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BAUHAUS

BAUHAUS TO POST MODERNISM

The Bauhaus, an innovative German school of art and design was founded in 1919 by Walter
Gropius, the school uses a foundations course and workshop experiences to train students in
theory and form, materials, and methods of fabrication.
Buildings are simple, functional, and industrial. Devoid of any applied ornament, they often
appear asymmetrical and three dimensional, such that one must experience the building
from all sides.
The Bauhaus taught design in conjunction with modernism. In its Design, spaces took on a
quality related to the abstract character of the current painting and sculpture (Cubism
and related movements).
Ornament came solely from the visual effects created by combinations of materials.
The Goal was to unify art and technology, creating an aesthetic suited to the modern mechanistic
world by relating materials, from, and function in an abstract visual vocabulary.
The Bauhaus was a key influence on architecture, interior design, and industrial
design in the 1920s and 1930s.
The unornamented Functional modern interior with its tubular metal furniture and color
palette of black, white, neutrals, and primary colors can be traced to Bauhaus Origins.
BAUHAUS TO POST MODERNISM - BAUHAUS

Building Types: schools, offices, and government


buildings.
Architects orient buildings so that they receive the
most sun exposure to take advantage of natural
light.
Structures sit on flat plains of grass.
The most important construction materials include
steel, glass, and reinforced concrete, sometimes a
brick masonry applied on the face of the concrete.
Exteriors are plain, simple, and unornamented.
Windows were fixed in grid patterns.
Entry doors are often recessed and integrate into
the overall building composition.
Roofs are mainly flat.
BAUHAUS TO POST MODERNISM - BAUHAUS

BAUHAUS DESSAU

Main Bauhaus school building

the sheer glass wall with no outer


support
BAUHAUS TO POST MODERNISM - BAUHAUS

The basic structure of the Bauhaus consists of a clear and carefully thought-out system of
connecting wings, which correspond to the internal operating system of the school.
Gropius' extensive facilities for the Bauhaus at Dessau combine teaching, student and faculty
members' housing, an auditorium, and office spaces.
Instead of making the walls the element of support, as in a brick-built house, our new spacesaving construction transfers the whole load of the structure to a steel or concrete framework.
The technical construction of the building
is demonstrated by the latest
technological development of the time: a
skeleton of reinforced concrete with
brickwork, mushroom-shaped ceilings on
the lower level, and roofs covered with
asphalt tile that can be walked upon.
School and workshop are connected through a two-story bridge, which
spans the approach road from Dessau
BAUHAUS TO POST MODERNISM - BAUHAUS

HARVARD GRADUATE CENTER


It was designed by The Architects
Collaborative.
The group of eight buildings arranged
round small and large courtyards has a
good community feel about it and is
humanly scaled.
The dormitory blocks are constructed in
reinforced concrete with exterior walls of
buff-colored brick or limestone and the
community buildings are in steelwork.
Block-mass buildings connected by flat-roof
canopies.
No exterior or superficial ornamentation.

Exterior view of the Harvard


Graduate center
BAUHAUS TO POST MODERNISM - BAUHAUS

Exterior view of the Harvard


Graduate center

Exterior view of the Harvard


Graduate center - Dormitories
BAUHAUS TO POST MODERNISM - BAUHAUS

Masters House by Walter Gropius


BAUHAUS TO POST MODERNISM - BAUHAUS

Tugendhat House by Mies


BAUHAUS TO POST MODERNISM - BAUHAUS

FURNITURE
Unornamented and radically different, Bauhaus
furnishings suit Bauhaus concepts of the modern
home.
Designs stress simplicity, functionality,
excellent construction, and hygienic
industrial materials.
Furniture is lightweight and space saving.
Standardization
of
form
and
interchangeable parts are key design
considerations.
Furnishings are movable to support flexible
arrangements.
Designs, of metal, are simple and functional
with no applied ornamentation.
Steel in tubular components or thin strips or
sheets takes precedent over wood.

SYMBOLS & MOTIFS


There is no vocabulary for motifs
because buildings are generally
unadorned.
Some works include unique
architectural details that are a part of
the building structure.

D E C O R AT I V E A R T S
After 1923, the metals workshop
produced many ash trays, tea and coffee
services, kettles, dresser sets, and
pitchers in brass, bronze, and silver.
Forms are simple and geometric
with no applied ornamentation.

BAUHAUS TO POST MODERNISM - BAUHAUS

Wassily Chair
by Marcel bruer

MR Chair by Mies

Desk by Marcel Bruer


BAUHAUS TO POST MODERNISM - BAUHAUS

Marcel
Bruer
Nesting Tables

Bauhaus Chair by
Marcel Bruer
BAUHAUS TO POST MODERNISM - BAUHAUS

Bauhaus Bed
Bauhaus Bench

Barcelona Table

Bauhaus Coffee Table

Bauhaus Sideboard
Bauhaus Table
BAUHAUS TO POST MODERNISM - BAUHAUS

Cantilever Chair

Arm Chair by
Corbusier

Folding Table, by
Gustav
Hassenpflug
BAUHAUS TO POST MODERNISM - BAUHAUS

German(Barcelona) Pavilion statue

Wall Hangings from Bauhaus


Decorative
Arts,
Metalwork by Brandt
BAUHAUS TO POST MODERNISM - BAUHAUS

WALTER GROPIUS

BAUHAUS TO POST MODERNISM

Walter Gropius was born in Berlin in 1883. The son of an architect, he studied at the Technical
Universities in Munich and Berlin.
He joined the office of Peter Behrens in 1910 and three years later established a practice with
Adolph Meyer.
Gropius is best known through the influence of the German Design school called the Bauhaus,
established under Gropiuss direction at Weimar in 1919.
After the closing of the Bauhaus in 1932, Gropiuss influence continued through his work in
England and subsequently, in the United states, as well as through his leadership of the
architectural department at Harvard university from 1937.
Under Gropiuss direction, Harvard became the first American design school to accept the ideas of
the modern movement.
Gropius created innovative designs that borrowed materials and methods of
construction from modern technology. This advocacy of industrialized building carried
with it a belief in team work and an acceptance of standardization and prefabrication.
Using technology as a basis, he transformed building into a science of precise
mathematical calculations.
B A U H A U S T O P O S T M O D E R N I S M W A LT E R G R O P I U S

M A J O R W O R KS
Bauhaus, at Dessau,
Germany, 1919 to 1925.
Gropius House, at
Lincoln, Massachusetts,
1937.
Harvard
Graduate
Center, at Cambridge,
Massachusetts, 1950.

GROPIUS HOUSE

Glass wall admits light into mudroom and entry hall,


yet protects privacy of main entrance.

Modest in scale, revolutionary in impact.


Combined the traditional elements of New England architecture wood, brick, and fieldstone
with innovative materials rarely used in domestic settings at that time glass block,
acoustical plaster, and chrome banisters, along with the latest technology in fixtures.
B A U H A U S T O P O S T M O D E R N I S M W A LT E R G R O P I U S

These eaves protect the southern-facing rear from excessive


sunlight. The openings between the eaves and wall promote
air circulation.

Upstairs deck, outside Gropius' daughter's


room.
B A U H A U S T O P O S T M O D E R N I S M W A LT E R G R O P I U S

Gropius designed
Cups

Gropius F51 Sofa

Newspaper shelf
by Gropius

Gropius F51 Arm Chair

Gropius D51 Sofa

B A U H A U S T O P O S T M O D E R N I S M W A LT E R G R O P I U S