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Design of Machine Element: Shaft

Shaft

A rotating Machine member, usually circular


cross section, used to transmit power or
motion.
Shaft, Axle, Spindle
1

Shafts
Shaft may be integral part of the driver (motor shaft, engine crank
shaft etc.) or may be freestanding shaft connected to another shaft
by coupling.
An axle is a non-rotating member that carries no torque and is used
to support rotating wheels, pulleys etc. (Exception->Automotive
axle)
Main design criteria is either strength or deflection & rigidity.
(Torsional rigidity / Lateral rigidity)

Deflection is not affected by strength, but by stiffness.

Mostly made of low carbon, cold-drawn or hot-rolled steel

Shaft Material
Cold drawn steel is more often used for small (dia<3in) and Hot
rolled steel used for larger sizes

Shafts usually dont need to be surface hardened unless they serve as


the actual journal of a bearing surface
Typical material choices for surface hardened shaft include
carburizing grades of ANSI 1020, 4320, 4820, and 8620
Hot rolled steel should be machined all over to remove the carburized
outer layer.
Cast iron may be specified if the gear / pully are to be integrally cast
with the shaft
Stainless steel may be appropriate for some environments

Shaft fittings: Keys, Splines, Set Screws

Shaft Layout
Generally, the geometry of a shaft is a stepped cylinder.
Each shoulder in the shaft serves a specific purpose

Circlips / Snap rings

Design of Keys and Pins

Square Key

Round pin

Round Key

Taper pin

Round pin

Split tubular
spring pin

Design of Keys and Pins

Two special types of keys:


(a) Gib-head key, and
(b) Woodruff key

Design of Keys and Pins


Dimensions of rectangular and square keys: Table 7-6 and
Woodruff Keys: Table 7-7 and 7-8.
Most often the keys are subjected, as shown, to direct shear
along ab and crushing. Here the shear area is given by

A=l*t
Here l is the length of the hub.
T = P/(2N), where P is the power in Watts and N is the
speed of the shaft in RPS.
F = T/r, T= Torque being transferred.

F S sy
Direct shear :
tl
n

Sy
F
Crushing :

tl 2 n

Loose Pins:

The loose pin mostly used for transmitting axial load


It is a double shear case, where there are two areas supporting the total shear
load. Hence shear stress = (1/2)(4V/2A)

Speed Reducer

Reducing Stress Concentration at shoulder


Suggested techniques for reducing stress
concentration at a shoulder supporting a ball bearing

(a) Large radius undercut into the shoulder.


(b) Large radius relief groove into the back of the shoulder.

Estimating Stress Concentrations


Stress
concentrations
for shoulders
and keyways are
dependent on
size
specifications
that may not be
known the first
time through the
process

But these
elements are
usually of
standard
proportions, it is
possible to
estimate the
stress
concentration
factors for initial
design of the
shaft

These stress
concentrations
are then finetuned in
successive
iterations, once
the details are
known

Estimating Stress Concentrations


First iteration estimates for Stress Concentration Factors Kt

Table 71

Design for static load (building up the formulas)

Consider a non rotating shaft subjected to bending Moment M and


Torsional moment T.

32 M
16T
,

xy
d 3
d 3

By M ax Shear Stress Theorem, max

x y
2

2 xy2

16
d 3

M 2 T 2

Now, let the safety factor be N


S yt

32 N

2
2
2
M T
N
d

max
S y

Distrotion Energy Theorem

When the shaft rotates but


Torsional load remain steady

1
3

32 N M 2 T 2
d

S y
S e

2 22 1 2

1
3

When both2 bending &2Torsional load


2
2

x
x

2
x x xy has
xy as well
asxy fluctuatin
3 xy
steady
x2 g part
2

32 N 32 N
Safety factor N
d d M 2

S y
S yt

1
3

M
3T 2M a
m
Sy
4 S e

Ta
T
m
Se
Sy

1
3

Shaft Design for Strength


Design is for critical section. Axial stresses on shafts due to helical
gears or tapered roller bearings is almost always negligible as
compared to the stress due to bending moment or torsion
For Solid Shaft:

Where
Mm and Ma are the midrange and alternating bending moments,
Tm and Ta are the midrange and alternating torques, and
Kf and Kf s are the fatigue stress concentration factors for bending and torsion

Shaft Design for Stress


Combining these and for Von Mises stresses for rotating round,
solid shafts, neglecting axial loads, are given by

These equivalent alternating and midrange stresses can be


evaluated using an appropriate failure curve i.e Mod-Goodman,
Soderberg, Gerbers or ASME elliptic

Shaft Design for Stress


For example, the fatigue failure criteria for the
modified Goodman line expressed as

Modified Goodman

Shaft Design for Stress


Similar expressions can be obtained for any of the
common failure criteria

ASME Elliptic

Soderberg

Shaft Design for Stress


Gerber

Q. The figure shows a shaft mounted in bearings at A and D


and having pulleys at B and C. The forces shown acting on
the pulley surfaces represent the belt tensions. The shaft is to
be made of AISI 1035 CD steel using a design factor of 2.
Based on MSS & DE What diameter should be used for the
shaft?

Q. A 40 kW electric motor runns at 720 rpm. The motor shaft is


mounted on two bearings and the over hanging side carries a
pulley that is keyed into it. The length between bearing is 1 meter
and carries an armature of length 700mm centrally. The magnetic
pull on the armature is 7kN. The overhanging portion of the shaft is
300mm long. The total belt tension in the pulley is 4kN with a ratio
of 3:1 for tight and slack side. The shaft is made of steel having Sut
= 770 MPa and yield strength Sy = 580 MPa. Find the required
shaft diameter and design the key. Assume combined shock and
fatigue factor for bending as 1.5.

Q. A shaft of 25mm diameter transmits 15kw power at 720rpm


through a gear that is fixed with a square key. The key material
is lower grade steel with yield strength in tension 460 MPa and
yield strength in shear 210 MPa. Design the key with a safety
factor of 3

Q. A uniform diameter shaft, cold drawn from steel (tabulated


endurance limit 250 MPa and yield strength 300 MPa) is
subjected to fluctuating bending moment that varies from
+400 Nm to -100 Nm. Find the diameter of the shaft assuming
appropriate failure theory and 90% reliability. Clearly state all
assumptions made.