a substance made in the body called homocysteine. High
levels of homocysteine in the body are related to higher rates of cardiovascular disease.
Studies have shown that B12 supplementation alone or in combination with folate and or
B6 has the ability to reduce high levels of potentially harmful homocysteine, thereby
promoting good cardiovascular health, important to athletes and everybody else too. The
homocysteine lowering effect is accomplished in the body from B12s role in converting
homocysteine to methionine.

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Deficiency symptoms of B12 include a disease called pernicious anemia (poor B12
absorption) leading to megaloblastic anemia (enlarged red blood cells, poor delivery of
oxygen to cells); irritability, loss of appetite, fatigue, weakness, constipation, headache,
weight loss, confusion, depression, poor memory, and sore tongue; and neurological
changes leading to numbness and tingling in the hands and feet. B12 deficiency in the diet
is rarely seen, and most deficiencies are attributed to poor B12 absorption. Pernicious
anemia is actually a disease that develops from inhibited absorption of B12 due to
inadequate intrinsic factor production. However, minor amounts of B12 can be absorbed
independent of intrinsic factor. This is thought to have led to the practice of mega dosing
B12, with the idea being if the amount of B12 being ingested is increased, then the
amount of B12 that gets absorbed independent of intrinsic factor will also be increased. As
with all diseases, pernicious anemia is serious and people who think they have this
problem should be checked by their doctor, for proper treatment. Excessive intakes of
B12 do not appear to exhibit major side-effects.
Refer to Part Three for vitamin B12 dietary reference intakes.

VITAMIN B6
Vitamin B6, also know as pyridoxine, is an essential vitamin and has become most noted
by athletes for its role in the metabolism of amino acids, glycogen, lipids and certain
hormones; hemoglobin synthesis; immune system; and synthesis of neurotransmitters
such as dopamine and serotonin. Vitamin B6 actually occurs in nature as pyridoxine,
pyridoxal, and pyridoxamine. In the body, B6 is converted to its active forms, pyridoxal
phosphate (PLP) and pyridoxamine phosphate (PMP) and serves primarily in many of the
same types of transamination reactions (making one amino acid from another) that take
place in amino acid metabolism. Like B12 and folate, B6 has been reported to have a
homocysteine lower effect, from it role in converting homocysteine to cysteine in the body.
Due to B6s role in protein/amino acid metabolism, the requirement for vitamin B6
increases as the intake of protein increases. Vitamin B6 is also involved in conversion of
the essential fatty, linoleic acid to arachidonic acid, glycogen breakdown, energy
production, and synthesis of red blood cells.
Studies with athletes indicate similar results as with niacin, due to B6s tendency to
increase utilization of glycogen stores, and decrease fatty acid energy substrate use. So,
for endurance athletes, high dosages of vitamin B6 should be avoided, as one of their
primary goals during exercise is to spare glycogen use, and encourage fatty acid use.
However, short-term anaerobic activity may benefit from extra B6 due to the glycogen
liberating action. In sports such as weight lifting, wrestling, sprinting, football, and soccer,
where the primary energy source is glycogen, used to power bursts of explosive muscle
contractions for powerful athletic movements. Coincidentally, strength-power type athletes
are on higher protein diets, so their B6 requirement is therefore increased.
Athletes undergoing glycogen depletion as part of a carbohydrate loading program may
experience more rapid depletion of glycogen stores, with higher than average B6 intake.
This can be useful during the first glycogen depletion days of a carbohydrate loading
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cycle. Vitamin B6 intake has also been reported to increase the exercise induced rise in
growth hormone, which is another potential benefit for athletes.
Deficiency symptoms associated with low intakes of vitamin B6 include depression, skin
problems, poor wound healing, dermatitis, sore tongue, anemia, fatigue, and convulsions.
While B6 is safe under normal intake levels, massive dosages (a couple to several grams
per day taken for months in duration) has been reported to cause nervous system related
side effects. Based on examining a range of dosages, reversible neurological side effects
such as tingling and numbness of arms and legs, may start to occur at levels of 300 mg
per day or higher. But lower dosages have not been reported to cause these side effects.
Refer to Part Three for vitamin B6 dietary reference intakes.

VITAMIN C
Vitamin C is an antioxidant and has multiple functions as a cofactor or coenzyme. It is
involved in the formation and maintenance of collagen, which is an important constituent
of connective tissues and intercellular substances. Collagen is a protein and an important
component of skin, ligaments, and bones. Vitamin C promotes healthy capillaries, gums,
and teeth; aids in intestinal iron absorption; blocks the production of nitrosamines carcinogens; prevents the oxidation of folacin; helps heal wounds; may provide resistance
against infections; aids in the metabolism of tyrosine and phenylalanine; aids in the
absorption of iron; immune system function; and protects cells from free radical damage.
As with the other antioxidants, vitamin C may play an important role in the prevention and
correction of dietary born degenerative diseases. For athletes, these functions of vitamin
C are very important, especially as an antioxidant and collagen tissue formation and
maintenance. Studies have also indicated vitamin Cs role in increasing muscular strength,
reducing lactate blood levels, and sparing glycogen. Endurance athletes need higher
amounts of this and other antioxidants due to their increased oxidative stress.
While the research results have been inconsistent for vitamin Cs ability for preventing
cold symptoms for the general population, a significant benefit has been reported for
certain people under extreme environment and stressful conditions. These people include
skiers, marathon runners and soldiers in sub-arctic exercises.
The primary form of vitamin C used in supplements is synthetic ascorbic acid. Other forms
include buffered vitamin C and mineral ascorbates, such as calcium and magnesium
ascorbate. Natural supplemental form of vitamin C is supplied by rose hips and is more
expensive compared to the popular synthetic form. There is also a patented form of
vitamin C, called Ester C. The company that manufactures it reports a higher retention
than the more water soluble regular vitamin C.
Deficiency of vitamin C can lead to developing scurvy, which is a serious disease
characterized by weakening of collagen tissues and structures, that results in widespread
capillary hemorrhaging. Scurvy is rarely seen in adults in the United States, but is
sometimes observed in infants and the elderly. Excessive intake of vitamin C, more than 3
grams per day, has been associated with potential minor side-effects: headache,
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increased urination, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and nausea. Mega dosing vitamin C is
commonly practiced by those wishing to derive potential health benefits. When dosages of
vitamin C are ingested at 1,000 mg or lower at time, or taken with meals, the potential for
gastrointestinal upset is usually avoided.
Refer to Part Three for vitamin C dietary reference intakes.

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EXAMPLES OF MULTIVITAMIN AND MULTIMINERAL PRODUCTS

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MINERALS

Minerals are needed for normal metabolism, growth, and health of the body.
Adequate mineral intake is essential for performance and health.
Dietary surveys have discovered that many athletes diets are deficient in one or more minerals.
Optimum mineral intake is best attained from a combination of food and supplements.

Minerals occur naturally in living plants and animals and nonliving dources such as
minerals in water or from the soil. Minerals are elements, substances composed of only
one kind of atom. In addition, they are inorganic; and unlike vitamins, they usually do not
contain the carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms found in all organic compounds.
However, minerals can be part of organic molecules or combined to an organic molecule
complex. Most minerals have names that reflect the places in which they're found or one
of their characteristics, such as their color.
Nutritionists classify the minerals that are essential for human life as either major minerals
or trace minerals. Nutritionally speaking, the difference between major and trace minerals
is how much you have in your body and how much you need to ingest to maintain a
steady supply.
The following is a review of the minerals in alphabetical order.

BORON
Boron is a trace mineral which occurs in the body in small amounts. It has been
established as an essential mineral in humans. Boron appears to have several functions,
including: influencing calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium metabolism; functionality of
membranes; brain function and cognitive performance; and bone formation. Attention by
athletes has been directed toward boron as a result of its alleged role in increased
testosterone production. It all started back in 1987 when a study was published reporting
increased testosterone levels in postmenopausal women. Translating this effect to
younger adult males and females is speculative. Subsequent studies providing male
bodybuilders ingesting 2.5 milligrams of boron supplements did not report a significant
increase in testosterone or strength increases. While further research is needed to
determine borons exact benefits for athletes. Boron intake is required daily for health and
performance, but like the other minerals, side-effects can occur if too much boron is taken.
Deficiency of boron in humans has not been observed definitively. In animals, boron
deficiency is associated with symptoms, which include reduced growth rate and
decreased blood steroid hormone levels. Excessive intake from regular dietary sources is
rare. Side effects based on accidental high dosages, clinical settings or in experimental
studies include irritability, seizures, and gastrointestinal disturbances, noting that very high
dosages can be lethal.
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Refer to Part Three for boron dietary reference intakes.

CALCIUM
The role calcium plays in bone formation is well known, but calcium also has other very
important functions as well. Calcium plays essential roles in nerve conduction,
transmission of nerve impulses, normal heart beat, muscle contraction, increased
membrane permeability, and blood clotting. Calcium also functions as an enzyme
cofactor. Recently, calcium has been connected to controlling blood pressure in some
individuals.
While calcium is a primary nutrient in bone formation and maintenance, other nutrients are
also important in bone formation and the proper utilization of calcium. They include vitamin
D, copper, zinc, manganese, and boron. Mineralization of bone requires a positive
calcium balance; that is, more calcium being absorbed than is being excreted. This is
important to maintain during growth years and during adulthood. Until recently, most
medical authorities believed that once an individual attained the ripe old age of 30, it was
not possible to build more bone tissue. But recent research has finally proven what many
sports fitness scientists already knew. Exercise and proper dietary intake of calcium will
result in increased bone mass in adults. The benefits are obvious for everyone who wants
to maintain a healthy body.
High intensity exercise, such as resistance training, appears to stimulate increase in bone
mass more than aerobic type exercise. From an athletes standpoint, adequate calcium
must be maintained all year long, and from childhood through adulthood. This means
eating a diet adequate in calcium and taking a comprehensive supplement with the other
nutrients, good sources of calcium, and the calcium cofactors.
Deficiency of calcium results in poor bone formation or onset of a bone disease, such as
osteoporosis. Poor calcium intake also results in muscle cramping and reduced energy
levels. Rickets and stunted growth are also potential disorders related to a calcium
deficient diet. Excess calcium taken during short or long periods of time normally does not
cause major side-effects in adults aside from constipation and increased risk of urinary
stone formation. Excessive calcium intake can interfere with the absorption of iron, zinc,
magnesium, and other minerals. A condition referred to as milk-alkali syndrome is dose
dependent, which may lead to calcium deposits in the kidneys and other tissues, and can
occur with increasing calcium intake levels above the recommend levels. Very high
calcium intake for long periods of time can lead to renal function problems. Research
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supports the adequate daily intake of calcium for maintenance of overall health and
performance.
Refer to Part Three for calcium dietary reference intakes.

CHROMIUM
Chromiums major role is helping insulin work in your body. It is said to potentiate insulin
action, which influences metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. Chromium also
plays a role in the metabolism of nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) and helps to maintain their
structure and gene expression. Chromium aids in fatty acid and cholesterol formation in
the liver, and some studies have shown a lowering of cholesterol with chromium
supplementation. Furthermore, chromium deficient diets are linked to higher incidence of
diabetes and heart disease.
It is chromiums role as an insulin potentiator that has brought it so much recent media
attention. Early researchers found that chromium exhibited a lowering of blood glucose
levels. Because of this characteristic, chromium is referred to as a glucose tolerance
factor. The glucose tolerance test is a test used to determine how well a person can
remove high levels of glucose from the blood stream. The subject being tested is fed high
amounts of glucose, and the blood levels are tested over several hours. The test is used
for determining diabetes and hypoglycemia. It is also used to measure the efficacy of
nutrients and drugs that possess blood glucose removal properties, like chromium. Due to
chromiums role as a potentiator of insulin function, glucose and amino acids that circulate
in the blood stream after ingestion will have a higher rate of uptake by the cells. This does
not necessarily mean that the levels of insulin are increased. And it does not mean that
chromium has a direct effect on muscle building (like testosterone) or fat loss (like growth
hormone). It just means that increasing dietary chromium levels will improve the
functioning of insulin, which should result in a higher rate of cellular uptake of glucose and
amino acids into the cells. For the athlete, adequate chromium intake is essential. Several
studies have shown that individuals taking supplemental amounts of chromium in
association with training and a good diet have been able to increase the rate of muscle
gains and increase the rate of fat loss.
Deficiency of chromium can lead to impaired glucose tolerance (impaired insulin
functioning) and impaired glucose utilization; weight loss; evaluated fatty acids; abnormal
nitrogen metabolism; neuropathy; and insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes. Excess
chromium dietary intake is rare. Side effects from accidental ingestion of very high
amounts of chromium can cause severe gastrointestinal, kidney, and liver health issues.
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Studies support the adequate daily intake of chromium for maintenance of overall health
and performance.
Refer to Part Three for chromium dietary reference intakes.

COPPER
Copper an essential mineral with several important functions. Copper is present in many
enzymes: is part of the antioxidant SOD; important in formation of collagen; and involved
in energy production, melanin pigment synthesis, myelin formation, immune function,
glucose metabolism, and cholesterol metabolism. Some attention was directed towards
copper by athletic researchers as a result of coppers role in energy production. Copper is
part of cytochrome oxidase, an enzyme that is found in the electron transport system.
Because dietary surveys indicate that many athletes, especially endurance athletes, have
inadequate copper intake, additional supplemental amounts of copper have been
researched. The role copper plays as a component of antioxidant SOD is again vital for
the protection of the body at the cellular level, for improved performance, and for shorter
recovery times after exercise.
Deficiency of copper intake can lead to bone abnormalities, anaemia, hypopigmentation of
the hair, impaired growth, abnormal metabolism, and neutropenia (low white blood cells).
Excessive dietary copper intake is rare, and reports of are usually from acute
overdosages. Side effects include nausea, diarrhea, gastrointestinal upset.
Refer to Part Three for copper dietary reference intakes.

FLUORIDE
The role of fluoride in prevention of tooth decay is well known. It is also found in bone and
in soft body tissues in very small amounts. Fluorides role in increasing resistance of tooth
decay is most notably seen in children. Fluoride intake has also been associated with
increased bone integrity. There is some evidence that maintaining good fluoride intake
may help reduce osteoporosis. For the athlete, however, fluoride intake is not related to
any increase in athletic performance. Its importance lies in the maintenance of good teeth
for proper eating and the maintenance of a healthy skeleton. Additionally, fluoride
supplements are only available by prescription. The primary intake of fluoride is from the
water supply and the diet. A link of low fluoride in water, and increased tooth decay has
led to the practice of adding fluoride to water supplies in areas with naturally occurring
fluoride.

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ELECTROLYTES (Sodium, Chloride, and Potassium)


Sodium, chloride, and potassium are collectively referred to as the electrolytes. While the
other minerals may have electrolyte activity, these three are generally considered the
main electrolytes in the body. Magnesium and calcium is sometimes grouped with these
three electrolytes, but is treated separately here due to their multiple functions, and
requirements.
Electrolytes exist in the fluids of the body, in the cells and blood. During exercise,
electrolytes can be lost from the body in sweat. Loss of electrolytes during exercise
becomes a major concern depending on the rate of sweating and the duration of exercise.
This has lead to development of electrolyte containing exercise beverages.
The main function of these electrolytes is maintenance of the balance of fluids in the body
between cells and the blood stream. Some of the other functions of these electrolyte
minerals are summarized below:

Electrolyte

Main Functions

Sodium

Extracellular cation.
Regulation of osmolarity.
Regulation of body fluid balance.
Active Transport across cell membranes.
Uptake of some nutrients in intestines.
Muscle contraction and nerve impulse transmission.

Chloride

Extracellular anion.
Control of fluid balance.

Potassium

Intracellular cation.
Fluid balance.
Nerve transmission and muscle contraction.
Glycogen formation.

Deficiency of the electrolytes is not normally observed unless under conditions of severe
dehydration, during prolonged periods of exercise without proper hydration or electrolyte
replenishment, and conditions of renal disease. This is possible to occur during higher
levels of activity, such as with athletes. Depending on the duration of exercise and amount
of sodium lost via sweating, this could create the need for several or more grams of
sodium per day. Some estimates from athletes training in ultra-endurance sports and in
the military report that 10 or more grams of sodium can be lost during prolonged periods
of continuous strenuous activity. Side-effects of electrolyte deficiency include dizziness,
fainting, and reduced performance. Excessive intake of sodium and chloride (because
they occur together in food) causes hypertension, fluid balance problems, and edema.
Very high potassium intake, can lead to acute hyperkalemia, which can cause cardiac
arrest and be lethal.

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Electrolytes in Food and Supplements


These three electrolytes occur in all foods. Sodium and chloride are usually supplied by
food mostly as sodium chloride. Sodium bicarbonate and monosodium glutamate also
contribute to dietary sodium intake. Table salt (sodium chloride) and processed foods are
by far the largest contributors.
Potassium is present in all foods, but is particularly high in fruits and vegetables. In fact,
while the typical daily intake of potassium is 2,500 mg to 3,400 mg, some individuals on
high fruit and vegetable diets maintain a potassium intake as high as 8 grams or more per
day. Most individuals want to maintain moderate sodium and chloride intake and maintain
higher potassium intake.
Athletes especially, have higher demands of these minerals due to excessive sweating
and increased physical activity. The higher food intake of athletes usually compensates for
higher electrolyte demands. Many sports drinks on the market contain water,
carbohydrates, and electrolytes. Use of these drinks is recommended for active athletes,
exercising an hour or more per day. Drink them during and after exercise. Intake of extra
sodium is sometimes need after long hours of strenuous activity. Increasing consumption
of salty foods, or adding extra salt to meals, especially after the physical activity can help
to replenish this extra lost sodium and chloride. This extra sodium intake after exercise will
also help your body to retain more water which can help with rehydration. Potassium and
the other essential nutrients will be replenished from your food and supplement intake.
Long distance and ultra long distance athletes need to make sure they are first
maintaining adequate water and carbohydrate intake, and then maintaining appropriate
levels of electrolytes. Drinks lower in electrolytes are best during exercise because higher
electrolyte concentrations will delay gastric emptying and impair hydration and
carbohydrate supply during physical activity. Supplement intake of sodium and chloride
are not usually required, however some supplements do contain sodium and chloride.
Athletes wishing to add more sodium or chloride to their diets can do so with the addition
of table salt to their foods, or consume foods with salt added such as pretzels.
Potassium, on the other hand, can range quite considerably in the diet. Individuals
concerned with possible low potassium intakes should look for multi-vitamin/mineral
supplements which contain some potassium; as potassium chloride, and make an effort to
consume potassium containing foods on a regular basis.
Refer to Part Three for sodium, chloride and potassium dietary reference intakes.

IODINE
Iodine occurs in two thyroid gland hormones: thyroxin (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3).
Iodine is therefore required for the proper function of the thyroid gland, which is essential
for normal metabolism, energy production, growth, integrity of connective tissues, and
overall physical performance. Research supports the adequate daily intake of iodine for
maintenance of overall health and performance. The research does not currently support
mega-dosing iodine for increased performance.
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Deficiency of iodine intake includes: enlarged thyroid gland (goiter); lethargy; weight gain;
dry skin; delayed tendon reflexes; poor concentration; feeling weak. Excessive dietary
iodine intake is rare.
Refer to Part Three for iodine dietary reference intakes.

IRON
Irons well known function is its role as a part of hemoglobin, which is a carrier of oxygen
in the body. Iron also is a constituent of myoglobin and a number of enzymes. Iron stores
mostly occur in the body in bone marrow, the spleen, and the liver. When iron intake is
low, these stores are depleted so that individuals can sustain for a while on a diet low in
iron with out developing anemia. When anemia does occur due to severe depletion, it may
take a long time to reverse the condition. For the athlete, this can be extremely
detrimental.
Dietary surveys have reported many athletes diets being low in iron, particularly, long
distance athletes, athletes on low calorie diets, athletes with poor or inadequate nutrition
habits, and female athletes. Studies support the adequate daily intake of iron for
maintenance of overall health and performance.
Deficiency of iron primarily results in anaemia. Excessive iron intake from the diet is rarely
encountered. Most cases of acute iron poisoning, which can be lethal, occur in children
from accidental ingestion of iron containing supplements. High dosages of iron can cause
abdominal cramping, constipation or diarrhea, and nausea.
Refer to Part Three for iron dietary reference intakes.

MAGNESIUM
The majority of magnesium in the body occurs in the bone, muscles, and soft tissues.
Magnesium has many metabolic and structural roles. It constitutes part of bone and teeth,
plays a role in muscle and nervous system function, activates enzymes, assists calcium
and potassium uptake, assists glycolysis, and aids many biosynthetic processes.
Magnesium is involved in anaerobic and aerobic energy production. Magnesium is
required for maintaining an adequate supply of nucleotide substances required for DNA
and RNA synthesis.
Of particular interest to athletes are the studies reporting that supplementing the diet with
moderate amounts of magnesium improves several athletic performance factors:
enhanced physical endurance and increased strength, for example. Maintenance of bone
tissue is also an important function of magnesium that should not be overlooked. In
addition, Magnesium plays a role in the proper function of skeletal muscle and smooth
muscle tissue. When physical activity is increased, depletion of magnesium is observed,
especially among athletes involved in long distance sports. It is interesting to mention that
low magnesium levels may lead to muscle cramping. When magnesium levels are
reduced, this may cause an increase intracellular calcium. As calcium is involved in
muscle contraction, magnesium depletion may lead to developing muscle cramps, due to
higher rate of calcium influx, so increased muscle cramps may be a possible sign of
inadequate magnesium intake.
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Deficiency of magnesium can include symptoms such as muscle weakness, irritability,


nausea, loss of appetite, cramps, abnormal heat rhythms, and depression. Of interest to
female athletes, studies show that suboptimum intake of magnesium can cause or
increase premenstrual tension and discomfort, which may be corrected with magnesium
supplementation. Excess intake of magnesium to the point of causing side-effects is rare
from food intake. Healthy individuals seem to be able to tolerate magnesium intake well.
Ingesting large amounts of magnesium has a laxative effect, and several laxative products
contain magnesium compounds for this purpose. Individuals with abnormal renal function
can be subject to hypermagnesemia, symptoms of which include depression, nausea,
vomiting, and hypotension.
Refer to Part Three for magnesium dietary reference intakes.

MANGANESE
Manganese is a trace mineral with several important functions. It is required for energy
production, is part of enzymes, aids in bone and connective tissue formation, is part of the
antioxidant superoxide dismutase (SOD), aids in collagen synthesis, and facilitates
carbohydrate metabolism. The role manganese plays in bone and connective tissue
formation, and antioxidant activity are of particular importance to athletes. The strength
and maintenance of bone and connective tissues is essential for athletic performance.
Adequate manganese intake is therefore required. Maintaining the bodys proper supply of
SOD is also an important function linked to manganese. SOD is a powerful antioxidant,
and helps protect the body from free radical damage.
Deficiency of manganese is rarely observed, symptoms include: impaired growth, slowed
finger nail growth, poor bone and connective tissue formation/maintenance, low
superoxide dismutase production, and disturbance of energy metabolism. Because of
manganeses essential role in bone and cartilage formation, and because of its role as a
part of antioxidant SOD, certain degenerative diseases may be caused from inadequate
manganese intake, such as osteoporosis and arthritis. Excessive manganese dietary
intake among humans rarely occurs. Excessive manganese intake may lead to causing
neurological side effects.
Refer to Part Three for manganese dietary reference intakes.

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MOLYBDENUM
Molybdenum is a trace mineral present in enzymes, such as xanthine oxidase, sulfite
oxidase, and aldehyde oxidase. These compounds are involved in energy production,
nitrogen metabolism, and uric acid formation.
Deficiency of molybdenum in the general population has not been reported. Excessive
intake of molybdenum under normal dietary conditions is rare. Side effects have been
reported from ingestion of large amounts of molybdenum, however, reports note that very
high intake of 10 to 15 milligrams per day from food has been reported to possibly
increase uric acid levels. Keep in mind that intake of molybdenum is usually well under 2
milligrams per day.
Refer to Part Three for molybdenum dietary reference intakes.

PHOSPHORUS
Like calcium, phosphorus is an important part of bone and plays several other important
roles in the body, such as energy production. Phosphorus is present in bone, in cellular
fluids as phosphate ion, and in phospholipids, proteins, nucleic acids, ATP, creatine
phosphate, etc. Phosphorus is also involved in cell permeability, metabolism of fats and
carbohydrates, formation of ATP and high energy storage, modulation of enzyme activity,
and phospholipid transport of fatty acid. The chemical energy of the body is stored in high
energy phosphate compounds, like ATP and CP. Phosphorus also plays a role in
collagen synthesis.
Deficiency of phosphorus is rarely seen in adults. It has been observed in cases of
malnutrition and in clinical settings among the ill. Deficiency symptoms over long periods
of time include poor bone formation, poor growth, weakness, anorexia, anemia, rickets,
ataxia, and malaise. Excessive intake of phosphorus has been reported to cause
gastrointestinal upset; and adversely effect calcium metabolism and may lead to stimulate
bone loss.
Refer to Part Three for phosphorus dietary reference intakes.

SELENIUM
Seleniums role in influencing antioxidant activity in the body is well known. Selenium is a
vital component of an antioxidant enzyme called glutathione peroxidase. Glutathione
peroxidase protects the body from free radical damage, in particular hydroperoxides. In
this role as an antioxidant, selenium helps prevent damage to the bodys tissues, cells,
and molecules, which can lead to reduced risk of degenerative diseases like coronary
heart disease, arthritis, and certain cancers. For athletes, protection against free radicals
is important for protection of tissues, shortened recovery times, and protection from the
extra added free radical load caused by strenuous exercise.
Deficiency of selenium is related to causing an endemic cardiomyopathy disease called
Keshan disease, and possibly a musculoskeletal disorder called Kashin-Beck disease.
Inadequate selenium intake is also related to poor immune system function. Excessive

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selenium intake can lead to causing selenosis, which is associated with skin lesions,
neurological effects, gastrointestinal disturbances, and changes in the hair and nails.
Refer to Part Three for selenium dietary reference intakes.

ZINC
In athletic circles, zinc has developed a reputation as one of the primary healing nutrients,
testosterone boosters, and a male fertility nutrient. While zinc has a masculine reputation,
it is essential to both males and females. Zinc has many important metabolic roles in the
body, and is part of various metalloenzymes that play roles in growth, testosterone
production, DNA synthesis, cell replication, fertility, reproduction, and prostate gland
function. Zinc functions as a free ion in cells, as a part of the synthesis of biomolecules,
and as a part of enzymes.
For the athlete, maintaining proper zinc intake is vital, especially for growth and repair of
muscle tissue to meet the recovery demands of training. Dietary surveys on athletes
report that low zinc intake is common. This occurs especially in endurance athletes,
athletes on low calorie diets, strength athletes, bodybuilding athletes, and female athletes.
There are very few studies examining the actual effects of zinc supplementation on
performance, but one study did show increased muscle endurance with zinc
supplemented athletes.
Two other studies examined the effects of zinc supplements used by wrestlers. After 4
weeks, improvements were observed for increasing resting and free testosterone levels,
and increasing thyroid hormone levels. Another wrestler study, reported a positive effect
for hematological parameters, such as improved erythrocyte, leukocyte, and thromocyte
counts and hemoglobin values.
In a study with football players, benefits of ingesting a zinc containing supplement were
also reported. This study used a combination ingredient product, containing zinc,
magnesium and vitamin B6. After the 8 week study period the researcher reported
increases in strength performance, total testosterone levels, free testosterone levels, and
IGF-1 levels. They concluded that the supplement improved anabolic hormone profile and
muscle function in strength-trained varsity collegiate football players.
Deficiency in dietary zinc can cause impaired growth, loss of appetite, skin changes,
disrupted immune system, delayed sexual maturation, night blindness, hair loss,
dermatitis, and impaired healing. These conditions of inadequate zinc intake are obviously
detrimental to athletic performance. Excessive zinc intake can result in adverse effects
such as: lowering of high-density lipoproteins, inhibition of copper absorption, nausea,
gastric distress, headaches, dizziness, abdominal pain, and other metabolic disturbances.
Diets high in protein and fiber can impair zinc absorption. Since athletes are normally on
such diets (either high in protein, fiber, or both), zinc supplementation is a way to ensure
that adequate zinc intake is achieved.
Refer to Part Three for zinc dietary reference intakes.

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CHAPTER 1.8
BOTANICALS, METABOLITES AND OTHER
SPORTS SUPPLEMENT INGREDIENTS
In addition to the macronutrients and traditional micronutrients (vitamins and minerals),
you will encounter a variety of other substances in foods and supplements. These
substances fall into the general categories of botanicals, metabolites and other health and
performance enhancers.

METABOLITES
Metabolites are substances that take part in metabolism. Some are produced in the body
as part of the metabolic process, while others are derived from food sources. Some are
also available in supplemental form, for example creatine, carnitine, Co-Q10 and CLA are
metabolites.
Even though the body is able to make many of these substances, loading up on them
allows athletes to prevent shortages during exercise and to have an immediately available
supply in reserve. Much of the pioneering research to determine which metabolites are
important to athletes was conducted in clinical settings using both individuals with
metabolic disorders and patients recovering from injuries or surgery. The researchers
discovered that the subjects not only overcame their disorders but often went on to attain
a state of health better than what they had started with. Studies conducted with athletes
demonstrated that certain metabolites improve such athletic-performance factors as
strength, agility, speed, and aerobic capacity, in addition to promoting and maintaining
good health.
Metabolites, similar to other ingredients, are available as single-ingredient formulations
and as part of multiple ingredient formulations. They come in tablet, powder, liquid, and
novel food forms.

BOTANICALS
Botanicals is a catch all term for plants. When you start reading about plants used in
supplements and medicine the term herb is primarily used. Technically the term herb
refers to the general characteristic of a certain plant form that is typically non-woody
plants. However, in the botanical world wood and nonwoody plants, and their parts, are
used in supplements. So when you read about botanicals you will encounter a variety of
terms, all relating to the fact that the ingredient(s) are from plants.
The study and the practice of prescribing plants for health and performance is one of the
oldest health sciences. Many plants have powerful components that can be of great
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benefit. In fact, the pharmaceutical industry got its start when druggists began isolating
these components and making them available in their purer forms.
Some plants offer many health and performance benefits, but they must be used with
care. Some plants should be used for only short periods of time, to help heal the body of
an illness or to treat a symptom. Some should not be combined with certain medications
or other plants, since their primary components may interact negatively. Some plants
should be avoided by competitive athletes, since they may contain a substance(s) banned
by sports governing organizations.
Standardizing Botanical Supplements for Consistency
It is often the concern of athletes that not all herbs or herbal products are created equal.
The reason: the chemical composition of plants varies greatly depending on where the
plants were grown, the soil in which they were grown, the weather conditions during their
growing season, and how they were harvested. To provide products with consistent
bioactive content, the processes of concentration and extraction are used. Standardized
botanical ingredients will typically list the amount of the bioactive as a percentage of the
total plant ingredient, and sometimes the amount of botanical bioactives are listed.
Dosages
Similar to the essential nutrients, daily dosages of most metabolite and botanical products
are taken in divided dosages, taken 2, 3, or more times per day. In this way levels of the
bioactives in the body can be sustained for longer periods of time. Some companies offer
sustained release formulas, which are usually taken once or twice a day.

ALKALINIZERS, BLOOD BUFFERS


Most of the research on blood buffers has centered around Sodium Bicarbonate (baking
soda). Many studies have reported ergogenic effects for individuals undergoing repeated
maximum workloads ranging from seconds to several minutes. Studies performed on
sprinters, 800 meter race, and world class rowers have documented the ergogenic effects
of sodium bicarbonate. Large amounts are needed, however. About 0.1 gram is required
for every pound of lean body mass, some studies even used higher dosages. For an
individual with 150 lb. of lean body mass, the amount of sodium bicarbonate would be
approximately 150 times 0.1 grams = 15 grams. Dosage administration depends on
whether or not the individual is subject to possible side effects, such as diarrhea, nausea,
cramps, or flatulence. Most sodium bicarbonate products recommend a maximum daily
dosage of 4 grams per day, so the ergogenic dosages used in athletic research studies
are much higher, and can have adverse effects.
Dosages can be taken on an empty stomach, 1 hour before strenuous activity. If you find
that you suffer gastrointestinal side effects, start 2 hours before your activity and take
dosage with water every 15 minutes. Sodium bicarbonate loading will also load the body
up with a few grams of sodium, so caution should be used by individuals with blood
pressure problems and hypertension. To avoid injury to the gastrointestinal system, make
sure the powder is completely dissolved, and do not take sodium bicarbonate when you
are overly full. Do not take sodium bicarbonate for more than a few days at a time. Sodium
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bicarbonate is also considered an antacid, which may interact with other drugs. Consult
your doctor immediately if gastrointestinal pain and discomfort persist. Use of blood
buffers is considered experimental.

BETA-HYDROXY BETA-METHYLBUTYRATE (BHMB or HMB)


BHMB is metabolite supplement that gained immediate popularity and use in weight lifting
and bodybuilding circles from initial research reporting increased strength and lean body
mass when taken as part of a resistance training program. BHMB is made in the body
from the amino acid Leucine.
A research review conducted in 2003 reported that creatine was most effective in
producing significant gains in lean body mass and strength with resistance training.
However, the research review also reported that BHMB produced gains lean body mass
and net strength gains that were less then those produced by creatine, but were also
significant when compared to a placebo. Another study reported that an additive effect
when creatine and BHMB was taken together. According to most studies, 3 grams per day
is the most commonly used effective dosage producing measurable improvements, with a
range of 1.5 to 5 grams per day depending on activity level, body weight, and combination
with other ingredients. Note that BHMB is not a replacement for leucine, as leucine is an
indispensable amino acid with many important essential functions including making BHMB
in the body.

BIOFLAVONOIDS
This is a group of naturally occurring plant compounds primarily with antioxidant action.
Bioflavonoids are part of a larger group of plant compounds, called flavonoids. Flavonoids
that influence the human body in some way are called Bioflavonoids. There are
thousands of them, and researchers are confirming the many benefits bioflavonoids have
to offer in improving health and performance. They have been proven to strengthen
capillary walls and thereby prevent capillary damage. Bioflavonoids may also have an
anti-inflammatory effect and show anticataract activity. Bioflavonoids exhibit antioxidant
activity and prevent destruction of vitamin C by converting its less active form,
dehydroascorbate.
The major bioflavonoids found in supplements are: Rutin, Hesperidin, Citrus, Quercetin,
Flavones, Flavonols, and polyphenols for example. Quercetin is well studied for its ability
to reduce inflammation as well as reduce LDL oxidation; a benefit common among the
bioflavonoids. Hesperidin also helps lower LDL and triglycerides, and raise HDL (the good
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lipoproteins). Hesperidin also has anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. Some new
types of bioflavonoid ingredients appearing on the shelves in the late 1990s include: the
polyphenol epigallocatechin gallate in green tea, which prevents the oxidation of LDL
cholesterol, has anticancer properties, stimulates thermogenesis, and improves
circulation; soy flavonoids (isoflavones) genistein and daidzein, which are powerful
antioxidants and cancer inhibitors - lowering risks for breast and prostate cancer;
anthocyanidins found in many plants; curcuminoids in turmeric which exert antiinflammatory and antimicrobial effects; ginkgoflavon-glycosides which improve blood flow
to the brain; silymarin which acts as an antioxidant and helps protect the liver while
boosting the immune response.
In general terms, bioflavonoids are the brightly colored chemical constituents found in
most fresh fruit, vegetables and herbs; for example, citrus fruits, grapes, plums, apricots,
cherries, blackberries, rose hips, leaves, broccoli, greens, soy products, and grains.
Ergogenic effects of bioflavonoids are beginning to be reported in the research. The main
ingredient in chocolate and many chocolate flavorings, cocoa, also contains the beneficial
bioflavonoids. So that chocolate flavored sports nutrition drink or bar will be a source of
beneficial bioflavonoids.
The benefits listed above clearly make this group of plant compounds a must in your daily
nutrition plan. Bioflavonoids have been noted to improve recovery and provide nutritional
support for athletes recovering from injury. Daily recommended supplement amounts
range from 200 milligrams to 2 grams depending on the product and types of
bioflavonoids. Maintaining dietary intake of a mixture of the different bioflavonoids is a
primary goal, with extra amounts of specific bioflavonoids when certain benefits are
desired. Refer to manufactures instructions on dosages. Higher amounts of bioflavonoid
intake are usually indicated when under the stress of intensive training or healing an
injury.

CAFFEINE
Caffeine is a naturally occurring compound that belongs to a group of substances called
methylxanthines. It is found in coffee, tea, chocolate, cola, and botanical supplement
products, such as, guarana, yerba mate, and green tea. Although caffeine is naturally
occurring, it is also synthesized, and sold as nonprescription drug, as an alertness aid and
stimulant.

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Caffeine has several main effects that are desirable, it increases alertness by stimulating
the nervous system; it acts as a mild diuretic; it simulates cardiac muscle tissue; it
increases lipolysis; increases physical activity, and it stimulates thermogenic activity.
Almost the entire world relies on a daily caffeinated beverage to get the day started.
However, for the athlete, caffeine offers much more than a good morning drink. Studies
clearly show that intakes of caffeine can have beneficial effects on performance, in
particular endurance. Caffeine tends to increase the use of fatty acids for energy, which in
turn has a glycogen sparing effect. Caffeine as a nervous system stimulant provides a
mental boost to help the athlete through rigorous training sessions. Research even shows
that caffeine can increase the rate of fat loss. The military is a big proponent of the use of
caffeine for enhancing or sustaining physical and cognitive performance. Use of caffeine
was even reported to increase the time to exercise exhaustion at high altitudes, at 4,300
meters.
For competitive athletes, it is also important to be aware that some sports organizations
ban the use of caffeine in certain sports, at certain blood levels. Users of caffeine also
need to make sure to consume extra water to offset the potential mild diuretic effects.
Due to the combination of effects caffeine has on the body, it is also used as a weight loss
aid. Caffeine has thermogenics effects, increasing the calorie expenditure rate, and
promotes the use of fatty acids for energy. The mild diuretic effect may help reduce water
retention. The stimulatory effects provide a mental energy boost that some dieters find
useful to offset the mental energy drain that may occur while on a reduced calorie diet
plan.
Caffeine primarily works by stimulating the nervous system to increase production of
excitatory neurotransmitters. If an individual takes too much caffeine, or takes it for
prolonged periods of time, the precursor nutrients that produce these excitatory
neurotransmitters become depleted, and cause a mentally burned out feeling. Caffeines
diuretic affects are most detrimental to endurance athletes.
Caffeine should be used sparingly by athletes until the individual athlete determines the
exact performance enhancing effects it has for them. Caffeine can be used periodically to
provide a mental boost to enhance workouts. Also, some studies indicate that heavy
caffeine intake, for long periods of time, may deplete the body of calcium, therefore
adequate calcium intake is mandatory and heavy caffeine use should be avoided for this
and other reasons. As an ergogenic aid taken before competition, you first have to check
on the legality of caffeine in your sport.
While individual dosage will vary, researchers recommend 200 to 600 milligrams (about 3
to 5 cups of coffee) about 1 hour before competition, but make certain that you are well
hydrated to offset any diuretic effects of caffeine. Also, note that studies indicate that
caffeine may reduce the strength improving effectiveness of creatine. In strength athletes,
caffeine may slow down the muscle contraction cycle, and actually reduce strength
potential. Competitive athletes must make an effort to evaluate the health and athletic
performance effects caffeine has on an individual basis. The nonprescription drug use of
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caffeine is 100 to 200 milligrams, every 3 to 4 hours, for occasional use. Common side
effects are nervousness, irritability, sleeplessness, and rapid heart beat. Caffeine intake
less than 300 milligrams per day, from ingestion of a few to several cups of coffee or tea,
spread out over the day, can reduce or eliminate the potential dehydrating effects.
Caution: The potential down side of caffeine is it may cause dependency and alter your
physiology. Also, caffeine can be lethal at high acute dosages, over 10 grams for adults
and a lower acute dose for children. So make sure you keep your caffeine containing
products away from children. Significant mild side effects in adults are reported to be
observed with acute dosages starting at about 1 gram.

CARNITINE / Acetyl-L-Carnitine
Carnitine is made by the body and its primary role is the transportation of fatty acids in to
mitochondria. The effectiveness of carnitine in various research has been so impressive
that it is now considered to be a conditionally essential nutrient, meaning that the body
can benefit from supplemental intake, as the bodys intake may not be adequate for
optimal health and function. Carntines primary role is in the mitochondria of cells, where it
moves fatty acids into the mitochondria to be used for energy.
Research has demonstrated certain athletic performance improvements with carnitine
supplementation. Athletic benefits include increased endurance, improved VO2 max,
reduced lactate levels during exercise, and improved anaerobic strength output. Studies
support the use of carnitine supplementation for intensively training, competitive athletes,
primarily endurance activities lasting over several minutes. However, benefits for strength
athletes has been reported, in particular during weight lifting exercise. In addition to lactate
reduction, improved recovery potential after resistance training from carnitine
supplementation has been reported.
Carnitine is also useful in increasing the rate of fat loss by increasing the rate of fat used
for energy; carnitine encourages the body to use more fat for energy. So as part of a
reduced calorie diet, carnitine can increase the rate of fat loss in some people. There is
also a variety of health promoting effects from taking carnitine supplements, including
heart health, mental wellness, healthy aging, and increased male fertility.
With all of the reported research proven health, healing and performance benefits
carnitine has to offer, the decision to declare carnitine a conditionally essential nutrient
was a good one. Carnitine supplementation of 1 to 3 grams per day is reported to yield
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performance enhancing results, taken starting at least several weeks before competition.
Carnitine loading 2 to 5 grams per day, one to two weeks before events can also be
tested. Both endurance and strength athletes can benefit from using carnitine
supplementation, the L-carnitine form is the bioactive form used in supplements. Carnitine
occurs in supplements in a few forms, L-Carnitine Fumarate and Acetyl-L-Carnitine are
high quality forms used in supplements. By adding the acetyl compound to L-Carnitine it
improves its ability to be taken up and used in various tissues, such as the brain. Using
the combination of these two forms can result in greater distribution to all of the tissues in
the body.

COENZYME Q10 (UBIQUINONE)


CoQ10 has a history of use in clinical application for people suffering from cardiovascular
disorders. Its safety and effectiveness are well established, and studies on athletes report
ergogenic effects, such as improved physical performance in endurance events. CoQ10 is
a coenzyme found in every cells mitochondria, and plays a role in oxidative energy
production of the high energy molecule ATP. CoQ10 is also reported to have antioxidant
abilities. Much research has also been conducted using CoQ10 supplementation to
improve heart function
There have been a number of studies reporting benefits of CoQ10 supplement use for
improving endurance type exercise and athletic performance. However, similar to some of
the other metabolites, the results of the studies have reported either a significant benefit or
neutral results when compared to a placebo; which means CoQ10 may or may not
produce significant improvements in athletic performance. So for long distance athletes
CoQ10 may provide an added boost in athletic performance. Athletes choosing to test
CoQ10 supplements for athletic performance should keep good records of their athletic
performance to determine if measurable benefits are occurring. Depending on the
persons CoQ10 status, it may take a few to several weeks for performance enhancing
benefits to occur. Endurance ergogenic dosages range from 60 milligrams to 300
milligrams per day. Lower dosages are typically used in multiple ingredient supplement,
primarily for CoQ10s antioxidant properties for promoting health.

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CREATINE
Creatine has been used nutritionally to increase the amount of creatine and high energy
creatine phosphate in muscle tissue. Creatine is present in food and is manufactured in
the body. It occurs in animal products, such as meat and fish. One pound of raw steak
contains about 2 grams creatine. But, it should be noted that cooking will convert the
creatine into its creatinine, which is quickly excreted from the kidneys. Creatine
monohydrate is the form used most in clinical studies and proven over and over again to
promote significant muscle building and strength performance benefits.
In the body, creatine is made from the amino acids glycine, arginine and methionine.
Normal daily dietary creatine requirements are estimated at 2 grams per day, in nonathletic individuals. ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and CP (creatine phosphate or
phosocreatine) are stored in muscle cells and function as a pool of immediate energy.
The bigger the amounts in the muscles, the more the muscle can lift and perform short
term maximum strength performance. CP is used to quickly replenish ATP in fast twitch
glycolytic muscle fibers. This process takes only a fraction of a second. Continued high
intensity levels of performance cause fatigue to set in from metabolic waste products.
Creatine loading can therefore result in improving training intensity and recovery in
anaerobic sports by loading up the muscles resting reserve of creatine phosphate. In other
words, the more creatine and creatine phosphate the muscles have on hand, the more
ATP can be replenished during bursts of all out effort. Of the dozens of studies conducted
using creatine supplementation during the 1990s to present, improvements in strength
performance were observed mostly in sports that exhibited all out effort for under 30
seconds. For example, creatine supplementation improved performance in weightlifting,
powerlifting, football, short duration track and field events (sprinting, jumping, throwing,
etc.), vertical jump performance, 300 meter sprint, and short rowing events. Increases in
VOmax has been observed in a limited number of studies on untrained and moderately
active individuals. Also, the most consistent effect of taking creatine is an increase in lean
body mass which has made creatine popular among bodybuilders and other athletes
wanting to increase muscle mass and body weight.
One thing is clear from all of this research, if you are exercising to improve strength,
muscle mass and physical performance, creatine works to enhance these effects more
significantly. The most recent research also reports that athletes taking creatine are

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actually reported to reduce the risk of all injuries, including muscle cramps when
compared to taking a placebo.
The following tables provide an overview of creatine benefits and creatine usage
guidelines. Like the other nutrients, taking creatine on a consistent basis, in divided
dosages 2 or more times a day will help provide the body and muscle tissues with a
constant supply.
If your meal intake is timed correctly around your workouts, then taking creatine around
mealtime will be sufficient as reviewed in the table. As indicated in the table, creatine can
be combined with other nutrients and metabolites, like vitamins, minerals, protein, BCAAs
and glutamine. Also, creatine monohydrate has the most research studies backing its
effectiveness.
The appendix includes the reprint of a Creatine Super-Feature if you are interested in
learning about this most effective substance and related exercise physiology and nutrition
topics.

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Summary of Beneficial Effects of Creatine Monohydrate Supplementation


This table includes a summary of the major conclusions about how creatine monohydrate
supplementation improves body composition, physiology, physical performance and athletic
performance.
Body Composition and
Athletic Performance Related
Athletic Performance
Physiology Related
Improvements
Improvements Sports
Improvements
Reported In Research Studies:
-Improves rate of training induced
-Promotes greater gains in
Bodybuilding
gains.
increasing FFM (Fat Free Mass,
Football
-Improves maximal strength and
which includes muscle mass).
Handball / Squash
power about 15%.
-Increases muscle fiber size
- Improves work performed during Hockey
(hypertrophy).
Military Performance
maximal effort muscle
-Increases muscle mass.
Powerlifting
contractions about 15%.
-Increases myosin muscle fiber
Softball / Baseball
- Improves anaerobic power.
content.
Soccer
-Improves single-effort sprint
- Improves strength training
Sprint running
performance about 5%.
adaptations.
Sprint cycling
- Improves multiple sprint
- Improves limb blood flow.
Sprint rowing
performance.
- Reduced ammonia levels.
Weightlifting
-Improves work performed during
- Reduced lactate levels.
Wrestling
repetitive sprint performance
- Raises lactate threshold.
about 15%.
- Reduces cholesterol levels.
Sports In Which Improvements
-Improves performance during
- Reduces homocysteine levels.
are Expected Due to the Bioexercise of high to maximal
- Increases in muscle satellite
energetic Nature of the Sport:
intensity.
cells (muscle fiber precursor
- Sports involving short-term
- Increased number of
cells).
sustained or periodic maximum
weightlifting repetitions.
effort strength and power, such
- Increased number of
Benefits have been measured in
as:
weightlifting sets.
men and women; young and old
Basketball
- Greater gains in vertical jump
(teenagers to over 70 years of
Bobsledding
height and power.
age); inactive, active and athletic
- Increased 1 repetition maximum. -Bowling
individuals.
Boxing
- Increased peak force.
Canoeing / Kayaking
- Increased peak power.
Note: creatine supplementation
- Reduction of athletic injury rates, Curling
has not been shown to increase
Decathlon
such as: reduced muscle
long-term endurance physical /
Fencing
cramping, reduced dehydration,
sport / exercise performance.
Golf
reduced muscle tightness,
Other supplements, such as
ice Skating
reduced muscle pulls, reduced
carnitine, certain carbohydrates,
Lacrosse
muscle strains, reduced joint
etc. have been reported to
Martial Arts
injuries, reduced contact injuries,
stimulate significant
Rodeo
reduced illness, reduced number
improvements.
of missed practices, and reduction Skiing, downhill
Tennis
in total injuries during the season.
Track and Field events that utilize
anaerobic energy systems, such
as shot put, high jump, long jump,
etc.

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CREATINE DOSING & USE GUIDE SUMMARY


Use under medical supervision for safe and effective results. For healthy individuals only, who are
engaged in strength training, muscle building and strength sport training and competition season.
Individual results will vary.
Preferred Creatine Type: Creatine Monohydrate powder or chewable tablets.
Use only high quality research grade / pharmaceutical grade creatine, which are guaranteed free from
impurities, such as dicyandiamide, dihydrotriazine, and creatinine. (note: quality results require a quality
product, like Higher Power Creatine.)
Creatine Dosing:
20 grams per day, less
Ingest in 4 to 6 divided
Optional. Consumption
Loading Phase (based
than 200 pounds ideal
dosages each day.
of a glucose beverage
on ideal body weight.)
body weight
with or upto 30 minutes
Take 60 to 30 minutes
after creatine
Duration of Use: 7
25 grams per day, 200
before meals.
consumption.
days.
pounds to 300 pounds
ideal body weight
Or take with meals if
Can also take a creatine
gastrointestinal upset is
combination product that
30 grams per day, over
experienced. If
includes glucose,
300 pounds ideal body
gastrointestinal upset
protein, amino acids,
weight
persists, reduce the daily vitamins, minerals, and
other sports nutrition
dosage to the
maintenance dose
ingredients. Such as
regimen, realizing that it
Explosive Growth
Blend
will take a few weeks
longer to achieve
increased creatine body
Avoid mixing acidic
levels that will result in
beverages with creatine.
the desired benefits.
Creatine Dosing:
at least 5 grams per day, Ingest in 2 or more
Can also take a creatine
Maintenance Phase
less than 200 pounds
divided dosages each
combination product that
(based on ideal body
ideal body weight
day.
includes glucose,
weight)
protein, amino acids,
at least 7 grams per day, Take 60 to 30 minutes
vitamins, minerals, and
Duration of Use: up to
200 pounds to 300
before meals.
other sports nutrition
4 months. Followed by
pounds ideal body
ingredients.
4 or more weeks of
weight
Or take with meals if
non-creatine use. Then
gastrointestinal upset is
Avoid mixing acidic
repeat
at least 10 grams per
experienced.
beverages with creatine.
loading/maintenance
day, over 300 pounds
regimen as required by ideal body weight
your training and
competition schedule
Note: taking creatine with whey protein supplements can significantly improve the benefits. Use a product
that contains whey protein isolate for best results. Try Explosive Growth Blend, which is over 20 of the
most effective muscle building products in one convenient formula made using proprietary SynerBlend
technology. This will get you the best results for less money.
Keep a high quality container of pure creatine in your supplement cabinet to use for loading and
maintenance and if you want to increase the creatine content of your protein powder or other sports nutrition
supplement. For example, Higher Powers Creatine
Preparation: the best preparation method is dissolving creatine monohydrate powder in to water.
Pure creatine monohydrate has a solubility of about 7 to 8 grams in 500 ml of water. Warmer water can
dissolve more creatine per ml of water. Consume your creatine solution after mixing the powder into the
solution. High quality creatine should easily dissolve. A poor dissolving creatine product is a sign that it
might not be high quality. Creatine can also be mixed with non-acidic beverages, like milk.
Creatine monohydrate can be taken with other supplements, such as vitamins and minerals, protein powders, etc, or as
part of a complex supplement formula where creatine monohydrate is one of the ingredients. The most important factor to
taking creatine is to be consistent and take it on a regular basis. It takes several days for the muscle cells to increase total
creatine and creatine phosphate levels, and using the maintenance dose every day keeps the muscle tissue levels
saturated.
Avoid continuous and high caffeine consumption while taking creatine supplements. Also avoid or minimize alcohol
consumption during training and competition seasons; alcohol interferes with protein synthesis, promotes dehydration,
and causes cellular damage.
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DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE (DHEA)
DHEA entered the dietary supplement market first as a longevity substance, then to
promote increases in testosterone levels, which then attracted use by athletes. Due to
DHEAs association with testosterone production, it has attracted much attention from
sports organizations. DHEA is not an anabolic steroid. However, DHEA may be banned by
your sports governing organization.
Like other substances in the body used to make steroid hormones, such as cholesterol,
DHEAs primary role is as a building block of testosterone, estrogen and other steroid type
hormones. It occurs in the body as DHEA and DHEA-sulfate (DHEA-S). Either form has
the potential to be used to make testosterone and estrogens. Whether DHEA actually
results in increasing the production of testosterone or estrogens depends on the bodys
own DHEA production.
In general, DHEA production starts to increase during puberty and peaks in the mid-20s.
After 30, DHEA production and levels can start to slow, and continue to decline as aging
progresses. The general trend reported in research studies is that older people, with lower
DHEA levels respond more significantly to DHEA supplementation. However,
responsiveness will ultimately depend on your DHEA status at any age. As women
produce less DHEA, they are usually more responsive to DHEA supplementation, in
addition to males who have lower than average DHEA levels.
Some of the benefits of taking DHEA supplements, primarily in older people, include:
reducing body fat; maintaining or increasing lean body mass; promoting healthy immune
function; improving mood; improving sleep; maintaining bone health or even increasing
bone density; improved glucose metabolism. For women, additional benefits can include
easing / reducing menopausal symptoms.
Dosages used in studies generally range from 25 milligrams per day to 200 milligrams per
day, or higher; with women using dosages in the low end of the range, usually 50
milligrams per day or lower. The effects of long-term DHEA use are unknown. Based on
studies of short duration, a few to several months, side effects are usually mild and
reversible, and include decline in HDL cholesterol and acne or oily skin. However,
additional side effects for women can be more significant and include, breast tenderness;
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reversible hirsuitism (facial hair growth). Even though DHEA has been sold as a
supplement for many years and has a good safety record, the only real way to confirm
safe and proper use is under doctor supervision. Also, men and women who are at risk of
hormone dependent cancers should avoid using DHEA.

ECHINACEA (Echinacea purpurea, E. angustifolia)


Echinacea is a well establish botanical that stimulates the immune system. Its main active
ingredients found listed on supplement labels of standardized echniacea extracts are
phenolics, echinacosides, or sesquiterpene esters, standardized to about 4%. Taking 200
to 400 mg, 2 to 3 times per day is an effective dosage for stimulating the immune system.
Stimulation of the immune system is useful for the treatment of colds and flu, and
symptoms. Some recent research performed on athletes in the early part to the athletic
season, show that athletes taking Echinacea experienced fewer upper respiratory
infections when compared to athletes not taking Echinacea. So, using a high quality
Echinacea botanical supplement may help to reduce your sick days. Echinacea is taken in
intervals of 14 to 21 days at a time with several days off, then the cycle is repeated, as to
not over stimulate the immune system all of the time.

FERULIC ACID (FRAC) GAMMA ORYZANOL


Gamma oryzanol is a substance extracted from rice bran oil which has been reported to
promote a variety of metabolic effects, including: increased endorphin release, antioxidant
action, lipotropic action, stress reduction, growth hormone stimulation, growth, and
recovery. Ferulic acid is actually a part of the gamma oryzanol molecule that is also
available as a supplement. Improvements include: increased strength, improved recovery,
reduced muscle soreness, reduced sensation of fatigue, and decreased catabolic effects
of cortisol. Dosages of 30 milligrams to 200 milligrams of ferulic acid per day, and/or 300
to 900 milligrams of gamma oryzanol per day have been reported as having no major side
effects. While research is sparse, athletes report beneficial results from the supplemental
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use of gamma oryzanol and ferulic acid. Ferulic Acid is reported to be about 30 times
more bioavailable then gamma oryzanol. Some research also reports the combined use of
ferulic acid and anabolic steroids, with ferulic acid boosting the overall anabolic effects.

GARCINIA (Garcinia cambogia)


The primary active ingredient in Garcinia is called hydroxycitric acid (HCA). HCA is
reported to block an enzyme in your liver that converts carbohydrates to fatty acids in your
body. This means that more carbohydrates will be available for cellular energy. Most
supplements contain Garcinia which is standardized to an HCA content between 50% to
80%. Dosages found to be effective are 500 mg to 1000 mg, 3 times per day before
meals. Garcinia is primarily used as a weight loss aid. Standardized Garcinia extract is
also reported to control appetite, along with suppressing the formation of fat and
cholesterol in the liver. No major side effects reported from taking Garcinia supplements at
common dosage level used in studies.

GINKGO (Ginkgo biloba)


Ginkgo is another botanical with reported benefits for improving and maintaining good
circulation, and also mental function. This would be of special interest to endurance
athletes. High quality ginkgo supplements are standardized to 24% flavone glycosides and
6% terpenes. The effect dosage range is 40 mg to 200 mg per day, in divided dosages,
but 120 mg per day is the most common. Ginkgo also has powerful antioxidant activity
which will help protect athletes from free radical damage, especially oxygen free radicals.
No known major side effects have been reported from using product recommended
dosages, but people on anticoagulant therapy should be cautioned about possible blood
thinning effects.

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GINSENGS
There are several types of ginseng that have been in use for thousands of years as an
overall promoter of good health and improved energy. The types of ginseng primarily
found in supplements are: Chinese Ginseng (Panax ginseng), American Ginseng (Panax
quinquefolius), and the related species, Siberian Ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus),
also referred to as Ciwujia. Herbalists report that American ginseng is less stimulatory.
Chinese ginseng and Siberian ginseng are the ones most researched and used for
improving athletic performance.
The primary active components of ginseng are a group of sponin compounds called
ginsenosides/panaxosides, and eleutherosides in Siberian Ginseng. Ginseng also
contains the trace mineral, germanium, which has been shown to exhibit overall health
effects, and increase the bodys supply of oxygen. Ginsengs also contain other
substances, including botanical antioxidants.
Some of the benefits reported in the research include:
Improved physical performance
Improved oxygen uptake
Improved post exercise recovery
Improved exercise total workload
Improved aerobic capacity
Improved strength performance
Increased time to exhaustion
Reduction of lactate levels during exercise
Improved VO2 max
Reduced body fat
Increased fatty acid utilization for energy
Improved heart rate recovery

Improved mental performance


Improved visual reaction time
Improved psychomotor performance
Reduced feelings of fatigue
Improved visual reaction times
Improved recall
Improved alertness
Improved motor skill coordination
Improved auditory reaction time
Decreased eye strain

Research results report a range of results from neutral to very significant improvements.
When you add up the results from the dozens of research studies, one thing is certain,
taking ginseng provides some level of benefit for improved physical and or mental
performance. (Refer to the Rhodiola section below, for information on this related
compound and overview of adaptogens.)
When using ginseng, look for standardized preparations, 2 to 4% standardized ginseng
products are a common standard. Ginseng products range from single ingredient to
multiple ingredient. Chinese Ginseng combined with royal jelly is a traditional combination
for energy. Siberian ginseng has been the favorite of Russian athletes, who are reported
to use it regularly. Chinese ginseng is also widely used and well researched. Another
researched combination is ginseng with ginkgo. Dosages of ginseng range between 100
milligrams to 1 gram per day during the season and pre-season, and as needed during the
off season. Ginseng is also found in some good quality sports multi-vitamin/mineral
supplements which offers convenience. Endurox is an example of a popular brand of
Siberian Ginseng, proven effective in clinical studies.

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GLUCOSAMINE AND CHONDROITIN SULFATE (CS)


In the body there are several types of connective tissues. Cartilage, tendons, ligaments,
intervertebral discs, pads between joints, and cellular membranes all are comprised of
connective tissue. All connective tissues have two common components, chief of which is
collagen. One third of your bodys total protein volume is comprised of collagen, making it
the most common protein in the body. The other component is proteoglycans (PGs). PGs
form the framework for collagenous tissue.
These huge structural macromolecules are comprised mainly of glycosaminoglycans
(GAGs) -- long chains of modified sugars. The principal sugar in PGs is called hyaluronic
acid, 50% of which is comprised of glucosamine. The principal amino acids forming
collagen are proline, glycine, and lysine. Collagen and PGs must somehow get together
during the production of new connective tissue. Of the multitude of biochemical reactions
which must take place during the synthesis of connective tissue, there is one critical ratelimiting step which, once reached, guarantees that new connective tissue is being
successfully synthesized. That rate-limiting step is the conversion of glucose to
glucosamine.
Glucosamine is the single most important substance in the synthesis of connective tissue.
Over thirty years of research has gone into understanding how glucosamine acts as the
precursor of GAG synthesis. Glucosamine is so effective it repairs connective tissue, and
may very well be a way to reduce the risk of conncective tissues problems from occurring
in the first place by maintaining adequate connective tissues in your body. In human
clinical trials, glucosamine given orally in doses of 750-1500 milligrams daily was
observed to initiate a reversal of connective tissue degeneration, promote connective
tissue maintenance, and also pain in the knee of athletes. Glucosamine as a supplement
clearly aids in connective tissue synthesis. All athletes need such a substance, as the
repair and growth of connective tissue is never-ending. Research has confirmed that both
glucosamine HCl and glucosamine sulfate are effective.
Similar to glucosamine, chondroitin sulfate has been tested in humans as a promoter of
connective tissue maintenance, growth and repair. It is important to note that both
glucosamine and CS are effective on their own. Recent research has found that when
taken together they have a synergistic effect. One issue with CS is the high quality,
standardized raw material is several times more expensive than glucosamine, and
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unstandardized powdered forms of CS. So, glucosamine tends to be a cost effective


approach to promote connective health. For people who do not respond to glucosamine
supplementation after 3 months of use, they should consider also using CS along with the
glucosamine. A special research report is included in the appendix section of this book
that reviews the various benefits that glucosamine and CS have to offer, from young
athletes on up.

GREEN TEA (Camellia sinensis)


Green tea extract is another botanical ingredient that you will find in sports nutrition
products, also weight loss products. Its main function is as a powerful antioxidant. Recent
research has determined that the polyphenols in green tea have a thermogenic effect,
which increases the bodys calorie expenditure rate and also causes more fats to be used
for energy. Green tea also has a mild stimulatory action, due to caffeine content. High
quality green tea products are standardized to 50% to 90% catechins/polyphenols
(epigallocatechin gallate is a primary green tea polyphenol). Green tea also has
cardiovascular health and function benefits, helping to maintain the structure and function
of the circulatory system. Depending on the potency of the standardized green tea extract,
the beneficial dosage range is starting at 50 mg to 500 mg per day, or even higher. Some
green tea extracts contain caffeine and some are decaffeinated. You can also derive the
health benefits of green tea by drinking several cups of plain, fresh brewed green tea per
day.

LIPOIC ACID
Lipoic acid (alpha-Lipoic Acid or thioctic acid) is a substance made in the body, and
functions as an antioxidant. Lipoic acid also interacts with some of the other nutrient and
manufactured antioxidants to promote their function in the body, such as vitamin C,
vitamin E, coenzyme Q10 and glutathione. Animals studies revealed that lipoic acid
displayed a glucose uptake effect, thereby enhancing transport of glucose into the cells.
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The combined effects lead to exploring the therapeutic potential of using lipoic acid for
improving certain conditions associated with type-2 diabetes. Initial studies discovered
that lipoic acid seems to increase insulin mediated glucose uptake. Diabetics sometimes
develop problems with their nervous system, called diabetic neuropathy, nerve disorders
that can lead to causing pain, numbness, and muscle weakness. Oxidation stress is
considered to be a contributing factor in causing the neuropathy. Some of the benefits
reported from the research studies of diabetics taking lipoic acid include: improvement of
neuropathic symptoms (reduction in nerve damage and pain), reduction of free radicals,
enhancing glucose uptake,
So, now lipoic acid is now being used by some athletes as an "insulin mimicker or helper"
because it was shown in diabetic studies to help with the utilization of blood glucose,
which may also help the body build muscle glycogen. As lipoic acid is a powerful
antioxidant, supplemental use was shown to help protect the red blood cells and fatty
acids from the type of oxidative damage caused by intensive training.
Studies examining the effects of lipoic acid use by athletes are required to determine the
specific performance enhancing benefits. One study published in 2003 reported the
results of comparing the use of creatine monohydrate 20 grams per day; or creatine
monohydrate 20 grams per day plus sucrose 100 grams per day, or creatine monohydrate
20 grams per day plus sucrose 100 grams per day plus lipoic acid 1000 milligrams per day
for 5 days. Body weight increased about 2.1% for all of the groups, which confirms the
effectiveness of creatine monohydrate. While the researchers did not detect any
difference in increased body weight between the treatment groups, they did report a
greater increase in phosphocreatine and total creatine muscle content. However, this did
not seem to effect the outcome of increasing body weight, which was the same for all
treatment groups. Perhaps future studies will examine if there are any different
performance effects between the treatments.
Lipoic acid is used in a wide range of dosages in products. Dosages of 300 to 600
milligrams per day are in a range of effectiveness based on clinical studies. However,
some studies used even higher dosages. As lipoic acid has antioxidant effects, it is
sometimes included in multi-ingredient products at lower dosages to contribute to the total
antioxidant action. Lipoic acid is reported to be relatively safe in studies using 600
milligrams or lower. An infrequent allergic skin reaction is a rare side effect, including rash,
hives and itching. A potential side effect is hypoglycemia base on the improved glucose
uptake reported in some studies.

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MELATONIN
Melatonin is another metabolite substance produced by the body. Melatonin supplements
have not been shown in any tests to directly improve athletic performance, but it has been
shown to indirectly improve performance by stimulating certain bodily processes. As
melatonin causes deep restful sleep, during quality sleep growth hormone, IGF, and
testosterone levels are increased, which promote muscle growth and repair. Additionally,
the deep sleep reduces cortisol levels, so the melatonin promoted deep sleep has
beneficial anti-catabolic effects, as well as anabolic effects.
According to several studies, it helps people fall asleep quicker, stay asleep, and enjoy a
more restful sleep. Furthermore, it does this without causing sleep hangover, which is an
after effect of most sleep medications. Researchers have determined that when the sun
sets, the bodys melatonin level begins to rise. At dawn, the bodys melatonin begins to
drop again. There are times, however, when the bodys natural melatonin production may
be upset. Traveling across time zones disrupts melatonin production, causing what is
commonly known as jet lag.
Nervousness before an important athletic event affects melatonin production, as does the
stress of training. Staying up late to study for a test, catch up on work, reading or watching
television can also be disruptive because, according to researchers, lamplight may be
enough to suppress proper melatonin production. Millions of people have been using
supplemental melatonin during the past few years with no apparent side effects.
The amounts typically used successfully in studies for short-term use have ranged from
0.5 milligrams to 6 milligrams per day, although up to 10 milligrams per day is sometimes
recommended. However, until researchers determine the effects of long-term
supplemental use of melatonin, use only when needed for short periods of time, several
days up to 4 weeks. For safest use consult your doctor before using, as there are some
potential side effects, including incompatibility with drugs and for people with certain
conditions and also, disturbed sleep could be a symptom of a disease. Some potential use
concerns include people with hormonal disorders, diabetes, liver disease, cerebral palsy,
seizure disorders, migraine, depression, hypertension, and may be incompatible with
immunosuppressive, sedative and hypnotic medications. As melatonin causes sleepiness,
avoid driving, operating machinery or similar activities for at least 5 hours after taking
melatonin.

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PROTEOLYTIC ENZYMES IMPROVE INJURY HEALING


Athletic injuries cause setbacks in training and downtime during the season. Because of
this, in the 1960s, a number of scientists looked for natural products that can help improve
the rate of injury healing. In animal studies, the use of proteolytic enzymes was shown to
reduce the inflammation associated with injuries and to shorten healing time. Subsequent
studies conducted in hospitals and using injured people, surgery patients, and women
who had given birth also demonstrated that proteolytic enzymes can help quicken the
healing process.
In 1967, P. S. Boyne and H. Medhurst applied these clinically verified benefits to athletes
on the playing field. In a landmark study, they gave a proteolytic-enzyme concentrate
(containing trypsin and chymotrypsin) to football (soccer) players from twenty-eight
professional teams. The tablets were enteric coated, enabling them to pass through the
stomach and not be digested until entering the intestines, since it had been learned in
animal studies that the acidic stomach environment decreases the amount of proteolytic
enzymes absorbed into the body by altering the enzymes chemically. During the study
periods, any athlete who sustained a significant injury was immediately given two
proteolytic-enzyme tablets, followed by two tablets at bedtime. The injured athlete then
continued to take four tablets daily, in divided dosages, a half hour before meals, until he
recovered from his injury and was able to return to training. At the end of the football
(soccer) season, Drs. Boyne and Mehurst determined that less playing time had been lost
per player when the injured players were given the proteolytic-enzyme product as
compared to the previous season, when the proteolytic-enzyme product had not been
given. In other words, the proteolytic-enzyme product reduced the amount of time it took
to recover from injury and return to training.
Other researchers reported similar results when using proteolytic-enzyme preparations to
help quicken injury-recovery time. The benefits to the healing process include improved
blood flow to the injured area, reduced inflammation, reduced edema, and improved
flexibility and motility. Along with the proteolytic enzymes (trypsin and chymotrypsin), the
enzymes papain and bromelain have also been shown to be effective at improving the
rate of recovery from injuries. Note that in the aforementioned studies, proper medical
attention was also administered, along with drug therapy when indicated, as well as
physical therapy, rest, and the application of ice. The oral proteolytic-enzyme products
were well tolerated by the subjects, and side effects were rarely reported.
So, the next time you experience a sports-related injury-or any injury, for that matterinclude a short course of proteolytic enzymes in your treatment. Consider using a
bromelain, papain, or trypsin-chymotrypsin product, or one that contains all four of these
efficacious enzymes, in enteric-coated tablets or capsules. The effective daily dosages
range from 300 to 500 milligrams three to four times a day. These enzymes are best taken
on an empty stomach, with juice or water. (Do not take these enzymes if you are sensitive
to papaya or pineapple.) They are typically taken until the injury is healed, usually several
days; take them longer only under a doctor's supervision. In addition to taking the
enzymes, make sure you maintain a healthy diet and take your regular supplements, as
well as other supplements known to improve healing-bioflavonoids, 1,000 to 2,000
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milligrams a day; curcumin, 1,000 to 2,000 milligrams a day; glucosamine, 1,500 to 2,500
milligrams a day; and chondroitin sulfate, 1,500 to 2,500 milligrams a day. And don't forget
to seek medical attention for proper treatment of the injury!

RHODIOLA
Rhodiola consists of a group of species of plants found growing in colder regions of the
world. The species Rhodiola rosea, also known as golden root and arctic root, has been
shown to promote beneficial health and performance effects similar to the ginsengs. Like
many botanicals it has been used in folk medicine for thousands of years, but scientific
research was not started until the 1900s. Russian scientists have pioneered research
using Rhodiola and reported that extracts from their Siberian indigenous plant helped to
increase the body's resistance to physical and mental stresses.
Like the ginsengs, Rhodiola is categorically considered an adaptogen botanical.
Adaptogen is a term coined by Russian researchers to describe a substance that helps
increase the bodys resistance to adverse influences and stresses, both physical and
environmental. Generally adaptogens boost the bodys immune system, energy levels,
and physical and mental performance. To be a true adaptogen, a substance must be safe
for daily use, increase the bodys resistance to a wide variety of factors, and have a
normalizing action on the bodys systems. Adaptogens are useful to healthy individuals as
an aid for coping with daily stresses, and as a tonic to help maintain normal body
functions. They are also used by people with illness in support of therapeutic treatment.
This ability of Rhodiola and other adaptogens eventually lead to research on athletes, in
addition to people in the workplace, students, even research with Russian astronauts to
help overcome space flight related fatigue.
As a result of numerous animal and human studies Rhodiola has been shown to promote
similar benefits for improving physical and mental performance, (see ginsengs). In
particular the research indicates benefits for athletes looking to improve endurance, skills
and reaction time, in addition to work performance and health under stressful situations.
Daily dosages of Rhodiola range from 200 milligrams to 600 milligrams per day, of
standardized extracts containing the key bioactive substances, 3% rosavin and 0.8 to 1%
salidroside. When taking Rhodiola for the first time some people may experience feeling
overly stimulated or jittery. If this occurs it is recommended that smaller daily dosages of
50 to 100 milligrams per day are used for a few to several days, followed by increasing the
dosage to the recommend levels prescribed by the products instructions.

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TURMERIC
In addition to being a favorite culinary spice, turmeric (Curcuma longa), which originated in
Asia, has been employed in the traditional health-care systems of many nations for
centuries. Curcumin is the main pharmacological agent in turmeric. Curcumin has been
shown in several studies to have protective properties similar to those possessed by the
nutrient antioxidants vitamins C and E. Turmeric is also used in the Indian and Chinese
systems of medicine in the treatment of inflammation. This use seems to be substantiated
by recent scientific research demonstrating that curcumin possesses significant antiinflammatory action. An herb that combats inflammation is known as a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory (NSAID). The recommended dose of turmeric is about 400 milligrams three
times a day. This helps reduce inflammation, pain, and muscle soreness.

WHEAT GERM OIL AND OCTACOSANOL


Octacosanol is a component of wheat germ oil, and both have been used by athletes for
improved performance effects. Wheat germ also contains vitamin E, essential fatty acids,
and plant sterols. Studies on humans have used amounts of octacosanol ranging from
1,000 to 6,000 or more micrograms (mcg) per day. Benefits include: improved
neuromuscular function, increased reaction time, improved endurance, improved muscle
glycogen storage, and reduced effects of stress. Daily use of octacosanol along with
wheat germ oil can be beneficial during the season and pre-season.

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PART TWO

FEATURE TOPICS
AND
SPECIAL FEATURES

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CHAPTER 2.1
FEATURE TOPICS
SPORTS NUTRITION MEAL
REPLACEMENTS, PROTEIN POWDERS,
BARS AND SPECIALTY PRODUCTS
Back in the 1960s when I started using bodybuilding and sports nutrition products the
number of products and ingredients was much smaller in number compared with todays
vast selection. Even in the 1980s when I started designing and marketing these types of
products there were still fewer companies, product types, and ingredients. Starting in the
early 1990s is when the sports nutrition industry started growing rapidly. This was
promoted by the increased sports nutrition research, and also from the passage of the
Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994, which permitted the use of more
ingredients in supplement products, and also permitted the use of claims that can be
made when selling these products.
Today there are hundreds of companies making thousands of sports nutrition products. It
can be outright mind boggling when trying to select which products to use. As the primary
lesson from Part One was to consider the nutrients the body needs and are research
proven, this nutrient focused approach will also help you to decipher the ingredients being
used in sports nutrition products. When you start looking at the ingredients, you start to
see trends among the different products, and how most products in a particular sports
nutrition category contain the same major ingredients. There is a wide selection of generic
type sports nutrition products, for example creatine, whey protein, dextrose, BCAAs, betacarotene, calcium, carnitine, and vitamin B6. These products are very straight forward and
feature ingredient(s).
Then there are the specialized multi-ingredient sports nutrition products. A major part of
the art and science of sports supplement formulation is to create customized formulas to
meet certain needs. On the surface these products can have a certain degree of what I
call mystique appeal. But, when you take a close look at the ingredients and compare
products of similar use, you will observe that they use primarily the same ingredients.
Nutritional intake plays a role in all phases of athletics, from precompetition training to post
competition recovery. Many nutritional substances have been employed over the years to
maintain and enhance physical performance. Among the most widely used of these
performance foods are protein powders, meal replacements, and sports bars. More
recently, nutritionally complete powder supplements have become popular and offer a
multitude of benefits to athletes.

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The appropriateness and effectiveness of these types of supplements, or of any nutritional


substances intended to enhance physical performance, depend on a careful evaluation of
the physical requirements of the sport and metabolic characteristics of the athlete. The
metabolic characteristics include the rate of gastric emptying, ability to digest nutrients,
taste preferences, and gastrointestinal tolerance. The sport-specific requirements may be
for high-carbohydrate beverages to improve energy output and increase endurance; highprotein powders to assist muscle growth and recovery for strength and/or power athletes;
complete, high-quality meal-replacement products to aid weight loss or weight
maintenance while maintaining peak physical performance; or metabolic optimizers and
specialized sports supplements, which offer the benefits of several supplements combined
in a convenient and tasty nutrient-dense beverage. The appropriate nutrition product(s)
will contain ingredients that meet the specific demands of the athlete in question.
In this chapter is reviewed some of the scientifically engineered sports-nutrition powders
and bars that are popular among athletes. These products include meal replacements,
protein powders, sports nutrition bars, and combination ingredient specialty products.

THE DEVELOPMENT OF SPORTS-NUTRITION POWDERS


The story behind the development of today's powdered sports-nutrition products is as
compelling as those of the space program and computer technology in the last fifty years.
In fact, the development of the first "meal in a can" can be traced back to post-World
War II nutrition research, during the early years of the space program. Exercise
physiologists and nutritionists working closely together conducted pioneering nutrition
experiments for the goal of finding a way to ensure the health and safety of the astronauts
leaving the Earth's gravity for the first time in human history.
As information about the essential nutrients accumulated, nutrition researchers began to
experiment with what came to be known as "chemically defined diets." Some of the
researchers focused on creating a nutritionally adequate diet, made up of the known
essential nutrients of the day. Their first subjects were laboratory animals.
In the early 1950s, after scientists figured out the correct formulas for animals, they
diligently experimented to sort out exactly which nutrients were essential for humans to
grow, develop, and maintain health and performance. For astronauts, they wanted to
create a highly efficient meal that would keep the astronauts working at peak performance
but that would also minimize the amount of waste products. Maintaining perfect health
was considered to be essential for the astronauts' survival as they explored the unknown
effects of zero gravity on the body.
One of the classic studies in this area, appearing in the May 1970 issue of the American
Journal of Clinical Nutrition, reported on the history and interesting effects of chemically
defined diets; it is required reading for anyone seriously interested in nutrition. In the
article, Dr. Milton Winitz and his coworkers reported the results of their several-month-long
study using chemically defined diets on human subjects. The composition of the
completely defined chemical diet they used included the essential and nonessential amino
acids, vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, and essential fatty acids. This chemical nutrient
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concentrate was diluted in water and used as the sole source of nutrition during the
experimental period. The total daily caloric intake of each subject was adjusted to match
his or her specific metabolic demands.
While this pioneering nutrition research did not examine all of the intricate bodycomposition and physical-performance measurements typically used in today's medical
studies, some interesting discoveries were made. First, it was found that the health of the
subjects was maintained, and improved in some cases, during the twenty-five-week
period. Second, cholesterol levels were reduced, along with blood pressure. Third, bodyweight changes were observed, depending on the subject's starting condition. For
example, overweight individuals rapidly lost fat tissue, underweight individuals showed
healthy weight gain, and individuals considered to have normal starting weights did not
experience any appreciable weight changes.
Another interesting body-weight dynamic was also observed. The chemically defined diet
was designed to exclude dietary fiber and other dietary bulk. As a result, during the first
week of the study, all the subjects experienced an initial weight loss of up to 11 pounds.
This lost weight was quickly regained during the first week after returning to a normal diet.
The researchers attributed this abrupt initial drop in weight to the clearance of
gastrointestinal bulk.
The significance of this research was multi-faceted and led the way to the development of
new clinical therapeutic diets, weight-loss diets, and a vast array of sports-nutrition
products. It also opened the minds of scientists to continue researching the intricate
relationship among nutrients, body composition, health, and performance. Knowing about
Dr. Winitz's early research makes it easy to understand how the past research discoveries
underlie the formulas of the various sports-nutrition products. The nutritional
characteristics of the different sports-nutrition powders are the result of different nutritional
strategies. But, this is only part of the powdered-sports-nutrition story.
The other side of the story involves developments in food technology that paralleled the
discoveries made by nutrition researchers. These technological developments led to the
invention of sophisticated experimental equipment and techniques, the identification of
new and unique nutrients, and the creation of high-tech manufacturing techniques to turn
these new ingredients into usable products. The advancements included technological
developments that have resulted in better, more biologically active ingredients.
Another factor to consider in the food-technology story is the economics associated with
the inclusion of these revolutionary new ingredients in sports-nutrition products. When
new dietary ingredients are first made, they are usually very expensive due to the
newness of their production process and their low market demand. In cases where the
ingredients are protected by a patent, the producers can maintain the higher prices, due to
the ingredients' patent-protected exclusivity.
Eventually, as the market demand increases for these novel supplement ingredients and
the manufacturers develop better and faster ways to produce them, the prices fall, and

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these savings are passed on to the consumer as a result of competition in a freeenterprise society. For example, in the late 1980s when creatine and whey protein isolate
products were first appearing in the marketplace, they bore expensive price tags. Now,
over double the amounts of these highly regarded sports-nutrition products can be
purchased for less than half the cost several years ago. As manufacturing technology
improves to meet increasing market demands, prices will continue to drop on some of the
newer, more expensive sports-nutrition products that scientific research has recently
brought to our attention.
It is also interesting to note that protein powders are usually easier to manufacture when
compared to the ready to drink products. In fact, until the 1990s, there were very few
ready to drink meal-replacement drinks. This is primarily due to stability issues
encountered when the ingredients are hydrated and sit on the shelf for months at a time.
So, while more ready to drink meal-replacements are now available, the MRP products
dominate the sports nutrition marketplace.
MEAL-REPLACEMENT POWDERS
There is no doubt that when Dr. Winitz's research was originally published, the fast weight
loss observed during the first week of his experiment influenced the weight-loss market to
offer products that produced similar results. Millions of people turn to powdered mealreplacement drinks each year in their quests for slimmer bodies. When used properly,
these products work. However, as already discussed, the rapid weight loss experienced
with these products is caused mostly by the elimination of gastrointestinal bulk and water
weight. While many of the meal-replacement powders currently available on mass-market
shelves have long histories of being safe (when used properly, as part of a nutritionally
balanced diet), the quality of the weight loss they facilitate and their total nutritional value
are not necessarily the best for meeting the high-performance demands of athletic people.
Athletes need to consider the amount of protein a meal-replacement product contains, as
well as its total number of calories, different types of carbohydrates, fat content, and
variety of vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients essential for promoting desirable body
composition changes and maintaining physical performance.
For example, athletes require two to four times the RDA of protein, but most mass-market
meal replacements contain just very small amounts of this macronutrient, usually less than
10 grams per serving. It is extremely important for athletes to maintain an adequate
protein intake all the time, to maintain their muscle mass and a healthy metabolism.
Therefore, during this past decade, sports-nutrition companies have developed mealreplacement products specifically designed for athletes. As you shop around for a sportsnutrition meal replacement, you will notice that they are high in protein, containing usually
20 grams per serving or more, and include a comprehensive profile of essential nutrients.
These special sports-nutrition meals are usually low in fat and contain customized blends
of carbohydrates, mixtures of simple and complex carbohydrates, including dietary fiber.
These special carbohydrate blends are designed to provide a sustained supply of energy
to help maintain the blood-sugar level. Maintenance of the blood-sugar level is important
for mental and physical performance, and appetite control. Dietary fiber also helps

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maintain the blood-sugar level, as well as control the appetite. Dietary fiber is nature's
appetite-control substance and blood-sugar regulator.
Concerning the maintenance of the required daily caloric intake, athletes in intensive
training and competition typically need to ingest 3,000 to 7,000 calories per day,
depending on their activity level and body weight. Because of their hectic schedules,
however, it is often difficult for them to consume enough calories and nutrients. This can
lead to a nutritionally deficient diet, which can cause the muscle-glycogen level to decline
and may impair the ability to train and perform adequately. Poor diets also often lack the
protein, vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients needed for optimum training and
performance.
Meal-replacement powders, which are also called "engineered foods," can enhance the
nutritional value of athletes' diets tremendously. They provide carbohydrates, to supply
energy to the working muscles; protein, to provide amino acids for muscle growth and
repair; and vitamins, minerals, and metabolites, to satisfy nutritional requirements. In
addition to using meal-replacement powders for weight loss, athletes have also found
them to be convenient meal substitutes and high-quality snacks that increase the
nutritional quality of the daily diet.
The Advantages of Meal-Replacement Powders (Ready To Drink Ones Too)
Meal-replacement powders and drinks can be used as follows:

As pre-competition, post-competition, or post-training meals, or as meals between events during


tournaments. Meal-replacement powders can serve as easy alternatives to solid food for athletes
competing in day-long competitions or tournaments, or in multiple events. Solid food consumed before
competition may cause stomach upset. The low or lactose-free formulations of many meal-replacement
powders may help reduce gastric distress and nausea. Meal-replacement powders also can be
consumed closer to competition time than regular meals, due to their shorter gastric-emptying time. This
may help avoid competition nausea in athletes whose tenseness may delay gastric emptying. When
using a meal-replacement powder as a pre or post-competition / training meal, choose one that is high in
total calories (300 to 650 calories), high in carbohydrates, moderate in protein (15 to 40 grams), low in
fiber, and low in fat.

To maintain body weight. Athletes' travel schedules and rigorous training regimens often do not allow
time to consume an adequate diet. Meal-replacement powders/drinks can supply the calories and
protein needed to prevent the loss of lean body mass.

To lose weight. High-protein meal-replacement powders can help athletes lose fat weight without
sacrificing muscle weight. They offer a balance of nutrients in place of high-fat, high-calorie foods. They
also produce a low stool residue and thereby help minimize the weight gain following a meal, which may
be of special benefit to wrestlers, boxers, weightlifters, powerlifters and athletes in other weight class
sports.

As a high-energy snack. Meal-replacement powders/drinks can serve as convenient high-carbohydrate,


moderate-protein snacks to maintain the energy level and enhance performance. They can also supply
extra nutrition during heavy training, when the caloric requirements are greatly increased. They can
provide a significant amount of calories and contribute to satiety without leaving the athlete feeling
uncomfortably full.

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To increase lean body mass. In addition to a resistance-training program, consuming adequate calories
and protein is essential for the development of muscle tissue. High-protein meal replacements can
supply the calories and protein without the extra fat that usually is found in conventional food.

Meal-Replacement Powders Versus Conventional Meals


Does this mean that you should forgo conventional meals? No, you need to include
healthy conventional foods in your sports nutrition program, in addition to the use of mealreplacement powder/drinks. Especially in the fruit and vegetable food category, which is
not easily replaceable with processed products. Include a variety of healthy whole foods in
your diet, in addition to meal-replacement powders/drinks.
If you would like to try a meal replacement, there is a wide variety on the market. These
days, high-quality meal-replacement powders are available for about two to four dollars a
serving, which is a reasonable amount of money to pay for a nutritionally complete meal.
And many of these products are quite delicious and satisfying.
When shopping for a meal-replacement powder/drink, the important things to consider
when deciding which one is the best for you are taste and digestibility. Almost all mealreplacement powders are high in nutrients and low to moderate in calories; except for the
weight gainer products, which can be 600 calories or more per serving.
Some quality products are EAS Myoplex Plus Deluxe, TwinLab Rx Fuel, Weider, Nature's
Best Perfect Rx, and MET-Rx, all of which supply high amounts of carbohydrate and
protein, a low amount of fat, and additional nutrients required by athletes.
No matter which specific brand you use, when you first use a sports nutrition quality mealreplacement powder, you may find your stomach slightly bloated or suffer gastrointestinal
cramps or diarrhea. This is usually because your body needs time to adjust to the nutrientdense character of these products. In some cases there may be a certain ingredient you
have trouble digesting. Don't fret; there are a good number of products from which to
choose. If you have a problem with lactose, you may need to select a product that is
lactose-free. You might need to try several products in order to determine which one
works the best for you. The experimentation may be worthwhile, though. If you experience
gastrointestinal upset when first using a particular product, there are a few things to try to
get your body accustomed to it, before giving up on it:

Contact the company that makes the product to get some advice from them.
Drink water or another beverage several to 20 minutes before drinking the MRP.
Drink the MRP slowly, in sips.
Try starting with half servings.
Eat some other foods with the MRP, bread for example.
Combine some compatible foods in to the MRP, like fruit.
Drink the MRP as part of a snack or small meal.

After a few times of trying a particular product, if you still have gastrointestinal upset then it
is probably time to try another product. But dont give up, the sports nutrition benefits of
using these products is worth the effort.

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EXAMPLES OF SOME MEAL REPLACEMENT AND PROTEIN PRODUCTS

A Unique Whey Protein Isolate Pudding Mix

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PROTEIN POWDERS
As a category of food products, protein-powder supplements generically are dry powders,
with 50 percent or more of their weight made up of essentially purified or concentrated
protein primarily from whey, casein, egg and soy (refer to Part Three for comparisons).
Carbohydrates are often added to protein powders. This is because they can be used to
increase the calorie content, and they seem to boost the efficiency of the protein, allowing
it to be used to repair and build muscle rather than provide energy. Carbohydrates usually
increase insulin levels more than proteins, so this can also help stimulate amino acid
uptake by the cells.
In addition to the amino acids contained in the protein source, some protein products
contain additional added nutrients, such as vitamins, minerals, herbs, extra individual
amino acids (such as L-glutamine), creatine, dietary fiber, flavorings, emulsifiers,
sweeteners, digestive enzymes, and metabolites, to improve the amino-acid profile or
enhance the protein utilization. The addition of beneficial nutrients and ergogenic aids can
make the protein powder supplement more effective, multi-functional, convenient, and
more economical, versus taking more types of separate products. When including the
different ingredients there is also the potential for synergistic effects, as reviewed in Part
One. In fact adding additional amino acids that athletes need more of is now a common
product development practice, in particular adding extra arginine, the BCAAs, and
glutamine, for example.
Regardless of such additives, protein supplements, as a group, are not intended to serve
as meal replacements, and many labels contain a disclaimer to that effect. The reason
disclaimers are printed on the labels of low-calorie, high-protein products is to caution
consumers that these products are not intended for use as the sole source of calories.
Using these products this way may be unhealthy. In addition, most protein supplements
contain a "Supplement Facts" panel, which categorizes them as dietary supplements.
Dietary supplements are intended to supplement the diet, not to serve as meals. Most
protein supplements are potent, consisting of 85-percent or more protein. Many athletes
use them between meals, adding them to other drinks or even to foods such as oatmeal
and pancakes, or using them as high-protein, low-calorie snacks. However you choose to
use your protein supplement, purchasing a high-quality product is the first step.
Protein Quality
Supplement manufacturers make numerous claims about their products, presenting
different ratings like protein efficiency ratios (PERs), and processing nomenclature such
as "micro-filtered, ionized-fractionated protein isolates" to bolster product intrigue.
But, as a consumer how are you to know exactly where the sources of protein-for
example, soy, egg, casein, and whey-rank in terms of quality? And how big are the
differences between them? Consumers are constantly confronted with new "miracle"
protein supplements claiming to be the best, with each one also purporting to have
scientific literature backing it up.

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Supplement manufacturers use various protein-rating methods to support the claims they
make about their protein products. These methods, which are intended to determine
protein quality (growth-promoting ability), include PER, net protein utilization (NPU), net
protein ratio (NPR), biological value (BV), and protein-digestibility-corrected amino-acid
score (PDCAAS). BV, which essentially is the amount of protein retained in the body
relative to the amount absorbed, is the most often used method because it assesses
digestibility as well as protein-utilization efficiency. When confronted with these methods in
advertisements, in articles, or on product labels, keep two things in mind: First, the values
were established at very low protein intakes. And second, there are significant differences
between how humans and animals utilize protein, and many of these rating systems are
based either on animal studies or just theoretical human-amino-acid needs.
Protein quality is related to the amounts of the various amino acids contained in the
product. Because athletes use more of certain amino acids, such as the BCAAs and
glutamine, protein powders with higher amounts of these are considered to be of a higher
quality for human performance. When comparing protein powders to food-source proteins,
keep in mind that other nutrients, such as creatine found in high amounts in red meat, can
affect muscle growth, recovery, energy, and strength, and may thus also influence the
growth-promoting potential of the protein. In fact, it is interesting to note that the ancient
Olympians, who were mostly strength athletes, apparently craved high-meat diets, as do
today's power lifters, bodybuilders, and other strength athletes. We now know that in
addition to their higher protein needs, these athletes can boost their performance with a
higher dietary intake of creatine, which is found mostly in red meat.
So, protein powders for bodybuilders and strength athletes are designed to be a more
effective than food sources of protein. However, food sources of protein should be the
foundation of your protein intake, topped off by protein powders, and other specialized
protein containing multi-ingredient supplements.
Additional Factors
Other factors contributing to a protein's nutritive value are the nutritional and metabolic
status of the individual consuming it, and his or her total daily intake of calories and
protein. The relative value or quality of any given protein is highly dependent on the total
quantity of calories and protein being consume. Metabolic status is itself influenced by the
health of the individual, as well as by the physical (including training) and emotional
stresses the individual is under.
Certainly for athletes, the amount of the BCAAs consumed per day affects the overall
performance of the dietary proteins consumed. Accordingly, supplements that have a high
BCAA content, either naturally or through the addition of extra BCAAs, are more
beneficial for athletes than those that don't.
A further nutritional factor is the use of hydrolysates. Hydrolysates are proteins that have
been partially digested by enzymatic hydrolysis. There are different degrees of hydrolysis,
with the resulting hydrolysates containing small fragments of the original proteins, such as
di- and tripeptides, which are quickly, easily, and completely absorbed. Hydrolysates are

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basically predigested and may offer the advantage of quicker assimilation. For athletes
with high daily food intakes, speeding up digestion and absorption can leave more time for
training and other activities.
Which protein product is best for you depends on many factors, including your health,
training level, overall diet, taste preferences, and even pocketbook. Companies such as,
Sports Nutrition Pharmacy, Higher Power, Awesome Muscles, MuscleTech, BSN, MHP,
TwinLab, EAS, Champion Nutrition, Weider, Optimum Nutrition, Designer Protein, and
Universal are among the companies selling quality protein powders. Whichever brand of
protein you choose, include its regular consumption in your daily diet and you'll be amazed
at the beneficial results you will experience in a short period of time.
Sustained-Release Protein
In addition to protein ingredient quality and combination innovations, the use of sustainedrelease technology has been utilized to create the first sustained-release protein powder,
called Probolic-SR. This product uses a patented micro-feed technology that extends the
release profile of the amino acids over a 12 hour period. In doing so the idea is to deliver a
steady stream of amino acids to the body to provide building blocks for protein and
prolong anabolism; tissue and muscle building.

MRP AND PROTEIN NUTRITION BARS


Similar to the powders and ready to drink MRPs and protein drinks, is the sports nutrition
bar products. These products are also designed to provide the athlete with high quality
nutrition to meet a variety of special needs. Some are designed to be a complete meal or
snack, while others to be a source of low fat, high quality protein.
In addition to nutrient composition and quality, is taste and texture is an important feature.
The better a nutrition bar tastes and the more enjoyable it is to eat, the chances are you
will be able to include it as part of your sports nutrition program. Nutrition bars add to the
diversity of food / supplement types, versus the previously reviewed drinks or pudding
type products. As sports nutrition bars can offer athletes a convenient source of quality
nutrition, it is worth taking the time to select the type(s) of sports nutrition bars that are
best suited to your personal needs and preferences. Stock up on them, and keep them
handy, at home, in your travel bag and at work. The following page presents some
examples of this growing category of sports nutrition products.

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EXAMPLES OF SOME MEAL REPLACEMENT AND PROTEIN NUTRITION BAR PRODUCTS

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SPECIALTY PRODUCTS
While the MRPs and protein powders, RTDs, and bar products are primarily designed to
be a source of quality macronutrients and micronutrients, the specialty products can be
more specific and sophisticated in design, ingredient composition, and purpose.
Metabolic Optimizers
Traditionally metabolic optimizers are nutritionally complete powders, containing
combinations of protein, fat, carbohydrate, vitamins, minerals, herbs, and metabolites to
aid in promoting the growth and the recovery of muscle tissue and promote athletic
metabolic functioning. They are designed to be taken at different times during the day.
Some just before or with meals, some between meals, others before and after exercise.
Whatever the timing or use, products using metabolic optimizing formulation principals can
be a beneficial choice for athletes of all types.
As a historical note the term "metabolic optimizer" is synonymous with a product called
Metabolol, invented by Michael Zumpano. In the early 1980s, Mr. Zumpano, a
bodybuilder, author of training and nutrition articles and books, and founder of Champion
Nutrition, sought to create a comprehensive powdered supplement that would supply the
essential nutrients as well as optimize the anabolism. This metabolic optimizer would
stimulate the anabolic metabolism, energy production, improve muscle growth and
recovery, and increase athletic performance, in particular for bodybuilders and strength
athletes. In addition to including essential nutrients, Mr. Zumpano sought to provide
ingredients with high bioavailability and multiple metabolic functioning. Here are examples
of the Metabolol and related products that established a sports nutrition category that
continues to grow and diversify.

Growth Hormone Promoters


This is a specialized category of products that are designed to promote growth hormone
production in the body. This product type sometimes confuses people outside the industry,
where they think that these products contain growth hormone; however they do not. From
your reading in Part One, it was noted that some of the amino acids have been shown to
promote, stimulate and elevate growth hormone production in the body. Before synthetic
growth hormone was invented, researchers sought to find a nutritional solution to help
people, especially children, to increase their growth hormone levels to normal or above
normal to ensure proper growth and development.
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This body of clinical research eventually caught the attention of sports nutrition
companies. The thinking behind these products is that if growth hormone levels can be
increased and maintained, then this would increase the growth benefits associated with
growth hormone and related growth substances in the body such as Insulin-like Growth
Factors (IGFs). It is interesting to note that the clinical research usually administered the
growth hormone promoting amino acids in divided dosages during the day. Typically,
growth hormone levels were measured to increase after the dosages, and over the weeks
or months of the study periods, to display an overall progressive average increase. Some
formulas are also designed to be taken in the evening. Like other sports nutrition
ingredients, taking a good quality product consistently is the key to successful results.
One of the companies considered to be a pioneer and leader in this category of products
is MPH (Maximum Human Performance). Gerard Dente, founder of MPH, a former
competitive bodybuilder, and college football player, originally sought the use of GH
stimulators to improve his own bodybuilding results. Once he found a formula that worked
best, and confirmed its effectiveness with clinical testing, this led to creating a product that
other athletes could benefit from using, called Secretagogue-One. The company also
created the Secretagogue Gold formula with additional ingredients for a wider range of
beneficial effects.

Creatine
As reviewed in Part One, creatine is the most effect and well researched of the muscle
and strength increasing ergogenic aids. It works on its own, and in combination with other
ingredients. If you are a bodybuilder or other strength athlete, taking quality creatine
supplement is essential for improving muscle building results and strength athletic
performance. Here is an example of some creatine and creatine containing products.

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Nitric Oxide Stimulators


Products to help promote and support the production of nitric oxide have grown in
popularity in recent years. As reviewed in the arginine section in Part One, arginine was
used to stimulate nitric oxide (NO) production in people who had erectile dysfunction
related to poor blood circulation. Arginine has also been used in clinical settings to
improve blood flow in people with cardiovascular diseases. As use of nitric oxide
stimulating products is new to athletes, future research will help to determine the benefits
for various types of athletes. Currently bodybuilding and strength athletes are reported to
be the primary users of these products. In addition to specific NO products, other products
containing adequate amounts of arginine will also promote NO production. Here is an
example of some of the NO specific products.

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CHAPTER 2.2
SPECIAL FEATURES
SPECIAL FEATURE: Muscle Precursor Cell Activation and Development
As previously mentioned through out this book, new scientific discoveries and research
often lead to new product development opportunities. During the past several years,
researchers have made a few important discoveries about how cells in the body mature,
live, die, and replenish themselves, over and over again.
Most noteworthy for the athlete, in particular bodybuilders and strength athletes are the
recent insights about how skeletal muscle fibers are renewed and maintained, and how
new muscle fibers develop; yes new muscle fibers. The story begins with taking a look
deep in side muscles, right down to the microscopic level. Nestled among muscles fibers
are millions of smaller, sphere-like cells, called muscle precursor cells.
The muscle precursor cells are resting in reserve, to be activated from their dormant state,
to begin the process of NEW muscle fiber cell replenishment and growth. It was originally
thought that the resistance training stimulus alone was the only way to active muscle
precursor cells. Based on the most recent research, there is also a nutrient and
physiological dependent series of events that are involved in the activation, proliferation,,
differentiation and maturation of muscle fibers cells. Furthermore, muscle fiber precursor
cell development is maximized in the evening, during sleep, under the proper nutrient,
hormonal and quality of sleep conditions.
One company that has been leading the field of bodybuilding and sports nutrition product
development, Maximum Human Performance, has recently introduced a product based on
maximizing muscle fiber precursor cell activation, through the stages to maturation, during
sleep.
The following information provides more information about this new scientific breakthrough
product, called Cyclin-GF. This represents a new category of muscle building products.
Dormant muscle precursor cell activation will be changing the future of bodybuilding.
Cyclin-GF is the biggest muscle building breakthrough of the decade.

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Overview Illustration of The Main Stages of Muscle Growth and Regeneration

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CYCLIN-GF is designed to trigger and support Muscle Precursor Cell


development leading to new muscle fibers. Activating these MPCs can
initiate tremendous gains in muscle size through the activation,
recruitment and development of new muscle tissue.
The latest research developments in muscle fiber cell replenishment and
growth has revealed:

Stored deep within muscle tissue are a vast supply of millions and millions of Muscle Precursor
Cells (MPCs).
Many of these Muscle Precursor Cells are in a silent or dormant state, waiting to learn their
destiny. They can either be activated to kick start new muscle fiber growth or they can remain
dormant and eventually be sentenced for cell death.
Upon activation, Muscle Precursor Cells begin dividing and forming pools of myoblast cells that
are programmed to become muscle fibers (myofibers), but only under the ideal anabolic
hormone conditions. Moreover, MPCs that are activated typically dont achieve maturity due to
inadequate nutritive activation, growth promoting factors, suboptimal anabolic conditions and
high levels of undesirable muscle cell suppressing arrestor substances.
Prior to the discovery of MPC activation and the development of CYCLIN-GF, we were only
tapping into a fraction of our muscle building potential, because of millions of inactive Muscle
Precursor Cells. The MHP research team has discovered how to activate these dormant but
precious Muscle Precursor Cells and promote the anabolic internal environment necessary to
stimulate Muscle Precursor Cell activation and carry them through the vital growth phases
needed to achieve massive muscle fiber maturity.

Muscle Precursor Cell (MPC) Activation and Muscle Cell Maturity Based on both MHPs
and Nobel Prize winning research in physiology, the discovery of Muscle Precursor Cell
activation and the key controlling factors needed to achieve new muscle fiber maturity
instantly became a scientific advancement in muscle building. MPC activation has
introduced a new pathway for growth beyond any other discovery. One major realization
from these research efforts was the discovery that deep inside muscle cells, there resides
a population of specialized cells called Muscle Precursor Cells (MPCs) that can be
activated to repair existing muscle cells as well as create new muscle cells.
This new understanding of the Muscle Precursor Cell phenomenon is what prompted the
revolutionary development of the first ever MPC activator product called CYCLIN-GF.
Based on the new body of research data about Muscle Precursor Cells (MPCs), it was
determined that the muscle cell growth process involves a nutrient-hormone driven series
of precise metabolic events that creates the proper stimulus and nocturnal nutritivehormonal internal environment necessary for the activation and maturation of Muscle
Precursor Cells into larger fully developed muscle fibers. It was after this discovery that
the MHP research team realized that a highly specialized technological advance was
necessary to carry a dormant Muscle Precursor Cell (MPC) through the 4 stages
necessary to develop a fully mature new muscle fiber, refer to illustration for graphical
overview.

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Inducing Deep Anabolic Sleep To Awaken New Muscle Growth


When researchers examined the critical growth rate factors needed to occur in order to
activate and develop a Muscle Precursor Cell (MPC) into a fully-grown muscle cell, they
found that the greatest window of opportunity resided at night. They found a relationship
between sleep quantity and quality and the anabolic cascade of hormones needed to grow
new muscle. One of the multiple functions CYCLIN-GF is designed for, is to promote deep
REM (rapid eye movement) phase sleep and stimulate MPC activation while
simultaneously stimulating a cascade of anabolic hormones and co-factors for the
maturation and development of new muscle tissue.
Summary of Key Research Findings Leading to the Development of Cyclin-GF
Cyclins
Cyclins are a group of special protein substances Nobel Prize winning research
determined that cyclins are essential in the regulation of the muscle cell cycle from MPC
activation to maturation. Actively dividing cells are vital for growth, tissue repair and
maintenance and cyclins play a major role in this nutrient dependent process. Nutrients
and hormones control the production and function of these cell cycle regulators and
influence cell growth. They can promote cyclin activity, leading to increased MPC
proliferation during early stage muscle fiber development. Optimum cyclin activity is also
vital in the replenishment of the MPC population to ensure adequate supply for
subsequent muscle fiber growth and repair needs.
Critical Insulin-like Growth Factors: IGF-1 and IGF-2:
During the research project, important insights about muscle cell anabolism were revealed
based on the new understanding on how muscle cell fibers regenerate and grow. This
includes maximization of the IGF-1 and IGF-2 production and completion of the anabolic
cascade stimulus. Coordinate control of the muscle fiber growth and regeneration process
occurs by distinct IGF-1 and IGF-2 activated pathways.
The most recent research reports that increasing levels of both IGF-1 and IGF-2 are vital
for muscle growth, repair and maintenance. Key scientific insights were derived from
examining people and research animals that had naturally low or naturally high IGF-1 and
IGF-2 levels. The results: when IGF-1 and IGF-2 levels were low, muscle mass and
strength were stunted and reduced. When IGF-1 and IGF-2 levels were high, muscle
mass and strength was higher than normal. This research was further collaborated by
studies that used substances to actually reduce or stimulate the production of IGF-1 and
IGF-2. Again, researchers reported that when IGF-1 and IGF-2 levels were lower, muscle
size and strength was reduced. When IGF-1 and IGF-2 levels were higher, muscle size
and strength were increased.
The Anabolic Cascade and Muscle Fibers
From these new discoveries, it was further revealed that insulin-like growth factor IGF-1
and IGF-2 regulate muscle fiber growth and development in distinct phase and the proper
nutritional-hormonal matrix is required for the feed forward cascade that drives MPCs
through the myoblast and myofiber stages required for muscle growth and regeneration.

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Also of vital importance is reducing adverse cellular environment factors caused by


arrestors that suppress the vital muscle growth processes; as reviewed below.
First, in the early regeneration phase, IGF-1 is involved in the activation of MPCs and
proliferation of myoblast cells. Second, in the late regeneration phase muscle fiber
enlargement and maturation occurs, which is controlled by IGF-2. Muscle fibers that are
IGF-2 sensitized can contain more receptors for stimulation of increased nutrient uptake,
increasing fiber growth and hypertrophy.
Maximizing the Anabolic Cascade
Research also revealed that it is not just one event, or one ingredient or one hormone that
maximizes the nighttime muscle fiber growth process. There are multiple events that occur
in a series and require a cascade of nutritive substrates and promoters to initiate the
process and keep it moving along for maximum muscle growth. The process begins with
the nocturnal stimulation of peak anabolic cascade hormone production; GH and IGF-1
followed by peak IGF-2 production. Also important is the Leutinizing Hormone (LH) and
testosterone production that occurs during deep sleep. This LH-Testosterone enhances
the anabolic cascade and contributes to the overall muscle growth and renewal
processes.
Once activated by adequate levels of GH, IGF-1 and key nutritive substrate, MPCs
develop into specialized myoblast cells. These myoblast cells are programmed to become
new muscle fibers under favorable nighttime muscle tissue anabolic conditions. Once
activated, MPCs rapidly proliferate increasing in number. During the process they migrate
and align themselves along side existing muscle fibers. Once in position, they await
differentiation signals and then start developing into myotubes, a period called early
regeneration. Under the proper anabolic conditions, muscle fiber enlargement and
maturation occurs to form mature myofibers during the vital, IGF-2 driven late
regeneration period.
Overcoming Damaging Muscle Cell Arrestors
There have been scientific reports that the circulating levels of inflammatory substances
resulting from intense exercise and the daily grind can exert anti-anabolic and catabolic
effects, which can suppress MPC activation. Therefore, a primary goal for maximizing the
anabolic cascade effect is accomplished by reducing levels of damaging and growth
suppressing muscle cell arrestors: cortisol, inflammatory cytokines and oxygen radical
species. Fortunately, natural anti-inflammatory and neutralizing substances can be
employed to counteract these effects, thereby evoking conditions more favorable for
optimum muscle cell growth.
The substances that suppress or prevent muscle cell activation, growth and maturation
are collectively termed arrestors. These negative growth factors include cell-damaging
biochemicals such as cortisol, inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species.
Levels of arrestors rise during the day as a consequence of physical activity, bodybuilding
and other athletic training. At night, the cell arrestor levels can remain high when specific
nutritive substrates are missing, anabolic hormones are low and quality of sleep is poor.

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For example, during the day cortisol is needed to release stored energy and stored
nutrients based on your bodys high activity demands. But at night if cortisol and other
muscle cell arrestors remain high, they suppress can MPC activation and maturity. The
CYCLIN-GF formula contains ingredients to reduce levels of cell arrestors, thereby
improving conditions favorable for MPC activation and maturation yielding maximum
muscle growth.

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SPECIAL FEATURE: The Ultimate Bodybuilding and Strength


Athlete Super-Stack
Sports Nutrition Pharmacys Explosive Growth Blend (EGB) was
designed for the competitive bodybuilding and strength athlete.
The goal was to create an effective muscle building and strength
increasing product, with research proven ingredients, for fast and
effective results.
EBG is a marvel of sports nutrition research science and product
development technology.

When you look around on the internet and in stores, and talk to your workout friends and
teammates, you will find a diversity of sports nutrition product combinations they are
using. Based on your Part One reading it becomes clear that for the best results you need
the right combination of research proven ingredients in effective dosages. When it comes
to building muscle mass and strength, there are indeed a variety of research proven
ingredients to improve your results, in addition to an effective nutrition and training
program.
Explosive Growth Blend (EGB) is a premium, value-added muscle building and
performance enhancing formula custom designed with ingredients proven to work, based
on over 100 research studies conduced around the world. EGB contains Best Quality
Ingredients for Best Results. This scientific approach of using multiple research proven
ingredients for multiple benefits is what makes EGB most effective.
The following information will provide insights about the EGB formula. Simply put, it is like
taking all of the best top selling specialty sports nutrition products you read about in ads
and testimonial articles about the top bodybuilders, but instead, EGB is conveniently in
one special custom formulation. Additionally EGB is loaded with nutritional extras. EGBs
multiple-ingredient massive formula is designed to produce multiple benefits bodybuilders
and other strength athletes wanting to improve gains in muscle mass and strength.
Along with bodybuilding or other athletic training and nutrition programs, here is a
summary of just some of significant benefits reports in the scientific studies conducted
using the ingredients contained in EGB: Greater gains in increasing FFM (Fat Free Mass, which
includes muscle mass), Increased muscle fiber size (hypertrophy), Increased muscle mass, Increased
myosin muscle fiber content, Improved strength training adaptations, Improved limb blood flow, Reduced
ammonia levels, Reduced lactate levels, Raised lactate threshold, Improved rate of training induced gains,
Improved maximal strength and power, Improved work performed during maximal effort muscle contractions,
Improved anaerobic power, Improved single-effort sprint performance, Improved multiple sprint
performance, Improved work performed during repetitive sprint performance, Improved performance during
exercise of high to maximal intensity, Increased number of weightlifting repetitions and sets, Increased gains
in vertical jump height and power, Increased 1 Repetition Maximum (1 RM), Increased peak force and peak

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power, Reduced pain levels, Reduction in joint tenderness, Reduction in joint swelling, Improved physical
performance, Increased flexibility / range of motion, Reduction of connective tissue degradation, Joint health
improvements, Enhanced synthesis of connective tissues, Increase fatty acid metabolism, Improved protein
synthesis and muscle tissue growth.

Why Was EGB Developed?


Most people are struggling to find the combination of supplements that works best to get
additional gains in muscle and strength, above what training and conventional nutrition
alone provide. So, based on decades of research and experience, this lead to the creation
of the EGB formula, for total bodybuilding results. EGB is the one sports nutrition
supplement you need to take as part of your athletic training and healthy performance
nutrition program.
Who Was EGB Developed For?
The grand vision behind EBG was to provide a comprehensive All-In-One solution for
competitive bodybuilders and other strength athletes to make significantly improved gains,
naturally. EGB is for individuals who are intermediate to advanced bodybuilding & strength
athletes, and who are training 4 or more times a week for serious improvements. EGB is
also suitable for the fitness bodybuilder who wants to get faster and better results.
More About The EGB Formula
The EGB formula includes a massive amount of the top bodybuilding and strength
performance ingredients, for example:
Pure Whey Protein Isolate (full profile amino acids)+ BCAA's+ Leucine + Extra Glutamine + Extra
Arginine + RG-Creatine + Nitric Oxide Stimulators + Anabolic promoters + Secretagogues +
Glucosamine + Hydrolyzed Collagen + Taurine + additional Essential Amino Acids + Neurostimulators + Anabolic and energy Multivitamins and Multiminerals + Bioflavonoids + Ferulic Acid +
Fat Metabolizers and Energizers like CLA, Green Tea and Carnitine, plus many more awesome
muscle building ingredients. It could take dozens of products and over $159 to try to duplicate what's
in the awesome EGB Proprietary Anabolic Complex. This makes EGB an effective bodybuilding and
strength sport supplement, plus convenient and economical for you.

The Experimenting Was Done For You


The reality is that most people spend a lot of money experimenting on their own with
different supplement combinations, but never seem to get it right. Are you really happy
with the results you have been getting using other products? Based on actual consumer
demand, people wanted us to research the facts and develop the ultimate product that
worked best for them. With EGB the experimenting is already done for you. All you have
to do is follow the instructions, and focus on your training and nutrition programs to
maximize your results.
Breaking The Anabolic Code Was Key
During the extensive product development research project, an important discovery was
made about how the body grows muscles and other tissues. This research effort lead to
the development of the anabolic cascade and anabolic maximization theories which
dictate that certain metabolic agents are required to be consumed throughout the day to
result in maximum total body building effects. This approach actually focuses on how to

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best make your genetics work for you so you can experience the best results. Taking EBG
three times a day before or with meals enables your body to assimilate EGB's potent
ingredients and experience optimum muscle growth. Users report they experience the
"Anabolic Surge" after taking EGB due to its potent ingredient composition. This really lets
you know EGB is working fast.
EGB therefore promotes the super-pump, but much, much more, including supporting
your anabolic hormone production, and triggering the all important mTOR protein
synthesis pathway, which actually controls certain muscle protein synthesis pathways.
Fat Metabolism Fuels Muscle Building
Explosive Growth Blend is additionally topped off with research verified fat metabolizing
ingredients to give you the best of both worlds; extreme muscle building support and fat
metabolism. EGB contains CLA (conjugated linoleic acid is the ultimate lean lipid),
essential fatty acids, Carnitol (ALC and Carnitine complex), choline and thermogenics, like
Green Tea. This puts you in control of the quality of your gains. Increase muscle mass
and develop muscle definition during mass building training phases. Build muscle mass
and reduce body fat during extreme cutting up phases. Plus, your body will be more
anabolic and energetic when you are metabolizing your body fat better.
Some of EGBs ingredients are listed as a proprietary blend format to keep the details a secret so
competitors dont try to duplicate the unique formulation. Here is a glimpse of some of the featured
ingredients contained in EGB:
200 mcg of Chromium (as chromium picolinate)
24 grams of purified whey protein isolate
16 grams of BCAAs (with 12 grams of Leucine)
10 grams of Research Grade Creatine
5 grams of glutamine
4 grams of arginine/AAKG
1 gram glucosamine
4 grams hydrolyzed collagen

3 grams CLA
2 grams of carnitine and Acetyl L Carnitine
1 gram of thermogenics
Over 1 gram of bioflavonoids
Over 20 essential growth and energy multivitamins and
multiminerals.
Plus grams and grams of extras, like taurine, essential
amino acids, OKG, Phosphatidylcholine, ferulic acid, etc

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Good Tasting and Mixes Easy


With all of the potent ingredients packed in to the EGB formula, you are probably
wondering how it tastes. Well if you like chocolate flavor, it tastes great, and is functional
too. For example, there is plenty of cocoa added to the flavor system, which also contains
beneficial bioactives called polyphenols, with added antioxidant protection and circulatory
system health benefits. EGB also contains some glucose (also called dextrose) and
maltodextrin for flavor and function; the GlucoPlex Dual Phased Energy System. When
taken before or with meals, the dextrose and maltodextrin contained in each scoop will
help stimulate insulin production to help your cells take up the EGB formula ingredients
better and also get more assimilation from the meal you ingest following EGB
consumption.

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SPECIAL FEATURE: East Meets West In The Quest For Boosting

Testosterone Levels Naturally


Since the ban on androstenidione and related testosterone precursor products,
there has been a next generation of testosterone boosting products introduced
into the sports nutrition market. The following is an overview of the Higher
Power brand M1T2 formula. This product is reported to be based on a
combination of traditional Asian herbalism, topped off with Westernized sports
nutrition technology.

The original M1T formula became a legend in its own time, and Bodybuilding.com's top
selling product. As a result of the discontinued use of pro-hormones in supplements, the
Higher Power research team sought to develop a product so powerful that it would be
worthy of bearing the M1T name. The primary goal was to develop a product that would
enhance testosterone and other anabolic substance production similar to or better than
the M1T product. After months of research and development, the Higher Power team
found that a formula using natural traditional medicine substances and extracts worked
best, which also included AAKG. The new M1T2 formula contains a complex of herbal and
special ingredients that increases the levels of anabolic hormones in the body. The M1T2
formula includes new and traditional male hormone increasers to support building muscle,
strength, increase energy, stamina and virility while stimulating fat metabolism, in
association with a training and nutrition program.
The key M1T2 ingredients include a proprietary blend of:Tongkat Ali extract, 3,5,4Trihydroxystilbene, L-Arginine Alpha-Ketoglutarate, Tribulus Terrestris 40%, Jujube P.E.,
Polygonum Multiflorum extract 5:1, Polyrachis Ant extract 5:1. This is a special blend of
high quality ingredients that are so powerful you will feel them going to work the first day
you start to use M1T2. The same reason some of these potent ingredients are highly
regarded as aphrodisiacs, is why they work for stimulating anabolic processes that are
best for extremely massive muscle building. You may be familiar with some of these highly
sought after anabolic promoting ingredients like Tribulus and Tongkat. But what makes
M1T2 extra special is the additional bio-hormonal enhancing synergistic ingredients such
as Polygonum multiflorum and Polyrachis Ant, which are unique and highly regarded
ingredients used in Asian for traditional medicine for centuries for boosting anabolic
hormone production, energy, vitality, and a host of other benefits you can read more about
in the information that follows.
M1T2 Detailed Overview
M1T2 Formula helps to elevate the level of key hormones, such as testosterone and
luteinizing Hormone (LH is a gonad stimulating hormone produced by the pituitary gland).
A significant benefit of M1T2 Formula is the stimulation of hormone production to a
balanced level, without over stimulating the secretion of hormones. The liver is a major
synthesizer of important hormone precursors and also in the redistribution of hormones
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circulating through your body in the blood stream. M1T2 Formula has a stimulating effect
on the liver where cholesterol is eventually converted in glands into master hormones
such as testosterone. M1T2 Formula will have a major positive influence on cholesterol
and other products of the liver.
The increase in testosterone levels by M1T2 Formula will promote protein synthesis,
positive nitrogen balance, as well as faster recuperation and recovery from muscular
stress. M1T2 formula therefore has a positive effect on strength and stamina.
Testosterone is proven to build muscle size and strength. M1T2 Formula has been
designed to supply the supplements necessary for high testosterone production while also
providing protection against side effects. Athletes are looking to M1T2 Formula as a
possible natural and safer alternative to steroids as a means to increase size, strength,
and performance.
M1T2 Helps With:
Increase Testosterone levels
Stamina
Muscle repair, rebuild and growth
Increase energy
Decrease body fat
Increase muscle mass
Strength

Tribulus Terrestris is an herb also known as the puncture vine, and has been used for
centuries in Europe as a treatment for healthy sexual function and as a stimulant to help
support sexual drive. On the athletic front, this potent herb has been studied and observed
to enhance LH (luteinizing hormone) production and raise testosterone levels. The
increased testosterone levels by Tribulus Terrestris will have a positive effect on strength
and stamina. Athletes are using Tribulus Terrestris to help ensure their own natural levels
of testosterone are at a normal level at all times. Tribulus Terrestris does not work the way
prohormones such as Androstenedione and DHEA. It is a natural stimulant of LH, and
other substances in the body. In fact, a person that has used a prohormone can use
Tribulus Terrestris on the "off cycle" to help their own testosterone levels return to normal,
which is what the prohormone will suppress. On the "off cycle", many men feel weak, tired,
and moody because their own natural testosterone levels have been suppressed.
Stamina, self-confidence and general well-being are all reported to improve with a Tribulus
extract. Some research evidence suggests that the herb may also be useful for help
maintain healthy cholesterol through its action on the liver.
Tongkat Ali, also known as Long Jack, has been shown to support male hormonal
balance (including testosterone availability) according to animal studies. Tongkat Ali is a
Southeast Asian botanical used traditionally to enhance energy levels, endurance and
stamina, and to reduce occasional mental fatigue. Tongkat Ali helps to increase
testosterone, energy, and muscle mass. Testosterone is the most important of the male
sex hormones, which are known as androgens, and are produced in the gonads. Women
produce testosterone, but much less the amount produced in men. In both sexes,
testosterone stimulates metabolism, promotes lipogenesis (burning of fat), increases the
formation of red blood cells, and accelerates muscle growth. In the case of Tongkat Ali, its
is a natural plant agent which causes the body to produce its own testosterone. As if
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increasing testosterone weren't enough, Tongkat Ali extract is also reported to increase
ATP production. ATP, or adenosine triphosphate, is the basic unit of energy in the body,
responsible for keeping us alive and going. By increasing ATP, overall energy and vitality
are increased. Most people want more energy, and Tongkat Ali provides it, without hyperstimulation, jittery nerves, or insomnia.
3,5,4-Trihydroxystilbene belongs to the phytoalexin class of phytochemicals and
functions as a moderate antioxidant, quenching free radical damage linked aging. 3,5,4Trihydroxystilbene is an effective inhibitor of aromatase as well as an antagonist of the
estrogen receptor. This greatly reduces the amount of estrogen activity and results in
higher natural levels of testosterone which is critical to building muscle mass. It will
modulate the estrogen system in your body and give you the exact results you want to
help you reduce body fat and increase lean mass. Preliminary research results
demonstrate that 3,5,4-Trihydroxystilbene may have antioxidant properties.
Arginine alpha-ketoglutarate (AAKG) is a salt formed by combining two molecules of the
amino acid Arginine and one molecule of alpha-ketoglutarate. Because it is involved in
amino acid synthesis, protein availability and nitric oxide production, many athletes
supplement with AAKG as a way to increase muscle mass and strength. Arginine AlphaKetoglutarate is suitable for bodybuilders, athletes and regular gym users wanting to gain
muscle size and strength, get a better muscle "pump" while working out. Arginine AlphaKetoglutarate acts to stimulate the production of nitric oxide in your body. Nitric oxide acts
as your body's master "cell-signaling" molecule, directing and ordering a complex array of
activities. It regulates blood flow, muscle contraction, nerve signaling and muscle growth,
just to name a few. The functions of this molecule are very impressive. Wider blood
vessels carry more blood to muscles and tissues, delivering increased amounts of protein,
carbohydrate and the various anabolic hormones (such as growth hormone and
testosterone) needed for muscle growth. When nitric oxide is present in the muscles, it
activates "gene-expression" and turns on the body's muscle-building mechanism
(commonly called protein synthesis). In addition, the previously discussed herbal extracts
were found in laboratory studies to further enhance nitric oxide releasing and associated
benefits.
Zizyphys jujube (jujube, Chinese jujube, red date or Chinese date), as long been grown
for their excellent fruit. Natives to Asia where there are many cultivars grown for fruit.
However, it has become naturalized in many other warm temperate regions. It was
brought into the Mediterranean in ancient Roman times. In China it has the reputation of
one of the five principal fruits. Zizyphys jujube fruit with amino acids increase and maintain
the body's natural nitric oxide levels. Zizyphys jujube acts as an adaptogen by
encouraging normal functioning of the adrenal glands, allowing them to function optimally
when challenged by stress. Zizyphys jujube has been shown to enhance mental acuity
and physical endurance without the letdown that comes with caffeinated products.
Research has shown that Zizyphys jujube improves the use of oxygen by the exercising
muscle. This means that a person is able to maintain exercise longer and recovery from
workouts is much quicker.

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Polygonum Multiflorum, originally from China, can also be found growing throughout
Japan, Taiwan and elsewhere. The root of the Polygonum Multiflorum plant is used
medicinally in traditional Chinese medicine. The mechanism of action of Polygonum
Multiflorum is related to the fact that it has also been shown to be a progesterone receptor
antagonist in the literature. This results in maintenance of higher testosterone levels. This
progesterone modulation will give you increased natural hormonal response and fuel your
fat burning, lean mass increasing furnace.
Polyrachis Ant has been widely used and very highly regarded in China as a tonic for
over 3000 years, and has been considered a superior ingredient of the highest order.
Polyrachis Ant literally means "black horse". Records dating back thousands of years
report that numerous emperors and noblemen have consumed ant tonics. Ant has been
referred to in a number of famous Chinese medicinal classics, including Li Shi Chen's Ben
Cao Gang Mu, where the great master praised ants as a superior tonic with excellent
curative powers. It has been universally regarded as a superb Liver and Kidney tonic of
the highest order. Its name, which it received in ancient times, means "black horse." It has
been said that "Ginseng may be the King of Herbs, but Ant is considered the Herb of
Kings!" Polyrachis is reported to produce various beneficial effects including: increased
strength, energy, stamina; strengthens the nervous system, digestive functions,
detoxification functions and muscular system; boosts mental and physical energy.
In summary the Higher Power Elite M1T2 Anabolic Activating formula represents the next
generation of anabolic hormone enhancing products. Products like M1T2 contain botanical
ingredients that have been used throughout history, and in more recently in the U.S.A. As
with all maters related to health, testing this and other similar products and nutrition
practices is best accomplished under the supervision of your doctor to monitor your
health.
Sample of Scientific References Related to M1T2:
-Hamed AI, Oleszek W, Stochmal A, Pizza C, Piacente S. "Steroidal saponins from the aerial parts of Tribulus
pentandrus" Forssk. Phytochemistry. 2004 Nov;65(21):2935-45. Conrad J, Dinchev D, Klaiber I, Mika S, Kostova I,
Kraus W. "A novel furostanol saponin from Tribulus terrestris of Bulgarian origin." Fitoterapia. 2004 Mar;75(2):117-22.
-McKay D. "Nutrients and botanicals for erectile...: examining the evidence." Altern Med Rev. 2004 Mar;9(1):4-16.
-Huang JW, Tan CH, Jiang SH, Zhu DY. "Terrestrinins A and B, two new steroid saponins from Tribulus terrestris." J
Asian Nat Prod Res. 2003 Dec;5(4):285-90.
-De Combarieu E, Fuzzati N, Lovati M, Mercalli E. "Furostanol saponins from Tribulus terrestris." Fitoterapia. 2003
Sep;74(6):583-91.
-Gauthaman K, Ganesan AP, Prasad RN. "Sexual effects of puncturevine (Tribulus terrestris) extract (protodioscin): an
evaluation using a rat model." J Altern Complement Med. 2003 Apr;9(2):257-65.
-Sun W, Gao J, Tu G, Guo Z, Zhang Y. :A new steroidal saponin from Tribulus terrestris Linn." Nat Prod Lett. 2002
Aug;16(4):243-276
-Gauthaman K, Adaikan PG, Prasad RN. Aphrodisiac properties of Tribulus Terrestris extract (Protodioscin) in normal
and castrated rats. Life Sci. 2002 Aug 9;71(12):1385-96.
-Ganzera M, Bedir E, Khan IA. "Determination of steroidal saponins in Tribulus terrestris by reversed-phase highperformance liquid chromatography and evaporative light scattering detection." J Pharm Sci. 2001 Nov;90(11):1752-8.
-Cai L, Wu Y, Zhang J, Pei F, Xu Y, Xie S, Xu D. Steroidal saponins from Tribulus terrestris. Planta Med. 2001
Mar;67(2):196-8
-Zarkova S. Tribestan: experimental and clinical investigations. Sofia, Bulgaria: Sopharma Chemical Pharmaceutical
Research Institute, 1981.
-Adaikan PG, Gauthaman K, Prasad RN, Ng SC.Proerectile pharmacological effects of Tribulus terrestris extract on the
rabbit corpus cavernosum.Ann Acad Med Singapore. 2000 Jan;29(1):22-6.

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Additional Products in the Androstenedione Replacement Category containing


Tribulus, other botanicals and cofactors

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CHAPTER 2.3
BODYBUILDING.COMs
SUPPLEMENT AWARDS
As a leader in training and nutrition information, in 2005, Bodybuilding.com started an
annual supplement product awards review. The selection was based primary on customer
surveys (65%), along with review from experts and their employees. The results are
presented below in short. As sports supplement science is evolving based on independent
scientific studies to measure the effectiveness of ingredients and combinations of
ingredients, in addition to the sports nutrition approaches as reviewed in this book, you
may find it interesting to know about the results of this popularity / best selling review and
rating process. Keep in mind that the participants are predominantly athletes and fitness
enthusiasts that are active in bodybuilding and strength sports.

Here is an overview of the Bodybuilding.com 2006 awards.


Refer to the Bodybuilding.com awards website for more information.
Bodybuilding.com Supplement Award Winners

What Are The Awards?

The Awards Where For The Following Categories:


Supplement of the year

Protein of the year

Creatine of the year

Glutamine of the year

Protein Bar of the year

Multivitamin of the year

Muscle Builder of the year

Best New product

Break-Out Brand of the year

Fat Loss product of the year


Best Overall brand
Best New brand
Nitric Oxide product of the year
Joint product of the year
Energy Enhancer of the year
Labels of the year
Best Ads of the year
Tanning product of the year

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How Was It Scored?


The Scoring Was Based On The Following:
The nominees will be chosen based on the best sellers in that award category from January 1st,
2006 to August 10th, 2006.
The final scoring was based on:
Experts *

25%

Visitor Survey 65%


Employees

10%

* Experts included over 400 writers, top level pro and amateur bodybuilders, personal trainers, industry experts, and more! They were
chosen based on their unbiased position in the industry and their expert knowledge.

The following presents the advertisement that listed the winners of the awards in the
respective categories, followed by listing of the first place winners.
You can visit the award website to view the second and third place winners. 2006 was the
second year that Bodybuilding.com had this supplement awards contest; the 2005 results
are also located at the website.
In addition to supplement categories the awards also included tanning products of interest
to bodybuilders, and other categories of general interest, such as best ads of the year and
best labels of the year.

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Supplement Of The Year - Optimum 100% Whey


Winner 2nd year in a row!
AND
Protein Powder Of The Year - Optimum 100% Whey Winner 2nd
year in a row!

Brand Of The Year - BSN


AND
Best Labels Of The Year - BSN
Winner 2nd year in a row!

Muscle Builder Of The Year - BSN NO-Xplode


Winner 2nd year in a row!
AND
Nitric Oxide Product Of The Year - BSN NO-Xplode

Fat Loss Product Of The Year - Nutrex Lipo 6


Winner 2nd year in a row!
AND
Energy Enhancer Of The Year - Nutrex Lipo 6

Creatine Product Of The Year - BSN CellMass


Winner 2nd year in a row!

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Protein Bar Of The Year - Next Detour Bars

New Product Of The Year - MuscleTech Anator P70

New Brand Of The Year - USPlabs

Glutamine Product Of The Year - Prolab Glutamine Powder

Multi-Vitamin Of The Year - Universal Animal Pak


Winner 2nd year in a row!
AND
Best Ads Of The Year - Universal Nutrition

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Joint Supplement Of The Year - Universal Animal Flex

Tanning Product Of The Year - Pro Tan Instant

Break-Out Brand Of The Year - Xyience

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PART THREE
PERFORMANCE NUTRITION
APPROACHES
AND
GUIDE TO
ATHLETIC FAT LOSS
Solving the
Weight Loss Puzzle

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CHAPTER 3.1
PERFORMANCE NUTRITION APPROACHES
The primary focus of this book is the ingredients used in bodybuilding and sports
supplements. In particular, the ingredients that have been proven to provide a benefit
based on independent research studies. But, as discussed in Part One, sports
supplements are intended to supplement the diet. Therefore, in order for sports
supplements to work best your daily nutrition program must be adequate too. This chapter
will provide some basic information about sports nutrition approaches, along with
additional information about sports supplements.
Significant advancements in nutrition science have been made during the past decade,
starting out the 21st century in a new, much needed direction. Eating for general health
has advanced from merely satisfying hunger, meeting caloric intake needs, and ingestion
of the bare nutrient essentials for survival, toward achieving optimum health, peak
physical & mental performance, longevity and disease prevention.
When it comes to nutrition for athletic performance, athletes need to maintain a foundation
of healthy eating practices for optimum health, topped off with the special nutrition needs
of athletes, considering their sport specific nutrition and supplement programs. For peak
athletic performance this means focusing on what the body actually needs on an
individualized basis, versus the national nutrition average intake approach.
It is important to realize that while the governments recent healthy eating guidelines,
2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, has come a long way, they are still not intended
to meet everybodys specific needs, especially those of athletes. However, with this in
mind, these newest dietary guidelines are useful and contain examples of establishing a
healthy nutrition foundation, and is included in the appendix for your reference.
One major issue regarding the 2005 guidelines, and previous ones published by the
government, is that they recommend a diet that is too low in protein. In comparison, over 2
decades ago my sports nutrition model included protein intake guidelines that were athlete
specific, and higher than the governments minimum RDA guidelines (Recommended
Dietary Allowances). This was once considered out-side-the-box thinking. But, as the field
of sports nutrition science evolved, and other scientists started using the model and
considering the specific needs of the individual athlete, independent researchers
eventually agreed to this dynamic nutrition approach. Today, it has become text book
knowledge that athletes in general require more protein, and there are different protein
needs for different groups of athletes, with strength athletes requiring the highest protein
intake.

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Regarding the governments recommendations on protein intake, while the RDA minimum
intake guidelines are still considered too low, other government groups acknowledge the
need for higher than average protein intakes, especially for active people. For example,
the military nutrition guidelines recognize that more protein is required for active people,
and their standard recommendation is about double the intake that is recommend for the
general population. Also the DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) guidelines
recommend a diet that is higher in protein. When looking at the recent growing body of
research on higher protein diets, as prompted by weight loss researchers testing the
higher protein weight loss diets, multiple health benefits are associated with increasing
dietary protein above the RDA, in addition to providing building blocks for muscle and
other body structures and biochemicals.
Why so much introductory information about protein? Because protein is often
deficient in an athletes diet, and being an extremely important macronutrient requires
special attention and effort to ensure adequate intake, especially during the athletic
season and pre-season.
From my work in sports nutrition starting in the 1970s, I sought to create a nutrition model
of sports nutrition based on the bio-energetics and specific needs of athletes, versus the
RDAs average nutrition intake approach. Athletes are above average and require nutrition
that is also above average.
It is easy to appreciate the differences in nutrition requirements when comparing a
marathon runner with a weightlifter. The type of physical activity influences the body at
many levels (including anatomy and physiology) and creates the demand for the nutrient
composition intake needed. So while there will always be some individual differences,
most endurance athletes, from their training, will categorically require a similar intake of
macronutrients, micronutrients and additional nutritional ergogenic aids. The same is
true for weightlifters, and so on, with the athletes participating in sports between these two
bio-energetic extremes also having some different requirements.
Nutrition for athletes is truly dynamic, which led me to developing the Dynamic Nutrition
for Maximum Performance approach. This was the first approach that quantified sports
nutrition, so I had to create special nutrition examples, as the general nutrition guidelines
were not suitable. However, as the 2005 dietary guidelines have also become more
scientific and optimum nutrition based, I included a copy of this in the appendix as a
resource for helping to create an eating plan for the off season, to provide additional
reference information for general healthy eating guidelines, and to apply the Dynamic
Nutrition for Maximum Performance concepts with. This will also assist when dealing with
health professionals, as most health professionals are familiar with the 2005 guidelines,
more so than they are with the science of sports nutrition.
The following information will provide an overview of the Dynamic Nutrition for Maximum
Performance Approach. Keep in mind that while approaching sports nutrition from a bioenergetic and morphological model is viable, each individual has to make an effort to finetune their food and supplement intake based on their individual needs and health status.

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This is best accomplished by working with a health practitioner. For example, the
macronutrient model is straight forward, but when it comes to the micronutrient intake
(vitamins and minerals) many athletes have inadequate intakes, and may require shortterm higher level intake to overcome these deficiencies. This requires identifying the
specific essential nutrient inadequacies, followed by proper nutrient intake therapy; usually
requiring high dosages for several weeks to a few months. Additionally, many people have
food allergies or intolerances that can adversely affect health and athletic performance,
and this also needs to be determined by a health professional.
The primary points reviewed in this chapter will be:
Review of the Dynamic Nutrition for Maximum Performance Approach (DNMP)
Issues regarding the macronutrients; protein, carbohydrates, and fats.
Daily nutrition examples using the DNMP approach.
Nutrient reference information.

Sports Nutrition is a Skill


What the thousands of scientific studies conducted over the past few decades have
shown is that if you engage in athletic training and competition, the demands of your
physical activity will create a special nutrition need. Your athletic conditioning therefore
determines what food and supplements will work best for your specific physical
conditioning program.
For example, a marathon runner needs to eat different amounts of protein, carbohydrates
and fat than a powerlifter does. However, all athletes need to follow the rules of healthy
eating as well as modify their dietary intake to enable them to achieve maximum
performance. Becoming a master at planning and implementing your athletic nutrition
program is just as important as perfecting your training program, skills, and athletic
performance. It will take some effort on your part to construct a sports nutrition program
that works best for you, but the payoff of being the best athlete you can be is worth the
effort. Keep a food diary and become aware of your nutrition athletic performance
relationship. The information in this chapter and book will help to get you off to a good
start, but, ultimately fine-tuning your nutrition program based on your individual needs is
required to achieve your personal maximum athletic performance.

Dynamic Nutrition For Maximum Performance Approach


The Dynamic Nutrition Approach, A Bio-energetic Model To Performance
Nutrition
When you train for a particular sport, you are conditioning your muscles to produce
strength and contractions that generate motion specific to your sport objectives. For
example, a marathon runner needs to display a lower intensity muscular output that can
be sustained for long time periods. Compare this to the explosive strength needed for a
hundred meter sprinter to run a short distance as fast as humanly possible. In the sprinter,
the muscles are much larger and there is a high intensity muscle output over a very short
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period of time. This explosive strength generates tremendous power and relies on
different energy systems and muscle fiber types.
This means that the type of physical conditioning you perform results in developing your
athletic abilities, and influences muscle size, muscle fiber development, and bio-energetic
conditioning of your muscles So, your athletic training shapes your anatomy and
physiology, which creates certain nutrition requirements.
Unless you are an exercise physiologist you my not be aware of these scientific insights,
but these are very important concepts for you to realize. Once you take the time to
understand them, it will help you in your athletic endeavors and later on in life when you
are constructing your physical conditioning program for health and longevity reasons.

How Does Exercise Effect Your Muscle Fiber Development And


Composition?
In general, skeletal muscles are composed of two types of muscle fibers, which are
classified as slow-twitch and fast-twitch. Slow-twitch muscle fibers are the ones
preferentially developed when you undertake long distance training. This includes walking,
running, cycling or swimming long distances. This type of physical conditioning results in
smaller muscles, which have a lot of mitochondria packed into each slow-twitch muscle
fiber. This type of muscle development also has more blood vessels needed to supply
oxygen for aerobic metabolism, and to quickly clear away metabolic wastes, under
conditions of continuous physical activity. A well conditioned oxidative athlete burns
plenty of energy dense fatty acids for energy, in addition to high energy carbohydrates,
and can maintain continuous movement for a long period of time. Take note, that glucose
is also an important energy source for oxidative athletes, as well as some amino acids, in
particular the BCAAs as duration of exercise increases.
Strength athletes require conditioning that will preferentially develop fast-twitch muscle
fibers. Fast-twitch muscle fibers are capable of performing large output of strength over a
short period of time. However, as a consequence of this, anaerobic waste products build
up and cause muscle fatigue to quickly set in and impair strength performance. Fast-twitch
muscle fibers have some oxidative capacity, the extent of which depends on how you train
your body.
The large muscles of power athletes are conditioned to utilize anaerobic energy pathways,
such as the immediate energy systems, which use readily available adenosine
triphosphate (ATP) and creatine phosphate (CP, also called phosphocreatine). Moreover,
energy is derived from glycolysis which makes energy from muscle glycogen (glucose) to
manufacture ATP molecules. Of course, remember that all athletes are always using fatty
acids for energy too, however, strength athletes tend to be more conditioned and inclined
to use muscle glycogen during exercise. This is one reason why strength athletes need to
make sure that they are following a lower fat diet when compared to oxidative athletes. In
fact, this frustrates a lot of people who are well conditioned strength training athletes, who
have to battle to keep their body fat low. In most cases, they are eating too much of the
wrong foods, usually too much fat.
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Dietary / Sports Nutrition Supplements Are Part Of The Dynamic Nutrition


Approach
Scientific studies show that in addition to well known benefits of maintaining healthy
eating, you can also enhance your physical and mental performance with sports nutrition
supplements. Protein supplements offer athletes a convenient and economical way to get
daily high quality protein intake. For strength athletes there are additional supplements
that can be helpful for optimum muscle growth and muscle repair, such as creatine, extra
amino acids, hydrolyzed collagen, and more listed below. For maximum aerobic energy,
which is of interest to long distance athletes, there are special energy drinks that can be
used, plus special metabolites, such as carnitine and co-enzyme Q10. Recent research
supports the use of supplement nutrition therapy to help reduce pain and inflammation,
and help healing injuries. These therapeutic supplement agents include different herbs,
amino acids like phenylalanine, bioflavonoids, antioxidants, curcumin, and a special
metabolite that has been shown to build and repair connective tissues, called
glucosamine.
The effectiveness and safety of supplements is always going to be dependent upon your
specific state of health and your level of physical activity. It is also contingent upon the fact
that you are following the products directions, and not over-dosing any of the
supplements you are taking. Concerning vitamins and minerals, these products have been
sold and used for many decades, and have an excellent safety record when taken as
directed. However, the guidelines contained in this book may not be suitable to everyone,
and need to be verified working with your health professional.
When it comes to the newer, more novel products that fall under the banner of ergogenic
aids such as creatine, CLA, and BHMB, some of these supplements do not have a long
history of use, or are not thoroughly researched for long periods of time. Keep in mind that
most of the research studies on supplements are only performed over short periods of
time; a few weeks, or a few to several months. Also, most of the research was conducted
using males. This means that the long-term effects of using some supplements has not
been determined, also what is ideal for males or females. However, metabolite ingredients
like creatine, CLA, and BHMB are found in the diet naturally or made by the body, so there
is some evidence to their biological importance and safety, even when long-term studies
are lacking.
As a general rule, it is always important to follow the usage directions provided on the
bottles of dietary supplements. For many of the essential vitamins and minerals you will
find recommended daily values (DV) on the labels. In most instances the total intake of
vitamins and minerals will need to be ingested from a combination of foods and
supplements in at least 100% of the daily values, and typically in higher amounts for
most athletes. When it comes to the newer or novel metabolite supplements found on the
market such as creatine, while these nutrients are found naturally in the diet, and are
made and used in your body, more care is needed for their safe use, especially for
duration of use.

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Review the information in Part One to be acquainted with the foods and nutrients you are
ingesting, and when you have questions with specific products contact the manufacturers
to confirm what the best safe and effective dosage is for you. It is always a wise practice
to be under the supervision of your personal doctor, team physician, or other health
professional to ensure a safe and effective sports nutrition and supplement program that
will work for you. For purposes of health and playing by the rules, if you are a competitive
athlete, make sure to let your coach and team doctor know what foods, supplements and
medication you are using. Even conventional foods (especially beverages, caffeine
containing foods and herbal teas for example) may contain a substance that is banned by
your sports organization.

Keep It Simple And Be Consistent


Athletes lead hectic lifestyles, with very full schedules. Making the things you do every day
as easy as possible, like nutrition, should be a primary goal. When you take a look around
at nutrition programs and supplement schedules in other books and in articles, keeping up
with some of them can be overwhelming, often impossible from a practical standpoint. In
fact, it is a common occurrence that people get highly motivate at the start to try to stick to
these complicated programs, but after a few weeks, give up, and the quality of their
nutrition declines in the process.
There needs to be a balance between the structure and function of the nutrition program
As a general rule, consistency is more important than complexity. You have to determine
a meal and supplement foundation that you can realistically follow each day. In the
nutrition examples in this chapter, I provide a foundation meal plan example that uses a 5
meal/snack per day schedule as the starting point, with room for a 6th meal, snack, or
sports nutrition supplement in the evening based on your individual needs and
preferences. For most people, fitting in 5 eating occasions a day is challenging. People
often end up skipping daytime meals, and try to play nutritional intake catch-up in the
evening. It is important to consume most of your calories during the day.
Regarding supplement intake, the rule for most supplements is the same as for foods, be
consistent day to day. Also, most supplements, in particular the vitamins, minerals,
metabolites, protein/amino acids, and botanicals, are best consumed in 2 to 3 divided
dosages to maintain consistent levels in the body. They can be taken just before and or
with meals. So, timing your meals with your supplements around your work/school and
training schedules can help simplify your nutrition program and reduce the need for
following complicated hour by hour food or supplement intake schedules. However, for
some sports, especially approaching major competitions, following a more complicated
program may be required for several or more weeks, and is more achievable when you
have your day-to-day sports nutrition program in place as a foundation.
One tip that helps most people stick to their sports nutrition program, aside from planning,
is to get one of those small portable cooler bags to help to implement the plan. Keep it
stocked up with your portable daily meal(s), along with some fruit, vegetables, water,
energy drink, high protein meal replacement drink or bar, protein supplement, and other
supplements you plan on using that day.

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RATIONALE BEHIND THE PERFORMANCE NUTRITION PLANS


The table on the following two pages summarizes the main types of bio-energetic needs
and macronutrient profiles to best meet the energy, growth, recovery and performance
demands. Keep in mind that these are categories to serve as a starting point. Each
individual will have slightly different nutrition needs. You can modify the macronutrient
intake to best suit your individual needs. However, by using this bio-energetic nutrition
model you can increase your success rate, compared to taking years of trial and error, or
from following general nutrition guidelines for nonathletes. This summary also follows the
Dynamic Nutritions Hierarchical approach. In other words, when you are designing a
performance eating plan, I have found that the following approach will make the work easy
for you.
Step 1: determine your body composition; percent body fat mass and percent lean body mass.
Step 2: determine you daily caloric expenditure range; training days and non-training days.
Step 3: determine the bioenergetics your sport primarily requires for peak performance. I have
included some examples of sports in the table below.
Step 4: Determine your daily protein intake needs and the foods and supplements to achieve it.
Remember from your Part One reading that nitrogen balance differs between different athletes. This
gives a scientific reason for making protein intake a priority for performance diets, in addition to
other bio-energetic and anatomy based factors.
Step 5: Determine your daily carbohydrate needs and the foods and supplements to achieve it.
Remember to plan for carbohydrate beverage intake before and/or during and after practice and
competitions. And modulate carbohydrate type and amount with meals and snacks to attain your
specific nutrition goals. All athletes require a high intake of carbohydrates for peak performance.
Step 6: Determine your fat intake and determine what foods and cooking methods will best achieve
this. Keeping fat intake under 30 percent of total daily calories will be an ongoing skill to master.
Stick to your bio-energetic performance eating plan the best you can during your pre and
competition seasons. For certain sports maintaining fat intake about 15-20 percent of total daily
calories can be challenging, and requires extra effort to make sure you are ingesting adequate
amounts of the essential fatty acids.; linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids.
Step 7: Maintain proper fluid and nutrient intake to meet your daily needs, as determined by the
amount of physical activity, environmental factors, and your specific training and health needs.
Step 8: Maintain intake of dietary supplements and sports supplements based on your individual
needs and sports specific performance requirements.
Step 9: Be consistent. Consistency is key for a successful sports nutrition program.
Step 10: Be a champion. Being a champion is more than winning. It is about living a certain lifestyle
that leads to winning. This lifestyle includes a constant effort of improvement of all the factors
(planning, physical, mental, athletic training, nutritional, spiritual, medical, social, etc.) that results in
being the best you can be. Planning is a major part of success in sports and life. Implementing your
plan is one thing, the other is measuring the outcome and identifying both strengths and areas of
improvement on a regular basis.

The following table provides an overview of the bio-energetic based macronutrient


composition sports nutrition model. It is for short-term use, pre-season and competition
season. Keep in mind as with all models and approaches, this is a general starting point
that requires fine-tuning based on the exact nutrition needs of the individual athlete.

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PERFORMANCE NUTRITION
PLAN

SPORT BIO-ENERGETIC TYPE

30% Protein
55% Carbohydrates
15% Fat

Anaerobic - Immediate Energy Sports

Baseball
Bodybuilding
Boxing
Football
Gymnastics
Martial Arts
Powerlifting
Running, Sprint
Skiing, All Down Hill Events
Swimming, Sprit Events
Track & Field, Power/Sprint Events
Weight Lifting
Wrestling

25% Protein
55% Carbohydrates
20% Fat
Basketball
Bowling
Cycling Sprint
Dancing, Power
Equestrian, Power
Field Hockey, Power Players
Fitness, Power Exercisers
Golf
Hockey, Ice
Motor Sports
Racket Sports
Rock Climbing
Running, Mid-Distance
Skiing, Mid-Distance
Soccer, Power Positions
Swimming, Mid-Distance
Tennis
Track & Field, Mid-Distance Events
Volleyball

Sports that demand explosive strength and power


(immediately available ATP and CP); anaerobic energy is
primarily used in one sustained all out effort, or repeated
bursts of all out effort.
Large strength athlete muscles are comprised of mostly fast
twitch muscle fibers. High protein intake is required to
maintain positive nitrogen balance and repair fragile fast
twitch muscle fibers that strength athletes have more of.
Low fat, high carbohydrate intake is suggested, because
these athletes utilize mostly muscle glycogen to replenish
ATP and CP stores during exercise, which is carbohydrate
dependent.
Some of these sports, such as boxing and wrestling also
require oxidative generated energy, but under conditions of
short-term, and high intensity effort, which still utilizes a high
amount of carbohydrate derived energy.

Anaerobic - Glycolytic Sports


Sports that require explosive strength and power is required
on a highly repetitive basis. Muscle glycogen is a primary
source of energy. High protein is required to maintain
positive nitrogen balance and repair fast twitch muscle
fibers.
Carbohydrate is still the primary energy source during
exercise, but with longer duration, and for some sports with
increasing continuous movement, fatty acids become relied
upon for energy too.

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20% Protein
60% Carbohydrates
20% Fat
Cycling Mid-Distance
Dancing, Stamina
Equestrian, Mid-Distance
Field Hockey, Mid-Distance Players
Fitness, Stamina Exercisers
Soccer, Mid-Distance Positions
Swimming, Long-Distance

15% Protein
60% Carbohydrates
25% Fat
Cycling, Long-Distance
Fitness, Endurance Exercisers
Running, Long-Distance
Skiing, Long-Distance
Track & Field, Long-Distance Events
Triathlon
Ultra-long distance cycling, swimming, and
other events

Anaerobic Glycolytic Oxidative Sports


Sports where the aerobic pathway is the predominant
energy source, but glycolysis is also relied upon.
Fatty acids and muscle glycogen therefore become
important energy sources. Moderate protein intake is
required to maintain positive nitrogen balance and repair
muscle fibers.
This is a good daily intake macronutrient composition for
cross-training sports, or multi-energetic sports, as well as for
general health and fitness.

Oxidative Sports
Sports where oxidative endurance is required for long
distance / duration athletic events and training.
Slow twitch muscle fibers predominate.
High intake of carbohydrates are required to maintain
glycogen stores. As endurance athletes utilize a high
amount of fatty acids for energy, moderate dietary fat intake
is recommended. Protein intake is lowest for this athlete
group, but is about twice as high compared to non-athletes.
Slow-twitch muscle fibers tend to be more resistant to
breakdown when compared to fast-twitch muscle fibers.

Keep in mind that as with most models they are intended to serve as examples and
starting points. Based on individual needs, some fine-tuning of the macronutrient
composition percentages may be required to best suit your particular needs. Additionally,
these guidelines are intended for healthy adult athletes, not for children, nonathletes, or
people with health concerns or disorders. These guidelines can be used in the pre-season
or season, or longer depending on the athletes training schedule. For off season athletic
people and fitness, a nutrition program with in the following macronutrient ranges is
suitable for most people: 15-30% Protein, 50-60% carbohydrates, and 20-25% fats.
Another point is that the percentages of macronutrients does not have to be maintained
for each meal. As indicated below, most athletes will practice macronutrient modulation
during the day, in particular before exercise and during exercise. Additionally, the day
before and or day of competition increasing carbohydrate consumption can help to ensure
adequate glycogen stores, and peak energy production.

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MACRONUTRIENTS SOME SUMMARY POINTS


In addition to the information in Part One, this section will review some final points
regarding macronutrients, followed by a section that presents examples of generalized
sport specific daily meal plans. To begin, the following reference tables provide a
summary of how the different macronutrient percentages result in total daily grams, based
on different caloric intakes. This provides a quick summary that can be used for nutrition
planning.
Total Daily Caloric
Intake Example Values
2,000 Calories
2,500 Calories
3,000 Calories
3,500 Calories
4,000 Calories
Total Daily Caloric
Intake Example Values
2,000 Calories
2,500 Calories
3,000 Calories
3,500 Calories
4,000 Calories

Protein Daily Intake At 15%


of Total Daily Calories
(Calories and Amount)
300 Cals, 75 grams
375 Cals, 94 grams
450 Cals, 113 grams
525 Cals, 131 grams
600 Cals, 150 grams

Protein Daily Intake At 20% of


Total Daily Calories
(Calories and Amount)
400 Cals, 100 grams
500 Cals, 125 grams
600 Cals, 150 grams
700 Cals, 175 grams
800 Cals, 200 grams

Protein Daily Intake At 25%


of Total Daily Calories
(Calories and Amount)
500 Cals, 125 grams
625 Cals, 156 grams
750 Cals, 188 grams
875 Cals, 219 grams
1000 Cals, 250 grams

Protein Daily Intake At 30% of


Total Daily Calories
(Calories and Amount)
600 Cals, 150 grams
750 Cals, 188 grams
900 Cals, 225 grams
1050 Cals, 263 grams
1200 Cals, 300 grams

Protein Daily Intake was calculated as follows, Total Daily Caloric Intake times 0.15, 0.20, 0.25, or 0.30.
Example: 3,000 Calories X 0.20 = 600 Calories.
Protein Daily Intake in grams was calculated as follows, Total Daily Caloric Intake divided by 4 calories per gram.
Example: 600 Calories / 4 calories per gram = 150 grams

Total Daily Caloric


Intake Example Values
2,000 Calories
2,500 Calories
3,000 Calories
3,500 Calories
4,000 Calories
4,500 Calories

Carbohydrate Daily Intake At


55% of Total Daily Calories
(Calories and Amount)
1,100 Cals, 275 grams
1,375 Cals, 374 grams
1,650 Cals, 413 grams
1,925 Cals, 481 grams
2,200 Cals, 550 grams
2,475 Cals, 619 grams

Carbohydrate Daily Intake At


60% of Total Daily Calories
(Calories and Amount)
1200 Cals, 300 grams
1,500 Cals, 375 grams
1,800 Cals, 450 grams
2,100 Cals, 525 grams
2,400 Cals, 600 grams
2,700 Cals, 675 grams

Carbohydrate Daily Intake was calculated as follows, Total Daily Caloric Intake times 0.55 or 0.60.
Example: 3,000 Calories X 0.60 = 1,800 Calories.
Carbohydrate Daily Intake in grams was calculated as follows, Total Daily Caloric Intake divided by 4 calories per
gram. Example: 1,800 Calories / 4 calories per gram = 450 grams

Total Daily Caloric


Intake Example
Values

Fat Daily Intake At 15% of


Total Daily Calories
(Calories and Amount)

Fat Daily Intake At 20%


of Total Daily Calories
(Calories and Amount)

Fat Daily Intake At 25%


of Total Daily Calories
(Calories and Amount)

2,000 Calories
2,500 Calories
3,000 Calories
3,500 Calories
4,000 Calories

300 Cals, 33 grams


375 Cals, 42 grams
450 Cals, 50 grams
525 Cals, 58 grams
600 Cals, 67 grams

400 Cals, 44 grams


500 Cals, 56 grams
600 Cals, 67 grams
700 Cals, 78 grams
800 Cals, 89 grams

500 Cals, 56 grams


625 Cals, 69 grams
750 Cals, 83 grams
875 Cals, 97 grams
1000 Cals, 111 grams

Fat Daily Intake was calculated as follows, Total Daily Caloric Intake times 0.15, 0.20, or 0.25.
Example: 3,000 Calories X 0.20 = 600 Calories.
Fat Daily Intake in grams was calculated as follows, Total Daily Caloric Intake divided by 9 calories per gram. Example: 600
Calories / 9 calories per gram = 67 grams

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CARBOHYDRATES
As carbohydrates, in particular glucose, are a primary source of energy for all athletes
their daily adequate intake is vital for peak athletic performance. For the anaerobic and
aerobic athletes, glucose is the primarily high energy fuel source. As previously
mentioned, during strenuous, short-term strength athletic activities glucose is a primary
fuel for anaerobic energy production. However, glucose is also a primary fuel for aerobic
energy production too, in addition to fatty acids, and to a minor extent, amino acids, like
the BCAAs.
With longer duration aerobic (oxidative) athletic events, fatty acids are also a major
contributor of energy production, however, glucose, helps maintain athletic performance at
a higher level. Now, with this in mind, the major significance of this is for competitive
athletes during competition / events who need to attain and maintain the highest possible
peak performance levels. Nonathletes during fitness exercise or even athletes during
practice sessions, still want to strive to get their pre-exercise and exercise carbohydrate
and other nutrient intake at optimum levels, but is less critical if you slip-up. Also, the
guidelines were created with the elite athlete in mind, who is engaged in maximum effort
physical performance. Most people during fitness exercise and recreational sports are
exercising at a low to moderate level of output, and can do so under a range of nutrition
conditions. With this in mind here are some Pre-event, Event, and Post-event nutrition
issues to consider. These also will apply to practice sessions, however, pre-event meals
require higher levels of carbohydrates that will deviate from the standard daily
macronutrient percentages in the example programs.
Pre-Event Meal
Always maintain adequate hydration as reviewed in Part One.
While all athletes should get their pre-event meal composition and timing perfected, it is
most important for athletes who are undergoing long duration events that may deplete
their glycogen supplies during athletic events and training, usually events lasing 1 hour or
more. However, all athletes should strive to time the pre-event meal in a way where it has
cleared their gastrointestinal system, because if food is still being digested, this will divert
blood and energy away from exercising muscles, and could also create gastrointestinal
upset, resulting in decreasing athletic performance.
The primary goal of the pre-event meal is to be high in carbohydrates to make sure
adequate glycogen stores are present when the athlete starts their competition. The preevent meal therefore has to be timed properly, so it is completely digested and absorbed
in to the body, before the athletic event begins. This may take 3 to 4 hours, assuming the
meal is high in carbohydrates, 70% or more, and consists of carbohydrates that are easily
digested, and low in fiber and fat, because these nutrients can slow down digestion. (70%
to 90% carbohydrates, 10% to 20% protein, 10% or less fat). Choose high carbohydrate
foods such as pasta, bread, potatoes, bananas, oatmeal and pancakes.
The amount of calories of the pre-event meal will depend on your size and daily calorie
use. For example, pre-event meal caloric content of 600 to 1,000 Calorie is a range that

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will be suitable for many athletes. Note that athletes should not rely solely on just the preevent meal on the day of the competition for ensuring adequate glycogen stores, and must
practice following their sport specific nutrition plans, including adequate caloric intake
every day for best results.
Some athletes, especially the ultra endurance athletes with events lasting over 3 hours
long, try to also ingest an energy drink or high carbohydrate nutrition bar 2 hours or even
as close as 1 hour before the event. However, if this is not timed right, the ingested
nutrients may not be cleared from the gastrointestinal system at the time the even begins.
Also, ingesting carbohydrates and other nutrients could cause a rapid rise in insulin, and
fall in glucose levels, that will make the athlete hypoglycemic at the beginning of the event,
which may reduce their initial athletic performance; this important but less critical during
practice/training. Getting the pre-even carbohydrate program just right will take some
testing prior to the athletic event.
Aside from competition days, the everyday pre-exercise meals still should be higher in
carbohydrates, moderate in protein, and low in fat and fiber. However, some athletes and
fitness exercisers with hectic schedules, and pressed for time, may have to bend the rules
of athletic eating now and then. Signs of eating a pre-exercise or pre-event meal that is
too large or too soon before exercise activity will include stomach bloating, belching,
burping and tasting the meal, acid reflux, gastrointestinal upset, and reduced athletic
performance. If you find that your pre-exercise meal is dragging you down during a
workout, cut back on your exercise intensity, or take a break to finish digesting the meal.
Another important point about having food in your stomach during exercise is that this will
reduce your ability for hydration during exercise. Also, during digestion water is needed,
and this will divert water needed for cooling exercising muscles. Also blood flow is diverted
to the gastrointestinal system when digesting a meal, so if food is still undergoing
digestion at the start and during exercise, less blood will be available to be circulated to
exercising muscles.
Carbohydrate Intake During Long Duration Events and Exercise
As reviewed in Part One, the practice and research of ingesting carbohydrate / mineral
electrolyte beverages during training and events primarily came into being working with
long distance, endurance athletes, such as marathon runners and long distance cyclists.
So, many of the serving sizes and amounts of beverages determined to work best was
based primarily on research with athletes of medium to small body weight, and also under
conditions of continuous exercise. As the importance of glycogen maintenance is
important for all athletes, larger athletes, such as basketball players and football players,
can start with the middle to upper limit of the guideline range, and working with their team
nutrition expert, experiment with determining if a higher amount is suitable.
There is a multiple goal when ingesting carbohydrate beverages during events and
exercise, the first is to maintain hydration and replace water lost from sweating. Another
goal is providing the body with an external source of carbohydrates to spare the use of
glycogen stores, so they wont get depleted during exercise. Also, to replenish the body

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with sodium, chloride, potassium that is lost from sweating. The longer the duration of
exercise or events, the more critical this replenishment balancing becomes. Generally,
athletes exercising or in events lasting longer than an hour will benefit from a
carbohydrate containing beverage.
Similar to water intake the range of carbohydrate beverage intake is about 6 to 12 ounces
every 15 to 20 minutes. Carbohydrate beverages need to be dilute; 4 to 8% solutions. This
is about what most sports beverages contain, but you can check with the manufacturer to
confirm this. Higher percentage solutions may also be suitable depending on the
individuals beverage digestion ability during physical activity.
Regarding the type of carbohydrate, for elite level performance up to a couple to a few
hours in duration, glucose containing beverages will provide the fastest available energy.
However, most beverages on the market now include glucose, with some fructose from
sugar or added fructose. Aside from taking more time to be used for energy in the body,
fructose has been reported to potentially cause gastrointestinal upset when ingested
during exercise, in amounts similar to the recommendations for glucose. So avoid, or
minimize fructose containing beverages during these events.
As the intensity of the continuous exercise is low to moderate, and longer in duration, over
about 2.5 hours, then the mixed carbohydrate source may have an advantage, as some
recent research indicates that the total amount of ingested carbohydrate per hour that can
be used for energy may be at a higher rate of use, in test beverages containing high
amounts of glucose, with some minor amounts of fructose. Each athlete needs to evaluate
what works best for them. Especially ultra-endurance athletes who as a group have very
special event nutrition needs that can only be determined working directly with a sports
nutrition expert.
On a dry weight basis, the amount of ingested carbohydrate per hour from an energy
beverage, is between 30 to 60 grams. However, larger athletes over 170 pounds will likely
have the ability to use higher amounts per hour. Also, this general rule is for trying to
achieve peak performance during athletic competition events, while also maintaining peak
rehydration. During regular training, higher amounts of carbohydrate intake per hour may
be tolerated, but need to be evaluated on a case by case basis.
Research also revealed that under certain circumstances a short chain complex
carbohydrate called maltodextrin can be used in sports beverages as an energy supply.
This could be suitable in low to medium intensity sports, of long duration, in particular 2.5
hours or more in duration, or for recreational athletes, or during training. If other
endurance athletes are interested in maltodextrin, or combinations of glucose, fructose
and maltodextrin, they should experiment by comparing the different carbohydrate
containing beverages during practice, to determine what works best from them, well in
advance of the event.
Regarding glycemic index, as discussed in Part One, athletes will generally consume diets
containing carbohydrates with high to medium GI values. This is primarily due to the fact

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that they are consuming higher amounts of foods, and need to maintain a more rapid rate
of digestion and nutrient replenishment.
However, for athletes requiring to lose body fat, or maintain weight for a particular weight
class, ingesting carbohydrates with mostly medium to low GI values will result in slowing
down the digestion and nutrient absorption rate, and can result in causing the body to use
more fat for energy production. In sports like bodybuilding where peak performance is not
required, but low body fat levels are, during the contest preparation phase eating foods
and meals with low GIs should help promote losing body fat at a greater rate and
maintaining lower body fat levels.
Regarding the pre-event meal, when low GI meals are compared to high GI meals, the low
GI meals result in an increased rate of fatty acid utilization during exercise. However,
when a carbohydrate energy beverage is consumed during exercise, this will cancel out
differences between high or low GI pre-event meals. Pre-event meal aside, athletic
performance is always significantly improved more so when carbohydrate energy drinks
are consumed during exercise, compared to just ingesting water, regardless of the
composition of pre-event meal.
Post-Event and Exercise Meal
There are some misconceptions about post-exercise eating. One is that you only have a
very short window of opportunity to replenish glycogen, some people are led to think it is a
matter of minutes, but its longer. It is true that during the period of time after exercise the
glycogen replenishment can be at a higher rate, but the time of this window is up to 2
hours. Additionally, glycogen stores are also replenished ongoing, from meal to meal.
Therefore, it is beneficial to be able to time your post-exercise or even meal to be
consumed within 20 minutes to 2 hours after exercise. Also, you can try consuming a
post-workout beverage that contains carbohydrates and protein, first, followed by a
complete post-exercise meal. This will get carbohydrates, protein, and other nutrients into
your body fast, in an easy to digest hydrated form for rehydration, in addition to plain water
intake.
The best post-exercise meal or sports nutrition drinks for post-exercise consumption are
high in carbohydrates and moderate in protein, and low in fat, something that will be easily
and quickly digested. Also high glycemic index carbohydrates will further increase the rate
of glycogen replenishment in the post-exercise period. Some athletes may also need to
increase their consumption of salty foods, to help replace the sodium lost during high
sweat loss exercise or events, also potassium, and other essential vitamins and minerals.
This is why consuming a complete post-exercise meal with your supplements is desirable
for optimum nutrient replenishment. The GI value of meals following the post-exercise
meals are less critical and can range from high to medium to low GI values based on your
nutritional preference. Generally, for weight loss, or athletes with weight management
issues, medium to lower GI meals will promote better appetite control and higher rate of
fat metabolism.

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As previously mentioned for athletes who are concerned about weight loss and weight
maintenance, such as bodybuilders, weightlifters, powerlifters, gymnasts, and boxers,
finding the appropriate GI intake balance can help promote fat loss, weight maintenance,
and performance. For these athletes, ingesting foods and meals primarily in low to
medium GI range will be a good starting point. Use high GI foods periodically when
quicker glucose replenishment is required.
PROTEIN QUALITY
As reviewed in Part One, protein quality is primarily depends on the amino acids it
contains. For the general nonathletic population the standards reviewed to rate protein are
useful. But, for athletes, needing higher amounts of certain amino acids, like arginine,
glutamine, and the BCAAs (leucine, isoleucine and valine), to increase the athletic
protein quality. Concerning foods, animal protein sources tend to be complete in
indispensable amino acids and also plentiful in the dispensable amino acids, and are rated
as high quality proteins. Plant sources tend to be deficient in one or more of the
indispensable amino acids. However, when combined correctly two or more plant source
proteins can together create a complete high quality protein source. Some of the notable
high quality food protein sources include low fat dairy (in particular whey and casein),
eggs, fish, poultry, and low fat meats. Refer to the table in the following Food Lists section
for more examples of protein foods.
The primary goal for athletes is to consume a diet that consists of high quality food
proteins, and use protein containing sports supplements, like MRPs, protein powders, and
specialty protein/amino acids containing blends to help attain the required protein intake
and to super-charge your amino acid intake. The goal is to also consume the most
efficient protein sources that are high in amino acids important to health and athletic
performance, growth and recovery. So, sports nutrition products containing high quality
protein ingredients, along with nutrient cofactors, are most effective.
Based on research with athletes taking various protein supplements, whey protein isolate,
and whey protein isolate with extra added amino acids has proven to be effective in
promoting greater gains in strength and muscle mass as part of a resistance training
program. Egg and casein products, as well as whey combined with egg protein and casein
have also proven to be effective. Chapter 1.4 contains reviews about whey protein related
research.
Some types of soy protein supplements have also been shown to be effective for athletes.
Soy protein in general is a healthy protein, most noted for promoting good health and
helping prevent cardiovascular diseases, and for women, helping to relieve menopausal
symptoms. When isolate processing technology was being used for creating purer
protein products, and eventually used to create a soy protein isolate. One of the most
popular soy protein isolate products is called Supro, by Solae. Because soy protein
isolate is considered complete by protein quality rating standards, scientists expected it to
provide benefits for athletes.

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In scientific studies using Supro soy protein with male and female athletes, all the athletes
had improved muscle mass, decreased body fat, and improved performance, metabolism,
and health during the study periods. So, while the various marketers of the different types
of protein products present their promotional stories, Supro brand protein is one of the few
that has been clinically tested in adult Olympic athletes to provide measurable results in
just a few weeks. The studies that showed the best results used about 60 to 70 grams per
day of Supro in addition to a balanced diet. A more recent study published in 2006
reported the results of comparing whey protein with soy protein supplements among
resistance training young (ages 18 to 35) female and male adults. In this study the whey
and soy supplement intake was at a high rate of daily intake, 1.2 grams per kilogram of
body weight per day. After the 6 week study period increases in lean body mass and
strength were reported for both the whey and soy protein groups. So based on these two
and other studies, a quality soy protein isolate taken in high amounts can be effective in
producing anabolic growth effects and other health and performance benefits.
Whey versus soy. In a research study reported in the 2004 Nutrition Journal, researchers
compared the effects of whey protein versus soy protein containing nutrition bars, using
male subjects ages 19-25. These male subjects followed a strength training program for 9
weeks. The subjects consumed 3 nutrition bars per day, which contained 11 grams of
either whey protein or soy protein per bar, for a total of 33 grams of protein a day, in
addition to their regular diet. At the end of the study, both the whey and soy protein groups
increased lean body mass more than the control group subjects who were just following
their regular diets. When comparing the increases in lean body mass of the whey versus
soy groups, the whey protein subjects gained more lean body mass than the soy protein
subjects. The researchers also measured antioxidant levels in the subjects, and found that
antioxidant status of the soy protein subjects was better maintained compared to the
control group or the whey protein group. So while whey protein may have an anabolic
advantage, high quality soy protein isolate offers athletes a plant protein alternative to
animal based proteins. The scientific research discoveries also provide a basis for
including both whey protein and soy isolate protein in a sports nutrition program for some
athletes.
FATS
Part One, Chapter 3.2 and the 2005 Dietary Guidelines in the appendix review a variety of
information regarding maintaining adequate intakes of essential fats, and avoiding or
minimizing intake of the fats that can become unhealthy at higher levels of intake.

DYNAMIC NUTRITION SUPPLEMENT AND EATING PLAN EXAMPLES


Athletes have many challenges to overcome to create their personalized winning training
and nutrition programs. The prescribed diet is one of them. In one regard, books filled with
examples of many recipes provides some useful information, plus fills up pages and
pages. But, how realistic are these recipes or meal plan examples to follow?

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Based on my experience I have found that most prescribed diet plans found in books and
articles do not work for a few reasons. Prescribed diets that are found in books, which
include recipes and special foods prescribed over a several week period are hard to
follow. Lets face it, most people try them for a few days, find following them frustrating,
and shortly return to their old ways of eating. It seems that unless you are confined to an
institution, where someone else is preparing all your meals every day, it is hard to follow
most prescribed diets. Additionally, many of the prescribed diets include foods you may
not want to eat, which is another factor for their high failure rate. Finally, when confronted
with real life situations, (eating out, eating over friends houses, or traveling) it is near
impossible to follow a month long eating plan that someone else created without knowing
your individual preferences or situations.
With this in mind the following sample sports nutrition plans use daily menu template
examples, with food category lists to assist you in selecting foods to meet your sportspecific daily fat, protein and carbohydrate intake goals. The daily diet examples show you
how to spread out your caloric intake on training days, and demonstrate example foods
you can eat to meet your sport-specific daily nutrient intake. This provides a nutrition
framework for you to work with to create the eating plan that works best for you.
Additionally, there are two primary caloric examples for each of the four different athlete
category nutrition types; 2,500 Calories per day and 3,500 Calories per day. Owing to the
fact that the daily diet examples are dynamic, you can easily add or subtract foods from
these example diets to match your individual daily caloric intake. Individuals with
enormous daily caloric requirements, like 5,000 Calories per day, or 7,000 Calories per
day, can simply double the amount of portions in the example 2,500 Calorie and 3,500
Calorie example diets, respectively. However, as previously mentioned, for athletes using
higher amounts of calories per day, some adjustments may be required to protein and fat
percentage intake as determined by their exact individual needs.
The menu template examples use 5 eating occasions per day, and indicates adding a 6th
evening eating occasions. This 5 to 6 daily frequency of meal/snacks is suitable and
practical for most people. Based on your preference, you can certainly add additional
eating occasions. However, make sure that your eating frequency allows time for your
gastrointestinal system to clear for exercise sessions and competitions.
When following the dietary guidelines, do not persecute yourself if you deviate from your
plan. It is to be expected. Just start back on the right track with your next meal. But to be
successful you will have to do some planning, making sure that your refrigerator and
pantry are well stocked with the foods you need. Meeting your daily nutrition goals may
also mean packing food to take with you for your snacks and meals while out of the
house.
You will find that the nice thing about the performance nutrition examples is that they are
summarized in a one page table per calorie example, which you can keep with you and
utilize when eating out. Additionally, the food category lists include common foods to get
you started, ones that are considered wholesome, for the most part. To make the plans

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work the best, you need to add your favorite foods to the list, and figure out how much of
them to eat to meet your daily caloric and macronutrient goals. Many grocery foods have
the nutrition information you need on their labels in the Nutrition Facts box.
Another thing to remember when constructing your personal nutrition plans is not to
become overly concerned if you find that you cannot always get your nutrition intake to
exactly meet your target caloric and macronutrient goals. You should realize that its okay
to be a little flexible in the calculations. Additionally, you should realize that when
scientists calculate the energy and macronutrient content of foods there are a lot of
assumptions made, and an acceptable range of error is to be expected. This means that
when dealing with foods, the nutrition content information is not exact. However, when
dealing with dietary supplements, the information is usually more accurate compared with
whole foods. But be aware that a margin of error of up to minus or plus 10% is typical, and
even up to a 20% margin of error has been know to occur.
The example diets demonstrate how to spread out the calories throughout training days.
Notice that if you are following a 30-55-15 diet, this does not mean that each meal
consists of 30% protein, 55% carbohydrate, and 15% fat. This is the total daily intake goal.
The way the diets are structured you will be focusing on eating more carbohydrates
around your training time of day.
When working the following nutrition plan examples, remember that you can certainly
modify them to meet your exact individual nutrition and supplement needs. Also note that
these plans are meant as examples for healthy adults, for only a few months at a time, for
pre-season and during the competitive seasons.
Most athletes and other people involved in fitness and on a quest for better health, can
follow a 20% protein, 60% carbohydrate, and 20% fat diet on the off season. But because
long distance athletes tend to train all year-round, they can stick to their 15% protein, 60%
carbohydrate, and 25% fat diet all year, except as otherwise directed by their health
practitioner. Also, remember that the best macronutrient composition to eat 4 to 2 hours
before practice and competitions is low fat, moderate protein and high in carbohydrates:
10-20% protein, 70-90% carbohydrate, and 0-10% fat. Dont wait until right before a
competition to figure out what pre-game meal works best for you. Work on perfecting it
every day, with your pre-practice meal.
The following first presents the generalized sports nutrition examples for each bioenergetic category, followed by foods lists, and followed by a sports supplement
guidelines overview.
Chapter 3.2 Reviews issues related to weight loss / fat loss.
The following information can be useful to help plan your sports nutrition program working
with your health professional.

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30% Protein, 55% Carbohydrate, 15% Fat, Performance Nutrition Guidelines


The 30% protein, 55% carbohydrate, 15% fat, daily nutrition guidelines is recommended
for strength and power athletes, driven by the very short-term, immediate energy system.
Athletes such as football players, powerlifters, sprinters and bodybuilders will do best
following this nutrition plan during the season. However, other athletes that rely heavily on
the anaerobic energy system, but also short-term oxidative, such as wrestlers and boxers,
can use this as a starting point. Higher protein intake, requires drinking more water. Also
making sure adequate intake of the essential vitamins and minerals is maintained.
When training or competing, these athletes rely primarily on the immediate and anaerobic
glycolytic energy systems. They have massive muscles, with highly developed fast-twitch
muscle fibers. Because of this, these athletes require a high amount of protein to maintain
positive nitrogen balance and to repair their fragile fast-twitch muscle fibers. Since muscle
glycogen is the primary energy source used for replenishing the ATP and CP stores, a diet
low in fat and rich in carbohydrates is indicated. Low in fat, because not much fat is used
up during training and competition. Rich in carbohydrates, because the muscles supply of
glycogen needs to be restored everyday, or performance and recovery will be impaired.
The proper profile of micronutrients and ergogenic nutrients from supplements needs to
be just right for optimum performance of the explosive power athlete.
The following table will provide some guidelines that can be useful in planning your daily
dietary nutrient intake, and is intended for information purposes only, for healthy adult
athletes. Remember to always check with your healthcare practitioner before taking
supplements or following a new nutrition plan, especially for individuals who are pregnant
or breast feeding, chronically ill, elderly, under 18 years old, taking any medications.
These guidelines may not be suitable for everybody, and are intended for short-term use,
by healthy adults, during the athletic season. Only use supplements as directed by the
manufacturer and or your health care professional.

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Example - with typical late afternoon / early evening training session


2500 Calories Per Day
30% Protein, 750 Cals, 188 grams
55% Carbohydrate, 1375 Cals, 344 grams
15% Fat, 375 Calories, 42 grams
BREAKFAST - Meal Goal: 500 cals, 40g P, 62.5g C, 10g F
Take Explosive Growth Blend and additional multivitamin/mineral supplements.
- 2 cups Egg alternative Vegetable Omelet, 200 cals, 28g P 20g C, 0g F
- 1 slice Canadian Bacon, 86 cals, 12g P, 0g C, 4g F.
- 4 oz Boiled potato, pulp, 117 cals, 2g P, 28g C, 0g F.
- 1/2 tbsp Butter or margarine, 50 cals, 0g P, 0g C, 6g F
- 6 oz Grapefruit juice, 60 cals, 0g P, 15g C, 0g F
MORNING SNACK
- Protein nutrition bar or drink, 225 cals, 30g P, 15g C, 5g F.
LUNCH - Meal Goal: 500 cals, 40 g P, 62.5 g C, 10g F
Take Explosive Growth Blend and additional multivitamin/mineral supplements.
- 1 orange, medium, 62 cals, 1g P, 13g C, 0g F
- 2 slices, bread, whole grain, 170 cals, 8g P, 34g C, 3g F.
- 4 oz chicken breast, no skin, 124 cals, 26g P, 0g C, 2g F.
- 1 tbsp, Salad Dressing, oil & vinegar, 45 cals, 0g P, 1g C, 4g F.
- 2 oz, Lettuce, iceberg, trimmed, 8 cals, 0.5g P, 1.5g C, 0g F.
- 4 oz, broccoli spears, 30 cals, 4g P, 6g C, 0g F.
- 2 oz carrot, raw, 24 cals, 1g P, 6g C, 0g F.
PRE-TRAINING SNACK 2.5 to 1 hours before training.
- Protein Bar or Drink, 225 cals, 30 g P, 15 g C, 5 g F.

Be mindful that actual food intake may not


exactly meet the target goals; come as close
as possible.

Use this example template to plan your own


meals, snacks and supplement intake
schedule.
Make sure to consume adequate water.
Make adjustments to caloric intake and
eating schedule based on additional workout
sessions during the day.
NOTES

At 15 minutes before or at start of training, begin ingesting energy beverage intake


in divided dosages as previously mentioned above in carbohydrate section; about
16 oz total, spread out during workout and post workout, 400 cals, 0g P, 100g C,
0g F. Adjust intake based on your individual workout requirements.
DINNER - Meal Goal: 650 cals, 48g P, 87.5g C, 12g F.
Take Explosive Growth Blend and additional multivitamin/mineral supplements.
- 1 pork chop, 220 cals, 22g P, 0g C, 4g F.
- 8 oz, Baked Beans, Barbecue, 260 cals, 15g P, 48g C, 6g F.
- 6 oz Spinach, 36 cals, 5g P, 6g C, 0.6g F.
- 1 Tomato, 26 cals, 1g P, 5.7g C, 0.4g F
- 8 oz Skim Milk, 86 cals, 8.4g P, 11.9g C, 0.4g F
- 4 oz, fruit cocktail, canned, in light syrup, Cals 65, 0.5g P, 16.9g C, 0.1g F.
ADDITIONAL MEALS / SNACKS
Additional Calories from late evening protein supplements, snack or small meal
before bedtime. Add to 2,500 Calorie per day example or redistributed some
calories from example meals. Adjust caloric intake to meet your daily caloric intake
requirements.
The all in one Super-Stack Explosive Growth Blend was used in the above example,
plus optional extra multivitamin/mineral supplement depending on your individual
needs. Note that this adds about 350 extra calories per day to the total caloric intake.
Refer to Part Two for more details about this product.
OR - You can also create your own supplement stack, using a selection of individual
products. The Higher Power product line offers a wide selection.

Part Three Page 3 - 21


COPYRIGHT PROTECTED

Example - with typical late afternoon / early evening training


session
3500 Calories Per Day
30% Protein, 1050 Cals, 263 grams
55% Carbohydrate, 1925 Cals, 481 grams
15% Fat, 525 Calories, 58 grams

Be mindful that actual food intake may


not exactly meet the target goals;
come as close as possible.

BREAKFAST - Meal Goal: 573 Cals, 51g P, 64g C, 13g F.


Take Explosive Growth Blend and additional vitamin, mineral supplements.
- 2 1/2cups Egg alternative Vegetable Omelet, 250 cals, 35 g P, 25g C,
0gF.
- 1 slice Canadian Bacon, 86 cals, 12g P, 0g C, 4g F.
- 4 oz Boiled potato pulp, 117 cals, 2g P, 28 g C, 0g F.
- 2/3 tbsp Butter or margarine, 81 cals, 0g P, 0g C, 9g F.
- 12 oz Grapefruit Juice, 120 cals, 30g P, 15g C, 0g F.
MORNING SNACK
- High Protein Meal Replacement Nutrition Drink or Bar, 470 calories, 40g
P, 64g C, 6g F.
LUNCH - Meal Goal: 573 Cals, 51g P, 64g C, 13g F.
Take Explosive Growth Blend and additional vitamin, mineral supplements.
- 1 orange, medium, 62 cals, 1g P, 13g C, 0g F
- 2 slices, bread, whole grain, 170 cals, 8g P, 34g C, 3g F.
- 6 oz chicken breast, no skin, 186 cals, 39g P, 0g C, 2.5g F.
- 1 1/2 tbsp, Salad Dressing, oil & vinegar, 67 cals, 0g P, 1.5g C, 6g F.
- 2 oz, Lettuce, iceberg, trimmed, 8 cals, 0.5g P, 1.5g C, 0g F.
- 4 oz, broccoli spears, 30 cals, 4g P, 6g C, 0g F.
- 2 oz carrot, raw, 24 cals, 1g P, 6g C, 0g F.
PRE-TRAINING SNACK 2.5 to 1 hours before training.
- Protein Drink, Medium Calorie, 470 cals, 40g P, 55g C, 10g F.

Use this example template to plan your


own meals, snacks and supplement
intake schedule.
Make sure to consume adequate water.
Make adjustments to caloric intake and
eating schedule based on additional
workout sessions during the day.
Notes

At 15 minutes before or at start of training, begin ingesting energy


beverage intake in divided dosages as previously mentioned above in
carbohydrate section; about 20 oz total, spread out during workout and
post workout, 500 cals, 0g P, 125g C, 0g F. Adjust intake based on your
individual workout requirements.
DINNER - Meal Goal: 914 cals, 81g P, 100g C, 20g F.
Take Explosive Growth Blend and additional vitamin, mineral supplements.
- 2 1/2 pork chops, 550 cals, 53g P, 0g C, 10g F.
- 8 oz, Baked Beans, Barbecue, 260 cals, 15g P, 48g C, 6g F.
- 6 oz Spinach, 36 cals, 5g P, 6g C, 0.6g F.
- 1 Tomato, 26 cals, 1g P, 5.7g C, 0.4g F
- 8 oz Skim Milk, 86 cals, 8.4g P, 11.9g C, 0.4g F
- 4 oz, fruit cocktail, canned, in light syrup, Cals 65, 0.5g P, 16.9g C, 0.1g
F.
ADDITIONAL MEALS / SNACKS
Additional Calories from late evening protein supplements, snack or small
meal before bedtime. Add to 3,500 Calorie per day example or
redistributed some calories from example meals. Adjust caloric intake to
meet your daily caloric intake requirements.

The all in one Super-Stack Explosive Growth Blend was used in the above example, plus
optional extra multivitamin/mineral supplement depending on your individual needs. Note that
this adds about 350 extra calories per day to the total caloric intake. Refer to Part Two for more
details about this product.
OR - You can also create your own supplement stack, using a selection of individual products.
The Higher Power product line offers a wide selection.

Part Three Page 3 - 22


COPYRIGHT PROTECTED

25% Protein, 55% Carbohydrate, 20% Fat Performance Nutrition Guidelines


25% protein, 55% carbohydrate, 20% fat daily nutrition plan is recommended for
individuals who participate in sports and fitness activities that require explosive strength
and power on a sustained or highly repetitive basis. When training for or during
competition, these individuals rely primarily on the glycolytic energy systems. Muscle
glycogen is their primary source of energy. These individuals need to consume large
amounts of protein to maintain a positive nitrogen balance and to repair their fragile fasttwitch muscle fibers. Higher protein intake, requires drinking more water. Also making sure
adequate intake of the essential vitamins and minerals is maintained.
The following table will provide some guidelines that can be useful in planning your daily
dietary nutrient intake, and is intended for information purposes only, for healthy adult
athletes. Remember to always check with your healthcare practitioner before taking
supplements or following a new nutrition plan, especially for individuals who are pregnant
or breast feeding, chronically ill, elderly, under 18 years old, taking any medications.
These guidelines may not be suitable for everybody, and are intended for short-term use,
by healthy adults, during the athletic season. Only use supplements as directed by the
manufacturer and or your health care professional.

Part Three Page 3 - 23


COPYRIGHT PROTECTED

Example - with typical late afternoon / early evening training session


2500 Calories Per Day
25% Protein, 625 Cals, 156 grams
55% Carbohydrate, 1375 Cals, 344 grams
20% Fat, 500 Calories, 56 grams

Be mindful that actual food intake may


not exactly meet the target goals; come
as close as possible.

BREAKFAST - Meal Goal: 465 cals, 27g P, 60g C, 13g F


Take vitamin, mineral, ergogenic supplements.
- 1 cup Egg alternative Vegetable Omelet, 100 cals, 14g P 10g C, 0g F
- 1 slice Canadian Bacon, 86 cals, 12g P, 0g C, 4g F.
- 4 oz Boiled potato, pulp, 117 cals, 2g P, 28g C, 0g F.
- 2/3 tbsp Butter or margarine, 81 cals, 0g P, 0g C, 9g F
- 9 oz Grapefruit juice, 90 cals, 0g P, 22.5g C, 0g F
MORNING SNACK
- Protein Nutrition Bar or Drink, 225 cals, 30g P, 15g C, 5g F.
LUNCH - Meal Goal: 465 cals, 27g P, 60g C, 13g F
Take vitamin, mineral, ergogenic supplements.
- 1 orange, medium, 62 cals, 1g P, 13g C, 0g F
- 2 slices, bread, whole grain, 170 cals, 8g P, 34g C, 3g F.
- 2 oz chicken breast, no skin, 62 cals, 13g P, 0g C, 1g F.
- 2 tbsp., Salad Dressing, oil & vinegar, 90 cals, 0g P, 2g C, 8g F.
- 2 oz, Lettuce, iceberg, trimmed, 8 cals, 0.5g P, 1.5g C, 0g F.
- 4 oz, broccoli spears, 30 cals, 4g P, 6g C, 0g F.
- 2 oz carrot, raw, 24 cals, 1g P, 6g C, 0g F.
- 1 tomato, 4.75 oz, 26 cals, 1g P, 5.7g C, 0.4g F.
PRE-TRAINING SNACK 2.5 to 1 hours before training.
- Protein Drink, 225 cals, 30 g P, 15 g C, 5 g F.

Use this example template to plan your


own meals, snacks and supplement
intake schedule.
Make sure to consume adequate water.
Make adjustments to caloric intake and
eating schedule based on additional
workout sessions during the day.
Notes

At 15 minutes before or at start of training, begin ingesting energy beverage intake in


divided dosages as previously mentioned above in carbohydrate section; about 16 oz
total, spread out during workout and post workout, 400 cals, 0g P, 100g C, 0g F.
Adjust intake based on your individual workout requirements.
DINNER - Meal Goal: 724 cals, 42g P, 94g C, 20g F.
Take vitamin, mineral, ergogenic supplements.
- 3 oz Beef, Bottom Round, prime, untrimmed, 192 cals, 17.1g P, 0g C, 13.2g F.
- 2 oz pasta, 210 cals, 9g P, 41g C, 1g F.
- 4 oz pasta sauce, Mushroom Thick and Hearty, 100 cals, 2g P, 15g C, 3g F.
- 12 oz Spinach, 72 cals, 9.6g P, 12g C, 1.2g F.
- 8 oz Skim Milk, 86 cals, 8.4g P, 11.9g C, 0.4g F
- 4 oz, fruit cocktail, canned, in light syrup, Cals 65, 0.5g P, 16.9g C, 0.1g F.
ADDITIONAL MEALS / SNACKS
Additional Calories from late evening protein supplements, snack or small meal
before bedtime. Add to 2,500 Calorie per day example or redistributed some calories
from example meals. Adjust caloric intake to meet your daily caloric intake
requirements.
The all in one Super-Stack Explosive Growth Blend was used in the above example,
plus optional extra multivitamin/mineral supplement depending on your individual
needs. Note that this adds about 350 extra calories per day to the total caloric intake.
Refer to Part Two for more details about this product.
OR - You can also create your own supplement stack, using a selection of individual
products. The Higher Power product line offers a wide selection.

Part Three Page 3 - 24


COPYRIGHT PROTECTED

Example - with typical late afternoon / early evening training session


3500 Calories Per Day
25% Protein, 875 Cals, 219 grams
55% Carbohydrate, 1925 Cals, 481 grams
20% Fat, 700 Calories, 78 grams
BREAKFAST - Meal Goal: 579 cals, 38.5g P, 61g C, 18.5g F
Take vitamin, mineral, ergogenic supplements.
- 1 1/2cups Egg alternative Vegetable Omelet, 150 cals, 21 g P, 15g C, 0gF.
- 1 slice Canadian Bacon, 86 cals, 12g P, 0g C, 4g F.
- 4 oz Boiled potato pulp, 117 cals, 2g P, 28 g C, 0g F.
- 1 tbsp Butter or margarine, 100 cals, 0g P, 0g C, 11.4g F.
- 6 oz Grapefruit Juice, 60 cals, 0g P, 15g C, 0g F.
- 4 oz Milk, 2%, 60 cals, 4g P, 5.5g C, 2g F.
MORNING SNACK
- High Protein Meal Replacement Bar or Drink 470 calories, 40g P, 64g C,
6g F.
LUNCH- Meal Goal: 579 cals, 38.5g P, 61g C, 18.5g F
Take vitamin, mineral, ergogenic supplements.
- 1 orange, medium, 62 cals, 1g P, 13g C, 0g F
- 1 roll, Hoagie, 210 cals, 8g P, 34g C, 5g F.
- 4 oz chicken breast, no skin, 124 cals, 26g P, 0g C, 2g F.
- 3 tbsp., Salad Dressing, oil & vinegar, 135 cals, 0g P, 3g C, 12g F.
- 2 oz, Lettuce, iceberg, trimmed, 8 cals, 0.5g P, 1.5g C, 0g F.
- 4 oz, broccoli spears, 30 cals, 4g P, 6g C, 0g F.
- 2 oz carrot, raw, 24 cals, 1g P, 6g C, 0g F.

Be mindful that actual food intake


may not exactly meet the target
goals; come as close as possible.

Use this example template to plan


your own meals, snacks and
supplement intake schedule.
Make sure to consume adequate
water.
Make adjustments to caloric intake
and eating schedule based on
additional workout sessions during
the day.
Notes

PRE-TRAINING SNACK 2.5 to 1 hours before training.


- High Protein Meal Replacement Drink or Bar, 470 cals, 40g P, 55g C, 10g
F.
At 15 minutes before or at start of training, begin ingesting energy beverage
intake in divided dosages as previously mentioned above in carbohydrate
section; about 20 oz total, spread out during workout and post workout, 500
cals, 0g P, 125g C, 0g F. Adjust intake based on your individual workout
requirements.
DINNER - Meal Goal: 901 cals, 62g P, 98g C, 29g F.
Take vitamin, mineral, ergogenic supplements.
- 5 oz Beef, Bottom Round, prime, trimmed, 225 cals, 31g P, 0g C, 10.5g F.
- 2 oz pasta, 210 cals, 9g P, 41g C, 1g F.
- 1/2 tbsp olive oil, cals 60, 0g P, 0g C, 7g F.
- 4 oz pasta sauce, Mushroom Thick and Hearty, 100 cals, 2g P, 15g C, 3g F.
- 12 oz Spinach, 72 cals, 9.6g P, 12g C, 1.2g F.
- 8 oz Milk, whole, 150 cals, 8g P, 11g C, 8g F
- 4 oz, fruit cocktail, canned, in light syrup, Cals 65, 0.5g P, 16.9g C, 0.1g F.
ADDITIONAL MEALS / SNACKS
Additional Calories from late evening protein supplements, snack or small
meal before bedtime. Add to 3,500 Calorie per day example or redistributed
some calories from example meals. Adjust caloric intake to meet your daily
caloric intake requirements.
The all in one Super-Stack Explosive Growth Blend was used in the above example, plus optional
extra multivitamin/mineral supplement depending on your individual needs. Note that this adds about
350 extra calories per day to the total caloric intake. Refer to Part Two for more details about this
product.
OR - You can also create your own supplement stack, using a selection of individual products. The
Higher Power product line offers a wide selection.

Part Three Page 3 - 25


COPYRIGHT PROTECTED

20% Protein, 60% Carbohydrate, 20% Fat Performance Nutrition Guidelines


20% protein, 60% carbohydrate, 20% fat daily nutrition plan is recommended for
individuals who participate in sports or fitness activities that require explosive strength and
power on a sustained or highly repetitive basis. However, while these individuals rely to
some extent on the glycolytic energy systems, they also depend primarily on the oxidative
energy systems. Fatty acids as well as muscle glycogen are their primary fuel sources
during activity. Therefore, these athletes need to consume just moderate amounts of
protein to maintain positive nitrogen balance and to repair their fragile fast-twitch muscle
fibers. Higher protein intake, requires drinking more water. Also making sure adequate
intake of the essential vitamins and minerals is maintained.
The following table will provide some guidelines that can be useful in planning your daily
dietary nutrient intake, and is intended for information purposes only, for healthy adult
athletes. Remember to always check with your healthcare practitioner before taking
supplements or following a new nutrition plan, especially for individuals who are pregnant
or breast feeding, chronically ill, elderly, under 18 years old, taking any medications.
These guidelines may not be suitable for everybody, and are intended for short-term use,
by healthy adults, during the athletic season. Only use supplements as directed by the
manufacturer and or your health care professional.

Part Three Page 3 - 26


COPYRIGHT PROTECTED

Example - with typical late afternoon / early evening training session


2500 Calories Per Day
20% Protein, 500 Cals, 125 grams
60% Carbohydrate, 1500 Cals, 375 grams
20% Fat, 500 Calories, 56 grams
BREAKFAST - Meal Goal: 474.5 cals, 23.5g P, 67g C, 12.5g F.
Take vitamin, mineral, ergogenic supplements.
- 3 pancakes, buttermilk, prepared, 200 cals, 6g P, 28g C, 7g F.
- 3 oz ham, fresh, trimmed, 117 cals, 18g P, 0g C, 4.5g F.
- 8 oz Vegetable juice, 35 cals, 1g P, 8g C, 0g F.
- 3 1/2 tbsp Pancake Syrup, lite, 87.5 cals, 0g P, 24g C, 0g F.
MORNING SNACK
- 1 Nutrition Bar, 270 cals, 12g P, 45g C, 6g F.
LUNCH - Meal Goal: 474.5 cals, 23.5g P, 67g C, 12.5g F.
Take vitamin, mineral, ergogenic supplements.
- 1/2 oz American cheese, 55 cals, 3 g P, 0.5 g C, 4.5g F
- 1 sandwich roll, 123 cals, 4.5g P, 21.6g C, 3.3 g F
- 3 slices, turkey, 60 cals, 12g P, 0.9 g C, 1.2g F
- 2 oz Iceberg lettuce, trimmed, 8 cals, 0.6g P, 1.2g C, 0.2g F.
- 3 tbsp mustard, 48 cals, 3g P, 3g C, 3g F.
- 2 oz Apricot Dried, 140 cals, 2g P, 35g C, 0g F.
PRE-TRAINING SNACK 2.5 to 1 hours before training.
- Protein Drink, 225 cals, 30g P, 15g C, 5g F.

Be mindful that actual food intake


may not exactly meet the target
goals; come as close as possible.

Use this example template to plan


your own meals, snacks and
supplement intake schedule.
Make sure to consume adequate
water.
Make adjustments to caloric intake
and eating schedule based on
additional workout sessions during
the day.

At 15 minutes before or at start of training, begin ingesting energy beverage intake


in divided dosages as previously mentioned above in carbohydrate section; about
16 oz total, spread out during workout and post workout, 300 cals, 0g P, 100g C,
0g F. Adjust intake based on your individual workout requirements.
DINNER - Meal Goal: 748 cals, 36g P, 106g C, 20g F.
Take vitamin, mineral, ergogenic supplements.
- 4 oz tuna, bluefin, 164 cals, 26.4 g P, 0g C, 5.6g F.
- 1 tomato, 4.75 oz, 26 cals, 1g P, 5.7g C, 0.4g F.
- 8 oz Iceberg lettuce, trimmed, 32 cals, 2.4g P, 4.8g C, 0.8g F.
- 2 oz onion, trimmed, 22 cals, 0.6g P, 4.8g C, 0.2g F
- 3 oz brown rice, 309 cals, 6.9g P, 66g C, 3g F.
- 6 oz cauliflower, 42 cals, 2.4g P, 8.4g C, 0.6 g F.
- 2 tbsp Salad dressing, oil & vinegar, 90 cals, 0g P, 2 g C, 8g F.
- 3 oz grape juice, 60 cals, 0g P, 15g C, 0g F.
ADDITIONAL MEALS / SNACKS
Additional Calories from late evening protein supplements, snack or small meal
before bedtime. Add to 2,500 Calorie per day example or redistributed some
calories from example meals. Adjust caloric intake to meet your daily caloric intake
requirements.

Higher Power brand offers a wide selection of sports nutrition products, including
products for promoting improved oxidative endurance athletic performance.

Part Three Page 3 - 27


COPYRIGHT PROTECTED

Notes

Example - with typical late afternoon / early evening training session


3500 Calories Per Day
20% Protein, 700 Cals, 175 grams
60% Carbohydrate, 2100 Cals, 525 grams
20% Fat, 700 Calories, 78 grams

Be mindful that actual food intake


may not exactly meet the target
goals; come as close as possible.

BREAKFAST - Meal Goal: 489 cals, 36g P, 52.5g C, 15g F


Take vitamin, mineral, ergogenic supplements.
- 3 pancakes, buttermilk, prepared, 200 cals, 6g P, 28g C, 7g F.
- 4 oz ham, fresh, trimmed, 156 cals, 24g P, 0g C, 6g F.
- 8 oz skim milk, 86 cals, 8g P, 11.9g C, 0.4g F.
- 2 tbsp Pancake syrup,, lite, 50 cals, 0g P, 14g C, 0g F.
MORNING SNACK
- 1 Food Bar, 440 cals, 16g P, 68g C, 12g F.
LUNCH - Meal Goal: 489 cals, 36g P, 52.5g C, 15g F
Take vitamin, mineral, ergogenic supplements.
- 1/2 oz American Cheese, 55 cals, 3 g P, 0.5g C, 4.5 g F.
- 1 sandwich roll, 123 cals, 4.5g P, 21.6 g C, 3.3 g F
- 6 slices, turkey, 120 cals, 24 g P, 1.8g C, 2.4g F.
- 2 oz Iceberg lettuce, trimmed, 8 cals, 0.6g P, 1.2g C, 0.2g F.
- 3 tbsp mustard, 48 cals, 3g P, 3g C, 3g F.
- 1 banana, w/o skin, 105 cals, 1.2g P, 26.7g C, 0.6g F.
PRE-TRAINING SNACK 2.5 to 1 hours before training.
- High Protein Meal Replacement drink or bar, 548 cals, 30g P, 80g C, 12g F.

Use this example template to plan


your own meals, snacks and
supplement intake schedule.
Make sure to consume adequate
water.
Make adjustments to caloric
intake and eating schedule based
on additional workout sessions
during the day.

At 15 minutes before or at start of training, begin ingesting energy beverage


intake in divided dosages as previously mentioned above in carbohydrate section;
about 20 oz total, spread out during workout and post workout, 500 cals, 0g P,
125g C, 0g F. Adjust intake based on your individual workout requirements.
DINNER - Meal Goal: 932 cals, 57g P, 122g C, 24g F.
Take vitamin, mineral, ergogenic supplements.
- 6 oz tuna, bluefin, 246 cals, 39.6 g P, 0g C, 8.4g F.
- 1 tomato, 4.75 oz, 26 cals, 1g P, 5.7g C, 0.4g F.
- 8 oz Iceberg lettuce, trimmed, 32 cals, 2.4g P, 4.8g C, 0.8g F.
- 2 oz onion, trimmed, 22 cals, 0.6g P, 4.8g C, 0.2g F.
- 1 oz garbanzo bean, 103 cals, 5.5g P, 17.2 g C, 1.7g F.
- 3 oz brown rice, 309 cals, 6.9g P, 66g C, 3g F.
- 6 oz cauliflower, 42 cals, 2.4g P, 8.4g C, 0.6 g F.
- 2 tbsp Salad dressing, oil & vinegar, 90 cals, 0g P, 2 g C, 8g F.
- 3 oz grape juice, 60 cals, 0g P, 15g C, 0g F.
ADDITIONAL MEALS / SNACKS
Additional Calories from late evening protein supplements, snack or small meal
before bedtime. Add to 3,500 Calorie per day example or redistributed some
calories from example meals. Adjust caloric intake to meet your daily caloric
intake requirements.

Higher Power brand offers a wide selection of sports nutrition products, including
products for promoting improved oxidative endurance athletic performance.

Part Three Page 3 - 28


COPYRIGHT PROTECTED

Notes

15% Protein, 60% Carbohydrate, 25% Fat Performance Nutrition Guidelines


15% protein, 60% carbohydrate, 25% fat daily nutrition plan is recommended for
individuals who participate in aerobic sports or fitness activities. When training or during
competition, these individuals rely primarily on oxidative energy systems. Their muscles
are composed of highly developed slow-twitch muscle fibers. Because of this, these
individuals need to consume large amounts of carbohydrates to maintain their glycogen
stores, due to the long duration of training and events. However, fatty acids are also their
primary source of energy, so they should consume a moderate amount of healthy fats and
oils. The amount of protein for this group of individuals is the lowest of the four plans, but
is still about two times more than nonathletes require. Higher protein intake, requires
drinking more water. Also making sure adequate intake of the essential vitamins and
minerals is maintained.
The following table will provide some guidelines that can be useful in planning your daily
dietary nutrient intake, and is intended for information purposes only, for healthy adult
athletes. Remember to always check with your healthcare practitioner before taking
supplements or following a new nutrition plan, especially for individuals who are pregnant
or breast feeding, chronically ill, elderly, under 18 years old, taking any medications.
These guidelines may not be suitable for everybody, and are intended for short-term use,
by healthy adults, during the athletic season. Only use supplements as directed by the
manufacturer and or your health care professional.

Part Three Page 3 - 29


COPYRIGHT PROTECTED

Example - with typical late afternoon / early evening training session


2500 Calories Per Day
15% Protein, 375 Cals, 94 grams
60% Carbohydrate, 1500 Cals, 375 grams
25% Fat, 625 Calories, 69 grams
BREAKFAST - Meal Goal: 464 cals, 20g P, 58.5g C, 16.5g F.
Take vitamin, mineral, ergogenic supplements.
- 3 pancakes, prepared, 200 cals, 6g P, 28g C, 7g F.
- 2 oz ham, fresh, trimmed, 78 cals, 12g P, 0g C, 3g F.
- 12 oz Vegetable juice, 70 cals, 2g P, 16g C, 0g F.
- 2 tbsp Pancake Syrup, lite, 50 cals, 0g P, 14g C, 0g F.
- 1/2 tbsp butter or margarine, 50 cals, 0g P, 0g C, 5.5g F.
MORNING SNACK
- 1 energy bar, 230 cals, 10g P, 45g C, 2.5g F.
LUNCH - Meal Goal: 464 cals, 20g P, 58.5g C, 16.5g F.
Take vitamin, mineral, ergogenic supplements.
- 1 oz American cheese, 110 cals, 6g P, 1g C, 9g F
- 1 sandwich roll, 123 cals, 4.5g P, 21.6g C, 3.3 g F
- 2 slices, turkey, 40 cals, 8g P, 0.6 g C, 0.8g F
- 2 oz Iceberg lettuce, trimmed, 8 cals, 0.6g P, 1.2g C, 0.2g F.
- 2 tbsp mustard, 32 cals, 2g P, 2g C, 2g F.
- 2 oz Apricot Dried, 140 cals, 2g P, 35g C, 0g F.
PRE-TRAINING SNACK 2.5 to 1 hours before training.
- 1 Nutrition Bar, 270 cals, 12 g P, 45 g C, 6 g F.

Be mindful that actual food intake


may not exactly meet the target
goals; come as close as possible.

Use this example template to plan


your own meals, snacks and
supplement intake schedule.
Make sure to consume adequate
water.
Make adjustments to caloric intake
and eating schedule based on
additional workout sessions during
the day.

At 15 minutes before or at start of training, begin ingesting energy beverage intake


in divided dosages as previously mentioned above in carbohydrate section; about
16 oz total, spread out during workout and post workout, 300 cals, 0g P, 100g C,
0g F. Adjust intake based on your individual workout requirements.
DINNER - Meal Goal: 743 cals, 32g P, 93g C, 27g F. Within 30 minutes to 2 hours.
Take vitamin, mineral, ergogenic supplements.
- 3 oz tuna, bluefin, 123 cals, 19.8g P, 0g C, 4.2g F.
- 1 tomato, 4.75 oz, 26 cals, 1g P, 5.7g C, 0.4g F.
- 4 oz Iceberg lettuce, trimmed, 16 cals, 1.2g P, 2.4g C, 0.4g F.
- 2 oz onion, trimmed, 22 cals, 0.6g P, 4.8g C, 0.2g F
- 3 oz brown rice, 309 cals, 6.9g P, 66g C, 3g F.
- 6 oz cauliflower, 42 cals, 2.4g P, 8.4g C, 0.6 g F.
- 4 tbsp Salad dressing, oil & vinegar, 180 cals, 0g P, 4 g C, 16g F.
ADDITIONAL MEALS / SNACKS
Additional Calories from late evening protein supplements, snack or small meal
before bedtime. Add to 2,500 Calorie per day example or redistributed some
calories from example meals. Adjust caloric intake to meet your daily caloric intake
requirements.

Higher Power brand offers a wide selection of sports nutrition products, including
products for promoting improved oxidative endurance athletic performance.

Part Three Page 3 - 30


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Notes

Example - with typical late afternoon / early evening training session


3500 Calories Per Day
15% Protein, 525 Cals, 131 grams
60% Carbohydrate, 2100 Cals, 525 grams
25% Fat, 875 Calories, 97 grams

Be mindful that actual food intake


may not exactly meet the target goals;
come as close as possible

BREAKFAST - Meal Goal: 590.5 cals, 24g P, 77.5g C, 20.5g F.


Take vitamin, mineral, ergogenic supplements.
- 3 pancakes, buttermilk, prepared, 200 cals, 6g P, 28g C, 7g F.
- 3 oz ham, fresh, trimmed, 117 cals, 18g P, 0g C, 4.5g F.
- 12 oz Vegetable juice, 70 cals, 2g P, 16g C, 0g F.
- 4 tbsp Pancake Syrup, lite, 100 cals, 0g P, 25g C, 0g F.
- 2/3 tbsp butter or margarine, 81 cals, 0g P, 0g C, 9g F.
MORNING SNACK
- 1 Food Bar, 440 cals, 16g P, 68g C, 12g F.
LUNCH - Meal Goal: 590.5 cals, 24g P, 77.5g C, 20.5g F.
Take vitamin, mineral, ergogenic supplements.
- 1 oz slice American cheese, 110 cals, 6g P, 1g C, 9g F
- 1 sandwich roll, 123 cals, 4.5g P, 21.6g C, 3.3 g F
- 3 slices, turkey, 60 cals, 10g P, 0.6 g C, 1.2g F
- 2 oz Iceberg lettuce, trimmed, 8 cals, 0.6g P, 1.2g C, 0.2g F.
- 2 tbsp mustard, 32 cals, 2g P, 2g C, 2g F.
- 2 oz Apricot Dried, 140 cals, 2g P, 35g C, 0g F.
- 1/3 tbsp safflower oil, 40 cals, 0g P, 0g C, 4.5g F.
- 6 oz grapefruit juice, 60 cals, 0g P, 15g C, 0g F.
PRE-TRAINING SNACK 2.5 to 1 hours before training.
- High Protein Meal Replacement drink or bar, 548 cals, 30g P, 80g C, 12g F.

Use this example template to plan


your own meals, snacks and
supplement intake schedule.
Make sure to consume adequate
water.
Make adjustments to caloric intake
and eating schedule based on
additional workout sessions during
the day.
Notes

At 15 minutes before or at start of training, begin ingesting energy beverage intake in


divided dosages as previously mentioned above in carbohydrate section; about 20 oz
total, spread out during workout and post workout, 500 cals, 0g P, 125g C, 0g F.
Adjust intake based on your individual workout requirements.
DINNER - Meal Goal: 924 cals, 37g P, 122g C, 32g F
Take vitamin, mineral, ergogenic supplements.
- 3 oz tuna, bluefin, 123 cals, 19.8g P, 0g C, 4.2g F.
- 1 tomato, 4.75 oz, 26 cals, 1g P, 5.7g C, 0.4g F.
- 4 oz Iceberg lettuce, trimmed, 16 cals, 1.2g P, 2.4g C, 0.4g F.
- 2 oz onion, trimmed, 22 cals, 0.6g P, 4.8g C, 0.2g F
- 4 oz brown rice, 412 cals, 9.2g P, 88g C, 4g F.
- 6 oz cauliflower, 42 cals, 2.4g P, 8.4g C, 0.6 g F.
- 5 tbsp Salad dressing, oil & vinegar, 225 cals, 0g P, 5 g C, 20g F.
ADDITIONAL MEALS / SNACKS
Additional Calories from late evening protein supplements, snack or small meal
before bedtime. Add to 3,500 Calorie per day example or redistributed some calories
from example meals. Adjust caloric intake to meet your daily caloric intake
requirements.

Higher Power brand offers a wide selection of sports nutrition products, including
products for promoting improved oxidative endurance athletic performance.

Part Three Page 3 - 31


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FOOD LISTS
The following page contains food lists that can be used to make food substitutions to the
eating plans listed above.
You should also include your favorite foods, and foods that are healthy and readily
available in your region. Add these foods to the lists.
Additionally, refer to Appendix 1, which is the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. This
contains some additional information about nutrition that you can include into your sports
nutrition plan, or to follow in the off-season.

Part Three Page 3 - 32


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HIGH PROTEIN FOODS - Beef, Lamb, Poultry, Fish, Pork, Eggs.


FOOD
SERVING SIZE
CALS
Abalone
3 oz
89
Bacon Alternative (Louis Rich) Turkey
1 strip
32
Bacon Bits (Hormel)
1 oz
117
Bacon, Canadian-Style
1 slices
86
Bass, Freshwater
1 oz
32
Bass, Sea
1 oz
27
Beef, Flank, untrimmed
1 oz
51
Beef, Bottom Round, prime, trimmed
1 oz
45
Beef, Bottom Round, prime, untrimmed
1 oz
64
Beef, Sirloin, prime, trimmed
1 oz
44
Beef, Tenderloin, choice, untrimmed
1 oz
82
Beef, Corned (Hilshire Farm)
1 oz
31
Beef, Roast, sliced (Healthy Deli)
1 oz
30
Buffalo
1 oz
40
Bluefish
1 oz
35
Burger, vegetarian, Harvest Burger (Green 1 burger
140
Giant)
Chicken, breast, no skin
1 oz
31
Chicken, breast, with skin
1 oz
49
Chicken, sliced, (Tyson) hickory smoked
1 slice
25
Cod
1 oz
23
Deer
1 oz
34
Egg, chicken
1 large
34
Egg,, white
1 large
17
Egg, Alternative (Fleishmanns) Egg
1/2 cup
50
Beaters vegetable omelet
Flounder
3 oz
77
Frankfurter, low fat, (Healthy Choice)
1 frank
60
Halibut
1 oz
31
Ham, fresh trimmed
1 oz
39
Ham, sliced (Kahns)
1 slice
30
Pork, Tenderloin, trimmed
1 oz
34
Pork Chops (Master Choice)
1 chop
120
Tofu, soybean curd cake
1 oz
22
Tuna, bluefin
1 oz
41
Tuna, canned in soybean oil, solid,
2 oz
150
drained (Star-Kist)
Tuna, canned, white, in water, drained,
2 oz
70
diet (Star-Kist)
Turkey, light meat, no skin
1 oz
33
Turkey, dark meat, no skin
1 oz
35
Turkey, sliced, (Tyson)
1 slice
20
ADDITIONAL:

Part Three Page 3 - 33


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PRO
14.5
2.4
12
11.3
5.3
5.2
5.6
6.2
5.7
6
5
6
6.4
6.5
5.7
18

CARB
5.1
0.3
1
0.6
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.2
0
0
8

FAT
0.7
2.4
7
3.9
1
0.6
3
2.1
4.4
2
6.7
0.4
0.4
1.3
1.2
4

6.5
5.9
4
5
6.4
6.4
3.5
7

0
0
0.8
0
0
0
0.3
5

0.4
2.6
1
0.2
0.7
0.7
0
0

16
6
5.9
6
5
5.9
22
2.3
6.6
13

0
6
0
0
1
0
0
0.5
0
0

1
1.5
0.6
1.5
1
1
4
1.4
1.4
13

15

6.7
5.7
4

0
0
0.3

0.4
1.2
0.4

FOODS HIGH IN COMPLEX CARBOHYDRATES - Breads, crackers, cereals, grains, starchy


vegetables, and starchy fruits.
FOOD
SERVING SIZE CALS
PRO
CARB
FAT
Bagel, Onion 3.5 inch diameter
1 bagel
195
7.5
37.9
1.1
Bagel, Plain 3.5 inch diameter
1 bagel
195
7.5
37.9
1.1
Bagel, Frozen (Lenders)
1 bagel
150
6
30
1
Bagel Chips (Burns & Ricker)
1 oz
130
4
20
4
Biscuit, commercially baked
1 oz
107
1.8
13.8
4.7
Hamburger bun
1 bun
123
3.7
21.6
2.2
Bread, white
1 slice
70
3
13
1
Bread, whole wheat
1 slice
60
3
11
1
Bread, Bran
1 oz
100
4
19
1
Bread, Fresh
1 oz
78
2.5
14.7
0.9
Bread, whole grain
1 slice
85
3.9
17.4
1.6
Bread, Rye
1 slice
80
3
16
1
Cake, Free & Light frozen (Sara Lee)
1/8 cake
110
2
26
0
Cake, pound, Free & Light (Sara Lee)
1/10 cake
70
1
17
0
Cereal, All Bran extra fiber (Kelloggs)
1 oz
50
4
22
0
Cereal, Basic 4 (General Mills)
3/4 cup
130
3
28
2
Cereal, Corn Flakes
1 oz
110
2.3
24.4
0.1
Cereal, Grape-nuts (Post)
1 oz
101
3.3
23.3
0.1
Cereal MultiGrain Cheerios (General Mills) 1 oz
100
2
23
1
Cracker, saltine (Premium) Fat-free
4 crackers
50
1
12
0
English Muffin, plain (Thomas)
1 muffin
130
4.3
25.4
1.3
Frankfurter bun
1 bun
123
3.7
21.6
2.2
Oatmeal, plain, instant
1 oz
100
5.8
18
2
Roll, Hoagie
1 roll
210
8
34
5
Roll, Kaiser
1 roll
184
7
35.4
2.9
Roll, Sandwich
1 roll
123
4.5
21.6
3.3
Grits, dry (Arrowhead Mills)
2 oz
200
5
43
1
Pancake, buttermilk, (Hungry Jack),
3 pancakes
200
6
28
7
prepared, with skim milk, oil, egg whites
Pancake, extra light, (Hungry Jack),
3 pancakes
170
6
28
4
prepared with skim milk, oil, egg whites
Pasta linguine and spaghetti, dry
2 oz
210
9
41
1
Popcorn, microwave, (Jiffy Pop), Natural,
4 cups
140
3
17
7
popped.
Popcorn, microwave, (Jolly Time), light
3 cups
60
2
12
2
Potato, baked in skin
4 oz
124
2.6
28.6
0.1
Potato, boiled, no skin
4 oz
99
2.1
22.8
0.1
Potato, sweet, baked , pulp only
4 oz
117
2
27.5
0.1
Pretzels, most types
1 oz
110
3
23
1
Rice, Brown, dry
1 oz
103
2.3
22
1
Rice, White, dry
1 oz
105
2
23
0.2
ADDITIONAL:

Part Three Page 3 - 34


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VEGETABLES and BEANS


FOOD
Adzuki Bean, raw
Arugula
Baked Beans, canned , Tomato
(Campbells)
Baked Beans, canned, Barbecue (B&M)
Baked Beans, canned, pea, small
(Friends)
Baked Beans, canned, Showboat (Bushs
Best)
Baked Beans, canned, Vegetarian (B&M)
Black Bean, raw
Broccoli, fresh, raw, trimmed
Broccoli, frozen, spears (Birds Eye)
Cabbage, raw
Carrot, raw
Cauliflower, raw
Celery, raw
Corn, Frozen (Health Valley)
Garbanzo Bean, raw
Lettuce, Iceberg, trimmed
Lettuce, Romaine, trimmed
Lima Bean, raw
Lima Bean, frozen (Green Giant)
Onion, raw, trimmed
Spinach, untrimmed
Tomato, 2 3/4inch dia, 4.75 oz
ADDITIONAL:

SERVING SIZE
1 oz
1 leaf
8 oz

CALS
93
1
200

PRO
5.6
0.1
10

CARB
17.8
0.1
43

FAT
tr
0
3

8 oz
8 oz

260
360

15
17

48
62

6
4

8 oz

160

12

38

<1

8 oz
1 oz
1 oz
4 oz
1 oz
1 oz
1 oz
1 oz
1/2 cup
1 oz
1 oz
1 oz
1 oz
1/2 cup
1 oz
1 oz
1 tomato

230
97
8
30
5
12
7
5
76
103
4
5
32
80
11
6
26

14
6.1
0.8
4
0.3
0.3
0.6
0.2
2
5.5
0.3
0.5
2
6
0.3
0.2
1

50
17.7
1.5
6
0.9
2.9
1.4
1
17
17.2
0.6
0.7
5.7
18
2.4
1
5.7

3
0.4
0.1
0
0.1
0.1
0.1
0
0
1.7
0.1
0.1
0.2
0
.1
0.1
0.4

Part Three Page 3 - 35


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Fruit - Whole fruits and sauces.


FOOD
Apple Sauce (Motts) Natural
Apricot pitted
Apricot Dried (Del Monte)
Asparagus Frozen (Birds Eye)
Blueberry
Fruit Cocktail, canned, in light syrup
Grapefruit
Orange
Pasta Sauce, (Hunts), Homestyle
Pasta Sauce, (Ragu), Mushroom Thick
and Hearty.
ADDITIONAL:

SERVING SIZE
6 oz
1 oz
2 oz
3.3 oz
1 oz
4 oz
1/2 fruit
1 med
4 oz
4 oz

CALS
80
14
140
25
16
65
50
62
60
100

Part Three Page 3 - 36


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PRO
0
0.4
2
3
0.2
0.5
1
1.2
2
2

CARB
20
3.2
35
4
4
16.9
13
15.5
10
15

FAT
0
0.1
0
0
0.1
0.1
0
0
2
3

DAIRY - cheese, milk, yogurt


FOOD
Cheese, American
Cheese, American Cheddar
Cheese, Parmesan, graded
Cheese, Swiss
Cottage Cheese, large curd
Cottage Cheese, large curd, 1%
Cottage Cheese, large curd, 2 %
Cream Cheese
Cream Cheese, fat-free
Butter, Salted
Milk, Skim
Milk, 1 %
Milk, 2 %
Milk, Whole
Yogurt, Plain (Dannon) lowfat
Yogurt, Plain (Dannon), nonfat
Yogurt, Mixed Berry (Breyers) lowfat
ADDITIONAL:

SERVING SIZE
1 oz
1 oz
1 oz
1 oz
4 oz
1 oz
1 oz
1 oz
1 oz
1 tbsp
8 oz
8 oz
8 oz
8 oz
8 oz
8 oz
8 oz

CALS
110
113
128
105
117
20
25
98
30
100
86
102
121
150
140
110
250

Part Three Page 3 - 37


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PRO
6
7
11.6
8
14.1
3.5
3.9
2.1
6
0.1
8.4
8
8.1
8
10
11
9

CARB
1
0.4
1
1
3
0.8
1
0.7
2
0
11.9
11.7
11.7
11
16
16
48

FAT
9
9.3
8.4
7.7
5.1
0.3
0.5
9.8
0
11.4
0.4
2.6
4.7
8
4
0
2

SPREADS and SAUCES


FOOD
Catsup
Margarine (Land OLakes),
Mayonnaise
Mustard
Olive oil
Pancake syrup (Hungry Jack), lite
Pancake syrup (Hungry jack), regular
Safflower oil
Salad Dressing, (Kraft), Blue Cheese
Free
Salad Dressing, (Kraft), French, reduced
calorie
Salad Dressing, (Seven Seas), oil &
vinegar
Salad Dressing, (Wish-Bone), Blue
Cheese, Chunky
Salad Dressing, (Wish-Bone), Italian
Steak Sauce, (A1)
ADDITIONAL:

SERVING SIZE
1 tbsp
1 tbsp
1 tbsp
1 tbsp
1 tbsp
2 tbsp
2 tbsp
1 tbsp
1 tbsp

CALS
16
35
100
10
120
50
100
120
16

PRO
0.2
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0

CARB
4.1
0
0
1
0
14
26
0
4

FAT
0.1
4
11
1
14
0
0
14
0

1 tbsp

20

1 tbsp

45

1 tbsp

75

0.4

0.7

7.9

1 tbsp
1 tbsp

46
18

0
0

1.5
4

4.5
0

Part Three Page 3 - 38


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BEVERAGES
FOOD
Apple Juice (Knudsen & Sons) Natural
Apple Juice (Ocean Spray)
Apple Grape Juice (Red Cheek)
Banana, w/o skin
Cranberry Juice
Carbohydrate Sports Drink, Low calorie
Carbohydrate Sports Drink, Medium
Calorie
Carbohydrate Sports Drink, High Calorie
Grape Juice
Grapefruit Juice
Green Tea, Fresh Brewed, Unsweetened
Orange Juice
Vegetable Juice (V8)
Water
ADDITIONAL:

SERVING SIZE
8 oz
6 oz
6 oz
1 fruit
8 oz
8 oz
8 oz

CALS
85
90
109
105
125
50
100

PRO
<1
0
0.3
1.2
<1
0
0

CARB
21
23
27
26.7
31
13
25

FAT
0
0
0
0.6
0
0
0

16 oz
6 oz
6 oz
Any Size
6 oz
6 oz
Any Size

400
120
60
0
120
35
0

0
0
1
0
0
1
0

100
30
15
0
30
8
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0

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MIXED FOODS
FOOD
Beef, corned, hash (Libbys) canned
Chili, canned, w/ chicken (Stagg)
Chili, canned, vegetarian (Health Valley)
Food-bar, (Earth Grains), Banana apple
walnut Bagel Power Bar
Food-bar, Pemmician, carob-cocoa, Bear
Valley
Food-bar, raspberry, fat free (Health
Valley)
Pizza, frozen, (Lean Cuisine), Three
Cheese
Protein Drink, Low Calorie, powder
Protein Drink, Medium Calorie
Protein Drink, High Calorie
Protein Nutrition Bar, Low Calorie
Protein Nutrition Bar, Medium Calorie
Protein Nutrition Bar, High Calorie
Power Bar
ADDITIONAL:

SERVING SIZE

CALS

PRO

CARB

FAT

8 oz
7.5 oz
5 oz
1 BAR

420
200
90
270

19
14
10
12

21
21
12
45

28
6
0
6

1 bar

440

16

68

12

1 bar

140

33

5.5 oz

330

23

38

10

2 oz
4 oz
5 oz
1 bar
1 bar
1 bar
1 bar

225
470
548
225
470
548
230

30
40
30
30
40
30
10

15
64
80
15
64
80
45

5
6
12
5
6
12
2.5

Part Three Page 3 - 40


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TIPS SECTION
This section has been designed to help you stay with your program and provide information that can be
used at home or when traveling. Tips are included on cooking, eating out, general eating and when
traveling. Write in new tips that you develop yourself or obtain from reading other material. Also refer to
Chapter 3.2, which contains additional nutrition tips for health and weight maintenance.

Cooking Tips
Avoid the use of MSG (Monosodium Glutamate).
Always trim any excess fats and skins from meats and poultry if you are trying to reduce fat intake.
Broil, bake, and grill foods; this will reduce excess fat.
Use spray cooking oils such as Pam rather than regular oils (one tbsp. of oil equals 120 calories and 14
grams of fat).
Use low-fat cheese made from low-fat milk instead of regular processed cheese.
Use non-stick frying pans - with little oil, pressure cooker, oven, steamer baskets, microwave, boil, slow
cookers, roast racks to cook foods.
Eat wholesome, organic foods whenever possible.

Eating Out Tips


Choose restaurants that offer a variety of foods in your meal plan.
Ask to have sauces and dressings served on the side.
Seafood restaurants offer low-fat, healthy meals.
At steak houses, order a lean cut of meat such as filet, ground steak, or grilled skinless chicken breast,
preferably broiled.
For Chinese food, choose steamed vegetables with, seafood, chicken or beef.
Remember restaurant servings tend to vary in size; be aware of portion size.

General Tips
Plan to eat meals at approximately the same time every day. This will increase the efficiency of the body's
digestive process.
Eat fresh foods and whole foods whenever possible.
Keep a food diary to keep track of what you are eating.
Try not to eat in front of the TV or when reading the paper etc. This will allow you to focus on enjoying the
meal and concentrate on eating. There is a tendency to overeat and not chew food properly when
distracted.
Don't skip meals.
Plan meals ahead of time and stay on a consistent schedule. This will keep you from becoming
uncontrollably hungry and will help the body's digestive system work more efficiently.
Drink more caloric-free beverages, such as water, unsweetened fresh brewed tea (especially green tea), no
calorie flavored water or seltzer to maintain proper fluid intake.

Traveling Tips
Always have your personal size cooler bag with you, containing the beverages, MRPs, nutrition bars, fruit,
vegetables, supplements, and meal you plan on eating when away from your home.
Prepare lunch if you know you'll be on the road. Don't put yourself in a position where there is no healthy
food available.
Order special meals when making plane reservations. Kosher food plates, fruit plates, and other meals are
available when pre-ordered through a travel agent.
Bring bottled water and energy drinks with you to insure your daily water intake requirement.

Part Three Page 3 - 41


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BODYBUILDING AND SPORTS NUTRITION SUPPLEMENTS


This following information provides an overview regarding nutrient supplement intake, and
safety. From your reading in Part One you know that there are a diversity of nutrients and
substances found to be essential for health and useful for improving athletic performance.
As with your daily food intake goals, your supplement and total nutrition intake goals
should focus on what has been proven to be most effective, based on research study
evidence, as your foundation nutrition program. Once this is established you can measure
the potential performance enhancing effects of additional sports supplement ingredients
and types.
One point of historical value is that it is easy to get caught up in an endless search for a
magic pill. This is why it is important to put your effort and resources into first establishing
a nutrition and supplement program that is based on scientific evidence of effectiveness,
and avoid random and advertising driven searching. To accomplish this goal, a sports
supplement program should include both the time-tested nutrients/approaches, as well as
the new valid nutrition approaches.
Once you start using and perfecting the scientific approach for your nutrition and training
programs, you can measure for yourself if a product or method has produced the positive
effects on your performance, strength, or muscle mass. In general for strength sports, you
can usually expect a measurable result in a few days to a few weeks when taking the right
products and following an effective sports nutrition program. For agility sports and
endurance sports it usually takes longer, several weeks to a few months. But, for both
general types of athletes, the beneficial results should continue to build over the months
and years. So while it is human nature to want an immediate fast benefit, the best overall
results may come more slowly, over time. So, dont leave your athletic performance to
chance, work with your coach / trainer to establish body composition and performance
measurements to keep track of your progress on a regular basis, so you can measure the
effectiveness of your nutrition and training programs.

Sports Supplement Effectiveness and Safety


Regarding the nutrients themselves found in food and supplements, there are dietary
intake issues based on both sides of the dietary intake equation; inadequate consumption
(not enough) and over consumption (too much). In general foods and supplements have
an excellent safety record.
In reviewing effectiveness and safety issues, the point is to establish a performance
enhancing range of effective intake for nutrients and related substances, so you will be
ingesting enough to make a positive difference, but not excessive amounts that might not
be providing any extra benefits, or may possibly develop rare, but unwanted side effects
from over consumption.
This phenomenon may be new to some people, where an essential nutrient is vital to life,
but can potentially cause adverse side effects if consumed in excessive amounts. As the
following reference chart below illustrates, when nutrient intake levels are low (to the left),
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nutrient deficiency diseases or conditions can develop. When nutrient intake is too high (to
the right), the risk of potential nutrient over consumption related side effects may occur.
Theoretically, the nutrient intake zone between the lowest level and the highest level is the
optimum health zone and athletic performance intake zone. However, for whatever
reason, the National Academy of Sciences / government sets nutrient intake standards at
the lowest level of intake, even below the level where inadequate nutrient intake is
estimated to occur, the EAR and RDA values are actually in the risk of inadequacy area,
as seen in the illustration.

EAR is Estimated Average Requirement. RDA is Recommended Dietary Allowances. UL is Tolerable Upper Intake

On the right side, a wide margin of safety is built into the UL guidelines, meaning that the
UL amounts of a nutrient they declared is well below the point at which an adverse event
has been observed in scientific studies, even a minor one like gastrointestinal upset. They
are also established on average size, non-athletic people, for long-term intake purposes.
Technically, the UL is an estimated upper value of intake representing the point at which is
the highest level of daily nutrient intake that is likely to pose no risk of adverse health
effects to almost all individuals in the general population. At intakes above the UL, the risk
of adverse effects may increase. This is due to the fact that these are general guidelines
are used for health planning at the national level. It is recognized that individuals, or
groups of individuals with special dietary needs, such as athletes, will have different
nutrient intake needs and sensitivities. The activity level of an individual, their size, and
their current nutrient status will all factor in when determining the optimum range if intake
for nutrients. It is also interesting to note that just in 1997 they started to publish the UL,
and for some of the essential nutrients no ULs could be established because there was
no research that supported any adverse effects.
So while the government adopted system is useful for general nutrition intake purposes,
the DRI guidelines and nutrient intakes can be too low, or inadequate for athletes,
especially for larger and more active athletes. Additionally, dietary intake surveys
conducted among athletes consistently report about how most athletes diets are deficient
in one or more of the essential vitamins and minerals. When a person is deficient in a
nutrient it is sometimes required to ingest amounts of the nutrient in large amounts to
overcome and correct the nutrient deficiency. This underscores the importance of working
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under the supervision of a health professional to determine the exact needs of an


individual and to monitor their health when using self prescribed nutrition and training
programs.
For reference / educational purposes, the following tables can be useful in planning your
sports supplement programs, during the preseason and season. Table A is a general list
of nutrients that are of primary importance for athletes, and grouped according to Strength
and Muscle Building sports and Oxidative Endurance sports. The majority of sports
supplements is similar between the two groups of athletes. But, there are also some
distinctive and important differences with certain sports supplement ingredients.
Table A
Strength Performance and Muscle Building

Oxidative Endurance Performance

Primary:
Multivitamins
Multiminerals
Extra Antioxidants
Extra chromium
Protein Supplements (amino acids)
Extra BCAAs (leucine, isoleucine, valine)
Extra Arginine, glutamine, taurine
Creatine
Glucosamine
Hydrolyzed collagen
Bioflavonoids

Primary:
Multivitamins
Multiminerals
Extra Antioxidants
Extra Chromium
Energy Drinks
Protein Supplements (amino acids)
Extra BCAAs (leucine, isoleucine, valine)
Carnitine
Coenzyme Q10
Bioflavonoids
Octacosanol

Additional:
Carnitine
OKG (ornithine alpha-keto-glutarate)
CLA (Conjugated Linoleic Acid)
Ferulic Acid
BHMB

Additional:
Caffeine
Glycerol
Adaptogens, e.g. Ginseng, rhodiola
Glucosamine / CS
Hydrolyzed collagen
Glutamine

Additional For Maximum Anaerobic Energy


Performance:
Blood buffers, e.g., sodium bicarbonate (on an
experimental basis; use with caution).
Adaptogens, egg, ginseng, rhodiola
Extra Vitamin B3 (niacin)
Energy Drinks
Octacosanol (for strength sports where improved
reaction time is desired).

Note: refer to Part One for detailed information about


these nutrients and sports supplement ingredients.

Tables B-1 and B-2 provide some examples of specific nutrient intake ranges, based on
safety and effectiveness. The exact range of intake required for particular athlete will
depend on many factors. These ranges are intended to provide a framework that can be
used in planning when working with health professionals. The exact nutrient intake will
depend on the size and physical activity of an athlete, their base diet, state of health,
individual biochemistry & physiology, and if any nutrient deficiencies are present.
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TABLE B-1. BODYBUILDING & STRENGTH SPORTS


DAILY DIETARY SUPPLEMENT EXAMPLE GUIDELINES
NUTRIENT

Vitamin A (preformed)
Beta Carotene
Vitamin B1 (thiamin)
Vitamin B2 (riboflavin)
Vitamin B3 (niacin)
Vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid)
Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine)
Vitamin B12 (cobalamin)
Biotin
Folate
Vitamin C
Vitamin D
Vitamin E
Vitamin K
Boron
Calcium
Chromium
Copper
Iodine
Iron
Magnesium
Manganese
Molybdenum
Phosphorus
Potassium
Selenium
Zinc
Arginine
Glutamine
Ornithine
Branched-Chain Amino Acids (BCAAs)
Alpha-linolenic acid
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)
Eiocosapentaenoic acid (EPA)
Gamma linolenic acid (GLA)
Linoleic acid
BHMB
Bioflavonoids
Choline
Creatine monohydrate
Ferulic acid
CLA
L-carnitine
Glucosamine
ADDITIONAL:

SUPPLEMENT
RANGE OF INTAKE
TOTAL DAILY

PERSONAL NOTES

2,500 to 10,000 IU
2 to 15 mg
5 to 90 mg
5 to 90 mg
10 to 90 mg
5 to 100 mg
2 to 90 mg
3 to120 mcg
125 to 300 mcg
400 to 800 mcg
500 to 2,000 mg
200 to 800 IU
100 to 600 IU
60 to 160 mcg
2 to 8 mg
200 to 1,500 mg
200 to 500 mcg
1 to 4 mg
75 to 200 mcg
8 to 50 mg
80 to 500 mg
1 to 11 mg
35 to 200 mcg
150 to 1,000 mg
50 to 1,000 mg
35 to 200 mcg
7.5 to 40 mg
1,000 to 5,000 mg
5,000 to 10,000 mg
1,000 to 5,000 mg
5 to 20 grams
1,000 to 3,000 mg
250 to 750 mg
250 to 750 mg
400 to 800 mg
3,000 to 6,000 mg
1,500 to 3,000 mg
200 to 1,200 mg
100 to 2,000 mg
5,000 to 10,000 mg
30 to 200 mg
3,000 to 6,000 mg
500 to 2,000 mg
500 to 1,500 mg

mg = milligrams, mcg = micrograms, g = grams. Note: This information is for educational purposes only. The example
guidelines are for model healthy adult athletes, for short-term use during periods of athletic training. Typically, the exact
nutrition requirements for each person will differ, and for best results should be determined working with a health care
professional. Use supplements as directed by the manufacturer or your health care professional. Most supplements need
to be taken with water and can be taken with meals. Also, take most supplements in divided dosages 2 or more times a
day to maintain sustained intake and levels of nutrients.

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TABLE B-2 OXIDATIVE ENDURANCE SPORTS


DAILY DIETARY SUPPLEMENT EXAMPLE GUIDELINES
NUTRIENT

Vitamin A (preformed)
Beta Carotene
Vitamin B1 (thiamin)
Vitamin B2 (riboflavin)
Vitamin B3 (niacin)
Vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid)
Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine)
Vitamin B12 (cobalamin)
Biotin
Folate
Vitamin C
Vitamin D
Vitamin E
Vitamin K
Boron
Calcium
Chromium
Copper
Iodine
Iron
Magnesium
Manganese
Molybdenum
Phosphorus
Potassium
Selenium
Zinc
Glutamic acid
Glutamine
Branched-Chain Amino Acids (BCAAs)
Alpha-linolenic acid
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)
Eiocosapentaenoic acid (EPA)
Gamma linolenic acid (GLA)
Linoleic acid
Bioflavonoids
Choline
Coenzyme Q10
L-carnitine
Glucosamine
Octacosanol
ADDITIONAL:

SUPPLEMENT
RANGE OF INTAKE
TOTAL DAILY

PERSONAL NOTES

2,500 to 10,000 IU
10 to 25 mg
30 to 125 mg
30 to 125 mg
10 to 20 mg
100 to 190 mg
20 to 80 mg
12 to 120 mcg
125 to 200 mcg
400 to 800 mcg
500 to 2,000 mg
400 to 800 IU
200 to 900 IU
60 to 160 mcg
2 to 8 mg
200 to 1,500 mg
200 to 500 mcg
1 to 4 mg
75 to 200 mcg
7.5 to 40 mg
250 to 500 mg
1 to 11mg
35 to 200 mcg
150 to 800 mg
50 to 1,000 mg
35 to 200 mcg
7.5 to 40 mg
1,000 to 1,500 mg
1,000 to 5,000 mg
5 to 20 grams
500 to 2,000 mg
400 to 1,000 mg
400 to 1,000 mg
200 to 500 mg
500 to 2,000 mg
500 to 1,500 mg
500 to 2,000 mg
60 to 300 mg
2,000 to 4,000 mg
500 to 1,500 mg
1,000 to 6,000 mcg

mg = milligrams, mcg = micrograms, g = grams. Note: This information is for educational purposes only. The example
guidelines are for model healthy adult athletes, for short-term use during periods of athletic training. Typically, the exact
nutrition requirements for each person will differ, and for best results should be determined working with a health care
professional. Use supplements as directed by the manufacturer or your health care professional. Most supplements need
to be taken with water and can be taken with meals. Also, take most supplements in divided dosages 2 or more times a
day to maintain sustained intake and levels of nutrients.

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Tables C-1 and C-2 contain a collection of vitamin and mineral nutrient intake reference
values that can be useful when for planning a healthy and effective sports nutrition
program. The Daily Values and Dietary Reference Intakes are included. These represent
a minimum intake for healthy adults. They are typically based on non-athletic adults, in
about a body weight range of 60 to 75 kilograms (132 to 165 pounds).
The Tolerable Upper Intake, UL, values are also included for reference. As previously
mentioned, the ULs are the upper amount of daily nutrient intake that would likely not
result in producing any nutrient excess intake side effects. The DV, DRI and UL values are
for total nutrient intake, from foods and supplements.
For, comparison, some other independent upper intake values are included in these
tables. The values for upper vitamin and mineral intakes as determined by the Council for
Responsible Nutrition and the Canadian government. These values were determined just
for supplement intake, and consider that there will also be a baseline of nutrient intake
from conventional food dietary sources.
In my previous sports nutrition books and course text book, I established the Performance
Daily Intake range for the vitamins and minerals. The tables also contain these nutrient
range values, modified for this general reader guide version. The intent of the PDIs was to
provide a safe and effective range of minimum and maximum vitamin and mineral intake,
as athletes typically require higher nutrient intakes than recommended by the DV and DRI
guidelines. The PDIs were intended to help with planning total dietary vitamin and mineral
intake from foods and supplements. Again, for each person the exact dietary intake of
these nutrients can only be determined working with a health care professional, so the PDI
ranges are useful for planning purposes. The PDI guidelines were also intended for
healthy, active athletes, for short-term use during the athletic pre-season and season.
Based on many dietary survey intakes conducted among athletes, it is reported that most
athletes are usually deficient in several essential nutrients. These dietary survey intakes
use the lower amount DV or DRI values in making their determination. So, considering
that most athletes have higher than average nutrient intake requirements, when you
consider this need for higher nutrient intakes, many athletes diets can be deficient in
most of the essential vitamins and minerals. Note that when individuals are determined to
be deficient in a nutrient, very high short-term intake of that nutrient may be required as
determined by your health care professional, which may be higher than the upper nutrient
intake levels presented in these tables.
In general, the lower to middle PDI intake range is suitable for athletes 165 pounds and
under, and the middle to upper PDI intake range is suitable for athletes over 165 pounds.
However, the exact intake will vary based on the needs of the individual. Regarding
gender differences, when it comes to athletes, men and women of similar body weight /
lean body mass, have similar nutrient intake requirements. Also, remember that some
dosage ranges are have sport specific issues, and review Part One for details. For
example, niacin intake levels should be adequate but on the lower end of the PDI intake
range for endurance athletes due to the possible increased rate of glycogen depletion.

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Table C-1
Vitamin Intake Reference Information Summary
USA Minimum and Upper Vitamin Reference Intakes
(total intake from food and supplements)

Daily
Values
Total Intake
Vitamin A
(preformed)
Beta-Carotene
Vitamin C
Vitamin D
Vitamin E
Vitamin K
Thiamin
Riboflavin
Niacin
(Nicotinic Acid)
(Nicotinamide)
Vitamin B6
Folate
Vitamin B12
Pantothenic Acid
Biotin
Choline

DRI*
Men
Total
Intake
900 mcg
(3,000 IU)

700 mcg
(2,330 IU)

Tolerable
Upper
Intake
Total Intake
3,000 mcg
10,000 IU

Not Established

Not Established

Not Established

Not Established

60 mg
400 IU

90 mg
15 mcg
600 IU
15 mg
120 mcg
1.2 mg
1.3 mg
16 mg

75 mg
15 mcg
600 IU
15 mg
90 mcg
1.1 mg
1.1 mg
14 mg

2,000 mg
50 mcg
2,000 IU
1,000 mg

5,000 IU

30 IU
80 mcg
1.5 mg
1.7 mg
20 mg

2 mg
400 mcg
6 mcg
10 mg
300 mcg
Not Established

1.7 mg
400 mcg
2.4 mcg
5 mg
30 mcg
550 mg

DRI*
Women
Total Intake

1.5 mg
400 mcg
2.4 mcg
5 mg
30 mcg
425 mg

Not Established
Not Established
Not Established

Vitamin Reference Intakes


(intake from supplements)
Council for Responsible Nutrition and
Canadian
CRN
Canadian
for Supplements
For
Supplements
3,000 mcg
10,000 IU
25 mg
2,000 mg
60 mcg
2,400 IU
1,600 IU (1,000 mg)
10,000 mcg
100 mg
200 mg

35 mg

100 mg
1,000 mcg
Not Established
Not Established
Not Established

3.5 g

500 mg / 250 mg SR
1,500 mg
100 mg
1,000 mcg
3,000 mcg
1,000 mg
2,500 mcg
Not Established

10,000 IU
Not Established

1,500 mg
I,000 IU
1,000 IU

Performance Daily Intake (PDI)


2007 Guide Version

PDI 2007 Consumer Version


(Performance Daily Intake range, including
all nutrient sources; foods and
supplements).
5,000 to 15,000 IU
5 to 30 mg
500 to 3,000 mg
400 to 1,000 IU

100 mg
100 mg
500 mg

200 IU to 1,000 IU
80 to 180 mcg
15 to 135 mg
15 to 135 mg
20 to 100 mg

250 mg
1,000 mcg
1,000 mcg
500 mg
500 mcg
1,000 mg

10 to 100 mg
400 to 1,200 mcg
12 to 200 mcg
20 to 200 mg
300 to 600 mcg
600 to 2,500 mg

Not Established

mg = milligrams, mcg = micrograms, g = grams. Note: This information is for educational purposes only. The example guidelines are for model healthy adult athletes, for short-term use during
periods of athletic training. Typically, the exact nutrition requirements for each person differ, and for best results should be determined working with a health care professional.
* = highest DRI reported on a gender basis, excluding pregnant or lactating women.
DRI (Dietary Reference Intakes) includes Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) and Adequate Intakes (AI).
References: Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorous, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride (1997); Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin
B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline (1998); Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids (2000); Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K,
Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc (2001); and Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and
nd
Sulfate (2004). Vitamin and Mineral Safety, 2 Edition, Council for Responsible Nutrition, Washington, D.C., 2004. Health Canada.

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Table C-2
Mineral Intake Reference Information Summary
USA Minimum and Upper Mineral Reference Intakes
(total intake from food and supplements)

Daily
Values
Total Intake
Calcium
Chromium
Copper
Iodine
Iron
Magnesium
Manganese
Molybdenum
Phosphorus
Selenium
Zinc
Potassium
Sodium
Chloride
Boron
Vanadium

1,000 mg
120 mcg
2 mg
150 mcg
18 mg
400 mg
2 mg
75 mcg
1,000 mg
70 mcg
15 mg
3,500 mg
2,400 mg
3,400 mg

DRI*
Men
Total
Intake
1,200 mg
35 mcg
0.9 mg
150 mcg
11 mg
420 mg
2.3 mg
45 mcg
1,250 mg
55 mcg
11 mg
4,700 mg
1,500 mg
2,300 mg

DRI*
Women
Total Intake
1,200 mg
25 mcg
0.9 mg
150 mcg
18 mg
320 mg
1.8 mg
45 mcg
1,250 mg
55 mcg
8 mg
4,700 mg
1,500 mg
2,300 mg

Not Established

Not Established

Not Established

Not Established

Not Established

Not Established

Tolerable
Upper
Intake
Total Intake
2,500 mg
Not Established

10 mg
1,100 mcg
45 mg
350 mg
11 mg
2,000 mcg
4,000 mg
400 mcg
40 mg
Not Established

2,300 mg
3,600 mg
20 mg
1.8 mg

Mineral Reference Intakes


(intake from supplements)
Council for Responsible Nutrition and
Canadian
CRN
Canadian
for Supplements
For
Supplements

Performance Daily Intake (PDI)


2007 Guide Version

1,500 mg
1,000 mcg
9 mg
500 mcg
60 mg
400 mg
10 mg
350 mcg
1,500 mg
200 mcg
30 mg
1,500 mg

1,200 to 2,600 mg
200 mcg to 600 mcg
3 to 6 mg
150 to 400 mcg
18 to 60 mg
400 to 800 mg
4 to 30 mg
100 to 300 mcg
1,000 to 4,000 mg
100 to 400 mcg
15 to 60 mg
3,500 to 4,700 mg
2,500 to 4,500 mg +
3,400 to 4,500 mg +
6 to 12 mg

Not Established
Not Established

1,500 mg
500 mcg
5 mg
500 mcg
35 mg
500 mg
30 mg
50 mcg
1,000 mg
200 mcg
Not Established

780 mg
100 mg
1,000 mg

6 mg

Not Established

Not Established

Not Established

PDI 2007 Consumer Version


(Performance Daily Intake range, including all
nutrient sources; foods and supplements).

Not Established

mg = milligrams, mcg = micrograms, g = grams. Note: This information is for educational purposes only. The example guidelines are for model healthy adult athletes, for short-term use during periods
of athletic training. Typically, the exact nutrition requirements for each person differ, and for best results should be determined working with a health care professional.
* indicates the highest DRI was included as reported on a gender basis, excluding pregnant or lactating women.
+ indicates that dietary intake requirement for sodium and chloride can be periodically higher for individuals who lose sodium and chloride in excess or when in extremely hot or prolonged strenuous
conditions. Extra sodium and or chloride intake may be required, estimated to be several or more additional grams for replenishment of these minerals lost from sweating and excretion. Also, note that
some individuals can be sensitive to high sodium chloride intake levels, and high sodium chloride intake may cause high blood pressure in these sensitive individuals.
DRI (Dietary Reference Intakes) includes Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) and Adequate Intakes (AI).
References: Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorous, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride (1997); Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin
B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline (1998); Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids (2000); Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic,
Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc (2001); and Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate
nd
(2004). Vitamin and Mineral Safety, 2 Edition, Council for Responsible Nutrition, Washington, D.C., 2004. Health Canada.

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CHAPTER 3.2
GUIDE TO ATHLETIC FAT LOSS
Solving the Weight Loss Puzzle
ATTENTION. The following information and guidelines may help you to improve your weight loss and weight management. The
following list of precautions must be followed carefully: Have your physician monitor your health on a regular basis. This information is
not intended to be used by infants, children, adolescents, or by pregnant or lactating women or people who are taking medication or
have a health problem. The information presented herein is in no way a substitute for medical or other professional counseling. Each
individual may respond differently to the guidelines and therefore they may not be appropriate for everyone. Neither the publisher nor
author is engaged in rendering professional medical advice or services to the individual reader. The ideas, procedures, and suggestions
contained herein are not intended as a substitute for consulting with your physician or other health professional. All matters regarding
your health require medical supervision. Neither the author nor the publisher shall be liable for any loss, injury, or damage allegedly
arising from any information or suggestion in this guide.

In every athletes career, there comes a time when a modification in body composition is
desired; i.e., weight gain or weight loss. For maximum performance and results, body
composition changes must be specifically targeted. This means for weight loss, the actual
goal is fat loss. For weight gain, increase in muscle mass is the primary goal, with little or
no gain in body fat. As it turns out, the best way for athletes to accomplish these goals is
the same for everybody else too.
There are thousands of products and services on the market for fat loss and muscle gain
in the form of books, videos, audio cassettes, magazines, nutritional products, articles,
exercise equipment, pre-packaged meals, pharmaceuticals, support groups, medical
services, and seminars. Billions and billions of dollars are spent each year by people
wanting to lose weight and those who want to gain weight. In the process, people
sometimes lose out in some way; either in time, money, impaired athletic performance, or
diminished health and energy.
Loss of body fat with maintenance or increase in lean body will produce the most
desirable results for everyone. This chapter presents information and guidelines that may
be useful for attaining your body composition goal.

SOLVING THE WEIGHT LOSS PUZZLE


Losing weight has become an American pastime, with other overeating and junk food
eating nations catching up. When determining the optimum fat loss approach for athletes,
a review of traditional methods will help shed some light on how to best approach this
task. Surprisingly, when researching the facts, it became evident that traditional fat loss
approaches vary in food and nutrient composition in a fad based way. These popular fad
diets are not designed or intended for athletes who need to maintain optimum health and
peak performance. The popular weight loss methods are primarily developed for people
who need to lose weight fast for health reasons, or for the would-be dieter who wants to
trim down to look better. These common diets are typically very low in caloric consumption
(too low for most athletes), unbalanced in food composition, and deficient in essential
nutrients.
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Weight Loss Demystified


A short review of my personal experience sorting through the weight loss fads and
practices used in the medical community, eventually led me on a quest to determine what
works best. It was back in 1970 that I was first confronted with the issue of weight
management. Not because I was over weight, but because I decided to join the wrestling
team. Up until that point, my focus was on building strength and lean body mass for
strength sports performance and health.
This was a time when applying the scientific approach to health and athletic performance
was in its infancy. When it came to losing weight, the practices of the day were borderline
barbaric. Low calorie and semi-starvation diets were common. For athletes making weight,
the use of diuretics, laxatives, purging a meal, and sweating in saunas and sweat suits
were the practices also relied upon.
When turning to the popular weight loss books on the shelves, it seemed that every expert
had a different approach. After reading dozens of books, this just did not make much
sense. How could all of these experts have a different approach?
Taking the scientific approach, I performed a comparative survey of the different diets of
the day. Looking at what the different programs consisted of in terms of calories and
nutrients. After gathering this data, the trend was clear, all of these diets were simply
prescribing low calorie diets (too low), usually in the 1,600 to 1,000 calorie a day range.
They also provided structured eating plans. Even today, out of the hundreds of diet books
on the market they all have these two factors in common; low calorie and structured plans.
Ironically this is also why these popular diets ultimately fail. Also, these diets are deficient
in essential nutrients.
First, looking at the structured plan aspect of popular diets, this is destined for a high rate
of failure. Why? People end up eating the foods they love, the foods they are most often
exposed to in their life. So, following a structured plan that someone else created without
knowing about you, is usually destined for failure.
Second, low calorie diets eventually lower your metabolic rate, or calorie burning rate. The
weight loss on these popular, and even medical diets, is not quality weight loss. It is from
lean body mass, water weight and also body fat mass. Lean body mass includes bone,
muscle, and tissues that make up your body. It is not good to lose lean body mass, you
need to maintain it and even build it. When someone stays on these low calorie fad diets
long enough, their calorie using ability is reduced, then, when they return to healthy eating
and start to increase their caloric intake, they may start regaining body fat faster than
before.
These are primary reasons why fad diets fail. When turning to the medical community the
approaches are similar to the fad diet scene. The most common weight loss approaches
used in clinics are low calorie diets, some are very low calorie diets. While body weight is
lost, damaging effects to the body can occur on many levels, including metabolic,
hormonal, and structural.
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It is interesting to note that it was not until 1998 that the first official weight loss guide
was published by the National Institutes of Health. Titled Clinical Guidelines on the
Identification, Evaluation, and Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults, this report
reviewed various approaches used for weight loss, including, diet, exercise, behavior,
surgery and drugs. The diets reviewed in this report were the same low calorie to very low
calorie diets used in medical settings.
The major problem from the fad diets and clinical weight loss approaches is that they do
not approach weight loss from a performance nutrition standpoint. Also, another short
coming, especially with the clinical approaches, is they are not measuring body
composition to determine where the weight loss is coming from; body fat, water weight or
lean body mass. They recommend using the BMI (body mass index), which is a general
assessment of overweightness or obesity; reviewed later in this chapter.
The athlete weight loss solution is the same as with performance nutrition; individualized
and bio-energetic specific.

Athletic Fat Loss


For most athletes, losing excess body fat is easy following the athletic fat loss approach.
This approach focuses on targeting loss of body fat, while maintaining health and
performance. However, please note that it is always best to lose body fat and make body
weight adjustments during the off season and early preseason. It is better to start the
season at the proper bodyweight.
One key goal is to focus on using stored body fat for energy. While calorie restriction will
be part of the athletic fat loss program, eating foods, exercise, meal time, and use of
supplements can be used to increase the rate of fat metabolism and body fat utilization,
while preserving or even building lean body mass.
Understanding Where Weight Loss Can Come From
The three main ways your body losses weight are:
Loss/reduction of net body water content, through dehydration.
Loss/reduction of lean body mass, from muscle, bone, organs, glands, and other
non-fat tissues
Loss/reduction of body fat stores.
Dehydration is not a recommended type of weight loss, but is a common method used in
many of the popular fad diets, because it results in an immediate reduction in total body
weight. Dehydration is detrimental to both health and athletic performance, and should be
avoided. However, wrestlers, boxers, and other athletes that need to make weight for
athletic competition commonly resort to this extreme weight loss method as a last minute
resort. Losing just a few pounds during the last few hours prior to competition to make it
into a specific weight division may not be harmful, as long as you are in a good state of
hydration to begin with. But, most of these weight loss desperate athletes are chronically
dehydrated. In most cases, you can re-hydrate your body after the weigh-ins. Ideally
though, dehydration to make weight should be totally avoided.
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Lean body mass weight loss can result from cutting back on the calories too much, losing
weight too fast, not eating the proper proportions of macronutrients, and not properly
exercising. Lean body mass weight loss comes primarily from the breakdown of muscle
tissue; but bone and connective tissue can also be effected, and lose tissue mass. Loss in
lean body mass is a very detrimental type of weight loss for the athlete, or anybody for
that matter. Loss of lean body mass also reduces your metabolic rate, and jeopardizes
body structure and function. As endurance / aerobic type exercise (low intensity, long
duration) has a muscle fiber reducing effect, reduction in lean body mass may occur if you
start increasing your aerobic exercise, especially for strength athletes. While this may not
be of importance to endurance athletes, strength athletes can end up losing lean body
mass that they spent years building with resistance training.
Body Composition
In addition to weighing yourself a few times a day, to best keep track where your weight
loss is coming from (body fat, water weight, or lean body mass), get your body
composition measured on a regular basis. Using your body composition measurements
you can track the relationship between calorie reduction, nutrition and exercise to
determine what best combination results in losing just body fat, while maintaining or
building lean body mass. So, keeping track of your body composition is vital for effective
body fat reduction.
Note that body weight fluctuations that occur within a day are mostly from water weight, in
particular the weight lost during exercise. Also food intake and the time it takes to pass
through your gastrointestinal system can contributed to the major daily weigh fluctuations.
So, taking note of these daily fluctuations is important to determine your hydration status.
In addition to tracking body weight, the body composition method that uses skin fold
measurements provides insights of your body fat reduction. This is accomplished from the
fact that the skin fold measurement measures both skin thickness and the fat below the
skin (subcutaneous fat). Therefore, as your skin fold measurements decrease, this is a
direct measure that your body fat is decreasing, in addition to reviewing the percent body
fat mass and lean body mass measurements, reviewing the skin fold measurements will
provide more information that is useful for maintaining targeted fat loss. If using multiple
measurements is new to you, once you start tracking the different measurements, the
usefulness of using these different measurements will become more apparent.
Calorie Intake
Using your sports specific nutrition program, or the standard eating plan later in this
chapter, calorie reduction needs to be calculated from your daily caloric expenditure. In
this way, your caloric intake will be individualized, versus the generic low calorie fad diet
approaches. Also, this makes your calorie reduction dynamic, as each day your caloric
intake maybe different, for example 3,500 calories on training days, and 2,500 calories on
nontraining days.
Ideally, calorie reduction should not come from protein, and should come selectively from
simple or complex carbohydrates and nonessential fats. Protein consumption should stay
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at the level recommended for your sport during the season. Protein has an added bonus
of stimulating the thermogenic effect, meaning that it takes the body more calories to
process protein then it can derive from the breakdown of protein.
Start with small reductions in caloric intake, about 10% of total daily calories. For the
2,500 calorie per day example diet, this would be 250 calories and for the 3,500 calorie
per day example diet this would be 350 calories. Based on how your body responds to this
initial calorie reduction in terms of rate of fat loss, you may have to make additional
reductions in caloric intake, which could be up to 20% reduction in total daily caloric
intake.
It is best not to lower the total daily caloric intake too low, as this could trigger your bodys
metabolism to make hormonal changes that would lead to lowering your metabolic rate.
While the minimum caloric intake that will trigger metabolic rate lower is different for each
person, when total daily caloric intake goes below 1,800 calories per day these
undesirable metabolic effects are likely to occur. It is more desirable to maintain a
moderate to high level of activity to keep your total daily caloric expenditure rate high.
Also, in the below section, you can take supplements like carnitine, which can increase
the rate at which your body uses body fat, thereby increasing the use of stored body fat.
You can also use calorie modulation to maintain caloric consumption above the critical low
point of intake. For example, on training days and other high activity days when your total
caloric rate is high, a larger calorie reduction will usually be above the 1,800 calorie
minimum. Then on your lower activity days, if the amount of calorie reduction you are
using may result in being below 1,800 calories per day, you can make adjustments to your
amount of caloric reduction to be above the 1,800 calorie threshold. So, using calorie
modulation can help to keep your metabolic rate normally functioning, and you can avoid
the potential metabolic lowering that is common with the fad lower calorie diets.
Meal Frequency and Size
Similar to the performance nutrition diets, the fat loss diet should be structured in a similar
way. Spreading out total caloric intake over at least 5 meals/snacks is the standard
starting point. However, if you find that after a week of calorie reduction you are not losing
body fat, or the rate of loss is slow, this may be an indication that your insulin levels are
too high on average. As insulin tends to prevent the use of body fat stores, some people
may have to reallocate their caloric intake to be consumed 4 meals per day. By reducing
meal frequency, this will provide greater gaps between meals, and give your body a
chance to start metabolizing body fat stores.
Also, meal size is very important. You want to consume the calories you will be using after
the meal. When you keep caloric intake structured throughout the day in this way, your
body becomes conditioned to using the calories from the meal for energy and growth. On
the other hand, if when you eat excess calories during a meal, your body needs to store
the excess calories as body fat, you actually condition your body to be a fat building
machine. The goal during weight loss and weight maintenance is conditioning your body
to be a fat burning machine. This is best accomplished by keeping calories to match your
caloric needs after the meal.
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Fat Loss Foods


Are there really foods that can help lose body fat? Yes, eating the right foods can help to
increase your rate of fat loss and decrease fat storage. Eating higher quantity of foods that
take more energy to digest, and are high volume and low in calorie content, tend to
increase the fat loss process.
While your standard sports specific nutrition programs consist of healthy foods and dietary
practices, here are some additional tips for fine-tuning your eating for improving fat loss
results:
Eat more low calorie, nonstarchy vegetables that provide high volume, such as lettuce &
other leafy vegetables, broccoli, cauliflower, peppers, celery, etc.
Eat more low fat foods, especially foods lower in saturated fats.
Eat lean protein foods that are low in total fat and low in saturated fats.
Reduce consumption of simple carbohydrates.
Consume fewer fruits, and eat fruits that are lower in calories and simple carbohydrates per
serving.
Avoid or minimize drinking carbohydrate containing beverages.
Drink plenty of water and other noncalorie containing beverages; unsweetened fresh
brewed tea (green, oolong and black) contain ingredients that are beneficial to digestion
and thermogenic, which can help increase your rate of calorie burning and fat metabolism.
Choose complex carbohydrate containing foods with low to medium glycemic index values.
Increase your dietary fiber intake by eating foods higher in fiber and fiber supplements.
Consume nutrient dense diet products, such as high quality meal replacement drinks and
nutrition bars, in addition to other prepared diet foods with high protein content.
Do not skip meals.
Use dietary supplements to help improve appetite control, increase metabolic rate,
increase rate of fat burning and other fat loss benefits reviewed in the below section of this
chapter.

Exercise and Fat Loss


Here is a fact that surprises most people, you can lose weight/body fat without exercise,
from just calorie reduction alone. However, the healthier way is to include exercise as part
of any fat loss program. For athletes, exercise is part of your lifestyle, and leading a
physically active lifestyle, whether endurance or strength sport athletes, will make
reducing body fat easier.
Regarding the type of exercise, in general, endurance type exercise that is low intensity
and longer in duration, will cause the body to use more fat for energy and may increase
the rate of fat loss. Generally speaking, continuous exercise 45 minutes or longer will
metabolize more fat for energy.
Strength athletes usually need to avoid long duration aerobic type exercise, as this type of
exercise can adversely effect their strength performance. This is more important for
strength athletes in sports requiring maintenance of lean body mass, like bodybuilding,
and athletes in sports that require maximum strength performance, like powerlifting,
weight lifting, shot put, and football players. With proper calorie reduction and supplement
use, most strength athletes can successfully reduce body fat along with their strength
training and sports training programs. However, if the rate of fat loss is coming slower than
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desired try performing circuit training, which combines resistance training with aerobic
training. Then the next type of exercise to try would be high intensity interval type aerobic
training. For most strength athletes properly performed interval aerobic exercise will
improve the rate of fat loss, while maintaining lean body mass and strength. If a greater
rate of fat loss is still desired, then start including conventional aerobic exercise 45
minutes to 60 minutes in duration, keeping close track on how this is effecting your body
composition and strength performance.
Cycle Your Fat Loss With Periods Of Weight Maintenance
As you lose body fat, your body sends chemical messages to its control center that body
weight is being lost. The body may respond by slowing your metabolism down in an effort
to put the breaks on weight loss. Exercise will help prevent this, as will maintaining an
adequate intake of protein, carbohydrates and fats. However, just as people plateau when
building muscle mass, they often reach a plateau when losing weight. If this happens to
you, then return to a weight maintenance diet where calorie consumption is balanced with
daily caloric expenditure for a week; in other words caloric intake that equals your daily
caloric expenditure. Then after a week start back on your body fat calorie reduction diet
again. This will help stimulate your metabolism to increase, and make your body able to
burn more calories again.
Additional Calorie Reduction Points to Consider
As previously mentioned, pre-season and in-season athletes should follow their sport specific nutrition plans.
If you are in the off season, and want to ease up on the sports specific nutrition plans, the following page
presents an overview of a generic eating plan that provides about 20% protein, 60% carbohydrates, and
20% fat. Adjustments can be made to this basic eating plan to suit your individual caloric and macronutrient
intake needs. This 20-20-60 plan is a good starting point for general health and fitness too.
In order to maintain adequate protein and essential fatty acid intake, sometimes selectively reducing calories
just from carbohydrates may be required. However, keep in mind that with reduced carbohydrate intake,
athletic performance can be reduced. Also, reducing carbohydrate intake can result in glycogen depletion
and hypoglycemia, so it should be approached with caution, especially for physically active people.
For example, the 10 to 20% reduction in daily caloric intake can be accomplished by reducing just
carbohydrate intake to 50% or 40% of total daily calories. From a mathematics standpoint, this would
automatically increase the relative percentages of protein and fat intake.
During the fat loss phase you can also experiment with modulating carbohydrate intake on training and
nontraining days; higher/normal carbohydrate intake on training days, and reduced carbohydrate intake on
nontrainng days.
Whatever method of calorie reduction you choose, from all macronutrients, or selectively from carbohydrates
and or fats, it is important to make sure you are ingesting adequate amounts of all of the essential nutrients,
from foods and supplements. In order to maintain lean body mass and athletic performance it is ideal for
athletes to allow enough time to plan for minor calorie restriction, causing a slower weekly rate of body fat
loss.
For best results, working with your health care professional, use the scientific approach and measure body
composition at least once a week to determine where the weight loss is coming from; body fat and or lean
body mass. With this data you can make adjustments to your nutrition and exercise programs to just target
loss of body fat, while maintaining or even increasing your lean body mass.

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DAILY FOOD INTAKE GOALS (Weight Loss Focused). Listed below are food guidelines that range between 2500
calories per day to 3500 calories per day, and are designed for a reference individual of 175 pounds, who is lean. If you
are lighter or heavier you can adjust the daily caloric intake by adding or subtracting about 1 serving from each food
category. Spread out food intake over 5 or more meals per day to match you caloric demands following the meal.
Following these food intake guidelines results in a 20% Protein, 60% Carbohydrate, 20% Fat diet.
FOOD GROUP
FRUITS
Citrus, melon, berries and other
fruits

SUGGESTED SERVINGS, per day


4 to 6 servings
Fresh fruit preferred

VEGETABLES
Dark-green leafy vegetables

5 to 8 servings
Include a diversity of vegetables
each day

COMPLEX CARBOHYDRATES
Bread, Cereal, Grains, Pasta,
and starchy vegetables.

11 TO 14 servings
Include several servings of whole
grain products daily

1 slice of bread. 1/2 hamburger


bun or English muffin. 1 small
roll, biscuit or muffin. 4 crackers.
1/2 cup cooked cereal, rice or
pasta. 1 ounce of breakfast
cereal. During weight loss strive
to include foods with medium to
low glycemic index values.

HIGH PROTEIN FOODS


Meat, poultry, fish

3 to 4 servings
Choose lean cuts of meat, trim the
fat, skinless chicken and turkey or
fish, over fatty meats

DAIRY
Milk cheese, yogurt

2 to 3 servings per day


Choose low fat dairy products
whenever possible to reduce fat
intake
Drink 8 to 12, 8 ounce glasses of
water each day, or more id required.
See guidelines in chapter 1.6.
Minimize consumption of dietary
fats, saturated fats and cholesterol

Amounts per serving should


range 5 to 7 ounces of cooked
lean meat, poultry, or fish a day.
Count 1 egg, 1/2 cup cooked
beans, or 2 tablespoons of
peanut butter as 1 ounce of
meat.
1 cup milk, 8 ounces yogurt, 1
1/2 ounces cheese.

WATER/FLUIDS

FATS

SWEETS/SUGAR

Minimize high ingestion of sugar and


foods containing high sugar content
and high glycemic index foods.

ALCOHOL

Avoid drinking alcoholic beverages


during the athletic season. If you
choose to drink alcoholic beverages
in the off season then do so in
moderation.

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EXAMPLE OF SERVING SIZE


1 whole fruit (like apple, banana.
pear, orange); 1/2 grapefruit; 1/2
melon wedge; 3/4 cup of juice;
1/2 cup of berries; 1/2 cup
cooked or canned fruit; 1/4 cup
dried fruit.
1/2 cup cooked vegetables
1/2 cup chopped raw vegetables
1 cup leafy raw vegetables like
lettuce or spinach

Plain filtered water, diluted fruit


juices, low cal beverages.
Use food preparation methods
that use little or no added fats or
oils.
Maintain intake of complex
carbohydrates, and more
medium to low glycemic index
foods. Ingest simple carbs from
fruits and for special energetic
purposes.
Drinks containing 1 to 2 ounces
of alcohol per day are considered
to be moderate consumption.

ADDITIONAL WEIGHT LOSS INFORMATION


The following information is a general overview of some of the topics related to weight loss
and weight maintenance for everybody. While most people reading this book are athletic
and maintain a healthy body weight, after their athletic careers, former athletes can
experience weight gain, becoming overweight or even obese. In addition to the other
weight loss information in this chapter, the following information and tips can help create a
lifestyle of habits that will help you to maintain a healthy body weight, and avoid putting on
extra pounds of fat.

What Are The Health Risks Of Being Overweight?


While most people are inclined to lose weight to look and feel better, many people are
instructed by their doctors to lose weight because they are at risk for developing a
disease. Or may already have developed a disease and their doctor wants to stop the
progression of the overweight related disease and perhaps even cure it. Excess weight
(body fat) can put you at higher risk for:
type 2 diabetes (high blood sugar)
high blood pressure
heart disease and stroke
some types of cancer
sleep apnea (when breathing stops for short periods during sleep)
osteoarthritis (wearing away of the joints)
gallbladder disease

Are You Overweight (Over-Fat)?


Overweight refers to an excess of body weight, but not necessarily body fat. Obesity
means an excessively high proportion of body fat. Health professionals use a generalized
measurement called body mass index (BMI) to classify an adult's weight as healthy,
overweight, or obese. BMI describes body weight relative to height and is correlated with
total body fat content in most adults. But an easy way to determine if you are over-fat is to
see how much body fat you have by pinching your skin fold. If you can pinch more than an
inch of abdominal body fat, chances are you have too much body fat, and need to lose
some. Also note that for people who are athletic with more muscle, especially people who
lift weights (resistance training), the BMI will probably overestimate your level of fatness. It
is best to get your body fat determined by a training individual for best results.
To determine your approximate BMI, multiply your weight in pounds by 703, then divide
the result by your height in inches, and divide that result by your height in inches a second
time. A BMI from 18.5 up to 25 is considered in the healthy range, from 25 up to 30 is
overweight, and 30 or higher is obese. Generally, the higher a person's BMI, the greater
the risk for health problems, according to the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute
(NHLBI). However, there are some exceptions. For example, very muscular people, like
body builders, may have a BMI greater than 25 or even 30, but this reflects increased
muscle rather than fat. It is excess body fat that leads to the health problems such as type
2 diabetes, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol.

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In addition to a high BMI, having excess abdominal body fat is a health risk. Men with a
waist of more than 40 inches around and women with a waist of 35 inches or more are at
risk for health problems.
Healthy Weight: BMI from 18.5 up to 25 refers to healthy weight.
Overweight: BMI from 25 up to 30 refers to overweight.
Obese: BMI 30 or higher refers to obesity. Obese persons are also overweight.
However, there are limitations to the BMI approach. It does not measure a persons actual
body composition, that is, body fat mass and lean body mass. Also, for most athletic
people with extra muscle mass, the BMI will usually erroneously be a higher number, and
inaccurately place them in an overweight or even obese category.
There are a number of methods available for measuring body composition to accurately
determine body fat mass and percentage. A common method uses calipers to measure
skin folds. Consult your doctor or other health or fitness practitioner about measuring and
keeping track of your body composition to determine the actual body weight being lost;
body fat versus lean body mass. This way you can fine-tune your nutrition and exercise
program to cause loss in body fat mass, while maintaining or building your lean body
mass. There are even do-it-yourself products for measuring body composition.

What Makes People Overweight/Obese?


People gain weight when the number of calories they eat is more than the number of
calories their bodies use. Many factors can play a part in weight gain. Here are some of
them.
Habits. Eating too many calories can become a habit. So can choosing activities like watching TV instead of
being physically active; so over time, these habits can lead to weight gain.
Genes. Overweight and obesity tend to run in families. Although families often share diet and physical activity
habits that can play a role in obesity, their shared genes increase the chance that family members will be
overweight.
Illness. Some diseases can lead to weight gain or obesity. These include hypothyroidism, Cushing's syndrome,
and depression. Talk to your health care provider if you think you have a health problem that could be causing
you to gain weight.
Medicine. Some medicines can lead to weight gain. Ask your health care provider or pharmacist about the side
effects of any medication you are taking.
The world around you. You can find food and messages about food at home, at work, at shopping centers, on
TV, and at family and social events. People may eat too much just because food is always there. On top of that
in our modern world of remote controlled televisions, door-to-door transportation, drive-in banks, and
escalators, makes it easy to be physically inactive.
Emotions. Many people eat when they are bored, sad, angry, or stressed, even when they are not hungry just
to fill their time.

Here Are Some Weight Loss Dieting Myths


Myth: Fad diets work for permanent weight loss
Fact: Fad diets are not the best way to lose weight and keep it off. Fad diets often promise
quick weight loss or tell you to cut certain foods out of your diet. You may lose weight at
first on one of these diets. But diets that strictly limit calories or food choices are hard to
follow. Most people quickly get tired of them and regain any lost weight. Fad diets may be
unhealthy because they may not provide all of the nutrients your body needs. Also, losing
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weight at a very rapid rate (more than 3 pounds a week after the first couple weeks) may
increase your risk for developing gallstones (clusters of solid material in the gallbladder
that can be painful).
Tip: Research suggests that losing to 2 pounds a week of body fat by making healthy
food choices, eating moderate portions, and building physical activity into your daily life is
the best way to lose weight and keep it off. By adopting healthy eating and physical
activity habits, you may also lower your risk for developing type 2 diabetes, heart disease,
and high blood pressure.
Myth: High-protein/low-carbohydrate diets are a healthy way to lose weight
The long-term health effects of a high-protein/low-carbohydrate diet are unknown. But
getting most of your daily calories from high-protein foods like meat, eggs, and cheese is
not a balanced eating plan. You may be eating too much fat and cholesterol, which may
raise heart disease risk. You may be eating too few fruits, vegetables, and whole grains,
which may lead to constipation due to lack of dietary fiber. Following a high-protein/lowcarbohydrate diet may also make you feel nauseous, tired, and weak. Eating fewer than
130 grams of carbohydrate a day can lead to the buildup of ketones (partially brokendown fats) in your blood. A buildup of ketones in your blood (called ketosis) can cause
your body to produce high levels of uric acid, which is a risk factor for gout (a painful
swelling of the joints) and kidney stones. Ketosis may be especially risky for pregnant
women and people with diabetes or kidney disease. Additionally when ketosis sets in, this
sends starvation messages to your body that trigger lowering the metabolic rate and also
trigger the use of muscle tissue for energy; things a healthy athletic weight loss program
should avoid.
Tip: High-protein/low-carbohydrate diets are often low in calories because food choices
are strictly limited, so they may cause short-term weight loss. But a reduced-calorie eating
plan that includes recommended amounts of carbohydrate, protein, and fat will also allow
you to lose weight. By following a balanced eating plan, you will not have to stop eating
whole classes of foods, such as whole grains, fruits, and vegetablesand miss the key
nutrients they contain. You may also find it easier to stick with a diet or eating plan that
includes a greater variety of foods.
Medical studies show that a diet with extra protein and low fat can help improve your
weight loss success and appetite control. However, adequate carbohydrate consumption
is vital to help maintain good health and energy levels along with good protein intake and
reduced fat intake.
Myth: Starches are fattening and should be limited when trying to lose weight
Many foods high in starch, like bread, rice, pasta, cereals, beans, fruits, and some
vegetables (like potatoes and yams) are low in fat and calories. They become high in fat
and calories when eaten in large portion sizes or when covered with high-fat toppings like
butter, sour cream, or mayonnaise. Foods high in starch (also called complex
carbohydrates) are an important source of energy for your body.

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Tip: A healthy eating plan is one that:


Emphasizes fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and fat-free or low-fat milk and milk
products.
Includes lean meats, poultry, fish, beans, eggs, and nuts.
Is low in saturated fats, trans fat, cholesterol, salt (sodium), and added sugars.
Myth: I can lose weight while eating whatever I want
To lose weight, you need to use more calories than you eat. It is possible to eat any kind
of food you want and lose weight. You need to limit the number of calories you eat every
day and/or increase your daily physical activity. Portion control is the key. Try eating
smaller amounts of food and choosing foods that are low in calories.
Tip: When trying to lose weight, you can still eat your favorite foodsas long as you pay
attention to the total number of calories that you eat, and include more healthy foods in
your diet.
Myth: Low-fat or nonfat means no calories
A low-fat or nonfat food is often lower in calories than the same size portion of the full-fat
product. But many processed low-fat or nonfat foods have just as many calories as the
full-fat version of the same food or even more calories. They may contain added sugar,
flour, or starch thickeners to improve flavor and texture after fat is removed. These
ingredients add calories.
Tip: Read the Nutrition Facts Panel on a food package to find out how many calories are
in a serving. Check the serving size too it may be less than you are used to eating.
Myth: Skipping meals is a good way to lose weight
Studies show that people who skip breakfast and eat fewer times during the day tend to
be heavier than people who eat a healthy breakfast and eat four or five times a day. This
may be because people who skip meals tend to feel hungrier later on, and eat more than
they normally would. It may also be that eating many small meals throughout the day
helps people control their appetites.
Tip: Eat small meals throughout the day that include a variety of healthy, low-fat, lowcalorie foods.
Myth: Lifting weights is not good to do if you want to lose weight, because it will make you
"bulk up"

Lifting weights or doing strengthening activities like push-ups and crunches on a regular
basis can actually help you maintain or lose weight. These activities can help you build
muscle, and muscle burns more calories than body fat. So if you have more muscle, you
burn more calorieseven sitting still. Doing strengthening activities 2 or 3 days a week
will not "bulk you up." Only intense strength training, combined with a certain genetic
background, can build very large muscles.
Tip: In addition to doing at least 30 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity (like
walking 2 miles in 30 minutes) on most days of the week, try to do strengthening activities
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2 to 3 days a week. You can lift weights, use large rubber bands (resistance bands), do
push-ups or sit-ups, or do household or garden tasks that make you lift or dig. Athletes of
course, will be performing a more rigorous training program.
Myth: Nuts are fattening and you should not eat them if you want to lose weight

In small amounts, nuts can be part of a healthy weight-loss program. Nuts are high in
calories and fat. However, most nuts contain healthy fats that do not clog arteries. Nuts
are also good sources of protein, dietary fiber, and minerals including magnesium and
copper.
Tip: Enjoy small portions of nuts, as they are calorie dense and you need to make sure not
to over eat them.
Myth: Eating red meat is bad for your health and makes it harder to lose weight

Eating lean meat in small amounts can be part of a healthy weight-loss plan. Red meat,
pork, chicken, and fish contain some cholesterol and saturated fat (the least healthy kind
of fat). But, they also contain healthy essential nutrients like protein, iron, and zinc.
Tip: Choose cuts of meat that are lower in fat and trim all visible fat. Lower fat meats
include pork tenderloin and beef round steak, tenderloin, sirloin tip, flank steak, and extra
lean ground beef. Also, pay attention to portion size. Three ounces of meat or poultry is
the size of a deck of cards.
Myth: Dairy products are fattening and unhealthy

Low-fat and nonfat milk, yogurt, and cheese are just as nutritious as whole milk dairy
products, but they are lower in fat and calories. Dairy products have many nutrients your
body needs. They offer protein to build muscles and help organs work properly, and
calcium to strengthen bones. Most milk and some yogurt products are fortified with vitamin
D to help your body use calcium.
Tip: The Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommends consuming 3 cups per day of fatfree/low-fat milk or equivalent milk products. If you cannot digest lactose (the sugar found
in dairy products), choose low-lactose or lactose-free dairy products, or other foods and
beverages that offer calcium and vitamin D, as follows.
Calcium: calcium supplements, fortified fruit juice, soy-based beverage, or tofu made with
calcium sulfate; canned salmon; dark leafy greens like collards or kale
Vitamin D: vitamin D supplements, fortified fruit juice, soy-based beverage, or cereal
(getting some sunlight on your skin also gives you a small amount of vitamin D

Lessons From Those Successful At Losing Weight


Although many people who lose weight may eventually gain it back, it's a myth that this
happens to everyone, according to Rena Wing, Ph.D., a professor of psychiatry at Brown
Medical School in Providence, R.I. Wing, the co-developer of a research study known as
the National Weight Control Registry, has worked to deflate this myth. Stored in the
registry's database is information about the weight-control behaviors of more than 3,000
American adults who have lost an average of 60 pounds and have kept it off for an
average of six years.
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How Did They Lose The Excess Body Fat?


The successful weight losers report four common behaviors:
They eat a low-calorie, low-fat diet,
They monitor themselves by weighing in frequently,
They are very physically active, and
They eat breakfast.
Six years after their weight loss, most of the registry's successful losers still report eating a
low-calorie, low-fat diet. They also exercise for about an hour or more a day, expending
about 2,800 calories per week on a variety of physical activities.
Setting a Goal
The first step to weight loss is setting a realistic goal, your health care provider can
determine your healthy weight. Studies show that you can improve your health with just a
small amount of weight loss, for example, physical activity in combination with reduced
calorie consumption can lead to the 5 to 10 percent weight loss necessary to achieve
remission of the obesity-associated complications. Even these moderate weight losses
can improve blood pressure and help control diabetes and high cholesterol in obese or
overweight adults.
To reach your goal safely, plan to lose weight gradually. A weight loss of one-half to two
pounds a week is usually safe, according to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2000.
This can be achieved by decreasing the calories eaten or increasing the calories used by
250 or more, depending on current calorie intake. (Some people with serious health
problems due to obesity may lose weight more rapidly under a doctor's supervision.) If you
plan to lose more than 15 to 20 pounds, have any health problems, or take medication on
a regular basis, see your health care professional before you begin a weight-loss program.
Look at What You Eat Now
Write down what you eat for a few days to get a good picture of what you're taking in. By
looking at what you eat and how much you're eating, you can figure out what adjustments
you need to make. Also try to detect if there are types of foods, certain time of the day, or
situations when you overeat. Create a plan to deal with these overeating episodes.
Start With Small Changes
You don't have to go cold turkey. In the end, you want to achieve a long-term healthy
lifestyle. Small changes over time are the most likely to stick. If you want to eat more
vegetables, then try to add one more serving by mixing it in. Add bits of broccoli to
something you already eat like pizza or soup. If you need more whole grains, add barley,
whole wheat pasta, or brown rice to your soup.
When you think about what you need to get more of, the other things tend to fall into
place. If you have some baby carrots with lunch or add a banana to your cereal in the
morning, you're going to feel full longer. You won't need a food that's high in sugar or fat
an hour later. Also, look for healthier versions of what you like to eat. If you like luncheon
meat sandwiches, try a reduced-fat version. If you like the convenience of frozen dinners,

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look for ones with lower sodium. If you love fast-food meals, try a salad as your side dish
instead of French fries.
Pick one or two changes to start with. Once the changes have become habits, which
usually happens in about three or several weeks, then try adding one or two more. In a
few months you will find that you made substantial lifestyle changes.
Control Portion Sizes
Understanding the serving size on the Nutrition Facts label is important for controlling
portions. Someone may have a large bottled drink, assuming it's one serving. When you
look closely at the label, it's actually two servings. And if you consume two servings of a
product, you have to multiply all the numbers by two. When the servings go up, so do the
calories, fat, sugar, and salt.
Also, try dishing out a smaller serving on to your plate or using smaller plates. When you
put more food in front of you, you'll eat it because it's there. Here are some other ways to
limit portions: Split a meal or dessert with a friend at a restaurant, get a doggie bag for half
of your meal, get in the habit of having one helping, and ask for salad dressing, butter, and
sauces on the side so you can control how much you use.
Know Your Fats
Fat provides flavor and makes you feel full. It also provides energy, and essential fatty
acids for healthy skin, and helps the body absorb the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K.
But fat also has nine calories per gram, compared to four calories per gram in
carbohydrates and protein. If you eat too much fat every day, you may get more calories
than your body needs, and too many calories can contribute to weight gain. Too much
saturated fat, trans fat, and cholesterol in the diet increases the risk of unhealthy blood
cholesterol levels, which may increase the risk of heart disease; people should lower all
three, not just one or the other. Saturated fat is found mainly in foods from animals.
Major sources of saturated fats are cheese, beef, and milk. Trans fat results when
manufacturers add hydrogen to vegetable oil to increase the food's shelf life and flavor.
Trans fat can be found in vegetable shortenings, some margarines, crackers, cookies, and
other snack foods. Cholesterol is a fat-like substance in foods from animal sources such
as meat, poultry, egg yolks, milk, and milk products.
Most of your fats should come from polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids,
such as those that occur in fish, nuts, soybean, corn, canola, olive, and other vegetable
oils. This type of fat does not raise the risk of heart disease and may be beneficial when
consumed in moderation.
Make Choices That Are Lean, Low-fat, or Fat-free
When buying meat, poultry, milk, or milk products, choose versions that are lean, low-fat,
or fat-free. Choose lean meats like chicken without the skin and lean beef or pork with the
fat trimmed off. If you frequently drink whole milk, switch to 1 percent milk or skim milk.
Many people don't taste a difference. Some mix whole milk with lower-fat milk for a while

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so the taste buds can adjust. This doesn't mean you can never eat or drink the full-fat
versions; that's where the discretionary calories come in.
Other tips to reduce saturated fat include cooking with non-stick sprays and using olive,
safflower, or canola oils instead of lard or butter. Eat more fish, which is usually lower in
saturated fat than meat. Bake, grill, and broil food instead of frying it because more fat is
absorbed into the food when frying. You could also try more meatless entrees like veggie
burgers and add flavor to food with low-fat beans instead of butter.
Focus on Fresh Fruit
The Dietary Guidelines recommend two cups of fruit per day at the 2,000-calorie reference
diet. Fruit intake and recommended amounts of other food groups vary at different calorie
levels. An example of two cups of fruit includes: one small banana, one large orange, and
one-fourth cup of dried apricots or peaches.
Eat a variety of fruitsfresh fruits being the best choice. The whole fruit has more fiber,
it's more filling, and it's naturally sweet. Still, some juices, such as tomato, orange and
prune, are a good source of potassium.
Ways to incorporate fruit in your diet include adding it to your cereal, eating it as a snack
with low-fat yogurt or a low-fat dip, or making a fruit smoothie for dessert by mixing low-fat
milk with fresh or frozen fruit such as strawberries or peaches. Also, your family is more
likely to eat fruit if you put it out on the kitchen table.
Eat Your Veggies
The Dietary Guidelines recommend two and one-half cups of vegetables per day if you eat
2,000 calories each day. Adding vegetables to foods such as meatloaf, lasagna, omelets,
stir-fry dishes, and casseroles. Frozen chopped greens such as spinach, and peas,
carrots, and corn are easy to add. Also, add dark leafy green lettuce to sandwiches.
Involve kids by letting them help pick vegetables in different colors when you're shopping.
Get a variety of dark green vegetables such as broccoli, spinach, and greens; orange and
deep yellow vegetables such as carrots, winter squash, and sweet potatoes; starchy
vegetables like corn; legumes, such as dry beans, peas, chickpeas, pinto beans, kidney
beans, and tofu; and other vegetables, such as tomatoes and onions.
Eat Your Grains Whole
Like fruits and vegetables, whole grains are a good source of vitamins, minerals, and fiber.
The Dietary Guidelines recommend at least three ounces of whole grains per day. One
slice of bread, one cup of breakfast cereal, or one-half cup of cooked rice or pasta are
each equivalent to about one ounce. Tanner suggests baked whole-grain corn tortilla
chips or whole-grain cereal with low-fat milk as good snacks.
In general, most or all of the grains you consume should come from whole grains. For
many, but not all, whole grain products, the words "whole" or "whole grain" will appear
before the grain ingredient's name. The whole grain must be the first ingredient listed in
the ingredients list on the food package. The following are some whole grains: whole
wheat, whole oats or oatmeal, whole-grain corn, popcorn, wild rice, brown rice,

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buckwheat, whole rye, bulgur or cracked wheat, whole-grain barley, and millet. Wholegrain foods cannot necessarily be identified by their color or by names such as brown
bread, nine-grain bread, hearty grains bread, or mixed grain bread.
Health food stores are a great place to shop for whole grain products that are also
organic, which means free of added chemicals. Some, grocery stores even have health
food sections where you can find organic whole grain foods, in addition to the
conventional whole grain foods.
Lower Sodium and Increase Potassium
Higher salt intake is linked to higher blood pressure, which can raise the risk of stroke,
heart disease, and kidney disease. The Dietary Guidelines recommend that people
consume less than 2,300 milligrams of sodium per day (approximately one teaspoon of
salt). There are other recommendations for certain populations that tend to be more
sensitive to salt. For example, people with high blood pressure, blacks, and middle-aged
and older adults should consume no more than 1,500 milligrams of sodium each day.
However, note that competitive athletes will typically require higher than average intake of
sodium, as well as other essential nutrients.
Most of the sodium people eat comes from processed foods. Use the Nutrition Facts label
on food products: 5%DV or less for sodium means the food is low in sodium and 20%DV
or more means it's high. Compare similar products and choose the option with a lower
amount of sodium. Most people won't notice a taste difference. Consistently consuming
lower-salt products will help taste buds adapt, and you will enjoy these foods as much or
more than higher-salt options.
Prepare foods with little salt. The DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) eating
plan from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute recommends giving flavor to food
with herbs, spices, lemon, lime, vinegar, and salt-free seasoning blends. Consult with your
physician before using salt substitutes because their main ingredient, potassium chloride,
can be harmful to some people with certain medical conditions.
Also, increase potassium-rich foods such as sweet potatoes, tomato juice, orange juice,
bananas, spinach, winter squash, cantaloupe, and tomato puree. Potassium counteracts
some of sodium's effect on blood pressure.
Limit Added Sugars
The Dietary Guidelines recommend choosing and preparing food and beverages with little
added sugars. Added sugars are sugars and syrups added to foods and beverages in
processing or preparation, not the naturally occurring sugars in fruits or milk. Major
sources of added sugars in the American diet include regular soft drinks, candy, cake,
cookies, pies, and fruit drinks. In the ingredients list on food products, sugar may be listed
as brown sugar, corn syrup, glucose, sucrose, honey, or molasses. Be sure to check the
sugar in low-fat and fat-free products, which sometimes contain a lot of sugar.
Instead of drinking regular soda and sugary fruit drinks, try water, flavored water,
unsweetened green tea (also oolong tea and black tea); unsweetened herbal teas; diet
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soda, low-fat or fat-free milk, water. For snacks and desserts, try fresh fruit. Most people
are pleasantly surprised that fruit is great for satisfying a sweet tooth. If ice cream is
calling your name, don't have it in the freezer. Make it harder to get by having to go out for
it. Then it can be an occasional treat. Also choose low fat ice cream and ice cream
alternatives. A serving of low fat yogurt with some whipped cream on top will satisfy your
ice cream craving, and you will end up eating fewer calories, that are more nutritious.
Differences in Saturated Fat and Calorie Content of Commonly Consumed Foods
Food Category

Portion

Saturated Fat Content


(grams)

Calories

Cheese
Regular cheddar
Low-fat cheddar

1 oz.
1 oz.

6.0
1.2

114
49

Ground Beef
Regular (25% fat)
Low-fat (5% fat)

3 oz. (cooked)
3 oz. (cooked)

6.1
2.6

236
148

Milk
Whole (3.24%)
Low-fat (1%)

1 cup
1 cup

4.6
1.5

146
102

Breads
Croissant (medium)
Bagel, oat bran (4")

1 medium
1 medium

6.6
0.2

231
227

Frozen desserts
Regular ice cream
Frozen yogurt, low-fat

1/2 cup
1/2 cup

4.9
2.0

145
110

Table spreads
Butter
Soft margarine, zero trans fat

1 teaspoon
1 teaspoon

2.4
0.7

34
25

Chicken
Fried leg with skin
Roasted breast with no skin

3 oz. (cooked)
3 oz. (cooked)

3.3
0.9

212
140

Fish
Fried
Baked

3 oz.
3 oz.

2.8
1.5

195
129

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Some Nutrient Content Claims Found On Food Product Labels, and


What They Really Mean
fat-free

less than 0.5 grams of fat per serving

low-fat

3 grams or less per serving (if the serving size is 30 grams or less or 2 tablespoons or less, no
more than 3 grams of fat per 50 grams of the food)

light

one-third fewer calories or half the fat of the "regular" version

low-sodium

140 milligrams or less per serving (if the serving size is 30 grams or less or 2 tablespoons or
less, no more than 140 milligrams of sodium per 50 grams of the food)

lightly salted

at least 50 percent less sodium per serving than the "regular" version

reduced

when describing fat, sodium, or calorie content, the food must have at least 25 percent less of
these nutrients than the "regular" version

Additional Weight Loss Nutrition Tips


Nutrition Beverage Tips
Choose to drink fat free milk over whole milk.
Drink water before a meal.
Drink diet soda, if at all, water is better.
Drink several cups of plain warm water, or with lemon, or warm unsweetened green tea or oolong or
black tea or herbal tea through the day.
Avoid fruit juices; eat fresh fruit. Except low calorie, low sugar fruit juices like tomato juice during
periods of weight loss.
Ask for salad dressing "on the side".
Ask your sweetie to bring you fruit or flowers instead of chocolate.
Avoid food portions larger than your fist.
Bake or broil fish.
Choose a checkout line without a candy display.
Choose to eat fruit for dessert.
Conduct an inventory of your meal/snack and physical activity patterns.
Consume alcoholic beverages in moderation, if at all.
Cut back on added fats or oils in cooking or spreads.
Cut high-calorie foods like cheese and chocolate into smaller pieces and only eat a few pieces.
Don't eat late at night.
Don't eat seconds.
Don't skip breakfast.
Don't skip meals.
Eat before grocery shopping.
Eat before you get too hungry.
Eat half your dessert or none at all.
Eat leaner red meat & poultry.
Eat more celery sticks.
Eat off smaller plates.
Eat sweet foods in small amounts.
Every time you eat a meal, sit down, chew slowly, and pay attention to flavors and textures.
Flavor foods with herbs, spices, and other low fat seasonings.
Grill, steam or bake instead of frying.
If main dishes are too big, choose an appetizer or a side dish instead.
Include several servings of whole grain food daily.
Increase the fiber in your diet.
Instead of eating out, bring a healthy, low calorie lunch to work.
Eat more carrots, less carrot cake.
Refrigerate prepared soups before you eat them. As the soup cools, the fat will rise to the top, skim it off the
surface for reduced fat content.
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Remove skin from poultry before cooking to lower fat content.


Replace high-saturated fat/high calorie seasonings with herbs grown in a small herb garden in your kitchen
window.
Replace sugar sweetened beverages with water and add a twist of lemon or lime.
Share an entree with a friend.
Skip buffets.
Snack on fruits and vegetables.
Speak up for the salad bar when your coworkers are picking a restaurant for lunch, and remember calories
count, so pay attention to how much and what you eat.
Start taking a multivitamin / multimineral.
Ask for nutrition information (for example, calories, saturated fat, and sodium) before you order when eating
out.
Choose foods that are steamed, broiled, baked, roasted, poached, or stir-fried, but not deep-fat fried.
Share food, such as a main dish or dessert, with your dining partner.
Take part of the food home with you and refrigerate immediately. You may want to ask for a take-home
container when the meal arrives. Spoon half the meal into it, so you're more likely to eat only what's left on
your plate.
Request your meal to be served without gravy, sauces, butter or margarine.
Ask for salad dressing on the side, and use only small amounts of full-fat dressings.
Stop eating when you are full.
Substitute vegetables for other ingredients in your sandwich.
Top your favorite cereal with apples or bananas.
Try a green salad instead of fries.
Try brown rice or whole-wheat pasta.
Try your burger with just lettuce, tomato, and onion.
Use nonfat or low-fat sour cream, mayo, sauces, dressings, and other condiments.
Use vegetable oils over solid (saturated) fats.
When eating out, ask your server to put half your entre in a to-go bag.
When eating out, choose a small or medium portion.

Guidelines For Personal Exercise Programs


Making A Commitment
The decision to carry out a physical fitness program cannot be taken lightly. It requires a
lifelong commitment of time and effort. Exercise must become one of those things that you
do without question, like bathing and brushing your teeth. Unless you are convinced of the
benefits of fitness and the risks of unfitness, you will not succeed.
Patience is essential. Dont try to do too much too soon and dont quit before you have a
chance to experience the rewards of improved fitness. You cant regain in a few days or
weeks what you have lost in years of sedentary living, but you can get it back if you
persevere. And the prize is worth the price.
In the following pages you will find the basic information you need to begin and maintain a
personal physical fitness program. These guidelines are intended for the average healthy
adult. It tells you what your goals should be and how often, how long and how hard you
must exercise to achieve them. It also includes information that will make your workouts
easier, safer and more satisfying. The rest is up to you.

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Checking Your Health


Before starting an exercise program you should consult your physician, who may or may
not recommend a graded exercise test. Other conditions that indicate a need for medical
clearance are:
High blood pressure.
Heart trouble.
Family history of early stroke or heart attack deaths.
Frequent dizzy spells.
Extreme breathlessness after mild exertion.

Arthritis or other bone problems.


Severe muscular, ligament or tendon problems.
Other known or suspected disease.
Vigorous exercise involves minimal health risks for persons in good health or those
following a doctors advice. Far greater risks are presented by habitual inactivity and
obesity.
Defining Fitness
Physical fitness is to the human body what fine tuning is to an engine. It enables us to
perform up to our potential. Fitness can be described as a condition that helps us look,
feel and do our best. More specifically, it is:
The ability to perform daily tasks vigorously and alertly, with energy left over for enjoying
leisure- time activities and meeting emergency demands. It is the ability to endure, to bear
up, to withstand stress, to carry on in circumstances where an unfit person could not
continue, and is a major basis for good health and well-being. Being fit will also help
prevent the development of certain diseases and can even help cure diseases.

Physical fitness involves the performance of the heart and lungs, and the muscles of the
body. And, since what we do with our bodies also affects what we can do with our minds,
fitness influences to some degree qualities such as mental alertness and emotional
stability. As you undertake your fitness program, its important to remember that fitness is
an individual quality that varies from person to person. It is influenced by age, sex,
heredity, personal habits, exercise and eating practices. You cant do anything about the
first three factors. However, it is within your power to change and improve the others
where needed.
Knowing The Basics
Physical fitness is most easily understood by examining its components, or parts. There
is widespread agreement that these components are basic:
Cardiorespiratory Endurance - the ability to deliver oxygen and nutrients to tissues, and to remove wastes,
over sustained periods of time. Long runs and swims are among the methods employed in measuring this
component.
Muscular Strength - the ability of a muscle to exert force for a brief period of time. Upper-body strength, for
example, can be measured by various weight-lifting exercises.
Muscular Endurance - the ability of a muscle, or a group of muscles, to sustain repeated contractions or to
continue applying force against a fixed object. Pushups are often used to test endurance of arm and shoulder
muscles.
Flexibility - the ability to move joints and use muscles through their full range of motion. The sit-and- reach test
is a good measure of flexibility of the lower back and backs of the upper legs.
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Body Composition is often considered a component of fitness. It refers to the makeup of the body in terms of
lean body mass (muscle, bone, vital tissue and organs) and body fat mass. An optimal ratio of fat to lean mass
is an indication of fitness, and the right types of exercises will help you decrease body fat and increase or
maintain muscle mass.

Workout Schedule Basics


How often, how long and how hard you exercise, and what kinds of exercises you do
should be determined by what you are trying to accomplish. Your goals, your present
fitness level, age, health, skills, interest and convenience are among the factors you
should consider. For example, an athlete training for high-level competition would follow a
different program than a person whose goals are good health and the ability to meet work
and recreational needs.
Your exercise program should include something from each of the four basic fitness
components described previously. Each workout should begin with a warm-up and end
with a cool down. As a general rule, space your workouts throughout the week and avoid
consecutive days of hard exercise.
Here are the amounts of activity necessary for the average healthy person to maintain a
minimum level of overall fitness. Included are some of the popular exercises for each
category.
WARMUP - 5-10 minutes of exercise such as walking, slow jogging, knee lifts, arm circles or trunk rotations.
Low intensity movements that simulate movements to be used in the activity can also be included in the warmup.
MUSCULAR STRENGTH - a minimum of two 20-minute sessions per week that include exercises for all the
major muscle groups. Lifting weights is the most effective way to increase strength.
MUSCULAR ENDURANCE - at least three 30-minute sessions each week that include exercises such as
calisthenics, pushups, sit-ups, pull-ups, and weight training for all the major muscle groups.
CARDIORESPIRATORY ENDURANCE - at least three 20-minute bouts of continuous aerobic (activity
requiring oxygen) rhythmic exercise each week. Popular aerobic conditioning activities include brisk walking,
jogging, swimming, cycling, rope-jumping, rowing, cross-country skiing, and some continuous action games like
racquetball and handball.
FLEXIBILITY - 10-12 minutes of daily stretching exercises performed slowly, without a bouncing motion. This
can be included after a warm-up or during a cool down.
COOL DOWN - a minimum of 5-10 minutes of slow walking, low-level exercise, combined with stretching.

A Matter Of Principle
The keys to selecting the right kinds of exercises for developing and maintaining each of
the basic components of fitness are found in these principles:
SPECIFICITY - pick the right kind of activities to affect each component. Strength training results in specific
strength changes. Also, train for the specific activity youre interested in. For example, optimal swimming
performance is best achieved when the muscles involved in swimming are trained for the movements required.
It does not necessarily follow that a good runner is a good swimmer.
OVERLOAD - work hard enough, at levels that are vigorous and long enough to overload your body above its
resting level, to bring about improvement.
REGULARITY - you cant hoard physical fitness. At least three balanced workouts a week are necessary to
maintain a desirable level of fitness.
PROGRESSION - increase the intensity, frequency and/or duration of activity over periods of time in order to
improve.

Some activities can be used to fulfill more than one of your basic exercise requirements.
For example, in addition to increasing cardiorespiratory endurance, running builds
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muscular endurance in the legs, and swimming develops the arm, shoulder and chest
muscles. If you select the proper activities, it is possible to fit parts of your muscular
endurance workout into your cardiorespiratory workout and save time.
Measuring Your Heart Rate
Heart rate is widely accepted as a good method for measuring intensity during running,
swimming, cycling, and other aerobic activities. Exercise that doesnt raise your heart rate
to a certain level and keep it there for 20 minutes wont contribute significantly to
cardiovascular fitness. The heart rate you should maintain is called your target heart rate.
There are several ways of arriving at this figure. One of the simplest is: maximum heart
rate (220 - age) x 70%. Thus, the target heart rate for a 40 year-old would be 126. Some
methods for figuring the target rate take individual differences into consideration. Here is
one of them:
Subtract age from 220 to find maximum heart rate.
Subtract resting heart rate (see below) from maximum heart rate to determine heart
rate reserve.
Take 70% of heart rate reserve to determine heart rate raise.
Add heart rate raise to resting heart rate to find target rate.
Resting heart rate should be determined by taking your pulse after sitting quietly for five
minutes. When checking heart rate during a workout, take your pulse within five seconds
after interrupting exercise because it starts to go down once you stop moving. Count pulse
for 10 seconds and multiply by six to get the per-minute rate. Consult with your doctor to
confirm what exercising heart is right for you.
Controlling Your Weight
The key to weight control is keeping energy intake (food) and energy output (physical
activity) in balance. When you consume only as many calories as your body needs, your
weight will usually remain constant. If you take in more calories than your body needs, you
will put on excess fat. If you expend more energy than you take in you will burn excess fat.
Exercise plays an important role in weight control by increasing energy output, calling on
stored calories for extra fuel. Recent studies show that not only does exercise increase
metabolism during a workout, but it causes your metabolism to stay increased for a period
of time after exercising, allowing you to burn more calories.
How much exercise is needed to make a difference in your weight depends on the amount
and type of activity, and on how much you eat. Aerobic exercise burns body fat. A
medium-sized adult would have to walk more than 30 miles to burn up 3,500 calories, the
equivalent of one pound of fat. Although that may seem like a lot, you dont have to walk
the 30 miles all at once. Walking a mile a day for 30 days will achieve the same result,
providing you dont increase your food intake to negate the effects of walking.
If you consume 100 calories a day more than your body needs, you will gain
approximately 10 pounds in a year. You could take that weight off, or keep it off, by doing

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30 minutes of moderate exercise daily. The combination of exercise and diet offers the
most flexible and effective approach to weight loss and weight maintenance.
Since muscle tissue weighs more than fat tissue, and exercise develops muscle to a
certain degree, your bathroom scale wont necessarily tell you whether or not you are fat.
Well-muscled individuals, with relatively little body fat, invariably are overweight
according to standard weight charts. If you are doing a regular program of strength
training, your muscles will increase in weight, and possibly your overall weight will
increase. Body composition is a better indicator of your condition than body weight.
Lack of physical activity causes muscles to get soft, and if food intake is not decreased,
added body weight is almost always fat. Once-active people, who continue to eat as they
always have after settling into sedentary lifestyles, tend to suffer from creeping obesity.
Exercise Clothing
All exercise clothing should be loose-fitting to permit freedom of movement, and should
make the wearer feel comfortable and self-assured. As a general rule, you should wear
lighter clothes than temperatures might indicate. Exercise generates great amounts of
body heat. Light-colored clothing that reflects the suns rays is cooler in the summer, and
dark clothes are warmer in winter. When the weather is very cold, its better to wear
several layers of light clothing than one or two heavy layers. The extra layers help trap
heat, and its easy to shed one of them if you become too warm. In cold weather, and in
hot, sunny weather, its a good idea to wear something on your head.
Wool watch or ski caps are recommended for winter wear, and some form of tennis or
sailors hat that provides shade and can be soaked in water is good for summer. Never
wear rubberized or plastic clothing, such garments interfere with the evaporation of
perspiration and can cause body temperature to rise to dangerous levels. The most
important item of equipment for the runner is a pair of sturdy, properly-fitting running
shoes. Training shoes with heavy, cushioned soles and arch supports are preferable to
flimsy sneakers and light racing flats.
When To Exercise
The hour just before the evening meal is a popular time for exercise. The late afternoon
workout provides a welcome change of pace at the end of the work day and helps
dissolve the days worries and tensions. Another popular time to work out is early morning,
before the work day begins. Advocates of the early start say it makes them more alert and
energetic on the job, which is supported by research studies.
Among the factors you should consider in developing your workout schedule are personal
preference, job and family responsibilities, availability of exercise facilities and weather.
Its important to schedule your workouts for a time when there is little chance that you will
have to cancel or interrupt them because of other demands on your time.
You should not exercise strenuously during extremely hot, humid weather or within two
hours after eating. Heat and/or digestion both make heavy demands on the circulatory
system, and in combination with exercise can be an overtaxing double load.
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Exercise Made Easy


For best weight loss and weight maintenance results it is recommend you find your
balance between food and physical activity. Consuming more calories than you expend
leads to weight gain. More than half of all Americans don't get the recommended amount
of physical activity. To reduce the risk of chronic disease in adulthood, engage in at least
30 minutes of moderate activity a day on most days of the week. Children and
adolescents should engage in at least 60 minutes a day on most, and preferably all, days
of the week.
To manage body weight and prevent gradual weight gain, people should exercise about
60 minutes at a moderate to vigorous intensity on most days of the week, while not
exceeding recommendations for caloric intake. Sixty to 90 minutes may be needed to
maintain weight loss.
The more vigorous the activity and the longer the duration, the more health benefits you'll
get. But every little bit counts. Here are some examples of easy ways to work exercise into
your day:
Take a 10-minute walk after breakfast, lunch, and dinner to reach the goal of 30 minutes per day.
Park your car in the farthest spot when you run errands.
Take a family walk after dinner.
Walk your dog.
Do yard work.
Wash your car by hand.
Pace the sidelines at kids' athletic games.
Ask a friend to exercise with you.
Run around and play with your children for 30 minutes a day.
Walk briskly at the mall.
Take the stairs instead of the elevator.

Reduce Stress In Your Life


Many people feel stress in their daily lives. Stress can cause you to overeat, feel tired, and
not want to do anything. Regular physical activity can give you more energy. Try some of
these other ideas to help relieve stress and stay on track with your fitness and nutrition
goals:
Get plenty of sleep.
Practice deep breathing and relaxing your muscles one at a time.
Take a break and go for a walk.
Take short stretch breaks throughout the day.
Try taking a yoga or tai chi class to energize yourself and reduce stress.
Try a new hobby, like a pottery class or any activity that sparks your interest.
Surround yourself with people whose company you enjoy.
A balanced eating plan, regular physical activity, and stress relief can help you stay healthy for life.
Reward and acknowledge your efforts with non-food rewards.
Make a grocery list before you shop.
Take your body measurements to gauge progress.

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More Exercise And Physical Activity Tips


Walk to work.
Ask a friend to exercise with you.
Bicycle to the store instead of driving.
Bike to the barbershop or beauty salon instead of
driving.
Buy a set of hand weights and play a round of
Simon Says with your kids - you do it with the
weights, they do without.
Visit museums, the zoo, or an aquarium. You and
your family can walk for hours and not realize it.
Carry your groceries instead of pushing a cart.
Choose activities you enjoy & you'll be more likely to
stick with them.
Choose an activity that fits into your daily life.
Clean your closet and donate clothes that are too
big.
Dance to music.
Do sit-ups in front of the TV.
Do yard work.
Exercise with a video if the weather is bad.
Explore new physical activities.
Take a hike.
Fetch the newspaper yourself.
Get off a bus stop early & walk.
Go for a half-hour walk instead of watching TV.
If you find it difficult to be active after work, try it
before work.
Keep a pair of comfortable walking or running shoes
in your car and office.
Make a Saturday morning walk a group habit.
Make time in your day for physical activity.
Mow lawn with push mower.
Pace the sidelines at kids' athletic games.
Park farther from destination and walk.
Perform gardening or home repair activities.
Play with your kids 30 minutes a day.
Replace Sunday drive with Sunday walk.
Run when running errands.
Sit up straight at work.
Skate to work instead of driving.
Stretch before bed to give you more energy when
you wake.

Swim with your kids.


Take a walk or do desk exercises instead of a
cigarette or coffee break.
Take dog to the park.
Take family walk after dinner.
Take small trips on foot to get your body moving.
Take the long way to the water cooler.
Take your dog on longer walks.
Use a snow shovel instead of a snow blower.
Vary your activities, for interest and to broaden the
range of benefits.
Walk briskly in the mall.
Walk briskly through the mall and shop 'til you drop
the pounds.
Walk during lunch hour.
Walk instead of driving whenever you can.
Walk instead of sitting around.
Walk the beach instead of sunbathing.
Walk to a co-worker's desk instead of emailing or
calling them.
Walk to your place of worship instead of driving.
Wash the car by hand.
When walking, go up the hills instead of around
them.
Work around the house.
Get a dog and walk it.
Join an exercise group.
Stay active in winter. Play with your kids.
Walk kids to school.
Take stairs instead of the escalator.

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NUTRITIONAL WEIGHT LOSS AIDS


The use of nutritional weight loss aids can be very useful to assist in accomplishing your
fat loss goals. Nutritional weight loss aids include:
Meal replacement drinks
Meal replacement nutrition bars
Protein drinks and bars
Specialty diet foods
Fiber drinks and other high fiber products
Wholesome health foods / organic foods
A variety of dietary supplement weight loss aids to help with appetite control,
increase calorie expenditure, increase rate of stored body fat utilization, reduce
fatty acid absorption, increase lean body mass, and slow down digestion of
carbohydrates.
As previously mentioned though, there are no magic pills. Losing body fat is a goal that
requires a diversified approach of nutrition, exercise, positive thinking and lifestyle
modification to result in using your body fat stores for energy. Calorie reduction is a major
factor, which requires good meal planning habits and appetite control. Making your body
better at using fatty acids for energy is also a major goal.
This chapter will focus on the primary dietary supplement nutritional weight loss aids.
These popular ingredients and combinations tend to also be the ones surrounded in
confusion. The conventional food weight loss aids, diet products, are more straight
forward in their composition and understanding as they mostly contain various
combinations of the micronutrients and macronutrients. Dietary supplement weight loss
aids may also contain these essential nutrient ingredients, but usually contain specialty
ingredients, such as botanicals and metabolites.
While this book and chapter is about nutrition, to appreciate the development and current
state of dietary supplement type weight loss aids available for sale, the story of a drug
ingredient will help to shed some light. The weight loss drug in question is ephedrine,
which led to the use of ephedrine containing botanicals, such as ephedra, which led to the
use of other botanicals and ingredients to duplicate and/or enhance the thermogenic and
appetite control effects of ephedrine.

The Ephedrine / Ephedra Weight Loss Legacy


Despite the recent ban of ephedrine containing botanical supplement products, the
reputation of this weight loss aid lives on, with many companies touting that they have
ephedra alternatives or the next generation weight loss products. To fully appreciate the
state of the supplement weight loss aid marketplace, a short overview of the initial
scientific discoveries starting the thermogenic weight loss product trend will be
enlightening.

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In 1972, Dr. Eriksen, a Danish general practitioner in the town of Elsinore, noted a loss of
appetite and weight in asthmatic patients who were taking a compound containing
ephedrine, caffeine and phenobarbitol. As word got out about his observations on weight
loss, the Elsinore pill was soon prescribed as an anti-obesity agent. As its use grew, a
number of skin reactions were reported, some of them serious. These effects were
believed to be caused by the phenobarbitol.
Then, in 1981, Danish researcher Axel Malcohow-Moller conducted a study on a modified
version of the Elsinore pill, without phenobarbitol, containing the following ingredients per
tablet:
Caffeine sodium
benzoate
Ephedrine sodium
Thiamin sodium
Ascorbic acid
Potassium carbonate
Magnesium oxide

50 mg
50 mg
3 mg
50 mg
50 mg
80 mg

Two tablets were taken three times a day during the study period, versus a placebo group
and a group taking diethylpropion (12.5 mg per tablet). All patients followed a 1,200-kcal
diet per day.
The median weight loss after 12 weeks was 4.1 kg for the placebo treatment (n=33, no
withdrawals), 8.4 kg for the diethylpropion treatment (n=50, 4 withdrawals), and 8.1 kg for
the Elsinore pill treatment (n=49, 4 withdrawals).
Side effects observed for the Elsinore pill and diethylpropion treatment included
agitation, tremors, insomnia, diarrhea, constipation, urination complaints and dryness of
mouth. There were several withdrawals from the study due to side effects, and a patient
experienced intolerance to alcohol.
In 1981, a well-designed study confirmed the weight loss effectiveness of the ephedrinecaffeine combination. Skin reactions were not observed during the 12-week-long study
period. No effect on blood pressure or pulse was seen.
The next significant study using the combination of ephedrine and caffeine was conducted
in 1986 by A. G. Dulloo, who has since conducted numerous studies on thermogenic
agents, including the recent discovery of the thermogenic activity of green tea
polyphenols. In this study, an 8% increase in metabolic rate was measured in patients
taking the ephedrine caffeine combination.
What was learned during this research was that ephedrine stimulates the production of
adrenaline and noradrenaline, which in turn stimulates the production of a substance
called cAMP (cyclic adenosine monophosphate). Increased cAMP levels in the cells, is
related to increasing thermogenesis. However, like with production of other substances in
the body, there is a feedback mechanism that controls the levels of production to keep the
body working in a zone of operation. With regard to ephedrine stimulated production of
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cAMP, eventually an enzyme called phosphodiesterase is produced that breaks down


cAMP so levels will not be elevated too high.
To keep the thermogenic effects of ephedrine going, researchers sought a way to interfere
with phosphodiesterase. Caffeine is a substance known to do this, so experiments were
conducted using ephedrine and caffeine. The results showed that this combination
actually increased thermogenesis more than ephedrine or caffeine alone, and resulted in
greater loss in body fat, in conjunction with calorie restriction.
A final point to this story concerns aspirin. Another negative feedback substance is
involved in slowing down the ephedrine thermogenic effect. Eventually, levels of certain
prostaglandins increase, which slows down the adrenaline and noradrenaline ephedrine
stimulated production. Researchers determined that aspirin has the ability to block the
prostaglandin production, which can override this negative feedback control mechanism.
This lead to the testing of the combination of ephedrine, caffeine and aspirin.
In research studies using the combination of drugs, the total daily dosage ranged between
60 to 150 mg of ephedrine per day, 60 to 600 mg of caffeine per day, and 330 mg aspirin
per day. The total daily dosages were divided in to 3 equal smaller separate dosages,
taken before meals; about 20 to 50 mg ephedrine, 20 to 300 mg caffeine, and 110 aspirin
per dose.
Why Ephedra?
Ephedra actually has a long history of use for weight loss. Japanese researchers have
confirmed the thermogenic action of an ephedra-containing, traditional Japanese antiobesity botanical drug, called bufu-tsusho-san, reported to be used for 2,000 years in
Japan.
Its formula contains 18 botanical drug ingredients: scutellariae radix, glycyrrhizae radix,
platycodi radix, gypsum fibrosum, atractylodis rhizoma, rhei rhizoma, schizonepetae spica,
gardeniae fructus, paeoniae radix, cnidii rhizoma, angelicae radix, menthae herba,
ledebouriellae radix, ephedrae herba, forsythiae fructus, zingiberis rhizoma, kadinum and
natrium sulfuricum.
Chinese medicine also reports the use of ephedra for weight control, as well as other
uses. So, while modern researchers stumbled on the weight loss power of ephedrine, this
actually reconfirms what ancient health practitioners have know for thousands of years.
But, what led to the popular use of ephedra containing dietary supplement weight loss
aids was the modern research on ephedrine and combinations with other drugs. Even
though the research conducted using the ephedrine, caffeine, and aspirin combinations
was found to be effective in losing weight, drug approval for this combination was not
attained. So, as the ephedra plant contains ephedrine, clever dietary supplement
formulators created various ephedra containing products to emulate the weight loss
properties of the drugs. Ephedra with ephedrine, guarana with caffeine, and white willow
bark with aspirin like substances is an example of a botanical product ingredient
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combination in this pursuit. Before the ephedra ban, some good research studies were
conducted to prove the weight loss effects.
Here is a short overview of some of the research and expert opinions about ephedra
containing products.
Research Finds That Ephedra-Containing Products Are Safe And Effective
Researchers at the prestigious Harvard and Columbia Universities was involved
researching ephedra/ephedrine containing products. Research published by the Harvard
and Columbia university scientists found that supplements containing ephedra and
guarana were effective weight loss aids.
The researchers found that ephedra, when combined with caffeine (often found in
supplements in the form of guarana), lowered body weight and fat and body mass index.
Additionally, the combination of ephedra and guarana was found to have dramatic fat and
weight loss results for healthy, overweight subjects. It is important to note that results from
19 other clinical trials have also found that ephedra, or ephedras main active ingredient,
ephedrine, are safe and beneficial for weight loss, with minor side effects for healthy
people. A panel of experts completed a review of the herb and concluded that there is no
association between serious adverse events and ephedra when consumed as directed.
Safe Use Of Ephedra Dietary Supplements Established By Medical Experts
Medical experts announced in December 2000 that ephedra-containing products are safe
at a total daily dosage of up to 90 mg of ephedrine alkaloids, divided into smaller doses of
up to 30 mg. Findings are based on the conclusions of a comprehensive, science-based
risk analysis performed by Cantox Health Sciences International, a world-renowned,
independent scientific consulting firm. Cantox assessed all available scientific
informationfocusing on 19 clinical trials, together with the critical data from the Harvard
and Columbia trial mentioned above. Other key data included adverse event reports
(AERs) collected by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
The information reported here today is a win for consumers, a win for regulators and a
win for the industry. Consumers can continue to use ephedra supplements for weight
management; the FDA has a credible scientific basis for implementing sound regulatory
policy on ephedra; and the industry is committed to continuing self-regulatory initiatives
that benefit consumers, said John Cordaro, President and Chief Executive Officer of the
Council for Responsible Nutrition (CRN). The CRN commissioned Cantox to perform the
risk assessment analysis.
John Hathcock, Ph.D., Vice President of Nutritional and Regulatory Science for CRN,
explained the three conditions for safe ephedra supplement use: dosage limits, effective
labeling and post-market monitoring. A dosage of 90 mg of ephedra per day, taken in
divided doses of 30 mg, caused no observed adverse effectsthe No Observed Adverse
Effect Level (NOAEL). The report also identified a 150 mg total daily dosage as the lowest

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level at which moderate adverse effects were first observedthe Lowest Observed
Adverse Effect Level (LOAEL), explained Hathcock.
State lawmakers in Ohio were so sure of ephedras safety that they allow for a 100 mg a
day dosage, ten more milligrams than recommended by the Council for Responsible
Nutrition. Ohios policy underscores the opinions of many medical and scientific experts
who have long held that ephedra is a safe and effective weight loss aid when it is
marketed and consumed responsibly. Keep in mind that the nonprescription drug
ephedrine has been in use for may decades.
Public meetings held by the Office of Womens Health during September 2000 provided
further evidence in support of the safety and effectiveness of ephedra-containing products.
A seven-member team of medical experts determined that these products are safe when
used correctly. Noted weight loss and ephedra expert, Dr. Astrup, of Copenhagen
Denmark, noted his research studies found that the combination of ephedrine and caffeine
are indeed an effective weight loss combination.
Experts advise that people using ephedra products pay close attention to the directions on
the labels of products they are using to ensure maximum safety and effectiveness.
Ephedra Was Still Banned
In light of this research, regulators still decided to prohibit the use of ephedra and other
ephedrine containing plants as dietary supplement ingredients, primarily due to potential
side effects. However, herbalists are permitted to use ephedra, and it is wise to have
medial supervision when undertaking a weight loss program, or when taking products with
potential side effects.
Also, it is reported that people are taking matters into their own hands, and duplicating the
drug formulas used in the original research by taking individual nonprescription
ephedrine, caffeine and aspirin products.
Some of the notable side effects reported to occur from the research review conducted
and published in the RAND report were noted: There is sufficient evidence from short-term
controlled trials to conclude that the use of ephedrine and/or the use of ephedra or ephedrine plus caffeine is
associated with two to three times the risk of nausea, vomiting, psychiatric symptoms such as anxiety and
change in mood, autonomic hyperactivity, and palpitations.
RAND report citation: Shekelle P, Morton, S., Maglione M, et al. Ephedra and Ephedrine for Weight Loss and Athletic Performance
Enhancement: Clinical Efficacy and Side Effects. Evidence Report/Technology Assessment No. 76 (Prepared by Southern California
Evidence-based Practice Center, RAND, under Contract No 290-97-0001, Task Order No. 9). AHRQ Publication No. 03-E022.
Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. February 2003.

As with other ingestible products, side effects primarily depend on the individual. Check
product labels and manufacturers for additional warnings and proper use instructions.
The Ephedra / Ephedrine Effect
During the ephedra debate years, there were several comprehensive research reviews
conducted to present evidence of ephedra / ephedrines safety and effectiveness. A few
points of interest were noted. The major weight loss effect was ephedrines appetite
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control. Second to this was the thermogenic, increased caloric burning effect. It was noted
that ephedrine also helps promote the liberation of fatty acids from body fat stores and
causes the body to use more fat for energy. It was also noted that calorie restriction was
required to result in loss of body fat. Some research also reported a possible lean body
mass sparing effect.

Dietary Supplement Weight Loss Aid Summary


Numerous scientific studies have been conducted on losing body fat. Many of these
weight loss studies have found that certain dietary supplements can be used to help
control your appetite, and increase your rate of losing body fat. But keep in mind that
what works best is to first follow a healthy nutrition plan, calorie restriction, use your
regular or sports specific nutritional supplements, engage in regular exercise, and follow
the fat loss tips mentioned above. If you still find that you are having trouble losing body
fat, then start to include some of the weight loss supplements into your program. Including
the right supplement weight loss aid or combination of different products can usually help
you lose body fat at a faster rate, and promote other beneficial effects, such as improved
appetite control, increased energy, and maintenance or increasing lean body mass.
The best supplements to start with are high quality protein-meal replacement drinks and
nutrition bar meal replacements. These drinks are packed with protein and other essential
nutrients, and are low in fat. There is a wide range of these protein meal-replacement
drinks to suit your nutritional needs and budget. Some are high in carbohydrates, while
others are lower in carbohydrates. During your weight loss program, if you are trying to
reduce carbohydrate intake, you can try using protein-meal replacements that are lower in
carbohydrates and total calories. Some types are also especially designed to include
other fat burning nutrients, discussed below. Start using a protein meal-replacement to
substitute a meal that you may be skipping, or a meal when your tend to over eat, or as a
nutritious snack. You can also use meal-replacement nutrition bars in a similar manner.
However, make sure you read the labels and check that the sugar and saturated fat
content is not too high. They should be high in protein, contain other essential nutrients,
and low in calories.
There are many supplements that help improve your bodys metabolic rate. Even some
simple vitamins and minerals will help. Chromium is a trace mineral which has been
shown to assist insulin in moving nutrients into your cells to be used as energy, instead of
being stored as excess body fat. Insulin is the hormone that signals cells to let in nutrients
that are circulating around the blood stream after a meal. Getting adequate chromium will
allow insulin to function at full capacity. This means getting more nutrients into your cells,
where they can be used for energy and growth, instead of being circulated back to the
liver, and converted to fat.
Natural appetite suppressants are leading the category of weight loss supplements. A
relative new comer, 5-HTP, which is used primarily to ease anxiety, also helps with
appetite control. The dietary supplement, sold in the United States and in Italy, and has
been investigated for multiple indications such as migraine, depression, anxiety,
fibromyalgia, hypertension, insomnia and obesity. 5-HTP occurs naturally in the human

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body and the seeds of the plant known as Griffonia simplicifolia. 5-HTP is the amino acid
precursor of serotonin. Normal levels of serotonin are important for emotional well-being,
may play a role in appetite suppression, and decreased carbohydrate and fat intake.
Recent research has found that 5-HTP has an immediate effect on reducing feelings of
hunger and promoting satiety, and reducing food intake.
An amino acid called L-phenylalanine is also reported to help reduce cravings and
appetite. This appetite control effect is noted to be of particular significance to people who
tend to crave carbohydrates.
Next on the list is Garcinia camobgia, also called Brindall Berry. This botanical can help
control appetite and may also block the formation of fat from carbohydrates in the liver.
Garcinia contains a substance called (-)-hydroxycitric acid (or (-)-hydroxycitrate, HCA).
During the 1970s, in their search for a novel weight loss aid, the pharmaceutical giant
Hoffmann La Roche discovered that HCA displays a few intriguing anti-obesity functions in
the body. For example, HCA reduces the rate of formation of fat from carbohydrates by
interfering with an enzyme called ATP-citrate lyase; HCA has been found to exert an
anorexic effect (lowers appetite), and may stimulate thermogenesis. It appears to be most
effective for people who have gained weight from overeating carbohydrate foods.
White kidney bean extract from the plant Phaseolus vulgaris, is reported to block the
enzyme that digests complex carbohydrates, alpha-amylase. This is turn may slow down
the rate of complex carbohydrate digestion, and could reduce the GI of carbohydrate
foods in a meal, and lower average insulin levels. In Germany this extract is also reported
to have diuretic action, which may be involved in reducing body water weight.
Then there is the group of supplements sold under the heading of lipotropics and fat
metabolizers. These diet supplements contain ingredients that help stimulate the body to
use more fat for energy. Recent clinical studies revealed that along with diet and
exercise, L-carnitine supplements resulted in losing more fat, then from diet and exercise
alone. L-carnitine has been shown to help increase the rate of fat loss in some people.
When fatty acids enter into the cell, carnitine carries them into a special cellular structure
where fats are used to make energy. In this way, supplemental amounts of carnitine are
shown to help stimulate your fat burning metabolism, and you lose fat at a faster rate.
Carnitine is also demonstrated to promote increased endurance. Other fat fighting
nutrients used in product include choline, inositol, and L-methionine.
Supplement companies also offer botanical diuretics to help reduce excess water weight.
Traditionally, diuretics are used in the treatment of menstrual distress, edema, and
hypertension. Dieters have also turned to diuretics to help reduce edema and the bloated
feelings, common to being overweight. As a result of this, you can find on the shelves
weight loss aid supplements containing botanical diuretics, such as, Uva ursi, Buchu,
Cornsilk, Juniper berry, and Hydrangea. The use of these types of supplements by
athletes should be avoided, unless under doctor supervision. While it is satisfying to see
quick results on the scale, remember that much of the weight lost is from water, and will
quickly return as fast as you lost it.

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Fiber and fat absorbing supplements are a better weight loss aid category. Eating more
fibrous foods, such as non-starchy vegetables, and taking fiber supplements, like psyllium,
guar gum, and citrus pectin, will help improve your digestion and appetite control. Studies
have shown that a special marine fiber concentrate called chitosan can help absorb and
lock on to some ingested fats, thereby keeping some of them from entering your body.
Nutritionists have concluded that as you increase your fiber intake, you decrease the
amount of calories absorbed into the body. This is true for all kinds of diets. So, increase
fiber intake.
The last major weight loss aid supplement category has been the subject of controversy in
the media and by the FDA for several years. This category includes the so called,
thermogenic aids. Just as exercise will boost your calorie burning rate, so can some of
the foods and botanical supplements you eat. Thermogenic supplements stimulate your
body to burn up more fatty acids, increasing your metabolic rate. Many people also
experience improved appetite control. They include; caffeine and caffeine containing
botanicals, such as green tea, guarana, kola nut and yerba mate, and also green teas
EGCG (epigallocatechin gallate) compound, having been reported to cause a thermogenic
effect. Another thermogenic botanical growing in popularity is Coleus forskohlli, which
contains a primary active ingredient called forskolin.
Another thermogenic substance with clinical research demonstrating fat loss effects is
called 7-keto DHEA (which is a trade name of the biochemical 3-acetyl-7-oxodehydroepiandrosterone). This substance is a metabolite of the pro-hormone DHEA. It is
important to note that while DHEA can be converted to testosterone or estrogen, 7-keto
DHEA does not. 7-keto is reported to increase thermogenic enzymes in the liver that
stimulate fatty acid use for energy. In clinical studies 7-keto was shown to increase loss of
body fat along with calorie restriction at a greater rate when compared to the placebo
group. Research also reported maintenance of lean body mass.

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Nutrition / Dietary Supplement Weight Loss Aids Summary


This section contains a summary of nutrition and dietary supplement product types and
ingredients reported to be useful weight loss and weight maintenance aids, based on
scientific evidence. These supplement diet aids may help a person to stick to a caloriereduced diet, or increase the amount of fat lost while on a calorie restricted diet. Always
consult your doctor prior to starting a weight loss program. Also, be sure to involve your
doctor in every aspect of your weight loss program to monitor your health.
The following table provides a quick summary of some notable nutritional weight loss aids
and ingredients found on the shelves. Refer to the product labels for use instructions or
contact the manufacturer of the particular product you are interested in using as a weight
loss aid. One or more of these ingredients is typically combined together in weight loss
products. Using one or more of these ingredients should be determined working with your
health care professional.
Nutritional
Wt. Loss Aid(s)
Ingredient(s)
Multi Vitamin/Mineral
Supplements, essential
fatty acids.
Protein Rich Meal
Replacements and
Nutrition Bars
L-carnitine
5-HTP
Garcinia
(hydroxycitrate)
Extra chromium
Fiber supplements
Phaseolus vulgaris
L-tyrosine
L-phenylalanine
Chitosan
CLA
(Conjugated Linoleic
Acid)
Caffeine containing
thermogenic aids
7-KETO

Daily Dosage Range


Examples
(Confirm personal needs working
with your health care professional)
Maintain sports specific
supplement intake as
recommended by your health care
professional.
At least 20 grams of protein per
serving
1 gram to 3 grams
50 mg to 300 mg
500 mg to 750 mg, three times a
day with meals.
300 mcg to 600 mcg
10 grams to 30 grams
Use as directed by manufacturer /
health professional
500 mg to 1,500 mg
500 mg to 1,500 mg
Use as directed with meals
1 to 3 grams a day

Use as directed by manufacturer /


health professional
50 mg to 200 mg

Comments

Intake of vitamins and minerals is essential for


optimum metabolic function, fat metabolism, and
health.
Use in addition to a healthy meal plan.

Helps to burn more fat.


Helps control appetite.
Helps control appetite, and slows the conversion of
carbohydrates to fats in the liver.
Improves insulin function
Take with meals, slows down digestion, improves
satiety.
Reduce activity of carbohydrate digesting enzyme,
and slow down carbohydrate absorption.
Helps with appetite control.
Helps with appetite control.
Absorbs fat in the intestines, to prevent or slow its
absorption into the body.
Reported to reduce fat accumulation, and build
lean body mass.
Help increase your metabolic rate (increases the
calories you burn).
A metabolite shown to aid in weight loss by
increasing thermogenesis without nervous system
stimulant effects.

g = grams, mg = milligrams, mcg = micrograms

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EXAMPLES OF NUTRITIONAL WEIGHT LOSS AID PRODUCTS

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APPENDIX
A1. Perpetual EXERCISE LOG SHEET
A2. Perpetual NUTRITION LOG SHEET
A3. Bodybuilding And Football Training DVD Examples
A4. Tips On Increasing Muscle Growth Rate
A5. 2005 Dietary Guidelines
A6. Creatine Research Overview Article
A7. Glossary
A8. References

PERPETUAL EXERCISE LOG SHEET (Print As Needed)


DATE:

AM / PM

BODY PART

EXERCISE

SET 1
Wt

Rep

SET 2
Wt

Rep

SET 3
Wt

Rep

SET 4
Wt

Aerobic Exercise Performed:

SET 5
Wt

Rep

Heart Rate:
% Body Fat:

% Lean Body Mass:

Training / Exercise Notes:

VISIT BODYBUILDING.COM
TO PURCHASE YOUR FAVORITE SPORTS NUTRITION PRODUCTS AT DISCOUNT PRICES

Appendix - A1

SET 6
Wt

Rep

Duration of

Aerobic Exercise:
Body Weight:

Rep

PERPETUAL NUTRITION LOG SHEET


C ALORIES

PROTEIN

C ARBS

BREAKFAST

ME AL / FOODS / SUPPLEMENTS

(Print As Needed)

Supplements:

LUNCH

SNACK

Supplements:

Supplements:

DINNER

SNACK

Supplements:

SNACK

Supplements:

Supplements:

D ATE:

TOT ALS

VISIT BODYBUILDING.COM
TO PURCHASE YOUR FAVORITE SPORTS NUTRITION PRODUCTS AT DISCOUNT PRICES

Appendix A2

F AT

APPENDIX 3
Bodybuilding
And
Football Training
DVD Examples

Joe Weider's Bodybuilding Training System DVD


Featuring
The World's Best Selling Bodybuilding System!
Mega DVD Edition! 4-DVDs & CD-ROM

Available from Bodybuiding.com at a special discount price


Click Here to Order
Features Joe Weider and 47 IFBB Bodybuilding champions
and fitness experts. 6.5 hours long, 10 training sessions.
See the legendary bodybuilding champions!

Click Here For Video Clip Preview Article


Weider Health and Fitness is releasing for the
first time Joe Weiders Bodybuilding Training System:
the most complete and best-selling bodybuilding
training instructional video series ever created on DVD
to do muscle building training and nutrition right. Now,
with more people than ever in the gym doing resistance
training, the new DVD format enables bodybuilding,
fitness and sports enthusiasts a chance to benefit from
this most comprehensive instructional series. For over
seven decades, the legendary Weider System has been
the secret of champion bodybuilding athletes
throughout the world. The rock-solid, time-tested
Weider System has led millions of men and women to
successfully train to build muscle and strength for
bodybuilding, strength sports and fitness.
This multi-DVD collection brings together fitness
experts and the biggest bodybuilding stars; all the great
athletes of their time at the peak of their careers. The
Mega DVD Edition includes appearances and one-onone instructional presentations from Joe Weider and a
cast of famous champion IFBB bodybuilders and sports
medical experts. It also includes a bonus system guide,
nutrition log and training log on CD-ROM. This is your
chance to train like never before! Joe Weiders
Bodybuilding Training System is not available in any
store, nor in any other DVD collection.
FEATURING:

4 DVDs, plus 1 CD-ROM


10 training sessions, packed with nearly 6.5
hours of comprehensive bodybuilding training
information
Featuring Joe Weider and 47 IFBB champions
and fitness experts who teach and
demonstrate the Weider System
90 exercise demonstration and routines
4 full-body workout programs

46-page System Program Guide, complete


with a Weider Dictionary of important terms
Perpetual training log to plan and track your
workout and nutrition programs
Originally over a $200 value, now on DVD for
$59.99 ??" available at Bodybuilding.com

4 DVDS WITH 6.5 HOURS OF CONTENT,


INCLUDING:
Session 1. Introduction: The Weider System
Session 2. Basic Bodybuilding Techniques
Session 3. Back & Biceps
Session 4. Chest & Triceps
Session 5. Legs & Shoulders
Session 6. Detail Training: Calves, Abs & Forearms
Session 7. Mass & Strength Training
Session 8. Nutrition & Diet
Session 9. Advanced Training: The Weider
Principles
Session 10. Training Safe & Smart
Session 1. Introduction: The Weider System. Reviews
the origins and history of bodybuilding, explains why
bodybuilding is the most effective and efficient method
of exercise, and the development of the Weider
System, along with previews of Sessions 2 through 10.
Session 2. Basic Bodybuilding Techniques. Contains
information to get you started on basic bodybuilding
techniques and about the body, such as: how muscles
adopt to exercise, progressive resistance weight
training, about sets, reps and split system training,
about rest and recuperation, about free weights vs.
machines, and quality training techniques. Also reviews
and presents how to create a bodybuilding training
program, just like the champions.

Session 3. Back & Biceps. Reviews the muscles of the


back and what they do, back training techniques and
exercises, the biceps muscles and what they do, and
biceps training techniques and exercises.
Session 4. Chest & Triceps. Reviews the muscles of
the chest and what they do, chest training techniques
and exercises, the triceps muscles and what they do,
triceps training techniques and exercises.
Session 5. Legs & Shoulders. Reviews the muscles of
the hips, quadriceps and hamstrings and what they do,
leg training techniques, the muscles of the shoulders
and what they do, and shoulder training techniques.
Session 6. Detail Training: Calves, Abs & Forearms.
Reviews the muscles of the calves and what they do,
calf training techniques and exercises, the muscles of
the abs and what they do, abs training techniques and
exercises, the muscles of the forearms and what they
do, forearm training techniques and exercises.
Session 7. Mass & Strength Training. Reveals mass
training techniques and principles to build awesome
muscle size and strength. Reviews mass versus quality
workouts, strength versus power, and compensatory
acceleration, along with top mass building exercises.
Session 8. Nutrition & Diet. Covers the vital A to Zs of
nutrition for massing up and muscle definition ??" the
macronutrients, proteins, carbohydrates and fats, how
much to eat and when to eat, about losing fat and
maintaining muscle, the importance of avoiding
carbohydrate deprivation, and year round consistency
for best results.
Session 9. Advanced Training: The Weider Principles.
The Weider Principles are the foundation of successful
bodybuilding. Each principle is reviewed in detail, and
also included in the System Program Guide for easy
reference. The Weider Training Principals help to plan
your training cycle, arrange your workouts, and perform
each exercise. Some of the training principles include
the Split-System Training Principle, Holistic Training
Principle, Instinctive Training Principle, and Muscle
Priority Training Principle.
Session 10. Training Safe & Smart. This session
reviews expert tips and approaches for safe training.
Included are presentations about workout clothing,
straps, wraps, and belts, and basic sports-medicine
principles, such as how to recognize and deal with
minor injuries, common types of injuries and therapy.
Covers expert tips on preventing injuries, proper warmup and stretching.
A WORLD RENOWNED SERIES
Originally brought to life in a comprehensive set of 10
videos, the athletes and fitness experts visually
presented the Weider System for the public in a way

which was never done before. Little was it known at the


time, that this was going to be the greatest
documentation of all time. You will see superstar
athletes like Franco Columbu, Lou Ferrigno, Lee
Labrada, Cory Everson, Frank Zane and other greats
presenting the system; and thats a one-of-a-kind
classic presented in a digitally re-mastered format. Joe
Weider and his champions show you step-by-step how
to develop and follow an effective bodybuilding
resistance training program that will result in building an
awesome physique. Legendary bodybuilding
champions appearing on the DVDs include:
Achim Albrecht
Erika Andersch
Shelley Beatti
Tim Belknap
Francis Benfatto
Sharron Bruneau
Boyer Coe
Franco Columbu
Rick Ciotti
Diana Dennis
Paul Dillet
Cory Everson
Lou Ferrigno
Rich Gaspari
Frank Hillebrand
Raye Hollitt
Renel Janvier
Tonya Knight
Drorit Kernes
Lee Labrada
Mike Matarazzo
Rachel McLish
Lenda Murray
Bob Paris
Reg Park
Shawn Ray
Sandy Riddell
Arnold Schwarzenegger
Vince Taylor
Flex Wheeler
Dorian Yates
Frank Zane

ABOUT JOE WEIDER


As the Father of Modern Bodybuilding, Joe Weider
has trained and mentored the greatest athletes in the
sport worldwide. Joe is co-founder of the fifth largest
international sport federation; IFBB, and creator of the
biggest, most prestigious professional bodybuilding
event; Joe Weiders Olympia. As a fitness magazine
publisher, Joe launched leading titles including Muscle
& Fitness, Flex, Shape and Mens Fitness. Celebrating
over 70 years of excellence, Weider Health + Fitness
continues to provide people around the globe with
wellness solutions and products.

Bill Grants
Old school Bodybuilding
Training series
Total body training DVD
Legendary Bodybuilding Champion
Bill Grant, Mr. World, Mr. America
Reveals His Championship Bodybuilding Program
Including: His Advanced Competition Program &
New Maintenance / Amateur Bodybuilding Program

Bill Grant is Mr. Bodybuilding. As a national and world professional bodybuilding


champion, Bill Grant has over 4 decades of bodybuilding training experience. For the
first time ever, Bill shares his competition bodybuilding program, and also includes his
new maintenance / amateur bodybuilding program.
Bill makes an energetic presentation, and gives one-on-one weight training
instructions as he performs the exercises. You will actually witness for yourself how
this legendary professional bodybuilder does each exercise and set. This DVD is
instructional, motivational, educational, and entertaining.
At age 60 Bill Grant has maintained his championship bodybuilding physique for 40 years.
Here are some actual images from the DVD showing Bills awesome muscle development and the definition he
maintains everyday at age 60, using his bodybuilding training programs on this DVD

Bills DVD is Available at: Pro Videos

FOOTBALL SPEED, STRENGTH AND


CONDITIONING EXERCISE PROGRAM
Click to Order: Training Videos
Click Here for Two part article overview
http://www.bodybuilding.com/fun/apis1.htm

Click Here for Two part audio interview with John


Wilkins
http://www.bodybuilding.com/fun/wilkinsfootballinterview.htm

Includes:
1 DVD with 69 Speed, Strength and Conditioning
Exercises for Improved Football Athletic Performance with Detailed Step By Step Presentation of the
Exercises
1 CD ROM with Instruction Manual and Audio Interview
Files with John Wilkins Talking About This Special
Football Training Program
Bringing Personalized Athletic Training Directly to You.
You can spend hundreds of dollars a month going to the Health
and Body Athletic Training Facility in Sparta, New Jersey. Or for
a fraction of this cost, purchase this unique and comprehensive
DVD of the Football Speed, Strength and Conditioning program
developed and used at Health & Body.
You get the DVD with 69 Specialized Football
Training Exercises
1 hour 18 minutes total running time.
Plus you also get the CD ROM with the Speed, Strength and
Conditioning Training Manual, with 2 MPA format audio
interviews with John Wilkins
Want more information?
You can read the two part article about this specialize and proven
effective Football Speed, Strength and Training program,
developed by expert personal fitness and athletic trainer John
Wilkins and preview some of the exercise video clips.
You can also listen to his interview.
43 Speed and Conditioning Exercises:
CORE BODY - Sprinter Abs, Russian Twists, Leg Lowers, Knee
Tucks, V-ups (Military Sit-up), Toe Touch Crunch. Snake

Stretch, Hip Flexor Stretch, Supermans, Rollover V-Sit, Hip


Circuit (up/down, Forward and back).
DYNAMIC STRETCHES - High Knee Pulls, Quad Stretches
(moving), Leg Cradles, Leg Swings, Leg Swings with a Twist,
Cross-over Side Lunge, Inch Worms, Rock Climbing Stretches,
Straight Leg, Toe Touches.
DYNAMIC WARM-UP - High Knee Carioca, Side Shuffle, High
Knees, Front Skip (for Height), Front Skip (for Distance), Front
Skips (for Distance and Speed), Power Jumps (Knees to Chest
for Height), Power Jumps (Knees to Chest for Speed), Single Leg
Power Jumps (for Height), Power Jumps (Single Leg for Speed),
Frog Jumps, Frog Jumps, (with Hands on Ground).
UPPER BODY PLYOS - Close/Wide pushups on Bosu Ball, Up,
Up, Down, Down on Box, Up, Up, Down, Down From Side on
Bosu Ball, Superman Up, Down with a Jump, Up, Down From
Pushup Position With a Jump, Squat Thrust Up, Down with a
Jump, Mountain Climber Up, Down with a Power Jump.
SLEDS FOR POWER AND EXPLOSIVENESS - Sled Pull,
Backward Sled Pull, Side Shuffle Sled Pull, High Knee Lunge
Sled Pull.
26 Strength Training and Conditioning
Exercises:
Bench Press, Inclined Dumbbell Press (Alternating), Bosu Power
Pushups, Power Shrugs with Hex Bar, Power Rear Delt with Hex
Bar, Power Press with Hex Bar, Front/Press Raise Circuit with
Plate, Wheel Turns with Plate, Bent-over Rows with Hex Bar,
Pull-ups Neutral Grip, Pull-ups / Chin-ups, Lat Pulldowns with
V-Bar, Squats for Form, Squats for Form with Bar, Squat Using
Squat Rack, Bosu Ball Squat with Bar, Lunge Circuit with Bar,
Wall Sit with Bosu Ball, Walking Lunge with Weights
Overhead, Deadlift with Hex Bar, Power Clean with Stomp,
Hang Clean with Stomp, Tire Fips, Stiff Leg Deadlift, Romanian
Deadlift, Hamstring Lower.

Tips
On
Increasing
Muscle Growth Rate

Appendix A4 Page 1
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED

Avoid Skipping Meals


Obvious enough, but people still do this. In order to be more anabolic and promote
positive nitrogen balance, eating several meals per day does the trick. When you skip
meals, your catabolic processes start to dominate, which means breaking down your
bodys protein and energy stores. Eating meals stimulates your insulin, which in turn
activates your bodys cells to uptake more of the essential nutrients you need for tissue
growth and maximize your energy stores.

Ingest Enough Protein


Protein is a primary macronutrient needed for muscle growth, yet most people still comeup short ingesting adequate amounts of this vital macronutrient. A good rule to follow for
macronutrient intake during bodybuilding preseason and season training is to maintain a
daily average intake of calories as 25%-30% Protein, 50%-55% Carbohydrate and 15%20% Fat. Dont beat yourself up tying to get the calculation percentages of the foods and
supplements you ingest100% accurate, because most food content labels and tables
have a wide margin of error, typically plus or minus 10% but can be up to 20%. Aim for
the range, and most importantly, day-to-day consistency.
Current research indicates that the best protein supplements for going super-anabolic
contain pure whey protein isolate, fortified with the branch chain amino acids, in
particular with the branched chain amino acid, leucine, like Explosive Growth Blend has.
Whey protein concentrate would be next on the list, but leucine fortified, whey protein
isolate is on the top of the list.

Ingest Enough Calories


Even when your protein intake is correct, and other aspects of your nutrition and training
are on target, something as simple as not ingesting sufficient calories will have antianabolic effects. This mostly occurs when people are getting ready for contests or on a
weight loss program for other reasons. This is why it is important to allow plenty of time
for reduction of body fat, because if you reduce your daily calories too much, you will
also lose hard earned muscle mass. Keep track of your body composition a few times
per week to know where changes in your weight are coming from; body fat or lean body
mass, and plan, plan months in advance. If you are a competitive bodybuilder, you need
to follow periodized year-round planning.
Drink Enough Water
Obvious, but often neglected, is being well hydrated. The body needs to be well
hydrated 24/7 to work properly. Your physical and mental abilities start to decline even
with just a few percent loss of body water. Make sure your water intake matches your
hydration needs, all day long. But, as with any nutrient, also dont over do it and become

Appendix A4 Page 2
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED

over hydrated. Like with your other food and supplement intake, keeping well hydrated is
a balancing act.

Avoid Overcooking Foods


You spend your hard-earned money on eating out, or buying expensive good protein
sources, the last thing you want to do is have the cooking method ruin the nutrition
content. The way you cook can adversely affect the nutrition content of the foods you
eat. Generally speaking, the higher the heat, the more those precious organic nutrients,
like vitamins, proteins, creatine, and essential fatty acids, are broken down and altered
during the high heat cooking processes. High heat cooking methods to minimize during
periods of being super-anabolic included grilling, pan frying, high-heat oven, and deepfrying. Lower heat cooking methods include boiling, slow cooker / crock pot, steaming,
and microwaving.

Avoid Eating Too Fast


When you eat too fast, your digestive processes become disrupted, which may lead to
causing progressive gastrointestinal problems. Eating right starts with taking adequate
time to chew your food thoroughly; in a calm eating environment. Avoid inhaling your
food on the run or cramming big chunks of food into your mouth. Chew your food the
way your mouth is designed too eat; slowly, until the food in your mouth is mixed with
saliva, and the chewed food forms a semi-liquid food mass that is easy to swallow.

Bodybuilding and Sports Supplements


Use the sports supplements with ingredients proven to increase muscle mass and
strength, like high quality protein, extra amino acids such as leucine, and creatine, for
example. Include a complete super-stack of supplements, with the special proven
ergogenic ingredients and also ensure adequate intake of the vitamins and minerals too.
Be consistent, and use your supplements on a regular basis for best results.

Avoid Drinking Alcoholic Beverages


When you want to be super-anabolic, you need to abstain from drinking alcoholic
beverages. In addition to the well know adverse health and adverse performance effects
(dehydration and nervous system sedation, for example) alcohol also interferes with
protein synthesis. Alcohol interferes in the important mTOR protein synthesis control
pathway and reduces protein synthesis, including your rate of muscle growth.

Avoid Ingesting Too Much Caffeine


Regular intake of caffeine reduces your muscles strength and resistance training
performance by slowing down the muscle contraction and relaxation cycle. High intake
of caffeine also displaces calcium absorption, which may partially explain the adverse
Appendix A4 Page 3
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED

effect to muscle contractions, as calcium plays an important role in nervous system


function, as well as bone growth and structure. Therefore, the chronic, day after day
ingestion of high amounts of caffeine should be avoided during these serious superanabolic periods of training. If you consume caffeine, keeping total daily caffeine intake
under 300 milligrams per day is a starting point, but you need to determine what works
best for your individual needs.

Workout Enough
The number of times per week you can resistance your muscles for maximum growth in
size and strength will vary from individual to individual. In general, each muscle can be
resistance trained at least twice a week, varying the intensity of the workloads from
training session to training sessions. Once every 4 to 5 days after high intensity
resistance training, and 2 to 4 days after medium to light intensity training. Fine-tuning
your resistance program takes effort, and is best achieved with the help of a strength
training coach or fitness trainer who has experience with training bodybuilders. Keep
track of your results by measuring body composition on a regular basis, and determine
you rate of lean body mass gains, in relationship to your workout program. Explore your
anabolic limits. Periodize your program into 8 to 12 week cycles, to test the different
programs of workout frequency and intensity.

Take Adequate Rest Each Day


For muscle building, rest is vital for recovery and muscle growth after those strenuous
workouts. During the day, try to relax as much as possible. Get at least 8 hours of quality
sleep per night. A short mid-day nap can also help to boost testosterone levels, as sleep
has been determined to be one of the regulators of testosterone production.

Minimize Aerobic Exercise


Exercise that is low intensity and long in duration, like cycling, treadmills, running,
walking, etc, should be avoided or minimized during periods of training to be superanabolic. For cardiovascular health benefits, you can schedule a few moderate intensity
resistance training sessions per week, during which you can keep up a fast pace, and
minimize rest between sets to keep your heart rate up during these resistance training
sessions. Remember that for maximum muscle growth, training in the anaerobic zone is
ideal, and a tradeoff between anaerobic conditioning and aerobic conditioning in
required to become super-anabolic. Use your nutrition plan to minimize and or reduce
body fat levels. When you start including aerobic exercise into your training program, this
can have anti-anabolic effects, by reducing muscle fiber size.

Workout with Heavy Workloads


Your skeletal muscles get stronger and larger with exercising with progressively
increasing workloads. Lifting heavy workloads stimulates the large fast-twitch muscle

Appendix A4 Page 4
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED

fibers to grow. In general, each muscle group should be exercised using heavy
workloads every once a week, but your tolerance to heavy workloads needs should be
evaluated by an expert for best results. Alternating low repetition heavy workload
workouts with medium to high repetition medium to low workload workouts can ease the
stress and provide for complete muscle fiber development.
In an interview with Ronnie Coleman on ProBodybuilding Weekly, Mr. Olympia talked
about how he was squatting up to 800 pounds during his workouts, to build his massive
legs. Keep in mind it takes years to get to this level of strength performance, but this is
what it usually takes to build large muscle mass.

Keep Track of Your Results


Keep track of your gains in muscle mass and strength. Have your body composition
measured once every week or two. Know where your body composition changes are
occurring from; lean body mass or body fat mass. Keep track of your training and
nutrition programs using the exercise and nutrition log sheets provided with in this
appendix. Take the scientific approach and determine what training, nutrition and
supplement programs work best to promote the best gains in your muscle mass and
strength.

Work With Experts


Training and nutrition for optimum bodybuilding / muscle building results is an art and
science. The science is using scientifically proven training and nutrition methods; the art
is fine-tuning these programs based on your personal requirements. If you are serious
about getting the best results (fastest, safest, and economical), it is wise to work with an
experienced fitness trainer and nutritionist to establish your winning training and nutrition
program. You can also attend seminars and purchase educational nutrition and training
products to learn what works and what to avoid. Also, try contacting the local
bodybuilding contest promoter who may be able to help with your training or refer you to
an expert. But, watch out for gimmicks, and also keep in mind that everybody has
differences, so exactly following someone elses program might not work to produce the
best results for you; another reason why working with an expert to monitor your progress
is best.

Visit Bodybuilding.com
Make sure to visit Bodybuilding.com on a regular basis, to check on the latest training
and nutrition information for muscle building, and for updates to this book.

Appendix A4 Page 5
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED

this appendix contains


selected chapters from the
2005 dietary guidelines
for Americans
from the
U.S. Department of Health and
Human Services
U.S. Department of Agriculture.
this provides additional information
about food composition
and healthy nutrition.
these dietary guidelines are
generalized based on providing
a model of healthy nutrition
and intended primarily for
policy makers and health professionals
rather than the general public.
however, selected chapters are provided
here for reference purposes, as they
contain useful information about
healthy nutrition and provide
insights about the evolving approach
of nutrition policy making.
note however that
athletes and other people with
special dietary concerns
require nutrition modifications
to these general guidelines that
best suit their individual needs.
these guidelines are intended to promote
health and help to
prevent nutrition related diseases.
they are not intended to be a sole source
nutrition plan that meets
everybody's individual needs,
especially for athletes who have
special nutrition requirements
compared to the general public.

Appendix A5 - Page 1

chapter

BackgroundandPurposeofthe

DietaryGuidelinesforAmericans

The DietaryGuidelinesforAmericans[DietaryGuidelines],
firstpublishedin1980, providessciencebasedadviceto
promotehealthandtoreduceriskforchronicdiseases
throughdietandphysicalactivity. Therecommendations
containedwithintheDietaryGuidelines aretargetedtothe
generalpublicover2yearsofagewhoarelivinginthe
UnitedStates.Becauseofitsfocusonhealthpromotionand
riskreduction, theDietaryGuidelines formthebasisof
federalfood, nutritioneducation, andinformationprograms.
Bylaw(PublicLaw101445, TitleIII, 7 U.S.C.5301etseq.),
theDietaryGuidelines isreviewed, updatedifnecessary,
andpublishedevery5years.Theprocesstocreatethe
DietaryGuidelines isajointeffortoftheU.S.Department
ofHealthandHumanServices(HHS)andtheU.S.
DepartmentofAgriculture(USDA)andhasevolvedto
includethreestages.

Inthefirststage, anexternalscientificAdvisoryCommittee
appointedbythetwoDepartmentsconductedananalysis
ofnewscientificinformationandpreparedareportsumma
rizingitsfindings.2 TheAdvisoryCommittees reportwas
madeavailabletothepublicandGovernmentagenciesfor
comment.TheCommitteesanalysiswastheprimary
resourcefordevelopmentoftheDietaryGuidelines bythe
Departments.Asignificantamountofthenewscientific
informationusedbytheDietaryGuidelines Advisory
Committee(DGAC)wasbasedontheDietaryReference
Intake(DRI)reportspublishedsince2000bytheInstitute
ofMedicine(IOM), inparticularthemacronutrientreport
andthefluidandelectrolytereport.
Duringthesecondstage, theDepartmentsjointlydevel
opedKeyRecommendationsbasedontheAdvisory
Committees reportandpublicandagencycomments.

2 Formoreinformationabouttheprocess,summarydata,andtheresourcesusedbytheAdvisoryCommittee,seethe2005DietaryGuidelinesAdvisoryCommitteeReport
(2005DGACReport)athttp://www.health.gov/dietaryguidelines.

D I E TA R Y G U I D E L I N E S F O R A M E R I C A N S , 2 0 0 5

Appendix A5 - Page 2

TheDietaryGuidelines detailsthesesciencebasedpolicy
recommendations.Finally, inthethirdstage, thetwo
Departmentsdevelopedmessagescommunicatingthe
DietaryGuidelines tothegeneralpublic.
Becauseofthethreepartprocessusedtodevelopand
communicatethe2005DietaryGuidelines, thispublication
andthereportoftheDGACdifferinscopeandpurpose
comparedtoreportsforpreviousversionsoftheGuidelines.
The2005DGACreportisadetailedscientificanalysisthat
identifieskeyissuessuchasenergybalance, theconse
quencesofasedentarylifestyle, andtheneedtoemphasize
certainfoodchoicestoaddressnutritionissuesforthe
Americanpublic.Thescientificreportwasusedtodevelop
the DietaryGuidelines jointlybetweenthetwo Departments,
andthispublicationformsthebasisofrecommendations
thatwillbeusedbyUSDA andHHSforprogramand
policydevelopment.Thusitisapublicationoriented
towardpolicymakers, nutritioneducators, nutritionists
andhealthcareprovidersratherthantothegeneralpublic,
aswithpreviousversionsoftheDietaryGuidelines, and
containsmoretechnicalinformation.
NewsectionsintheDietaryGuidelines, consistentwith
itsuseforprogramdevelopment, areaglossaryofterms
andappendixeswithdetailedinformationaboutthe
USDA FoodGuideandtheDietaryApproachestoStop
Hypertension(DASH)EatingPlanaswellastableslisting
sourcesofsomenutrients.Consumermessageshave
been developedtoeducatethepublicabouttheKey
RecommendationsintheDietaryGuidelines andwillbe
usedinmaterialstargetedforconsumersseparatefrom
thispublication.InorganizingtheDietaryGuidelines for
theDepartments, chapters2to10weregiventitlesthat
characterizethetopicofeachsection, andtheDietary
Guidelines itselfispresentedasanintegratedsetofKey
Recommendationsineachtopicarea.
TheseKeyRecommendationsarebasedonapreponder
anceofthescientificevidenceofnutritionalfactorsthat
areimportantforloweringriskofchronicdiseaseand
promotinghealth.Tooptimizethebeneficialimpactof
theserecommendationsonhealth, theGuidelines should
beimplementedintheirentirety.

IMPORTANCEOFTHEDIETARYGUIDELINES
FORHEALTHPROMOTIONANDDISEASE
PREVENTION
Goodnutritionisvitaltogoodhealthandisabsolutely
essentialforthehealthygrowthanddevelopmentof
childrenandadolescents.Majorcausesofmorbidityand
mortalityintheUnitedStatesarerelatedtopoordietand
a sedentarylifestyle.Specificdiseasesandconditions
linkedtopoordietincludecardiovasculardisease, hyper
tension, dyslipidemia, type2diabetes, overweightand
obesity, osteoporosis, constipation, diverticulardisease,
irondeficiencyanemia, oraldisease, malnutrition, and
somecancers.Lackofphysicalactivityhasbeenassoci
atedwithcardiovasculardisease, hypertension, overweight
andobesity, osteoporosis, diabetes, andcertaincancers.
Furthermore, musclestrengtheningandimprovingbalance
canreducefallsandincreasefunctionalstatusamong
olderadults.Togetherwithphysicalactivity, ahighquality
dietthatdoesnotprovideexcesscaloriesshouldenhance
thehealthofmostindividuals.
Poordietandphysicalinactivity, resultinginanenergy
imbalance(morecaloriesconsumedthanexpended), are
themostimportantfactorscontributingtotheincrease
inoverweightandobesityinthiscountry. Moreover, over
weightandobesityaremajorriskfactorsforcertainchronic
diseasessuchasdiabetes.In19992002, 65percentof
U.S. adultswereoverweight, anincreasefrom56percent
in19881994.Datafrom19992002alsoshowedthat30
percentofadultswereobese, anincreasefrom23percent
inanearliersurvey.Dramaticincreasesintheprevalence
ofoverweighthaveoccurredinchildrenandadolescents
ofbothsexes, withapproximately16percentofchildren
andadolescentsaged6to19yearsconsideredtobeover
weight(19992002).3 Inordertoreversethistrend, many
Americansneedtoconsumefewercalories, bemore
active, andmakewiserchoiceswithinandamongfood
groups.TheDietaryGuidelines providesaframeworkto
promotehealthierlifestyles(seech.3).
Giventheimportanceofabalanceddiettohealth, the
intentoftheDietaryGuidelines istosummarizeand
synthesizeknowledgeregardingindividualnutrientsand

3 HedleyAA,OgdenCL,JohnsonCL,CarrollMD,CurtinLR,FlegalKM.PrevalenceofoverweightandobesityamongU.S.children,adolescents,andadults,19992002.JournaloftheAmericanMedical
Association(JAMA) 291(23):28472850,2004.

Appendix A5 - Page 3

D I E TA R Y G U I D E L I N E S F O R A M E R I C A N S , 2 0 0 5

foodcomponentsintorecommendationsforanoverall
patternofeatingthatcanbeadoptedbythegeneralpublic.
ThesepatternsareexemplifiedbytheUSDAFoodGuide
andtheDASHEatingPlan(seech.2andapp.A).The
DietaryGuidelines isapplicabletothefoodpreferences
ofdifferentracial/ethnicgroups, vegetarians, andother
groups.Thisconceptofbalancedeatingpatternsshould
be utilizedinplanningdietsforvariouspopulationgroups.
Thereisagrowingbodyofevidencewhichdemonstrates
thatfollowingadietthatcomplieswiththeDietary
Guidelines mayreducetheriskofchronicdisease.
Recently, itwasreportedthatdietarypatternsconsistent
withrecommendeddietaryguidancewereassociated
withalowerriskofmortalityamongindividualsage45
yearsandolderintheUnitedStates.4 Theauthorsofthe
studyestimatedthatabout16percentand9percentof
mortalityfromanycauseinmenandwomen, respectively,
couldbeeliminatedbytheadoptionofdesirabledietary
behaviors.Currently, adherencetotheDietaryGuidelines
islowamongtheU.S.population.DatafromUSDAillustrate
thedegreeofchangeintheoveralldietarypatternof
Americansneededtobeconsistentwithafoodpattern
encouragedbytheDietaryGuidelines (fig.1).
A basicpremiseoftheDietaryGuidelines isthatnutrient
needsshouldbemetprimarilythroughconsumingfoods.
Foodsprovideanarrayofnutrients(aswellasphyto
chemicals, antioxidants, etc.)andothercompoundsthat
mayhavebeneficialeffectsonhealth.Insomecases, forti
fiedfoodsmaybeusefulsourcesofoneormorenutrients
thatotherwisemightbeconsumedinlessthanrecom
mendedamounts.Supplementsmaybeusefulwhenthey
fillaspecificidentifiednutrientgapthatcannotorisnot
otherwisebeingmetbytheindividualsintakeoffood.
Nutrientsupplementscannotreplaceahealthfuldiet.
Individualswhoarealreadyconsumingtherecommended
amountofanutrientinfoodwillnotachieveanyaddi
tionalhealthbenefitiftheyalsotakethenutrientas
a supplement.Infact, insomecases, supplementsand
fortifiedfoodsmaycauseintakestoexceedthesafelevels
of nutrients.AnotherimportantpremiseoftheDietary
Guidelines isthatfoodsshouldbepreparedandhandled
insuchawaythatreducesriskoffoodborneillness.

USESOFTHEDIETARYGUIDELINES
TheDietaryGuidelines is intendedprimarilyforuseby
policymakers, healthcareproviders, nutritionists, and
nutritioneducators.WhiletheDietaryGuidelines was
developedforhealthyAmericans2yearsofageandolder,
whereappropriate, theneedsofspecificpopulationgroups
havebeenaddressed.Inaddition, otherindividualsmay
findthisreporthelpfulinmakinghealthfulchoices.As
notedpreviously, therecommendationscontainedwithin
theDietaryGuidelines willaidthepublicinreducingtheir
riskforobesityandchronicdisease.Specificusesofthe
DietaryGuidelines include:
DevelopmentofEducationalMaterialsand
Communications.

TheinformationintheDietaryGuidelines isusefulforthe
developmentofeducationalmaterials.Forexample, the
federaldietaryguidancerelatedpublicationsarerequired
bylawtobebasedontheDietaryGuidelines. Inaddition,
thispublicationwillguidethedevelopmentofmessages
tocommunicatetheDietaryGuidelines tothepublic.
Finally, theUSDAFoodGuide, thefoodlabel, andNutrition
FactsPanelprovideinformationthatisusefulforimple
mentingthekeyrecommendationsintheDietaryGuidelines
andshouldbeintegratedintoeducationalandcommuni
cationmessages.
DevelopmentofNutritionRelatedPrograms.

TheDietaryGuidelines aidspolicymakersindesigning
andimplementingnutritionrelatedprograms.TheFederal
Governmentbasesitsnutritionprograms, suchasthe
NationalChildNutritionProgramsortheElderlyNutrition
Program, ontheDietaryGuidelines.
DevelopmentofAuthoritativeStatements.

TheDietaryGuidelines hasthepotentialtoprovide
authoritativestatementsasprovidedforintheFood
andDrugAdministrationModernizationAct(FDAMA).
Becausetherecommendationsareinterrelatedandmutu
allydependent, thestatementsinthispublicationshould
beusedtogetherinthecontextofanoverallhealthful
diet.Likewise, becausetheDietaryGuidelines contains
discussionsaboutemergingscience, onlystatements
includedintheExecutiveSummaryandthehighlighted
boxesentitledKeyRecommendations, whichreflectthe
preponderanceofscientificevidence, canbeusedfor
identificationofauthoritativestatements.

KantAK,GraubardBI,SchatzkinA.Dietarypatternspredictmortalityinanationalcohort:Thenationalhealthinterviewsurveys,1987and1992.JournalofNutrition(JNutr) 134:17931799,2004.

D I E TA R Y G U I D E L I N E S F O R A M E R I C A N S , 2 0 0 5

Appendix A5 - Page 4

a,b

FIGURE1.PercentIncreaseorDecreaseFromCurrentConsumption(ZeroLine)toRecommendedIntakes

A graphicaldepictionofthedegreeofchangeinaveragedailyfoodconsumptionbyAmericansthatwouldbeneededtobeconsistentwiththefood
patternsencouragedbytheDietaryGuidelinesforAmericans. Thezerolinerepresentsaverageconsumptionlevelsfromeachfoodgrouporsubgroupby
females31to50yearsofageandmales31to50yearsofage.Barsabovethezerolinerepresentrecommendedincreasesinfoodgroupconsumption,
whilebarsbelowthelinerepresentrecommendeddecreases.

400
Percent change from current consumption

FoodGroups
andOils

300
250
200
150
100
50
0
50

Fruit
Group

Vegetable
Group

Grain
Group

Actualchangefromconsumptiontorecommendedintakes:
+0.8cups
+0.9cups
+0.1oz
Females
+1.2cups
+0.9cups
1.0oz
Males

Meat&Bean
Group

Milk
Group

Oils

+0.4oz
1.4oz

+1.6cups
+1.2cups

+0.4g
4.2g

400
Percent change from current consumption

Subgroups,
SolidFats,and
AddedSugars

Females3150(1800calories)
Males3150(2200calories)

350

350

Females3150(1800calories)
Males3150(2200calories)

300
250
200
150
100
50
0
50
100

Darkgreen Orange

Legumes

Starchy

Other

Vegetables
Actualchangefromconsumptiontorecommendedintakes:
+0.3cups +0.2cups +0.3cups 0.1cups +0.1cups
Females
+0.3cups +0.2cups +0.2cups +0.2cups +0.0cups
Males

Whole
grains

Enriched
grains
Grains

+2.2oz
+2.6oz

2.1oz
3.6oz

Solid
fats

Added
sugars

DiscretionaryCalories
18g
27g

14tsp
18tsp

a USDAFoodGuideincomparisontoNationalHealthandNutritionExaminationSurvey20012002consumptiondata.
b Increasesinamountsofsomefoodgroupsareoffsetbydecreasesinamountsofsolidfats(i.e.,saturatedandtrans fats)andaddedsugarssothattotalcalorieintakeisattherecommendedlevel.

Appendix A5 - Page 5

D I E TA R Y G U I D E L I N E S F O R A M E R I C A N S , 2 0 0 5

chapter

AdequateNutrients

WithinCalorieNeeds

OVERVIEW
ManyAmericansconsumemorecaloriesthantheyneed
withoutmeetingrecommendedintakesforanumber
ofnutrients.Thiscircumstancemeansthatmostpeople
needtochoosemealsandsnacksthatarehighin
nutrientsbutlowtomoderateinenergycontent;that
is, meetingnutrientrecommendationsmustgohand
inhandwithkeepingcaloriesundercontrol.Doingso
offersimportantbenefitsnormalgrowthanddevelop
mentofchildren, healthpromotionforpeopleofallages,
andreductionofriskforanumberofchronicdiseases
thataremajorpublichealthproblems.

D I E TA R Y G U I D E L I N E S F O R A M E R I C A N S , 2 0 0 5

Basedondietaryintakedataorevidenceofpublichealth
problems, intakelevelsofthefollowingnutrientsmaybe
ofconcernfor:
Adults: calcium, potassium, fiber, magnesium, and
vitaminsA(ascarotenoids), C, andE,
Childrenandadolescents: calcium, potassium, fiber,
magnesium, andvitaminE,
Specificpopulationgroups(seebelow): vitaminB12,
iron, folicacid, andvitaminsEandD.
Atthesametime, ingeneral, Americansconsumetoo
manycaloriesandtoomuchsaturatedandtrans fats,
cholesterol, addedsugars, andsalt.

Appendix A5 - Page 6

KEYRECOMMENDATIONS

DISCUSSION
MeetingRecommendedIntakes
WithinEnergyNeeds
A basicpremiseoftheDietaryGuidelines isthatfood
guidanceshouldrecommenddietsthatwillprovideall
thenutrientsneededforgrowthandhealth.Tothisend,
food guidanceshouldencourageindividualstoachieve
the mostrecentnutrientintakerecommendationsofthe
InstituteofMedicine, referredtocollectivelyastheDietary
ReferenceIntakes(DRIs).TablesoftheDRIsareprovided
athttp://www.iom.edu/Object.File/Master/21/372/0.pdf.

Consumeavarietyofnutrientdensefoodsandbever
ageswithinandamongthebasicfoodgroupswhile
choosingfoodsthatlimittheintakeofsaturatedand
trans fats, cholesterol, addedsugars, salt, andalcohol.
Meetrecommendedintakeswithinenergyneedsby
adoptingabalancedeatingpattern, suchastheUSDA
FoodGuideortheDASHEatingPlan.
KeyRecommendationsforSpecificPopulationGroups

AnadditionalpremiseoftheDietaryGuidelines isthat
thenutrientsconsumedshouldcomeprimarilyfromfoods.
Foodscontainnotonlythevitaminsandmineralsthatare
oftenfoundinsupplements, butalsohundredsofnaturally
occurringsubstances, includingcarotenoids, flavonoids
andisoflavones, andproteaseinhibitorsthatmayprotect
againstchronichealthconditions.Thereareinstances
whenfortifiedfoodsmaybeadvantageous, asidentified
inthischapter. Theseincludeprovidingadditionalsources
ofcertainnutrientsthatmightotherwisebepresentonly
inlowamountsinsomefoodsources, providingnutrients
inhighlybioavailableforms, andwherethefortification
addressesadocumentedpublichealthneed.

Peopleoverage50. ConsumevitaminB12 inits


crystallineform(i.e., fortifiedfoodsorsupplements).
Womenofchildbearingagewhomaybecomepregnant.
Eatfoodshighinhemeironand/orconsumeironrich
plantfoodsorironfortifiedfoodswithanenhancerof
ironabsorption, suchasvitaminCrichfoods.
Womenofchildbearingagewhomaybecome
pregnantandthoseinthefirsttrimesterofpregnancy.
Consumeadequatesyntheticfolicaciddaily(from
fortifiedfoodsorsupplements)inadditiontofood
formsoffolatefromavarieddiet.
Olderadults, peoplewithdarkskin, andpeople
exposedtoinsufficientultravioletbandradiation
(i.e., sunlight).ConsumeextravitaminDfrom
vitaminDfortifiedfoodsand/orsupplements.

TwoexamplesofeatingpatternsthatexemplifytheDietary
Guidelines aretheDASHEatingPlanandtheUSDAFood
Guide.Thesetwosimilareatingpatternsaredesignedto
integratedietaryrecommendationsintoahealthyway
toeatandareusedintheDietaryGuidelines toprovide
examplesofhownutrientfocusedrecommendationscan
beexpressedintermsoffoodchoices.BoththeUSDA
FoodGuideandtheDASHEatingPlandifferinimportant
waysfromcommonfoodconsumptionpatternsinthe
UnitedStates.Ingeneral, theyinclude:
More darkgreenvegetables, orangevegetables, legumes,
fruits, wholegrains, andlowfatmilkandmilkproducts.
Less refinedgrains, totalfats(especiallycholesterol, and
saturatedandtrans fats), addedsugars, andcalories.

BoththeUSDA FoodGuideandtheDASHEatingPlan
areconstructedacrossarangeofcalorielevelstomeet
thenutrientneedsofvariousageandgendergroups.
Table1providesfoodintakerecommendations, andtable2
providesnutrientprofilesforboththeDASHEatingPlan
andtheUSDAFoodGuideatthe2,000calorielevel.These
tablesillustratethemanysimilaritiesbetweenthetwo
eatingpatterns.Additionalcalorielevelsareshownin
appendixesA1andA2fortheUSDAFoodGuideand
theDASHEatingPlan.Theexactamountsoffoodsin
theseplansdonotneedtobeachievedeveryday, but
onaverage, overtime.Table3canaidinidentificationof
anindividualscaloricrequirementbasedongender, age,
andphysicalactivitylevel.

Appendix A5 - Page 7

D I E TA R Y G U I D E L I N E S F O R A M E R I C A N S , 2 0 0 5

VarietyAmongandWithinFoodGroups
Eachbasicfoodgroup5 isthemajorcontributorofatleast
onenutrientwhilemakingsubstantialcontributionsof
manyothernutrients.Becauseeachfoodgroupprovides
a widearrayofnutrientsinsubstantialamounts, itis
importanttoincludeallfoodgroupsinthedailydiet.
Bothillustrativeeatingpatternsincludeavarietyofnutrient
densefoodswithinthemajorfoodgroups.Selectinga
varietyoffoodswithinthegrain, vegetable, fruit, andmeat
groupsmayhelptoensurethatanadequateamountof
nutrientsandotherpotentiallybeneficialsubstancesare
consumed.Forexample, fishcontainsvaryingamountsof
fattyacidsthatmaybebeneficialinreducingcardiovas
culardiseaserisk(seech.6).

meetingnutrient
recommendations
mustgohandinhand
withkeepingcalories
undercontrol.

NutrientDenseFoods

Nutrientdensefoodsarethosefoodsthatprovidesubstan
tial amountsofvitaminsandminerals(micronutrients)
andrelativelyfewcalories.Foodsthatarelowinnutrient
densityarefoodsthatsupplycaloriesbutrelativelysmall
amountsofmicronutrients, sometimesnoneatall.The
greatertheconsumptionoffoodsorbeveragesthatare
lowinnutrientdensity, themoredifficultitistoconsume
enoughnutrientswithoutgainingweight, especiallyfor
sedentaryindividuals.Theconsumptionofaddedsugars,
saturatedandtrans fats, andalcoholprovidescalories
whileprovidinglittle, ifany, oftheessentialnutrients.(See
ch.7foradditionalinformationonaddedsugars, ch.6for
informationonfats, andch.9forinformationonalcohol.)
Selectinglowfatformsoffoodsineachgroupandforms
freeofaddedsugarsinotherwordsnutrientdense
versionsoffoodsprovidesindividualsawaytomeet
theirnutrientneedswhileavoidingtheoverconsumption
ofcaloriesandoffoodcomponentssuchassaturatedfats.
However, Americansgenerallydonoteatnutrientdense
formsoffoods.Mostpeoplewillexceedcalorierecom
mendationsiftheyconsistentlychoosehigherfatfoods
withinthefoodgroupseveniftheydonothavedessert,
sweetenedbeverages, oralcoholicbeverages.
Ifonlynutrientdensefoodsareselectedfromeachfood
groupintheamountsproposed, a smallamountofcalories

canbeconsumedasaddedfatsorsugars, alcohol, orother


foodsthe discretionarycalorieallowance. Appendixes
A2andA3showthemaximumdiscretionarycalorie
allowance thatcanbeaccommodatedateachcalorielevel
intheUSDAFoodGuide.Eatinginaccordancewiththe
USDAFoodGuideortheDASHEatingPlanwillalsokeep
intakesofsaturatedfat, totalfat, andcholesterolwithin
thelimitsrecommendedinchapter6.
NutrientsofConcern

Theactualprevalenceofinadequacyforanutrientcan
bedeterminedonlyifanEstimatedAverageRequirement
(EAR)hasbeenestablishedandthedistributionofusual
dietaryintakecanbeobtained.Ifsuchdataarenotavail
ableforanutrientbutthereisevidenceforapublichealth
problemassociatedwithlowintakes, anutrientmightstill
beconsideredtobeofconcern.
Basedontheseconsiderations, dietaryintakesofthefollow
ingnutrientsmaybelowenoughtobeofconcernfor:
Adults: calcium, potassium, fiber, magnesium, and
vitaminsA(ascarotenoids), C, andE,
Childrenandadolescents: calcium, potassium, fiber,
magnesium, andvitaminE,
Specificpopulationgroups: vitaminB12, iron, folicacid,
andvitaminsEandD.

ThefoodgroupsintheUSDAFoodGuidearegrains;vegetables;fruits;milk,yogurt,andcheese;andmeat,poultry,fish,drybeans,eggs,andnuts.FoodgroupsintheDASHEatingPlanaregrains
andgrainproducts;vegetables;fruits;lowfatorfatfreedairy;meat,poultry,andfish;andnuts,seeds,anddrybeans.

D I E TA R Y G U I D E L I N E S F O R A M E R I C A N S , 2 0 0 5

Appendix A5 - Page 8

Effortsmaybewarrantedtopromoteincreaseddietary
intakesofpotassium, fiber, andpossiblyvitaminE, regard
lessofage;increasedintakesofcalciumandpossibly
vitaminsA(ascarotenoids)andCandmagnesiumby
adults;effortsarewarrantedtoincreaseintakesofcalcium
andpossiblymagnesiumbychildrenage9yearsorolder.
Effortsmaybeespeciallywarrantedtoimprovethedietary
intakesofadolescentfemalesingeneral.Foodsourcesof
thesenutrientsareshowninappendixB.
Lowintakesoffibertendtoreflectlowintakesofwhole
grains, fruits, andvegetables.Lowintakesofcalcium
tendtoreflectlowintakesofmilkandmilkproducts.Low
intakesofvitaminsA(ascarotenoids)andCandmagne
siumtendtoreflectlowintakesoffruitsandvegetables.
Selectingfruits, vegetables, wholegrains, andlowfatand
fatfreemilkandmilkproductsintheamountssuggested
bytheUSDAFoodGuideandtheDASHEatingPlanwill
provideadequateamountsofthesenutrients.
MostAmericansofallagesalsoneedtoincreasetheir
potassiumintake.Tomeettherecommendedpotassium
intakelevels, potassiumrichfoodsfromthefruit, vegetable,
anddairygroupsmustbeselectedinboththeUSDA Food
GuideandtheDASHEatingPlan.Foodsthatcanhelp
increasepotassiumintakearelistedintable5(ch.5)and
appendixB1.

usingtheUSDAFoodGuide, selectingfoodsthatarelower
insodiumthanothersisespeciallynecessarytomeetthe
recommendedintakelevelatcalorielevelsof2,600/dayand
above.Foodchoicesthatarelowerinsodiumareidenti
fiedinchapter8.
ConsiderationsforSpecificPopulationGroups
PeopleOver50andVitaminB12

Althoughasubstantialproportionofindividualsoverage
50havereducedabilitytoabsorbnaturallyoccurring
vitaminB12, theyareabletoabsorbthecrystallineform.
Thus, allindividualsovertheageof50shouldbeencour
agedtomeettheirRecommendedDietaryAllowance
(RDA)(2.4g/day)forvitaminB12 byeatingfoodsfortified
withvitaminB12 suchasfortifiedcereals, orbytakingthe
crystallineformofvitaminB12supplements.
WomenandIron

Basedonbloodvalues, substantialnumbersofadolescent
femalesandwomenofchildbearingageareirondeficient.
Thus, thesegroupsshouldeatfoodshighinhemeiron
(e.g., meats)and/orconsumeironrichplantfoods(e.g.,
spinach)orironfortifiedfoodswithanenhancerofiron
absorption, suchasfoodsrichinvitaminC(e.g., orange
juice).AppendixB3listsfoodsthatcanhelpincrease
ironintakeandgivestheirironandcaloriecontent.
WomenandFolicAcid

MostAmericansmayneedtoincreasetheirconsumption
offoodsrichinvitaminE(tocopherol)whiledecreasing
theirintakeoffoodshighinenergybutlowinnutrients.
ThevitaminEcontentinboththeUSDA FoodGuideand
theDASHEatingPlanisgreaterthancurrentconsump
tion, andspecificvitaminErichfoodsneedtobeincluded
intheeatingpatternstomeettherecommendedintakeof
vitaminE.FoodsthatcanhelpincreasevitaminEintake
arelistedinappendixB2, alongwiththeircaloriecontent.
BreakfastcerealthatisfortifiedwithvitaminEisan
optionforindividualsseekingtoincreasetheirvitaminE
intakewhileconsumingalowfatdiet.
Inaddition, mostAmericansneedtodecreasesodium
intake.TheDASHEatingPlanprovidesguidanceonhow
tokeepsodiumintakeswithinrecommendations.When

Sincefolicacidreducestheriskoftheneuraltubedefects,
spinabifida, andanencephaly, adailyintakeof400g/day
ofsyntheticfolicacid(fromfortifiedfoodsorsupplements
inadditiontofoodformsoffolatefromavarieddiet)is
recommendedforwomenofchildbearingagewhomay
becomepregnant.Pregnantwomenshouldconsume600
g/dayofsyntheticfolicacid(fromfortifiedfoodsor
supplements)inadditiontofoodformsoffolatefroma
varieddiet.Itisnotknownwhetherthesamelevelof
protectioncouldbeachievedbyusingfoodthatisnatu
rallyrichinfolate.
SpecialGroupsandVitaminD

AdequatevitaminDstatus, whichdependsondietary
intakeandcutaneoussynthesis, isimportantforoptimal
calciumabsorption, anditcanreducetheriskforbone

Appendix A5 - Page 9

D I E TA R Y G U I D E L I N E S F O R A M E R I C A N S , 2 0 0 5

loss.Twofunctionallyrelevantmeasuresindicatethat
optimalserum25hydroxyvitaminDmaybeashighas
80nmol/L.Theelderlyandindividualswithdarkskin
(becausetheabilitytosynthesizevitaminDfromexposure
tosunlightvarieswithdegreeofskinpigmentation)areat
a greaterriskoflowserum25hydroxyvitaminDconcen
trations.Alsoatriskarethoseexposedtoinsufficient
ultravioletradiation(i.e., sunlight)forthecutaneous
productionofvitaminD(e.g., houseboundindividuals).
Forindividualswithinthehighriskgroups, substantially
higherdailyintakesofvitaminD(i.e., 25g or1,000
InternationalUnits(IU)ofvitaminDperday)havebeen
recommendedtoreachandmaintainserum25hydroxyvit
aminDvaluesat80nmol/L.ThreecupsofvitaminD
fortifiedmilk(7.5g or300IU), 1cupofvitaminDfortified
orangejuice(2.5g or100IU), and15g (600IU)of
supplementalvitaminDwouldprovide25g (1,000IU)
ofvitaminDdaily.
Fluid

Thecombinationofthirstandnormaldrinkingbehavior,
especiallytheconsumptionoffluidswithmeals, isusually
sufficienttomaintainnormalhydration.Healthyindivid
ualswhohaveroutineaccesstofluidsandwhoarenot
exposedtoheatstressconsumeadequatewatertomeet
theirneeds.Purposefuldrinkingiswarrantedforindividuals
whoareexposedtoheatstressorperformsustained
vigorousactivity(seech.4).
FlexibilityofFoodPatternsforVariedFoodPreferences

TheUSDAFoodGuideandtheDASHEatingPlanare
flexibletopermitfoodchoicesbasedonindividualand
culturalfoodpreferences, cost, andavailability.Bothcan
alsoaccommodatevariedtypesofcuisinesandspecial
needsduetocommonfoodallergies.Twoadaptationsof
theUSDAFoodGuideandtheDASHEatingPlanare:

VegetarianChoices

Vegetariansofalltypescanachieverecommended
nutrientintakesthroughcarefulselectionoffoods.
Theseindividualsshouldgivespecialattentiontotheir
intakesofprotein, iron, andvitaminB12, aswellas
calciumandvitaminDifavoidingmilkproducts.In
addition, vegetarianscouldselectonlynuts, seeds, and
legumes fromthemeatandbeansgroup, ortheycould
includeeggsifsodesired.Atthe2,000calorielevel, they
couldchooseabout1.5ouncesofnutsand 2/3 cup
legumesinsteadof5.5ouncesofmeat, poultry, and/or
fish.Oneegg, 1/2 ounceofnuts, or1/4 cupoflegumesis
considered equivalentto1ounceofmeat, poultry, orfishin
theUSDAFoodGuide.
SubstitutionsforMilkandMilkProducts

Sincemilkandmilkproductsprovidemorethan70percent
ofthecalciumconsumedbyAmericans, guidanceonother
choicesofdietarycalciumisneededforthosewhodonot
consumetherecommendedamountofmilkproducts.
Milkproductconsumptionhasbeenassociatedwith
overalldietqualityandadequacyofintakeofmanynutri
ents, includingcalcium, potassium, magnesium, zinc, iron,
riboflavin, vitaminA, folate, andvitaminD. Peoplemay
avoidmilkproductsbecauseofallergies, culturalprac
tices, taste, orotherreasons.Thosewhoavoidallmilk
productsneedtochooserichsourcesofthenutrients
providedbymilk, includingpotassium, vitaminA, and
magnesiuminadditiontocalciumandvitaminD(see
app.B).Somenondairysourcesofcalciumareshownin
appendixB4.Thebioavailabilityofthecalciuminthese
foodsvaries.
Thosewhoavoidmilkbecauseofitslactosecontentmay
obtainallthenutrientsprovidedbythemilkgroupby
usinglactosereducedorlowlactosemilkproducts, taking
smallservingsofmilkseveraltimesaday, takingthe
enzymelactasebeforeconsumingmilkproducts, oreating
othercalciumrichfoods.Foradditionalinformation, see
appendixesB4andB5andNIHPublicationNo.032751.6

NIHPublicationNo.032751,U.S.DepartmentofHealthandHumanServices,NationalInstitutesofHealth,NationalInstituteofDiabetesandDigestiveandKidneyDiseases,March2003.http://diges
tive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/lactoseintolerance/index.htm.

D I E TA R Y G U I D E L I N E S F O R A M E R I C A N S , 2 0 0 5

Appendix A5 - Page 10

10

TABLE1.SampleUSDAFoodGuideandtheDASHEatingPlanatthe2,000CalorieLevel

AmountsofvariousfoodgroupsthatarerecommendedeachdayoreachweekintheUSDAFoodGuideandintheDASHEatingPlan(amountsaredaily
unlessotherwisespecified)atthe2,000calorielevel.Alsoidentifiedareequivalentamountsfordifferentfoodchoicesineachgroup.Tofolloweithereating
pattern,foodchoicesovertimeshouldprovidetheseamountsoffoodfromeachgrouponaverage.
b

FoodGroupsandSubgroups

USDAFoodGuideAmount

DASHEatingPlanAmount

EquivalentAmounts

FruitGroup

2 cups(4servings)

2to2.5cups(4to5servings)

1/2 cupequivalentis:
1/2 cupfresh,frozen,orcannedfruit
1 medfruit
1/4 cupdriedfruit
USDA:1/2 cupfruitjuice
DASH:3/4 cupfruitjuice

VegetableGroup
Darkgreenvegetables
Orangevegetables
Legumes(drybeans)
Starchyvegetables
Othervegetables

2.5cups(5servings)
3cups/week
2cups/week
3cups/week
3cups/week
6.5cups/week

2to2.5cups(4to5servings)

1/2

GrainGroup
Wholegrains
Othergrains

6 ounceequivalents
3ounceequivalents
3 ounceequivalents

7 to8ounceequivalents
(7to8servings)

1 ounceequivalentis:
1slicebread
1 cupdry cereal
1/2 cupcookedrice,pasta,cereal
DASH:1ozdrycereal
(1/2 11/4 cupdepending
oncerealtypechecklabel)

MeatandBeansGroup

5.5ounceequivalents

6ouncesorless
meat,poultry,fish

1ounceequivalentis:
1 ounceofcookedleanmeats,
poultry,fish
1 egg
USDA:1/4 cupcookeddry beans
ortofu,1Tbsppeanutbutter,
1/2 oznutsorseeds
DASH:11/2 oznuts,1/2 ozseeds,
1/2 cupcookeddrybeans

4 to5servingsperweek
c
nuts,seeds,anddry beans

cupequivalentis:
1/2 cupofcutuprawor
cookedvegetable
1cuprawleafyvegetable
USDA:1/2 cupvegetablejuice
DASH:3/4 cupvegetablejuice

MilkGroup

3 cups

2to3cups

1cupequivalentis:
1 cuplowfat/fatfreemilk,yogurt
11/2 ozoflowfator
fatfreenaturalcheese
2 ozoflowfator
fatfreeprocessedcheese

Oils

24grams(6tsp)

8 to12 grams(2to3tsp)

1 tspequivalentis:
DASH:1tspsoftmargarine
1 Tbsplowfatmayo
2 Tbsplightsaladdressing
1 tspvegetableoil

DiscretionaryCalorieAllowance
Exampleofdistribution:
d
Solidfat
Addedsugars

267 calories
18grams
8tsp

~2tsp(5Tbspperweek)

1 Tbspaddedsugarequivalentis:
DASH:1Tbspjellyorjam
1/2 oz jellybeans
8ozlemonade

a Allservingsareperdayunlessotherwisenoted.USDAvegetablesubgroupamountsandamountsofDASHnuts,seeds,anddrybeansareperweek.
b The2,000calorieUSDAFoodGuideisappropriateformanysedentarymales51to70yearsofage,sedentaryfemales19to30yearsofage,andforsomeothergender/agegroupswhoaremore
physicallyactive.Seetable3forinformationaboutgender/age/activitylevelsandappropriatecalorieintakes.SeeappendixesA2andA3formoreinformationonthefoodgroups,amounts,and
foodintakepatternsatothercalorielevels.
c IntheDASHEatingPlan,nuts,seeds,anddrybeansareaseparatefoodgroupfrommeat,poultry,andfish.
d Theoilslistedinthistablearenotconsideredtobepart ofdiscretionary caloriesbecausethey areamajorsourceofthevitaminEandpolyunsaturatedfattyacids,includingtheessentialfattyacids,in
thefoodpattern.Incontrast,solidfats(i.e.,saturatedandtrans fats)arelistedseparatelyasasourceofdiscretionarycalories.

Appendix A5 - Page 11

D I E TA R Y G U I D E L I N E S F O R A M E R I C A N S , 2 0 0 5

11

TABLE 2. Comparison of Selected Nutrients in the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) Eating Plana,
the USDA Food Guideb, and Nutrient Intakes Recommended Per Day by the Institute of Medicine (IOM)c
Estimated nutrient levels in the DASH Eating Plan and the USDA Food Guide at the 2,000-calorie level, as well as the nutrient intake levels recom
mended by the Institute of Medicine for females 1930 years of age.
Nutrient

DASH Eating Plan


(2,000 kcals)

USDA Food Guide


(2,000 kcals)

IOM Recommendations
for Females 19 to 30

Protein, g

108

91

RDA: 46

Protein, % kcal

21

18

AMDR: 1035

Carbohydrate, g

288

271

RDA: 130

Carbohydrate, % kcal

57

55

AMDR: 4565

Total fat, g

48

65

Total fat, % kcal

22

29

AMDR: 2035

Saturated fat, g

10

17

7.8

ALAPd

21

24

Saturated fat, % kcal


Monounsaturated fat, g
Monounsaturated fat, % kcal

10

11

Polyunsaturated fat, g

12

20

Polyunsaturated fat, % kcal

5.5

9.0

Linoleic acid, g

11

18

AI: 12

Alpha-linolenic acid, g

1.7

AI: 1.1

136

230

ALAPd

30

31

AI: 28e

Potassium, mg

4,706

4,044

AI: 4,700

Sodium, mg

2,329f

1,779

AI: 1,500, UL: <2,300

Calcium, mg

1,619

1,316

AI: 1,000

500

380

RDA: 310

1.5

RDA: 0.9

Cholesterol, mg
Total dietary fiber, g

Magnesium, mg
Copper, mg
Iron, mg
Phosphorus, mg

21

18

RDA: 18

2,066

1,740

RDA: 700

Zinc, mg

14

14

RDA: 8

Thiamin, mg

2.0

2.0

RDA: 1.1

Riboflavin, mg

2.8

2.8

RDA: 1.1

Niacin equivalents, mg

31

22

RDA: 14

Vitamin B6, mg

3.4

2.4

RDA: 1.3

Vitamin B12, g

7.1

8.3

RDA: 2.4

Vitamin C, mg
Vitamin E (AT)

g
h

Vitamin A, g (RAE)

181

155

RDA: 75

16.5

9.5

RDA: 15.0

851

1,052

RDA: 700

a DASH nutrient values are based on a 1-week menu of the DASH Eating Plan. NIH publication No. 03-4082. www.nhlbi.nih.gov.

b USDA nutrient values are based on population-weighted averages of typical food choices within each food group or subgroup.

c Recommended intakes for adult females 1930; RDA = Recommended Dietary Allowance; AI = Adequate Intake; AMDR = Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range; UL = Upper Limit.

d As Low As Possible while consuming a nutritionally adequate diet.

e Amount listed is based on 14 g dietary fiber/1,000 kcal.

f The DASH Eating Plan also can be used to follow at 1,500 mg sodium per day.

g AT = mg d--tocopherol

h RAE = Retinol Activity Equivalents

D I E TA R Y G U I D E L I N E S F O R A M E R I C A N S , 2 0 0 5

Appendix A5 - Page 12

12

TABLE3. EstimatedCalorieRequirements(inKilocalories)forEachGenderandAgeGroup
atThreeLevelsofPhysicalActivitya
Estimatedamountsofcaloriesneededtomaintainenergybalanceforvariousgenderandagegroupsatthreedifferentlevelsofphysicalactivity.Theesti
matesareroundedtothenearest200caloriesandweredeterminedusingtheInstituteofMedicineequation.
ActivityLevelb,c,d
Gender

Age(years)

Sedentaryb

Child

23

1,000

1,0001,400

1,0001,400

Female

48

1,200

1,4001,600

1,4001,800

Male

ModeratelyActivec
e

Actived
e

913

1,600

1,6002,000

1,8002,200

1418

1,800

2,000

2,400

1930

2,000

2,0002,200

2,400

3150

1,800

2,000

2,200

51+

1,600

1,800

2,0002,200

48

1,400

1,4001,600

1,6002,000

913

1,800

1,8002,200

2,0002,600

1418

2,200

2,4002,800

2,8003,200

1930

2,400

2,6002,800

3,000

3150

2,200

2,4002,600

2,8003,000

51+

2,000

2,2002,400

2,4002,800

a TheselevelsarebasedonEstimatedEnergyRequirements(EER)fromtheInstituteofMedicineDietaryReferenceIntakesmacronutrientsreport,2002,calculatedbygender,age,andactivitylevelfor
referencesizedindividuals.Referencesize,asdeterminedbyIOM,isbasedonmedianheightandweightforagesuptoage18yearsofageandmedianheightandweightforthatheighttogivea
BMIof21.5foradultfemalesand22.5foradultmales.
b Sedentary meansalifestylethatincludesonlythelightphysicalactivityassociatedwithtypicaldaytodaylife.
c Moderatelyactivemeansalifestylethatincludesphysicalactivityequivalenttowalkingabout1.5to3milesperdayat3to4milesperhour,inadditiontothelightphysicalactivityassociatedwith
typicaldaytodaylife
d Activemeansalifestylethatincludesphysicalactivityequivalenttowalkingmorethan3milesperdayat3to4milesperhour,inadditiontothelightphysicalactivityassociatedwithtypicaldayto
daylife.
e Thecalorierangesshownaretoaccommodateneedsofdifferentageswithinthegroup.Forchildrenandadolescents,morecaloriesareneededatolderages.Foradults,fewercaloriesareneededat
olderages.

Appendix A5 - Page 13

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13

chapter

WeightManagement

OVERVIEW
TheprevalenceofobesityintheUnitedStateshas
doubledinthepasttwodecades.Nearlyonethirdof
adultsareobese, thatis, theyhaveabodymassindex
(BMI )of30orgreater.Oneofthefastestgrowing
segmentsofthepopulationisthatwithaBMI > 30with
accompanyingcomorbidities.Overthelasttwodecades,
theprevalenceofoverweightamongchildrenand
adolescentshasincreasedsubstantially;itisestimated
thatasmanyas16percentofchildrenandadolescents
areoverweight, representingadoublingoftherate
amongchildrenandtriplingoftherateamongadoles
cents.A highprevalenceofoverweightandobesityis
ofgreatpublichealthconcernbecauseexcessbodyfat
leadstoahigherriskforprematuredeath, type2

D I E TA R Y G U I D E L I N E S F O R A M E R I C A N S , 2 0 0 5

diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular


disease, stroke, gallbladderdisease, respiratorydysfunc
tion, gout, osteoarthritis, andcertainkindsofcancers.
Ideally, thegoalforadultsistoachieveandmaintain
a bodyweightthatoptimizestheirhealth.However, for
obeseadults, evenmodestweightloss(e.g., 10pounds)
hashealthbenefits, andthepreventionoffurtherweight
gainisveryimportant.Foroverweightchildrenand
adolescents, thegoalistoslowtherateofweightgain
whileachievingnormalgrowthanddevelopment.
Maintainingahealthyweightthroughoutchildhood
mayreducetheriskofbecominganoverweightorobese
adult.Eatingfewercalorieswhileincreasingphysical
activityarethekeystocontrollingbodyweight.

Appendix A5 - Page 14

14

Whileoverweightandobesityarecurrentlysignificant
publichealthissues, notallAmericansneedtoloseweight.
Peopleatahealthyweightshouldstrivetomaintaintheir
weight, andunderweightindividualsmayneedtoincrease
theirweight.

DISCUSSION
OverweightandobesityintheUnitedStatesamongadults
andchildrenhasincreasedsignificantlyoverthelasttwo
decades.ThosefollowingtypicalAmericaneatingand
activitypatternsarelikelytobeconsumingdietsinexcess
oftheirenergyrequirements.However, caloricintakeis
onlyonesideoftheenergybalanceequation.Caloric
expenditureneedstobeinbalancewithcaloricintaketo
maintainbodyweightandmustexceedcaloricintaketo
achieveweightloss(seetables3and4).Toreversethe
trendtowardobesity, mostAmericansneedtoeatfewer
calories, bemoreactive, andmakewiserfoodchoices.
Preventionofweightgainiscriticalbecausewhilethe
behaviorsrequiredarethesame, theextentofthebehav
iorsrequiredtoloseweightmakesweightlossmore
challengingthanpreventionofweightgain.Sincemany
adultsgainweightslowlyovertime, evensmalldecreases
incalorieintakecanhelpavoidweightgain, especiallyif
accompaniedbyincreasedphysicalactivity.Forexample,
formostadultsareductionof50to100caloriesperday
maypreventgradualweightgain, whereasareduction
of500caloriesormoreperdayisacommoninitialgoal
inweightlossprograms.Similarly, upto60minutesof
moderatetovigorousintensityphysicalactivityperday
maybeneededtopreventweightgain, butasmuchas60
to90minutesofmoderateintensityphysicalactivityper
dayisrecommendedtosustainweightlossforpreviously
overweightpeople.Itisadvisableformenoverage40,
womenoverage50, andthosewithahistoryofchronic
diseasessuchasheartdiseaseordiabetestoconsultwith
ahealthcareproviderbeforestartingavigorousexercise
program.However, manypeoplecansafelyincreasetheir
physicalactivitywithoutconsultingahealthcareprovider.7

KEYRECOMMENDATIONS
Tomaintainbodyweightinahealthyrange, balance
caloriesfromfoodsandbeverageswithcalories
expended.
Topreventgradualweightgainovertime, makesmall
decreasesinfoodandbeveragecaloriesandincrease
physicalactivity.
KeyRecommendationsforSpecificPopulationGroups

Thosewhoneedtoloseweight. Aimforaslow, steady


weightlossbydecreasingcalorieintakewhilemain
taininganadequatenutrientintakeandincreasing
physicalactivity.
Overweightchildren. Reducetherateofbodyweight
gainwhileallowinggrowthanddevelopment.Consult
ahealthcareproviderbeforeplacingachildona
weightreductiondiet.
Pregnantwomen. Ensureappropriateweightgainas
specifiedbyahealthcareprovider.
Breastfeedingwomen. Moderateweightreductionis
safeanddoesnotcompromiseweightgainofthe
nursinginfant.
Overweightadultsandoverweight childrenwith
chronicdiseasesand/oronmedication.Consulta
healthcareprovideraboutweightlossstrategiesprior
tostartingaweightreductionprogramtoensure
appropriatemanagementofotherhealthconditions.

Monitoringbodyfatregularlycanbeausefulstrategyfor
assessingtheneedtoadjustcaloricintakeandenergy
expenditure.Twosurrogatemeasuresusedtoapproximate
bodyfatareBMI(adultsandchildren)andwaistcircum
ference(adults).8 BMIisdefinedasweightinkilograms
dividedbyheight, inmeters, squared.Foradults, weight
statusisbasedontheabsoluteBMIlevel(fig.2).For
childrenandadolescents, weightstatusisdeterminedby
thecomparisonoftheindividualsBMIwithageand
genderspecificpercentilevalues(seefig.3forasample
boysgrowthcurve).Additionalgrowthcurvescanbe

Formoreinformationonrecommendationstoconsultahealthcareprovider,seePhysicalActivityandPublicHealthARecommendationfromtheCentersforDiseaseControlandPreventionandthe
AmericanCollegeofSportsMedicine,JAMA 273:402407,1995.http://wonder.cdc.gov/wonder/prevguid/p0000391/P0000391.asp.

NIHPublicationNumber004084,ThePracticalGuide:Identification,EvaluationandTreatmentofOverweightandObesityinAdults,U.S.DepartmentofHealthandHumanServices,National
InstitutesofHealth,NationalHeart,Lung,andBloodInstitute,October2000.http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/guidelines/obesity/prctgd_c.pdf

Appendix A5 - Page 15

D I E TA R Y G U I D E L I N E S F O R A M E R I C A N S , 2 0 0 5

15

foundathttp://www.cdc.gov/growthcharts.BMIismore
accurateatapproximatingbodyfatthanismeasuring
bodyweightalone.However, BMIhassomelimitations.
BMIoverestimatesbodyfatinpeoplewhoareverymuscular
andunderestimatesbodyfatinpeoplewhohavelost
musclemass.TherelationshipbetweenBMIandbodyfat
variessomewhatwithage, gender, andethnicity.Inaddi
tion, foradults, BMIisabetterpredictorofapopulations
8
diseaseriskthananindividualsriskofchronicdisease.
Forchildrengainingexcessweight, smalldecreasesin
energyintakereducetherateatwhichtheygainweight
(bodyfat), thusimprovingtheirBMIpercentileovertime.
Asanothersurrogatemeasure, waistcircumferencecan
approximateabdominalfatbutshouldbemeasuredvery
carefully.Fatlocatedintheabdominalregionisassociated
8
withagreaterhealthriskthanperipheralfat.
Someproposedcalorieloweringstrategiesincludeeating
foodsthatarelowincaloriesforagivenmeasureoffood
(e.g., manykindsofvegetablesandfruitsandsomesoups).
However, whenmakingchangestoimprovenutrientintake,
oneneedstomakesubstitutionstoavoidexcessivecalorie
intake.Thehealthiestwaytoreducecalorieintakeisto
reduceonesintakeofaddedsugars, fats, andalcohol,
whichallprovidecaloriesbutfewornoessentialnutrients
(formoreinformation, seechs.6, 7, and9).
Specialattentionshouldbegiventoportionsizes, which
haveincreasedsignificantlyoverthepasttwodecades
(http://hin.nhlbi.nih.gov/portion/index.htm).Thoughthere
arenoempiricalstudiestoshowacausalrelationship
betweenincreasedportionsizesandobesity, thereare
studiesshowingthatcontrollingportionsizeshelpslimit
calorieintake, particularlywheneatingcaloriedensefoods
(foodsthatarehighincaloriesforagivenmeasureof
food).Therefore, itisessentialthatthepublicunderstand
howportionsizescomparetoarecommendedamountof
food(i.e., serving)fromeachfoodgroupataspecificcaloric
level.Theunderstandingofservingsizeandportionsizeis
importantinfollowingeithertheDASHEatingPlanorthe
USDAFoodGuide(seeapp.A).Whenusingpackaged
foodswithnutrientlabels, peopleshouldpayattention

Eatingfewer
calorieswhile
increasingphysical
activityarethe
keystocontrolling
bodyweight.

totheunitsforservingsizesandhowtheycompare
totheservingsizesintheUSDAFoodGuideandthe
DASHEatingPlan.
Lifestylechangeindietandphysicalactivityisthebest
firstchoiceforweightloss.Areductionin500calories
ormoreperdayiscommonlyneeded.Whenitcomesto
bodyweightcontrol, itiscaloriesthatcountnotthe
proportionsoffat, carbohydrates, andproteininthediet.
However, whenindividualsarelosingweight, theyshould
followadietthatiswithintheAcceptableMacronutrient
DistributionRanges(AMDR)forfat, carbohydrates, and
protein, whichare20to35percentoftotalcalories, 45to
65percentoftotalcalories, and10to35percentoftotal
calories, respectively.Dietsthatprovideveryloworvery
highamountsofprotein, carbohydrates, orfatarelikely
toprovidelowamountsofsomenutrientsandarenot
advisableforlongtermuse.Althoughthesekindsof
weightlossdietshavebeenshowntoresultinweight
reduction, themaintenanceofareducedweightultimately
willdependonachangeinlifestyle.Successfuland
sustainableweightlossandweightmaintenancestrate
giesrequireattentiontobothsidesoftheenergybalance
equation(i.e., caloricintakeandenergyexpenditure).

NIHPublicationNumber004084,ThePracticalGuide:Identification,EvaluationandTreatmentofOverweightandObesityinAdults,U.S.DepartmentofHealthandHumanServices,National
InstitutesofHealth,NationalHeart,Lung,andBloodInstitute,October2000.http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/guidelines/obesity/prctgd_c.pdf

D I E TA R Y G U I D E L I N E S F O R A M E R I C A N S , 2 0 0 5

Appendix A5 - Page 16

16

TABLE4. Calories/HourExpendedinCommonPhysicalActivities
Someexamplesofphysicalactivitiescommonlyengagedinandtheaverageamountofcaloriesa154poundindividualwillexpendbyengagingineach
activityfor1hour.Theexpenditurevalueencompassesbothrestingmetabolicratecaloriesandactivityexpenditure.Someoftheactivitiescanconstitute
eithermoderateorvigorousintensityphysicalactivitydependingontherateatwhichtheyarecarriedout(forwalkingandbicycling).
ModeratePhysicalActivity

ApproximateCalories/Hrfora154lbPersona

Hiking

370

Lightgardening/yardwork

330

Dancing

330

Golf(walkingandcarryingclubs)

330

Bicycling(<10mph)

290

Walking(3.5mph)

280

Weightlifting(generallightworkout)

220

Stretching

180

VigorousPhysicalActivity

ApproximateCalories/Hrfora154lbPersona

Running/jogging(5mph)

590

Bicycling(>10mph)

590

Swimming(slowfreestylelaps)

510

Aerobics

480

Walking(4.5mph)

460

Heavyyardwork(choppingwood)

440

Weightlifting(vigorouseffort)

440

Basketball(vigorous)

440

a Caloriesburnedperhourwillbehigherforpersonswhoweighmorethan154lbs(70kg)andlowerforpersonswhoweighless.
Source:Adaptedfromthe2005DGACReport.

Appendix A5 - Page 17

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17

FI G UR E 2 . Adult BMI Chart


Locate the height of interest in the left-most column and read across the row for that height to the weight of interest. Follow the column of the weight up to the
top row that lists the BMI. BMI of 18.524.9 is the healthy weight range, BMI of 2529.9 is the overweight range, and BMI of 30 and above is in the obese range.

BMI

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

Weight in Pounds

Height
4'10"

91

96

100

105

110

115

119

124

129

134

138

143

148

153

158

162

167

4'11"

94

99

104

109

114

119

124

128

133

138

143

148

153

158

163

168

173

5'

97

102

107

112

118

123

128

133

138

143

148

153

158

163

158

174

179

5'1"

100

106

111

116

122

127

132

137

143

148

153

158

164

169

174

180

185

5'2"

104

109

115

120

126

131

136

142

147

153

158

164

169

175

180

186

191

5'3"

107

113

118

124

130

135

141

146

152

158

163

169

175

180

186

191

197

5'4"

110

116

122

128

134

140

145

151

157

163

169

174

180

186

192

197

204

5'5"

114

120

126

132

138

144

150

156

162

168

174

180

186

192

198

204

210

5'6"

118

124

130

136

142

148

155

161

167

173

179

186

192

198

204

210

216

5'7"

121

127

134

140

146

153

159

166

172

178

185

191

198

204

211

217

223

5'8"

125

131

138

144

151

158

164

171

177

184

190

197

203

210

216

223

230

5'9"

128

135

142

149

155

162

169

176

182

189

196

203

209

216

223

230

236

5'10"

132

139

146

153

160

167

174

181

188

195

202

209

216

222

229

236

243

5'11"

136

143

150

157

165

172

179

186

193

200

208

215

222

229

236

243

250

6'

1
40

147

154

162

169

177

184

191

199

206

213

221

228

235

242

250

258

6'1"

144

151

159

166

174

182

189

197

204

212

219

227

235

242

250

257

265

6'2'

148

155

163

171

179

186

194

202

210

218

225

233

241

249

256

264

272

6'3'

152

160

168

176

184

192

200

208

216

224

232

240

248

256

264

272

279

Healthy Weight

Overweight

Obese

Source: Evidence Report of Clinical Guidelines on the Identification, Evaluation, and Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults, 1998. NIH/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI).

D I E TA R Y G U I D E L I N E S F O R A M E R I C A N S , 2 0 0 5

Appendix A5 - Page 18

18

FIGURE3. ExampleofBoysBMIGrowthCurve(2to20years):BoysBodyMassIndexForAgePercentiles
CalculatetheBMIforanindividualchildusingthefollowing:
BMI=Weight(kg)/(Height[cm])2 x10,000orBMI=Weight(lb)/(Height[in])2 x703
Findtheageofthechildonthebottom,xaxis,andreadupthechartfromthatagetothecalculatedBMIontheleftandright,yaxis.Thecurvethatis
closesttothespotwheretheageandBMIofthechildmeetonthegraphindicatetheBMIpercentileforthischildrelativetothepopulation.

PublishedMay30,2000(modified10/16/00).
Source:DevelopedbytheNationalCenterforHealthStatisticsincollaborationwiththeNationalCenterforChronicDiseasePreventionandHealthPromotion.http://www.cdc.gov/growthcharts(2000).
Othergrowthchartsareavailableatthissource.

Appendix A5 - Page 19

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19

chapter

Physical Activity
OVERVIEW
Americans tend to be relatively inactive. In 2002, 25 percent
of adult Americans did not participate in any leisure time
physical activities in the past month,9 and in 2003, 38
percent of students in grades 9 to 12 viewed television 3
or more hours per day.10 Regular physical activity and
physical fitness make important contributions to ones
health, sense of well-being, and maintenance of a healthy
body weight. Physical activity is defined as any bodily
movement produced by skeletal muscles resulting in
energy expenditure (http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/
physical/terms/index.htm). In contrast, physical fitness is

a multi-component trait related to the ability to perform


physical activity. Maintenance of good physical fitness
enables one to meet the physical demands of work and
leisure comfortably. People with higher levels of physical
fitness are also at lower risk of developing chronic disease.
Conversely, a sedentary lifestyle increases risk for over
weight and obesity and many chronic diseases, including
coronary artery disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes,
osteoporosis, and certain types of cancer. Overall,
mortality rates from all causes of death are lower in
physically active people than in sedentary people.
Also, physical activity can aid in managing mild to
moderate depression and anxiety.

Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, Surveillance for Certain Health Behaviors Among Selected Local AreasUnited States, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2002, Morbidity and
Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR), 53, No SS-05. http://www.cdc.gov/brfss/.

10

Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System, Youth Risk Behavior SurveillanceUnited States, 2003 MMWR 53(SS-2):129, 2004. http://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/yrbs/.

D I E TA R Y G U I D E L I N E S F O R A M E R I C A N S , 2 0 0 5

Appendix A5 - Page 20

20

DISCUSSION

KEYRECOMMENDATIONS

Regularphysicalactivityhasbeenshowntoreducethe
riskofcertainchronicdiseases, includinghighblood
pressure, stroke, coronaryarterydisease, type2diabetes,
coloncancerandosteoporosis.Therefore, toreducethe
riskofchronicdisease, itisrecommendedthatadults
engageinatleast30minutesofmoderateintensityphys
icalactivityonmost, preferablyall, daysoftheweek.For
mostpeople, greaterhealthbenefitscanbeobtainedby
engaginginphysicalactivityofmorevigorousintensity
oroflongerduration.Inaddition, physicalactivityappears
topromotepsychologicalwellbeingandreducefeelings
ofmildtomoderatedepressionandanxiety.
Regularphysicalactivityisalsoakeyfactorinachieving
andmaintainingahealthybodyweightforadultsand
children.Topreventthegradualaccumulationofexcess
weightinadulthood, upto30additionalminutesperday
mayberequiredoverthe30minutesforreductionof
chronicdiseaseriskandotherhealthbenefits.Thatis,
approximately60minutesofmoderatetovigorous
intensityphysicalactivityonmostdaysoftheweekmay
beneededtopreventunhealthyweightgain(seetable
4forsomeexamplesofmoderateandvigorousintensity
physicalactivities).Whilemoderateintensityphysical
activitycanachievethedesiredgoal, vigorousintensity
physicalactivitygenerallyprovidesmorebenefitsthan
moderateintensityphysicalactivity.Controlofcaloric
intakeisalsoadvisable.However, tosustainweightloss
forpreviouslyoverweight/obesepeople, about60to90
minutesofmoderateintensityphysicalactivityperday
isrecommended.
Mostadultsdonotneedtoseetheirhealthcareprovider
beforestartingamoderateintensityphysicalactivity
program.However, menolderthan40yearsandwomen
olderthan50yearswhoplanavigorousprogramorwho
haveeitherchronicdiseaseorriskfactorsforchronic
diseaseshouldconsulttheirphysiciantodesignasafe,
effectiveprogram.Itisalsoimportantduringleisuretime
tolimitsedentarybehaviors, suchastelevisionwatching
andvideoviewing, andreplacethemwithactivities
requiringmoremovement.Reducingthesesedentary
activitiesappearstobehelpfulintreatingandpreventing
overweightamongchildrenandadolescents.

Engageinregularphysicalactivityandreduce
sedentaryactivitiestopromotehealth, psychological
wellbeing, andahealthybodyweight.
Toreducetheriskofchronicdiseaseinadulthood:
Engageinatleast30minutesofmoderateintensity
physicalactivity, aboveusualactivity, atworkor
homeonmostdaysoftheweek.
Formostpeople, greaterhealthbenefitscanbe
obtainedbyengaginginphysicalactivityofmore
vigorousintensityorlongerduration.
Tohelpmanagebodyweightandpreventgradual,
unhealthybodyweightgaininadulthood: Engagein
approximately60minutesofmoderatetovigorous
intensityactivityonmostdaysoftheweekwhile
notexceedingcaloricintakerequirements.
Tosustainweightlossinadulthood: Participateinat
least60to90minutesofdailymoderateintensity
physicalactivitywhilenotexceedingcaloricintake
requirements.Somepeoplemayneedtoconsult
withahealthcareproviderbeforeparticipatingin
thislevelofactivity.
Achievephysicalfitnessbyincludingcardiovascular
conditioning, stretchingexercisesforflexibility, and
resistanceexercisesorcalisthenicsformusclestrength
andendurance.
KeyRecommendationsforSpecificPopulationGroups

Childrenandadolescents. Engageinatleast60
minutesofphysicalactivityonmost, preferablyall,
daysoftheweek.
Pregnantwomen. Intheabsenceofmedicalorobstetric
complications, incorporate30minutesormoreof
moderateintensityphysicalactivityonmost, ifnotall,
daysoftheweek.Avoidactivitieswithahighriskof
fallingorabdominaltrauma.
Breastfeedingwomen. Beawarethatneitheracutenor
regularexerciseadverselyaffectsthemothersability
tosuccessfullybreastfeed.
Olderadults. Participateinregularphysicalactivity
toreducefunctionaldeclinesassociatedwithaging
andtoachievetheotherbenefitsofphysicalactivity
identifiedforalladults.

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21

Differentintensitiesandtypesofexerciseconferdifferent
benefits.Vigorousphysicalactivity(e.g., joggingorother
aerobicexercise)providesgreaterbenefitsforphysical
fitnessthandoesmoderatephysicalactivityandburns
morecaloriesperunitoftime.Resistanceexercise(such
asweighttraining, usingweightmachines, andresistance
bandworkouts)increasesmuscularstrengthandendurance
andmaintainsorincreasesmusclemass.Thesebenefits
areseeninadolescents, adults, andolderadultswho
performresistanceexerciseson2ormoredaysperweek.
Also, weightbearingexercisehasthepotentialtoreduce
theriskofosteoporosisbyincreasingpeakbonemass
duringgrowth, maintainingpeakbonemassduringadult
hood, andreducingtherateofbonelossduringaging.In
addition, regularexercisecanhelppreventfalls, whichis
ofparticularimportanceforolderadults.
Thebarrieroftengivenforafailuretobephysically
activeislackoftime.Settingaside30to60consecutive
minuteseachdayforplannedexerciseisonewayto
obtainphysicalactivity, butitisnottheonlyway.Physical
activitymayincludeshortbouts(e.g., 10minutebouts)
of moderateintensityactivity. Theaccumulatedtotalis
whatisimportantbothforhealthandforburningcalories.
Physicalactivitycanbeaccumulatedthroughthreetosix
10minuteboutsoverthecourseofaday.

Properhydrationisimportantwhenparticipatinginphys
icalactivity.Twostepsthathelpavoiddehydration
duringprolongedphysicalactivityorwhenitishot
include: (1)consumingfluidregularlyduringtheactivity
and(2)drinkingseveralglassesofwaterorotherfluid
afterthephysicalactivityiscompleted(seechs.2and8).

Regularphysicalactivity
andphysicalfitness
makeimportantcontri
butionstooneshealth,
senseofwellbeing, and
maintenanceof a
healthybodyweight.

Elevatingthelevelofdailyphysicalactivitymayalso
provideindirectnutritionalbenefits.Asedentarylifestyle
limitsthenumberofcaloriesthatcanbeconsumed
withoutgainingweight.Thehigherapersons physical
activitylevel, thehigherhisorherenergyrequirement
andtheeasieritistoplanadailyfoodintakepatternthat
meetsrecommendednutrientrequirements.

D I E TA R Y G U I D E L I N E S F O R A M E R I C A N S , 2 0 0 5

Appendix A5 - Page 22

23

chapter

FoodGroupsTo Encourage

OVERVIEW
Increasedintakesoffruits, vegetables, wholegrains,
andfatfreeorlowfatmilkandmilkproductsarelikely
tohaveimportanthealthbenefitsformostAmericans.
Whileproteinisanimportantmacronutrientinthediet,
mostAmericansarealreadycurrentlyconsumingenough
(AMDR=10to35percentofcalories)anddonotneedto
increasetheirintake.Assuch, proteinconsumption, while
importantfornutrientadequacy, isnotafocusofthis
document.Althoughassociationshavebeenidentified
betweenspecificfoodgroups(e.g., fruitsandvegetables)
andreducedriskforchronicdiseases, theeffectsareinter
relatedandthehealthbenefitsshouldbeconsideredin

D I E TA R Y G U I D E L I N E S F O R A M E R I C A N S , 2 0 0 5

thecontextofanoverallhealthydietthatdoesnotexceed
calorieneeds(suchastheUSDAFoodGuideortheDASH
EatingPlan;seech.2).Thestrengthoftheevidencefor
theassociationbetweenincreasedintakeoffruitsand
vegetablesandreducedriskofchronicdiseasesisvariable
anddependsonthespecificdisease, butanarrayof
evidencepointstobeneficialhealtheffects.
Comparedwiththemanypeoplewhoconsumeadietary
patternwithonlysmallamountsoffruitsandvegetables,
thosewhoeatmoregenerousamountsaspartofa
healthfuldietarelikelytohavereducedriskofchronic
diseases, includingstrokeandperhapsothercardiovas

Appendix A5 - Page 23

24

culardiseases, type2diabetes, andcancersincertain


sites(oralcavityandpharynx, larynx, lung, esophagus,
stomach, andcolonrectum).Dietsrichinfoodscontaining
fiber, suchasfruits, vegetables, andwholegrains, may
reducetheriskofcoronaryheartdisease.Dietsrichin
milkandmilkproductscanreducetheriskoflowbone
massthroughoutthelifecycle.Theconsumptionofmilk
productsisespeciallyimportantforchildrenandadoles
centswhoarebuildingtheirpeakbonemassand
developinglifelonghabits.Althougheachofthesefood
groupsmayhaveadifferentrelationshipwithdisease
outcomes, theadequateconsumptionofallfoodgroups
contributestooverallhealth.

DISCUSSION
Fruits, vegetables, wholegrains, andmilkproductsare
allimportanttoahealthfuldietandcanbegoodsources
ofthenutrientsofconcern(seech.2).Whenincreasing
intakeoffruits, vegetables, wholegrains, andfatfreeor
lowfatmilkandmilkproducts, itisimportanttodecrease
onesintakeoflessnutrientdensefoodstocontrolcalorie
intake.The2,000calorielevelusedinthediscussionis
areferencelevelonly;itisnotarecommendedcalorie
intakebecausemanyAmericansshouldbeconsuming
fewercaloriestomaintainahealthyweight.
FruitsandVegetables

Fourandonehalfcups(nineservings)offruitsand
vegetablesarerecommendeddailyforthereference
2,000calorielevel, withhigherorloweramounts
dependingonthecaloriclevel.Thisresultsinarangeof21/2
to61/2 cups(5to13servings)offruitsandvegetableseach
dayforthe1,200to3,200calorielevels11 (app.A2).Fruits
andvegetablesprovideavarietyofmicronutrientsand
fiber.Table5providesalistoffruitsandvegetablesthatare
goodsourcesofvitaminsA(ascarotenoids)andC, folate,
andpotassium.Inthefruitgroup, consumption of whole
fruits(fresh, frozen, canned, dried)ratherthanfruitjuice
forthemajorityofthetotaldailyamountissuggestedto
ensureadequatefiberintake.Differentvegetablesarerich
indifferentnutrients.Inthevegetablegroup, weekly
intakeofspecificamountsfromeachoffivevegetable
subgroups(darkgreen, orange, legumes[drybeans],

KEYRECOMMENDATIONS
Consumeasufficientamountoffruitsandvegetables
whilestayingwithinenergyneeds.Twocupsoffruit
and21/2 cupsofvegetablesperdayarerecommended
forareference2,000calorieintake, withhigheror
loweramountsdependingonthecalorielevel.
Chooseavarietyoffruitsandvegetableseachday.In
particular, selectfromallfivevegetablesubgroups
(darkgreen, orange, legumes, starchyvegetables, and
othervegetables)severaltimesaweek.
Consume3ormoreounceequivalentsofwholegrain
productsperday, withtherestoftherecommended
grainscomingfromenrichedorwholegrainproducts.
Ingeneral, atleasthalfthegrainsshouldcomefrom
wholegrains.
Consume3cupsperdayoffatfreeorlowfatmilkor
equivalentmilkproducts.
KeyRecommendationsforSpecificPopulationGroups

Childrenandadolescents. Consumewholegrainprod
uctsoften;atleasthalfthegrainsshouldbewhole
grains.Children2to8yearsshouldconsume2cups
perdayoffatfreeorlowfatmilkorequivalentmilk
products.Children9yearsofageandoldershould
consume3cupsperdayoffatfreeorlowfatmilkor
equivalentmilkproducts.

starchy, andothervegetables)12 isrecommendedfor


adequatenutrientintake.Eachsubgroupprovidesasome
whatdifferentarrayofnutrients.IntheUSDAFoodGuide
atthereference2,000calorielevel, thefollowingweekly
amountsarerecommended:
Darkgreenvegetables
3cups/week
Orangevegetables
2cups/week
Legumes(drybeans)
3cups/week
Starchyvegetables
3cups/week
Othervegetables
61/2 cups/week
Mostcurrentconsumptionpatternsdonotachievethe
recommendedintakesofmanyofthesevegetables.The
DASHEatingPlanandtheUSDAFoodGuidesuggest
increasingintakesofdarkgreenvegetables, orange

11

SeeappendixA2andtableD116fromthe2005DGACReport(orUSDAwebsite)forinformationonchildrenage2to3years.

12

Includesallfresh,frozen,canned,cooked,orrawformsofvegetables.Examplesofvegetablesaredarkgreen(broccoli,spinach,mostgreens);orange(carrots,sweetpotatoes,wintersquash,
pumpkin);legumes(drybeans,chickpeas,tofu);starchy(corn,whitepotatoes,greenpeas);other(tomatoes,cabbage,celery,cucumber,lettuce,onions,peppers,greenbeans,cauliflower,mush
rooms,summersquash).

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25

vegetables, andlegumes(drybeans)aspartoftheoverall
recommendationtohaveanadequateintakeoffruitsand
vegetables(seech.2).
WholeGrains

Inadditiontofruitsandvegetables, wholegrainsare
animportantsourceoffiberandothernutrients.Whole
grains, aswellasfoodsmadefromthem, consistofthe
entiregrainseed, usuallycalledthekernel.Thekernelis
madeofthreecomponentsthebran, thegerm, andthe
endosperm.Ifthekernelhasbeencracked, crushed, or
flaked, thenitmustretainnearlythesamerelativepropor
tionsofbran, germ, andendospermastheoriginalgrain
tobecalledwholegrain.Inthegrainrefiningprocess,
mostofthebranandsomeofthegermisremoved,
resultinginthelossofdietaryfiber(alsoknownascereal
fiber), vitamins, minerals, lignans, phytoestrogens,
phenoliccompounds, andphyticacid.Somemanufac
turersaddbrantograinproductstoincreasethedietary
fibercontent.Refinedgrainsaretheresultingproduct
ofthegrainrefiningprocessing.Mostrefinedgrainsare
enrichedbeforebeingfurtherprocessedintofoods.
Enrichedrefinedgrainproductsthatconformtostandards
ofidentityarerequiredbylawtobefortifiedwithfolic
acid, aswellasthiamin, riboflavin, niacin, andiron.Food
manufacturersmayfortifywholegrainfoodswhere
regulationspermittheadditionoffolicacid.Currently, a
numberofwholegrain, readytoeatbreakfastcerealsare
fortifiedwithfolicacid.Asillustratedbythecomparison
ofwholewheatandenrichedwhitefloursintable6, many
nutrientsoccurathigherorsimilarlevelsinwholegrains
whencomparedtoenrichedgrains, butwholegrainshave
lessfolateunlesstheyhavebeenfortifiedwithfolicacid.
Consumingatleast3ormoreounceequivalentsofwhole
grainsperdaycanreducetheriskofseveralchronic
diseasesandmayhelpwithweightmaintenance.Thus,
dailyintakeofatleast3ounceequivalentsofwhole
grainsperdayisrecommendedbysubstitutingwhole
grainsforrefinedgrains.However, becausethreeservings
maybedifficultforyoungerchildrentoachieve, itis
recommendedthattheyincreasewholegrainsintotheir
dietsastheygrow.Atallcalorielevels, allagegroups

D I E TA R Y G U I D E L I N E S F O R A M E R I C A N S , 2 0 0 5

Increasedintakes
offruits, vegetables,
wholegrains, and
fatfreeorlowfat
milkandmilk
productsarelikely
tohaveimportant
healthbenefitsfor
mostAmericans.

shouldconsumeatleasthalfthegrainsaswholegrains
toachievethefiberrecommendation.Allgrainservings
canbewholegrain;however, itisadvisabletoinclude
somefolatefortifiedproducts, suchasfolatefortified
wholegraincereals, inthesewholegrainchoices.
Wholegrainscannotbeidentifiedbythecolorofthefood;
labelreadingskillsareneeded.Table7identifiesnames
ofwholegrainsthatareavailableintheUnitedStates.
Forinformationabouttheingredientsinwholegrainand
enrichedgrainproducts, readtheingredientlistonthe
foodlabel.Formanywholegrainproducts, thewords
whole orwholegrain willappearbeforethegrain
ingredientsname.Thewholegrainshouldbethefirst
ingredientlisted.Wheatflour, enrichedflour, anddegermi
natedcornmealarenotwholegrains.TheFoodandDrug
Administrationrequiresfoodsthatbearthewholegrain
healthclaimto(1)contain51percentormorewholegrain
ingredientsbyweightperreferenceamountand(2)be
lowinfat.

Appendix A5 - Page 25

26

MilkandMilkProducts

Anothersourceofnutrientsismilkandmilkproducts.
Milkproductconsumptionhasbeenassociatedwith
overalldietqualityandadequacyofintakeofmanynutri
ents.Theintakeofmilkproductsisespeciallyimportant
tobonehealthduringchildhoodandadolescence.Studies
specificallyonmilkandothermilkproducts, suchas
yogurtandcheese, showedapositiverelationship
betweentheintakeofmilkandmilkproductsandbone
mineralcontentorbonemineraldensityinoneormore
skeletalsites(seetable1forinformationonequivalent
amountsofmilkproducts).

Adultsandchildrenshouldnotavoidmilkandmilkprod
uctsbecauseofconcernsthatthesefoodsleadtoweight
gain.Therearemanyfatfreeandlowfatchoiceswithout
addedsugarsthatareavailableandconsistentwithan
overallhealthydietaryplan.Ifapersonwantstoconsider
milkalternativesbecauseoflactoseintolerance, themost
reliableandeasiestwaystoderivethehealthbenefits
associatedwithmilkandmilkproductconsumptionisto
choosealternativeswithinthemilkfoodgroup, suchas
yogurtorlactosefreemilk, ortoconsumetheenzyme
lactasepriortotheconsumptionofmilkproducts.For
individualswhochoosetoormustavoidallmilkproducts
(e.g., individualswithlactoseintolerance, vegans), non
dairycalciumcontainingalternativesmaybeselectedto
helpmeetcalciumneeds(app.B4).

TABLE5.Fruits,Vegetables,andLegumes(DryBeans)ThatContainVitaminA(Carotenoids),
VitaminC,Folate,andPotassium
Manyofthefruits,vegetables,andlegumes(beans)areconsideredtobeimportantsourcesofvitaminA(ascarotenoids),vitaminC,andpotassiuminthe
adultpopulation.Intakesofthesenutrients,basedondietaryintakedataorevidenceofpublichealthproblems,maybeofconcern.Alsolistedaresources
ofnaturallyoccurringfolate,anutrientconsideredtobeofconcernforwomenofchildbearingageandthoseinthefirsttrimesterofpregnancy.Folicacid
fortifiedgrainproducts,notlistedinthistable,arealsogoodsources.
SourcesofvitaminA(carotenoids)(seeapp.B6)
Brightorangevegetableslikecarrots,sweetpotatoes,andpumpkin
Tomatoesandtomatoproducts,redsweetpepper
Leafygreenssuchasspinach,collards,turnipgreens,kale,beetandmustardgreens,greenleaflettuce,andromaine
Orangefruitslikemango,cantaloupe,apricots,andredorpinkgrapefruit

SourcesofvitaminC
Citrusfruitsandjuices,kiwifruit,strawberries,guava,papaya,andcantaloupe
Broccoli,peppers,tomatoes,cabbage(especiallyChinesecabbage),brusselssprouts,andpotatoes
Leafygreenssuchasromaine,turnipgreens,andspinach
Sourcesoffolate
Cookeddrybeansandpeas
Orangesandorangejuice
Deepgreenleaveslikespinachandmustardgreens
Sourcesofpotassium(seeapp.B1)
Bakedwhiteorsweetpotatoes,cookedgreens(suchasspinach),winter(orange)squash
Bananas,plantains,manydriedfruits,orangesandorangejuice,cantaloupe,andhoneydewmelons
Cookeddrybeans
Soybeans(greenandmature)
Tomatoproducts(sauce,paste,puree)
Beetgreens

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27

TABLE6.Comparisonof100GramsofWholeGrainWheatFlourandEnriched,Bleached,White,AllPurposeFlour
Someofthenutrientsofconcernandthefortificationnutrientsin100percentwholewheatflourandenriched,bleached,allpurposewhite(wheat)flour.
Dietaryfiber,calcium,magnesiumandpotassium,nutrientsofconcern,occurinmuchhigherconcentrationsinthewholewheatflourona100grambasis
(percent).Thefortificationnutrientsthiamin,riboflavin,niacin,andironaresimilarinconcentrationbetweenthetwoflours,butfolate,asDietaryFolate
Equivalent(DFE),g,ishigherintheenrichedwhiteflour.
100PercentWholeGrainWheatFlour

Enriched,Bleached,AllPurposeWhiteFlour

339.0

364.0

Dietaryfiber,g

12.2

2.7

Calcium,mg

34.0

15.0

Magnesium,mg

138.0

22.0

Potassium,mg

405.0

107.0

Folate,DFE,g

44.0

291.0

Thiamin,mg

0.5

0.8

Riboflavin,mg

0.2

0.5

Niacin,mg

6.4

5.9

Iron,mg

3.9

4.6

Calories,kcal

Source:AgriculturalResearchServiceNutrientDatabaseforStandardReference,Release17.

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Appendix A5 - Page 27

28

TABLE7.WholeGrainsAvailableintheUnitedStates
WholegrainsthatareconsumedintheUnitedStateseitherasasinglefood(e.g.,wildrice,popcorn)orasaningredientinamultiingredientfood(e.g.,in
multigrainbreads).Thislistingofwholegrainswasdeterminedfromabreakdownoffoodsreportedconsumedinnationwidefoodconsumptionsurveys,
byamountconsumed.Thefoodsarelistedinapproximateorderofamountconsumed,buttheordermaychangeovertime.Inaddition,otherwholegrains
maybeconsumedthatarenotyetrepresentedinthesurveys.
Wholewheat
Wholeoats/oatmeal
Wholegraincorn
Popcorn
Brownrice
Wholerye
Wholegrainbarley
Wildrice
Buckwheat
Triticale
Bulgur(crackedwheat)
Millet
Quinoa
Sorghum
Source:AgricultureResearchServiceDatabaseforCSFII19941996.

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29

chapter

Fats
OVERVIEW

DISCUSSION

Fats and oils are part of a healthful diet, but the type of
fat makes a difference to heart health, and the total
amount of fat consumed is also important. High intake of
saturated fats, trans fats, and cholesterol increases the risk
of unhealthy blood lipid levels, which, in turn, may increase
the risk of coronary heart disease. A high intake of fat
(greater than 35 percent of calories) generally increases
saturated fat intake and makes it more difficult to avoid
consuming excess calories. A low intake of fats and oils
(less than 20 percent of calories) increases the risk of inadequate intakes of vitamin E and of essential fatty acids and
may contribute to unfavorable changes in high-density
lipoprotein (HDL) blood cholesterol and triglycerides.

Fats supply energy and essential fatty acids and serve as


a carrier for the absorption of the fat-soluble vitamins A, D,
E, and K and carotenoids. Fats serve as building blocks
of membranes and play a key regulatory role in numerous
biological functions. Dietary fat is found in foods derived
from both plants and animals. The recommended total fat
intake is between 20 and 35 percent of calories for adults.
A fat intake of 30 to 35 percent of calories is recommended
for children 2 to 3 years of age and 25 to 35 percent of
calories for children and adolescents 4 to 18 years of age.
Few Americans consume less than 20 percent of calories
from fat. Fat intakes that exceed 35 percent of calories are
associated with both total increased saturated fat and
calorie intakes.

D I E TA R Y G U I D E L I N E S F O R A M E R I C A N S , 2 0 0 5

Appendix A5 - Page 29

30

Todecreasetheirriskofelevatedlowdensitylipoprotein
(LDL)cholesterolintheblood, mostAmericansneedto
decreasetheirintakesofsaturatedfatandtrans fats, and
manyneedtodecreasetheirdietaryintakeofcholesterol.
Becausementendtohavehigherintakesofdietary
cholesterol, itisespeciallyimportantforthemtomeetthis
recommendation.PopulationbasedstudiesofAmerican
dietsshowthatintakeofsaturatedfatismoreexcessive
thanintakeoftrans fatsandcholesterol.Therefore, itis
mostimportantforAmericanstodecreasetheirintake
ofsaturatedfat.However, intakeofallthreeshouldbe
decreasedtomeetrecommendations.Table8shows, for
selectedcalorielevels, themaximumgramamounts
ofsaturatedfattoconsumetokeepsaturatedfatintake
below10percentoftotalcalorieintake.Thistablemay
beusefulwhencombinedwithlabelreadingguidance.
Table9givesafewpracticalexamplesofthedifferences
inthesaturatedfatcontentofdifferentformsofcommonly
consumedfoods.Table10providesthemajordietary
sourcesofsaturatedfatsintheU.S.dietlistedin
decreasingorder.Dietscanbeplannedtomeetnutrient
recommendationsforlinoleicacidandlinolenicacid
whileprovidingverylowamountsofsaturatedfattyacids.
Basedon19941996data, theestimatedaveragedaily
intakeoftrans fatsintheUnitedStateswasabout2.6
percentoftotalenergyintake.Processedfoodsandoils
provideapproximately80percentoftrans fatsinthediet,
comparedto20percentthatoccurnaturallyinfoodfrom
animalsources.Table11providesthemajordietary
sourcesoftrans fatslistedindecreasingorder.Trans fat
contentofcertainprocessedfoodshaschangedandis
likelytocontinuetochangeastheindustryreformulates
products.Becausethetrans fattyacidsproducedinthe
partialhydrogenationofvegetableoilsaccountformore
than80percentoftotalintake, thefoodindustryhasan
importantroleindecreasingtrans fattyacidcontentofthe
foodsupply.Limitedconsumptionoffoodsmadewith
processedsourcesoftrans fatsprovidesthemosteffective
meansofreducingintakeoftrans fats.Bylookingatthe
foodlabel, consumerscanselectproductsthatarelowest
insaturatedfat, trans fats,13 andcholesterol.
Tomeetthetotalfatrecommendationof20to35percent
ofcalories, mostdietaryfatsshouldcomefromsourcesof

13

KEYRECOMMENDATIONS
Consumelessthan10percentofcaloriesfrom
saturatedfattyacidsandlessthan300mg/day
ofcholesterol, andkeeptrans fattyacidconsumption
aslowaspossible.
Keeptotalfatintakebetween20to35percentofcalo
ries, withmostfatscomingfromsourcesof
polyunsaturatedandmonounsaturatedfattyacids,
suchasfish, nuts, andvegetableoils.
Whenselectingandpreparingmeat, poultry, drybeans,
andmilkormilkproducts, makechoicesthatarelean,
lowfat, orfatfree.
Limitintakeoffatsandoilshighinsaturatedand/or
trans fattyacids, andchooseproductslowinsuch
fatsandoils.
KeyRecommendationsforSpecificPopulationGroups

Childrenandadolescents. Keeptotalfatintake
between30to35percentofcaloriesforchildren2to
3yearsofageandbetween25to35percentofcalo
riesforchildrenandadolescents4to18yearsofage,
withmostfatscomingfromsourcesofpolyunsatu
ratedandmonounsaturatedfattyacids, suchasfish,
nuts, andvegetableoils.

polyunsaturatedandmonounsaturatedfattyacids.
Sourcesofomega6polyunsaturatedfattyacidsare
liquidvegetableoils, includingsoybeanoil, cornoil, and
saffloweroil.Plantsourcesofomega3polyunsaturated
fattyacids(linolenicacid)includesoybeanoil, canola
oil, walnuts, andflaxseed.Eicosapentaenoicacid(EPA)
anddocosahexaenoicacid(DHA)areomega3fattyacids
thatarecontainedinfishandshellfish.Fishthatnaturally
containmoreoil(e.g., salmon, trout, herring)arehigher
inEPAandDHAthanareleanfish(e.g., cod, haddock,
catfish).Limitedevidencesuggestsanassociation
betweenconsumptionoffattyacidsinfishandreduced
risksofmortalityfromcardiovasculardiseaseforthe
generalpopulation.OthersourcesofEPAandDHAmay
providesimilarbenefits;however, moreresearchis
needed.Plantsourcesthatarerichinmonounsaturated
fattyacidsincludevegetableoils(e.g., canola, olive, high
oleicsafflower, andsunfloweroils)thatareliquidatroom
temperatureandnuts.

Includingtheamountoftrans fatsontheNutritionFactsPanelisvoluntaryuntilJanuary2006.

Appendix A5 - Page 30

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31

ConsiderationsforSpecificPopulationGroups

Evidencesuggeststhatconsumingapproximatelytwo
servingsoffishperweek(approximately8ouncestotal)
mayreducetheriskofmortalityfromcoronaryheart
diseaseandthatconsumingEPAandDHAmayreduce
theriskofmortalityfromcardiovasculardiseaseinpeople
whohavealreadyexperiencedacardiacevent.
FederalandStateadvisoriesprovidecurrentinformation
aboutloweringexposuretoenvironmentalcontaminants
infish.Forexample, methylmercuryisaheavymetaltoxin
foundinvaryinglevelsinnearlyallfishandshellfish.For
mostpeople, theriskfrommercurybyeatingfishand
shellfishisnotahealthconcern.However, somefish
containhigherlevelsofmercurythatmayharmanunborn
babyoryoungchild'sdevelopingnervoussystem.The
risksfrommercuryinfishandshellfishdependonthe
amountoffisheatenandthelevelsofmercuryinthefish.
Therefore, theFoodandDrugAdministration(FDA)and
theEnvironmentalProtectionAgencyareadvisingwomen
ofchildbearingagewhomaybecomepregnant, pregnant
women, nursingmothers, andyoungchildrentoavoid
sometypesoffishandshellfishandeatfishandshellfish
thatarelowerinmercury. Formoreinformation, callFDAs
foodinformationlinetollfreeat1888SAFEFOODorvisit
http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/admehg3.html.

TABLE8.MaximumDailyAmountsofSaturated
FatToKeepSaturatedFatBelow10PercentofTotal
CalorieIntake

mostAmericans
needtodecreasetheir
intakesofsaturated
fatandtrans fats,
and manyneedto
decreasetheirdietary
intakeofcholesterol.

Lowerintakes(lessthan7percentofcaloriesfromsatu
rated fatandlessthan200mg/dayofcholesterol)are
recommendedaspartofatherapeuticdietforadultswith
elevatedLDLbloodcholesterol(i.e., abovetheirLDLblood
cholesterolgoal[seetable12]).Peoplewithanelevated
LDLbloodcholesterollevelshouldbeunderthecareofa
healthcareprovider.

TotalCalorieIntake

1,600

LimitonSaturated
FatIntake
18gorless

Themaximumgramamountsofsaturatedfatthatcanbeconsumedto
keepsaturatedfatintakebelow 10 percentoftotalcalorieintakefor
selectedcalorielevels.A2,000calorieexampleisincludedforconsistency

2,000

20gorless

2,200

24gorless

withthefoodlabel.Thistablemaybeusefulwhencombinedwithlabel
readingguidance.

2,500

25gorless

2,800

31gorless

a PercentDailyValuesontheNutritionFactsPaneloffoodlabelsarebasedona2,000caloriediet.
Valuesfor2,000and2,500caloriesareroundedtothenearest5gramstobeconsistentwiththe
NutritionFactsPanel.

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TABLE9. DifferencesinSaturatedFatandCalorieContentofCommonlyConsumedFoods
Thistableshowsafewpracticalexamplesofthedifferencesinthesaturatedfatcontentofdifferentformsofcommonlyconsumedfoods.Comparisonsare
madebetweenfoodsinthesamefoodgroup(e.g.,regularcheddarcheeseandlowfatcheddarcheese),illustratingthatlowersaturatedfatchoicescanbe
madewithinthesamefoodgroup.
FoodCategory

Portion

SaturatedFatContent(grams)

Calories

Regularcheddarcheese

1oz

6.0

114

Lowfatcheddarcheese

1oz

1.2

49

Regulargroundbeef(25%fat)

3oz(cooked)

6.1

236

Extraleangroundbeef(5%fat)

3oz(cooked)

2.6

148

Wholemilk(3.24%)

1cup

4.6

146

Lowfat(1%)milk

1cup

1.5

102

Croissant(med)

1medium

6.6

231

Bagel,oatbran(4")

1medium

0.2

227

Cheese

Groundbeef

Milk

Breads

Frozendesserts
Regularicecream

1/2

cup

4.9

145

Frozenyogurt,lowfat

1/2

cup

2.0

110

Butter

1tsp

2.4

34

Softmargarinewithzerotrans

1 tsp

0.7

25

Friedchicken(legwithskin)

3oz(cooked)

3.3

212

Roastedchicken(breastnoskin)

3oz(cooked)

0.9

140

Friedfish

3oz

2.8

195

Bakedfish

3 oz

1.5

129

Tablespreads

Chicken

Fish

Source:ARSNutrientDatabaseforStandardReference,Release17.

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TABLE10. ContributionofVariousFoodstoSaturatedFatIntakeintheAmericanDiet(MeanIntake=25.5g)
ThemajordietarysourcesofsaturatedfatsintheU.S.dietlistedindecreasingorder.
FoodGroup

Contribution
(percentoftotalsatfatconsumed)

Cheese

13.1

Beef

11.7

Milk

7.8

Oils

4.9

Icecream/sherbet/frozenyogurt

4.7

Cakes/cookies/quickbreads/doughnuts

4.7

Butter

4.6
b

Otherfats

4.4

Saladdressings/mayonnaise

3.7

Poultry

3.6

Margarine

3.2

Sausage

3.1

Potatochips/cornchips/popcorn

2.9

Yeastbread

2.6

Eggs

2.3

a Themilkcategory includesallmilk,includingwholemilk,lowfatmilk,andfatfreemilk.

b Shorteningandanimalfats

Source:AdaptedfromCottonPA,SubarAF,FridayJE,CookA,DietarySourcesofNutrientsamongU.S.Adults,19941996.JADA 104:921931,2004.

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TABLE11. ContributionofVariousFoodstoTransFatIntakeintheAmericanDiet(MeanIntake=5.84g)
Themajordietarysourcesoftrans fatslistedindecreasingorder.Processedfoodsandoilsprovideapproximately80percentoftransfatsinthediet,
comparedto20percentthatoccurnaturallyinfoodfromanimalsources.Transfatscontentofcertainprocessedfoodshaschangedandislikelyto
continuetochangeastheindustryreformulatesproducts.
FoodGroup

Contribution
(percentoftotaltrans fatsconsumed)

Cakes,cookies,crackers,pies,bread,etc.

40

Animalproducts

21

Margarine

17

Friedpotatoes

Potatochips,cornchips,popcorn

Householdshortening

Other

a Includesbreakfastcerealandcandy.USDAanalysisreported0gramsoftrans fatsinsaladdressing.
Source:AdaptedfromFederalRegister notice.FoodLabeling;TransFatty AcidsinNutritionLabeling;ConsumerResearchToConsiderNutrientContentandHealthClaimsandPossibleFootnoteor
DisclosureStatements;FinalRuleandProposedRule. Vol.68,No.133,p.4143341506,July11,2003.Datacollected19941996.

TABLE12. RelationshipBetweenLDLBloodCholesterolGoalandtheLevelofCoronary HeartDiseaseRisk


InformationforadultswithelevatedLDL bloodcholesterol.LDLbloodcholesterolgoalsfortheseindividualsarerelatedtothelevelofcoronaryheart
diseaserisk.PeoplewithanelevatedLDLbloodcholesterolvalueshouldmaketherapeuticlifestylechanges(diet,physicalactivity,weightcontrol)underthe
careofahealthcareprovidertolowerLDLbloodcholesterol.
IfSomeoneHas:

LDLBloodCholesterolGoalIs:
a

CHD orCHDriskequivalent

Lessthan100mg/dL
b

TwoormoreriskfactorsotherthanelevatedLDLbloodcholesterol
b

ZerooroneriskfactorotherthanelevatedLDLbloodcholesterol

Lessthan130mg/dL
Lessthan160mg/dL

a CHD(coronaryheartdisease)riskequivalent=presenceofclinicalatheroscleroticdiseasethatconfershighriskforCHDevents:
ClinicalCHD
Symptomaticcarotidarterydisease
Peripheralarterialdisease
Abdominalaorticaneurysm
Diabetes
Twoormoreriskfactorswith>20%riskforCHD (ormyocardialinfarctionorCHDdeath)within10years
b MajorriskfactorsthataffectyourLDLgoal:
Cigarettesmoking
Highbloodpressure(140/90mmHgorhigheroronbloodpressuremedication)
Low HDLbloodcholesterol(lessthan40mg/dL)
Familyhistoryofearlyheartdisease(heartdiseaseinfatherorbrotherbeforeage55;heartdiseaseinmotherorsisterbeforeage65)
Age(men45yearsorolder;women55yearsorolder)
Source:NIHPublicationNo.013290,U.S.DepartmentofHealthandHumanServices,NationalInstitutesofHealth,NationalHeart,Lung,andBloodInstitute,NationalCholesterolEducationProgram
Brochure,HighBloodCholesterolWhatYouNeedtoKnow,May2001.http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/public/heart/chol/hbc_what.htm.

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chapter

7
7

Carbohydrates

OVERVIEW
Carbohydratesarepartofahealthfuldiet.TheAMDRfor
carbohydratesis45to65percentoftotalcalories.Dietary
fiberiscomposedofnondigestiblecarbohydratesand
ligninintrinsicandintactinplants.Dietsrichindietary
fiberhavebeenshowntohaveanumberofbenefici