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Exploration Activity

1.-Describe how you move if you were a water particle in sea wave and
mention how is called this kind of movement. I would move from one side to
the other bouncing with other particles.
2.-Describe how sound emitted by a person moves so another person 2 m way
can listen it.
It moves in waves, and the progress in space they can collide with other
particles and distorted.
3.-Light at passing through a prism, split in colors. Do you know that
characteristic of light? Mention what know about this fact and how you explain
it physically. White light is composed of the visible range of electromagnetic
radiation. When traversing a prism, it is divided into its components, so we saw
all the colors. This is because the refractive index of the prism depends on the
wavelength, and a prism can have a wavelength varied so dispersed colors
4. What do you think happens with light speed when it goes through from a less
dense means to a denser means?
I think this decelerate
5. Where does sound spread faster, in cold air or in hot air?
In the warm air
6. If you see your image reflected, what differences can it have, if any, between
a flat a concave mirrors?
The way in which the image is projected is different because the rays are
reflected at a different angle.

Acquisition of knowledge Activity


1. Look for the following concepts.
Oscillations
Periodic motion: Any motion that recurs in identical forms at equal intervals of
time.
Period: recurring at equal intervals of time.
Frequency: the number of periods or regularly occurring events of any given
kind in unit of time, usually in one second.
Oscillator motion: happening or recurring at regular intervals
Simple harmonic motion: a form of periodic motion of a particle, etc., in which
the acceleration is always directed towards some equilibrium point and is
proportional to the displacement from this point.

Motion amplitude: is typified by the motion of a mass on a spring when it is


subject to the linear elastic restoring force given by Hooke's Law. The motion is
sinusoidal in time and demonstrates a single resonant frequency.
Simple oscillator period: is a type of periodic motion where the restoring force
is directly proportional to the displacement and acts in the direction opposite to
that of displacement.
Hookes law: states that the force F needed to extend or compress a spring by
some distance X is proportional to that distance.
Waves
Wave: is an oscillation accompanied by a transfer of energy that travels
through space or mass.
Mechanical waves: is a wave that propagates as an oscillation of matter, and
therefore transfers energy through a medium.
Electromagnetic waves: is a form of radiant energy released by certain
electromagnetic processes.
Transverse waves: is a moving wave that consists of oscillations occurring
perpendicular (or right angled) to the direction of energy transfer.
Longitudinal waves: are waves in which the displacement of the medium is in
the same direction as, or the opposite direction to, the direction of travel of the
wave.
Reflection: is the change in direction of a wave front at an interface between
two different media so that the wave front returns into the medium from which
it originated.
Refraction: is the change in direction of propagation of a wave due to a change
in its transmission medium.
Diffraction: refers to various phenomena which occur when a wave encounters
an obstacle or a slit.
Superposition principle: also known as superposition property, states that, for
all linear, the net response at a given place and time caused by two or more
stimuli is the sum of the responses which would have been caused by each
stimulus individually.
Interference: the process in which two or more light, sound, or electromagnetic
waves of the same frequency combine to reinforce or cancel each other, the
amplitude of the resulting wave being equal to the sum of the amplitudes of
the combining waves.
Constructive interference: the interference of two or more waves of equal
frequency and phase, resulting in their mutual reinforcement and producing a
single amplitude equal to the sum of the amplitudes of the individual waves.

Destructive interference: the interference of two waves of equal frequency and


opposite phase, resulting in their cancellation where the negative displacement
of one always coincides with the positive displacement of the other.
Sound
Sound: mechanical vibrations transmitted through an elastic medium, traveling
in air at a speed of approximately 1087 feet (331 meters) per second at sea
level.
Sound speed: is the distance travelled per unit time by a sound wave
propagating through an elastic medium. The SI unit of the speed of sound is
the meter per second (m/s). In dry air at 20 C, the speed of sound is 343.59
meters per second (1,127 ft/s).
Tone: quality or character of sound.
Timbre: the characteristic quality of a sound, independent of pitch and
loudness, from which its source or manner of production can be inferred.
Acoustics: the branch of physics that deals with sound and sound waves.
Wave intensity: The average amount of energy transported by a wave in the
direction of wave propagation, per unit area per unit time.
Intensity level: is a logarithmic measure of the sound intensity of a sound
relative to a reference value.
Doppler Effect: is the change in frequency of a wave (or other periodic event)
for an observer moving relative to its source. It is named after the Austrian
physicist Christian Doppler, who proposed it in 1842 in Prague
Ultrasonic waves: the periodic configuration of energy produced by sound
having a frequency greater than 30,000 Hz.
Infrasonic waves: sometimes referred to as low-frequency sound, is sound that
is lower in frequency than 20 Hz (hertz) or cycles per second, the "normal" limit
of human hearing.
Optics
Optics: the science concerned with the properties of light, its refraction and
absorption, and the refracting media of the eye.
Geometric optics: describes light propagation in terms of rays.
Physical optics: is the branch of optics which studies interference, diffraction,
polarization, and other phenomena for which the ray approximation of
geometric optics is not valid.
Quantum optics: is a field of research that uses semi-classical and quantummechanical physics to investigate phenomena involving light and its
interactions with matter at submicroscopic levels.

Flat mirror: Flat Mirrors are Optical Mirrors designed for a variety of
applications, including beam steering or folding, interferometry, or as optical
components within imaging systems.
Spherical mirror: is a mirror with a curved reflecting surface. The surface may
be either convex (bulging outward) or concave (bulging inward). Most curved
mirrors have surfaces that are shaped like part of a sphere, but other shapes
are sometimes used in optical devices.
Concave mirror: has a reflecting surface that bulges inward (away from the
incident light). Concave mirrors reflect light inward to one focal point.
Convex mirror: is a curved mirror in which the reflective surface bulges toward
the light source.
Refractive index: is a dimensionless number that describes how light, or any
other radiation, propagates through that medium.
Electromagnetic ray: is a form of radiant energy released by certain
electromagnetic processes. Visible light is one type of electromagnetic
radiation; other familiar forms are invisible electromagnetic radiations such as
X-rays and radio waves.
Light decomposition: is a technique for decomposing a rooted tree into a set of
paths.
Total internal reflection: is a phenomenon which occurs when a propagating
wave strikes a medium boundary at an angle larger than a particular critical
angle with respect to the normal to the surface.
Lenses: is a transmissive optical device that affects the focus of a light beam
through refraction. A simple lens consists of a single piece of material, while a
compound lens consists of several simple lenses (elements), usually along a
common axis. A lens can focus light to form an image.
Converging lens: lens such that a beam of light passing through it is brought to
a point or focus
Diverging lens: a lens that causes a beam of parallel rays to diverge after
refraction, as from a virtual image; a lens that has a negative focal length.

Application Activity
Oscillations and waves
1. - A girl swings. In a specific moment, the swing starts to reduce its speed
until it completely stops. What kind of wave motion describe the swing, and
does it stop?
Cushioned, without external force movement dissipates energy

2. - A geologist needs to know exactly the value of gravity acceleration to


specific region in Nuevo Leon, he has a pendulum to do it. What physical
quantities does he need to find the g value that requires?
Length and period

3. - A sailor navigates in a boat and he see that wave crests goes through the
boat chain. What physical quantities does he have to measure if he wants to
know wave speed?
Frequency and wavelength

Sound

4. - A student is waiting for the bus he rests and sees an ambulance going
towards him, its sound frequency amplifies and it decreases as it moves away.
What physical phenomenon does this change in sound frequency emitted by
the ambulance describe?
Doppler Effect

5. - What physical quantity does it need to be measured, to determine sound


maximum intensity allowed in a discotheque not to damages hearing?
Doppler Effect

6. What physical phenomenon do you experiment when you are in a classroom


and outside wind blows, and listen how windows whistles?
The Windows vibrate.

Optics
7. Why do we consider that a specific star emits a redder light than t really
does?
The light must travel million km, and go through different layers of the
atmosphere
8. What is the difference between sound wave propagation and light wave
propagation?
Sound waves are transmitted by particles and cannot in a vacuum and if the
light waves can be transmitted in a vacuum
9. If an object is placed in front of a concave mirror between curvature radius
and focal point, explain how image should be and its size in relation to the
object size.
Equal and inverted
10. How is the critical angle related to total internal reflection?
According to Snell's Law of refraction it reflected, or refracted light passing
directly to the other means depends on the angle of the incident ray and the
refractive
indices
of
the
media.
11. If light spreads quickly in glass and air. Would glass lenses modify light
direction?
No.

Problems
1. In a dock, a kid who sees waves, he Counts 10 crests that crash against
the dock n 30 seconds. Calculate Waves speed if the distance between
consecutive crests is 2 m.

2. A scientist needs to know the exact value of gravity acceleration in la


Huasteca, where he is doing land analysis and he has a pendulum which
is 0.5 m. long. He measures how long the pendulum takes to complete
an oscillation and he finds out it is 1.43 seconds What is the gravity
acceleration of this place?

3. A mechanic measures how long a spring in a mechanism takes to


complete an oscillation, also he knows that the cylinder mass connected
to the spring is 0.05 kg. Help him by telling how he can find the elastic
constant of the spring and calculate its magnitude?

4. A sound wave moves 340 km/s has a wave length of 0.4 m. Calculate the
wave frequency.

5. In a discotheque the sound emitted is 2 W/m2. How can a municipal


calculate sound intensity level to know if he gives a fine or not to the
place? (What you should know is from 6 a.m. to 8 p.m. the maximum
intensity level is 65 decibels and at night rest hours is allowed up to 62
decibels)

6. The machinery in a factory produces a sound of 300 Hz frequency. If a


supervisor gets close to it at a 2 m/s speed, do they both listen to
machinery emitting the same tone? What frequency does each one
notice?

7. A light wave train frequency is 6 x 10 14 Hz and its air speed is 3 x 10 8


m/s. If it goes through a glass, its wave length decreases to 333 x I0 9
meters, calculate the light wave train speed inside the glass taking into
account its frequency is constant.

8. Calculate the critical angle of a transparent material whose refraction


index is 1.23. The air refraction index is 1.