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BOOK REVIEW IN COMMUNICATIONS

Electronic Communications System By

Wayne Tomasi

CHAPTER
15
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ANTENNAS AND WAVEGUIDES

DEFINITIONS

TERMS

1)

A metallic conductor system capable of radiating


and capturing electromagnetic energy

2)

Couples energy from a transmitter to an antenna or


from antenna to a receiver

3)

A special type of transmission line that consists of


a
conducting metallic tube through which high-frequency
electromagnetic energy is propagated.

4)

Electrical energy that has escaped into free space


in the
form of transverse electromagnetic waves

5)

The plane parallel to the mutually perpendicular


lines of
the electric and magnetic fields.

6)

The ratio of radiated to reflected energy.

7)

Antenna wherein two conductors are spread out in


a straight line to a total length of one quarter
wavelength.

8)

Another name for quarter wave antenna.

9)

A half-wave dipole.

10)

A special coupling device that can be used to


direct the transmit and receive signals and provide the
necessary isolation.

Prepared By : MA. ELAINE L. CORTEZ

Antenna

Transmission Lines

Waveguide

Radio Waves

Wavefront

Radiation Efficiency

Quarter Wave Antenna

Vertical Monopole or
Marconi
Hertz Antenna

Diplexer

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BOOK REVIEW IN COMMUNICATIONS

Electronic Communications System By

Wayne Tomasi

11)

A polar diagram or graph representing field


strengths or power densities at various angular
positions relative to an antenna.

12)

Radiation pattern plotted in terms of electric field


strength or power density.

Absolute Radiation
Pattern

13)

Radiation pattern plots field strength or power


density
with respect to the value at a reference

Relative Radiation

14)

The primary beam of an antenna.

15)

The major lobes that propagates and receive


the most energy.

Front Lobe

16)

Lobes adjacent to the front lobe.

Side lobes

17)

The secondary beam of an antenna.

18)

Lobes in a direction exactly opposite the front lobe

Radiation Pattern

Major Lobes

Minor Lobes
Back Lobe

19)

The ratio of the front lobe power to the back lobe


power.

Front to Back Ratio

20)

The ratio of the front lobe to a side lobe.

Front to Side Ratio

21)

The line bisecting the major lobe, or pointing from


the center of the antenna in the direction of
maximum
radiation.

22)

Antenna that radiates energy equally in all


directions.

23)

Line of Shoot or Point


of Shoot

Omni-directional
Antenna
Isotropic Radiator

Radiates power at a constant rate uniformly in all


Prepared By : MA. ELAINE L. CORTEZ

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BOOK REVIEW IN COMMUNICATIONS

Electronic Communications System By

Wayne Tomasi

directions.

24)

The direction in which an antenna is always


pointing.

25)

It is defined as an equivalent transmit power. It


stands
for Effective Isotropic Radiated Power.

26)

The equivalent power that an isotropic antenna


would have to radiate to achieve the same power
density in the chosen direction at a given point as
another antenna.

27)

The power density in space and the actual power


that a receive antenna produces at its output
terminals.

28)

It describe the reception properties of an antenna

29)

Another name for capture area.

30)

The relationship of captured power to the received


power density and the effective capture area of the
received antenna.

31)

It refers to the orientation of the electric field


radiated
from the antenna.

32)

The angular separation between the two half-power


(-3dB) points on the major lobe of an antenna's plane
radiation pattern.

33)

The frequency range over which antenna operation


is satisfactory.

34)

Another name for antenna input terminal

Maximum Radiation

EIRP

Effective Radiated Power


(ERP) or (EIRP)

Captured Power Density

Capture Area
Effective Area

Directly Proportional

Polarization

Antenna Beamwidth

Antenna Bandwidth

Feedpoint
Prepared By : MA. ELAINE L. CORTEZ

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BOOK REVIEW IN COMMUNICATIONS

Electronic Communications System By

Wayne Tomasi

35)

36)

The feedpoint presents an ac load to the


transmission
line.
The simplest type of antenna.
Another names for elementary doublet
Short Dipole,
Elementary Dipole
Hertzian Dipole

Antenna Input
Impedance

Elementary Doublet

37)

Any dipole that is less than one-tenth wavelength

Electrically Short

38)

Hertz antenna is name after him and he was the


first
to demonstrate the existence of electromagnetic
waves.

Heinrich Hertz

39)

A single pole antenna one quarter wavelength


long, mounted vertically with the lower end either
connected directly to ground or grounded through
the antenna coupling network.

Marconi Antenna

40)

Main disadvantage of Marconi Antenna.

41)

A technique use to increase the electrical length of


an antenna

Loading

42)

A coil added in series with a dipole antenna which


effectively increases antenna's electrical length.

Loading Coil

43)

A loading coil approximately increases the


radiation resistance of the antenna.

44)

Must be close
to the Ground

5 Ohms
Antenna Element

An individual radiator, such as a half or quarter


Prepared By : MA. ELAINE L. CORTEZ

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BOOK REVIEW IN COMMUNICATIONS

Electronic Communications System By

Wayne Tomasi

wave dipole.
Two types of antenna elements
Driven
Parasitic
Two Elements of a single antenna
Two Wire
Folded Dipole

45)

Its purpose is to increase the directivity and


concentrate
the radiated power within a smaller geographic area.

46)

Elements that are directly connected to the


transmission
line and receive power from the source.

47)

48)

Elements are not connected to the transmission


line;
they receive energy only through mutual induction with
a driven element.
A parasitic element that is shorter that its
associated
driven element.

49)

Radiation pattern depends on the relative phase of


feeds.

50)

The simplest type of antenna arrays.

51)

52)

A widely used antenna commonly uses a folded


dipole
as the driven element and named after two Japanese
scientists.

Array

Driven

Parasitic

Director

Driven

Broadside Arrays

Yagi Uda

Typical directivity of a yagi-uda antenna.


7 dB and 9 dB

Prepared By : MA. ELAINE L. CORTEZ

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BOOK REVIEW IN COMMUNICATIONS

Electronic Communications System By

Wayne Tomasi

53)

Formed by placing two dipoles at right angles to


each other.

54)

A class of frequency-independent antennas.

55)

A broadband VHF or UHF antenna that is ideally


suited
for applications for which radiating circular rather than
horizontal or vertical polarized electromagnetic waves
are required.
Modes of propagation:
Normal
Axial

56)

Antennas having half power beamwidths on the


order
of 1o or less.
Three important characteristics:
Front-to Back Ratio,
Side-toSide Coupling
Back-to-Back Coupling

57)

Log Periodic

Helical Antenna

Microwave Antenna

Antenna that provides extremely high gain and


directivity and are very popular for microwave
and satellite communications link.
Two main part
Parabolic Reflector
Feed Mechanism

58)

Turnstile Antenna

The effective area in a receiving parabolic antenna


and is always less than the actual mouth area.

Prepared By : MA. ELAINE L. CORTEZ

Parabolic Reflector
Antenna

Capture Area

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