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A shor review about Bochner and Pettis integrals

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Introduction

Sometimes it is desirable to be able to integrate functions f that are defined

on some measure space X (with a real or complex measure ) and whose

values lie in some topological vector space V . A compelling application of

the theory of integration of vector-valued functions is a theory of holomorphic vector-valued functions, with well-known application to the resolvents of

operators on Hilbert and Banach spaces. Another sort of application of understanding holomorphic vector-valued functions is to generalized functions,

studying parametrized families of distributions. Many distributions which

are not classical functions appear naturally as residues or analytic continuations of families of classical functions with a complex parameter. A good

theory of integration allows a natural treatment of convolutions of distributions with test functions, and related operations.

The first problem is to associate with these data in X that deserves to be

called

Z

f d,

X

i.e., which has at least some of the properties that integrals usually have.

Many approaches to vector-valued integration have been studied in great

detail. Some of these can be classified as strong in the sense that, the

integrals are defined somewhat directly as limits of sums. On the other hand

we have the approach of Gelfand and Pettis, which can be termed as weak

in the sense that it defines an integral by the essential property that any

reasonable integral should have.

Strong Integrals

Strong integrals are generalized Lebesgue integrals for functions whose values

lie in a Banach space or more generally in a topological vector space. Some of

the well-known notions are due to Bochner, Birkhoff and McShane for Banach

space valued functions. We choose the integral due Salomon Bochner here

for a flavor of the strong notion of integration.

Let (X, , ) be a measure space and V a Banach space, the ground field

being K (where K is either R or C). For simplicity, in most of the following

discussion, we will have K = R. The Bochner integral is defined in much the

same way as the Lebesgue integral. As in the case of the regular Lebesgue

integral, a function : X V that assumes only a finite number of values,

say v1 , v2 , . . . , vn , is called a simple function if Ei = 1 (vi ) for each i.

Then the formula,

=

n

X

Ei vi

i=1

vi , then is called a simple function with finite support. The integral

of

R

such a V -valued simple function with finite support is the vector X d of

V defined via the formula

Z

d =

X

n

X

(Ei )vi

i=1

A

Pnsimple function with finite support, with standard representation, =

i=1 Ei vi may have other representations

=

m

X

Fj wj

j=1

necessarily distinct and Fj s are also not necessarily pairwise disjoint.

We now state a lemma about a property of -algebras, without proof.

Lemma. Let be a -algebra of subsets of a set X and let A1 , . . . , An belong

to . Then there exists a finite collection {C1 , . . . , Ck } of pairwise disjoint

members of such that:

1. Each Ci is a subset of some Aj ; and

2. Each Aj is a union of a subfamily of the collection {C1 , . . . , Ck }.

is any other representation, then

Z

d =

X

m

X

Pm

j=1

Fj wj

(Fj )wj .

j=1

Pn

Proof. Let =

i=1 Ei vi be the standard representation of . We first

assume that the Fj are pairwise disjoint. Since neither the function nor

can

the sum m

j=1 (Fj )wj changes by deleting the terms with

Snwj = 0,Swe

m

assume that wj 6= 0 for each j. In such a case, we have i=1 Ei = j=1 Fj .

Moreover, we note that (Ei Fj )vi = (Ei Fj )wj for all i and j. Indeed, if

Ei Fj = , the equality is obvious and if x Ei Fj , then vi = wj = (x).

Furthermore, since the Ei s and the Fj s are pairwise disjoint, Ei Fj s are

also pairwise disjoint for all i and j. Therefore,

Z

d =

X

=

=

=

n

X

(Ei )vi

i=1

m X

n

X

j=1 i=1

m X

n

X

(Ei Fj )vi

(Ei Fj )wj

j=1 i=1

m

X

(Fj )wj .

j=1

Now, we consider the general case. By the above lemma, there exist pairwise

disjoint sets C1 , . . . , Ck such that each Ci is included in some Fj and

Fj = {Ci | Ci Fj }. For each i and j let ij = 1 if Ci Fj and ij = 0 if

Ci 6 Fj . Clearly,

Fj =

k

X

ij Ci

and (Fj ) =

i=1

k

X

i=1

ij (Ci ).

Consequently,

=

m

X

Fj wj

j=1

m X

k

X

j=1

k

X

ij Ci

wj

i=1

Ci

X

m

i=1

ij wj

.

j=1

Z

d =

X

k

X

(Ci )

i=1

=

=

ij wj

j=1

m X

k

X

j=1

m

X

X

m

ij (Ci )

wj

i=1

(Fj )wj ,

j=1

The above theorem shows that the definition of the integral of a simple

function with finite support is well-defined. Let the vector space of all simple

functions with finite support be denoted by S. The following theorem shows

that the integral is a linear operator from S to V .

Theorem. Let , : X V be simple functions with finite support. Let

a, b K. Then,

Z

Z

Z

(a + b) d = a

d + b

d.

X

Proof. Let

(x) =

n

X

Ei (x)vi

i=1

and (x) =

m

X

j=1

Fj (x)wj

in the standard representation. The sets {Ei }ni=1 are mutually disjoint and

vi (i = 1, . . . , n) are distict members of V . Similarly, the sets {Fj }m

j=1 are

mutually disjoint and wj (j = 1, . . . , m) are distinct members of V . Let

v0 = w0 = 0, E0 = {x V | (x) = 0}, and F0 = {x V | (x) = 0}.

Then,

n

X

(x) =

Ei (x)vi

i=0

and (x) =

m

X

Fj (x)wj

j=0

Ai,j = Ei Fj .

We note that,

n

[

Ai,j = Fj and

i=0

m

[

Ai,j = Ei

j=0

Thus,

(x) =

=

n

X

Ei (x)vi

i=0

n X

m

X

Ai,j (x)vi

i=0 j=0

and (x) =

m

X

Fj (x)wj

j=0

m X

n

X

Ai,j (x)wj

j=0 i=0

Moreover,

(a + b)(x) =

n X

m

X

i=0 j=0

Z

(a + b)(x) =

n X

m

X

i=0 j=0

n X

m

X

=a

=a

(Ai,j )vi + b

i=0 j=0

n

X

m

X

i=0

j=0

(Ai,j )wj

j=0 i=0

(Ei ) + b

(Fj )

Z

(x) d + b

=a

m X

n

X

(x) d

X

f
denotes the nonnegative real

If f :

X

V is a vector function,

then

f
: X R defined by
f
(x) =
f (x)
for each x X. We call

function

f
the norm function of f .

If S and E , then

by

Z

Z

d =

E d.

Pn

Lemma. If S has standard representation =

i=1 Ei vi , then the

norm function of
is a
realPsimple

function with finite support having

standard representation
= ni=1
vi
Ei . Moreover,

Z

n

X

d =

vi
(Ei ) and

Z

X

i=1

d.

Proof. Clear.

Let f : X V be a vector function. We say that the function f is

strongly measurable (or simply measurable)

if there

exists a sequence of simple

functions {n } such that limn f (x) n (x)
= 0 for almost all x X.

Lemma. If f : X V is strongly measurable, then the real function
f
is

also measurable.

Proof. The inequality
f (x)
n (x)
f (x) n (x)
implies that

n (x)
f (x)
for almost every x X. We know that for any measurable

space (X, , a real function f : X R is -measurable if and only if there

exists a sequence {fn } of -simple functions satisfying

fn (x) f (x) for each

x X. Thus using the previous lemma, we have
f
is measurable.

Let M(X, V ) denote the collection of all strongly measurable functions

from X to V that is,

M(X, V ) = {f V X | f is strongly measurable}.

Lemma. The collection M(X, V ) of all strongly measurable functions from

X to V is a vector subspace of V X containing all the simple functions of

finite support. That is, we have the following vector subspace inclusions:

S M(X, V ) V X .

Proof. Straightforward.

Lemma. Let f : X V be a strongly measurable function. Suppose that

for two sequences

functions with finite support, the

{n }
amd {

n } of simple

real functions
f n
and
f n
are Lebesgue measurable for each n

and

Z

Z

f n
d = 0.

lim

f n d = lim

n

Z

Z

lim

n d = lim

n d,

n

where the last two limits are taken with respect to the norm topology on V .

Proof. Suppose, {n } and {n } are two sequences of simple functions with

finite support which satisfy the stated property. We choose and fix E .

From

Z

n d

m d =

(n m ) d

E

E

E

Z

n m
d

ZX

Z

f m
d,

f n d +

X

R

R

we see that

R limn,m E n d E m d = 0, which shows that the sequence { E n d}

R is a Cauchy sequence in V , so it converges in V . Similarly,

the sequence { E n d} converges in V . Now the inequality

Z

Z

Z

Z

n d

f n
d

n d

f n d +

E

R

E

n d = limn

R

E

n d, as claimed.

sequence n of

integrable

simple functions with finite support such that the

real function f n is Lebesgue integrable for each n and

Z

f n d = 0.

lim

V

n

by

Z

Z

f d = lim

n d,

E

R

where the limit here is the limit of the sequence of vectors { E n d} in the

norm topology in V .

By the previous lemma, the Bochner integral is well-defined, in the sense

that it does not depend on the particular sequence of simple functions (with

finite support) used to approximate f .

Theorem. If f and g are two Bochner integrable functions and , K,

then f + g is also Bochner integrable and

Z

Z

Z

(f + g) d =

f d +

g d.

X

Proof. Since f and g are Bochner integrable, there exist sequences of simple

functions
with
finite support

{n } and {n } such that the real functions

f n
and
g n
are Lebesgue integrable for each n and

Z

f n
d = 0

lim

n X

Z

g n
d = 0

lim

n

Now, S = the set of all simple functions with finite support is a vector space,

n +n is a simple function with finite support for each n. So, {n +n }

is a sequence of simple functions with finite support. We note that for each

n,

Z

Z

(f + g) (n + n )
d =

(f n ) + (g n )
d

X

ZX

||
f n
+ ||
g n
d

XZ

Z

g n
d

f n
d + ||

= ||

X

<

Thus,
(f +g)(n +n )
is Lebesgue integrable for each n. Moreover,

Z

(f + g) (n + n )
d

lim

n X

Z

Z

g n
d

f n d + || lim

|| lim

n

Z

(f + g) (n + n ) d

lim

n

the Bochner integral is a linear operator from S to V , and continuity of

Z

Z

(f + g) d = lim

(n + n ) d

n X

X

Z

Z

n d +

n d

= lim

n

X

X

Z

Z

= lim

n d + lim

n d

n

n

X

X

Z

Z

= lim

n d + lim

n d

n X

n X

Z

Z

f d +

g d,

=

X

as was desired.

Corollary. The collection of all Bochner integrable functions form a vector

subspace of M(X, V ) and the Bochner integral acts as a linear operator from

this space into V .

Proof. Straightforward consequence of the above theorem.

Weak Measurability

Suppose, (X, ) is a measurable space and V is a Banach space over a field

K (K = R or C). A function f : X V is called weakly measurable if, for

every continuous linear functional g : V K, the function

g f : X K : x 7 g(f (x))

is measurable with respect to and the usual Borel -algebra on K. A function measurable in the usual sense is sometimes called strongly measurable

to match this terminology of weak measurability.

We now present a theorem and a corollary to it without proof.

Theorem. (Pettis Measurability Theorem) A function f : X V is measurable (strongly measurable) if and only if f is weakly measurable and almost

everywhere separable valued, i.e., there is a set N X, (N ) = 0 such that

the set

{f (t) | t X \ N } V

is separable under the subspace topology derived from V .

10

notions of measurability are the same. In other words, any function, f : X

V is weakly measurable if and only if it is strongly measurable.

Corollary. 2 A function f : X V is measurable (strongly measurable)

if and only if it can be approximated uniformly, except possibly on a set of

measure zero, by countably valued functions.

Theorem. Let (X, , ) be a finite measure space, and let f : X V be

a strongly measurable

function. Then, f is Bochner integrable

R if and only if

its norm function f is Lebesgue integrable that is, X f d < .

Proof. Since, f is Bochner integrable, there exists a sequence {n } of simple

functions with finite support such that

Z

f n d = 0

lim

n

Then,

Z

X

f
d

f n
d +

n
d <

R

Coversely, suppose f (and consequently f ) is measurable and X f d <

. With the help of Corollary 2 above, we can choose a sequence of countably

1

valued measurable functions

{fn }1 such that f fn n for each positive

integer

R n. Since fn f + n almost everywhere and is finite, then

fn d < . For each positive integer n, we can write

X

fn =

En,m vn,m ,

m=1

pn so large that

Z

fn d < (X)

n

m=pn +1 En,m

Pn

and set gn = pm=1

En,m vn,m . Then each gn is a simple function and

11

f gn
d

f fn
d +

fn gn
d

(X) (X)

+

n

n

(X)

.

=2

n

Therefore, f is Bochner integrable, as was to be proven.

Theorem. (Vector Dominated Convergence Theorem) Let f : X V be

strongly
measurable and

let a sequence {fn } of Bochner integrable functions

satisfy f (x) fn (x)
0 for almost all x X. If there exists a real

nonnegative

Lebesgue integrable function g : X R such that for each n,

we have
fn
g almost everywhere, then f is Bochner integrable and

Z

Z

f d = lim

fn d.

n

for each E .

Proof. Clearly,
f
g

almost everywhere, and
f fn
is measurable

for each n. From
f fn
2g almost everywhere,
we see
that
f fn

is Lebesgue integrable for each n. Moreover, from
f fn
0 almost

everywhere,

and the Lebesgue Dominated Convergence Theorem, we get

R

f fn
d 0. Next for each n we choose a simple function (with

X

R

finite support) n with X
fn n
d < n1 , and note that

Z

Z

Z

fn n
d 0.

f fn
d +

f n
d

X

Z

Z

Z

n d = lim

fn d

f d = lim

E

for each E .

12

Weak Integrals

As for strong integrals, there have been many definitions of weak integrals

due to Gelfand, Dunford, Pettis and still others. We choose here the GelfandPettis integral, which combines the ideas of the Gelfand and the Pettis integrals, for discussion of the weak integrals.

Let (X, , ) be a measure space, V be a real or complex topological vector

space and V , the dual space of V . Suppose f is a function from X into V .

A Gelfand-Pettis integral of f would be a vector If V so that,

Z

(If ) =

(f ) d

for all V .

X

Z

f d

If =

X

on the irreducible mimimum property that no reasonable notion of integral

should lack. So, this definition is called a weak integral. We shall prove

below that a Bochner integrable function is in fact Gelfand-Pettis integrable.

Uniqueness

Uniqueness of the Gelfand-Pettis integral of a function is immediate when

V separates points, as for locally convex spaces by Hahn-Banach theorem.

In particular, since every Banach space is locally convex, the GP integral of

any Banach space valued function is unique.

Existence

If V is a vector space and E V , the convex hull of E is the intersection of all

convex subsets of V which contain E and is denoted by co(E). Equivalently,

co(E) is the set of all finite convex combinations of members of E.

The closed convex hull of E, written co(E), is the closure of co(E).

13

We will prove the existence of the GP integral only in the rather special

case in which X is compact and f is continuous. In that case, f (X) is

compact, and the only other requirement that will be imposed is that the

closed convex hull of f (X) should be compact. This last requirement is

automatically satisfied for Banach spaces.

Theorem. Suppose

(a) X is a topological vector space on which X separates points, and

(b) is a Borel probability measure on a compact Hausdorff space X.

If f : X V is continuous and co(f (X)) is compact in V , then the GP

integral of f

Z

If =

f d

(1)

X

Proof. Let V be a real vector space. Suppose, H = co(f (X)). We have to

prove that there exists If V such that

Z

(If ) =

(f ) d

(2)

X

the set of all y H that satisfy (2) above for every L. Each EL is closed

(by the continuity of ) and is therefore compact, since H is compact. If

no EL is empty, the collection of all EL has the finite intersection property.

The intersection of EL is therefore not empty, and any y in it satisfies (2) for

every V . It is therefore enough to prove EL 6= .

We can regard L = (1 , . . . , n ) as a mapping from X into Rn . Let K =

L(f (X)). We define

Z

mi =

i (f ) d (1 i n).

(3)

X

Now, if t = (t1 , . . . , tn ) Rn is not in this hull, then there are real numbers

c1 , . . . , cn such that

n

n

X

X

ci ui <

ci ti

(4)

i=1

i=1

14

if u = (u1 , . . . , un ) K. Hence,

n

X

ci (f (x)) <

i=1

n

X

ci ti

(x X).

(5)

i=1

gives

n

n

X

X

ci m i <

ci t i .

i=1

i=1

L(f (X)) and L is linear, it follows that m = Ly for some y in the convex

hull H of f (X). For this y, we have

Z

i (y) = mi =

i (f ) d (1 i n).

(6)

X

Theorem. The collection of all Gelfand-Pettis (GP in short) integrable functions is a vector space and the GP integral is linear. That is, if f and g are

GP integrable over a set E , and , K, then f + g is also GP

integrable over E and

Z

Z

Z

(f + g) d = f d +

g d

E

Proof. Since f and g are GP integrable, there exist unique vectors If and Ig

in V such that

Z

(If ) =

(f ) d

X

Z

(g) d

and (Ig ) =

X

of g over X. Now, we note that (If + Ig ) is an element of V and for any

15

V ,

(If + Ig ) = (If ) + (Ig )

Z

Z

=

(f ) d +

(g) d

X

X

Z

Z

=

(f ) d +

(g) d

X

X

Z

Z

=

(f ) d +

(g) d

X

X

Z

(f ) + (g) d

=

ZX

=

(f + g) d,

X

Z

(f + g) d,

If + Ig =

X

as was desired.

Let GP be the class of GP integrable functions from X to V . The above

theorem proves that GP is a vector space over K and the GP integral is a

linear operator from GP to V .

Since, any notion of an integral should satisfy the irreducible minimum property through which the Gelfand-Pettis integral is defined, any strongly integrable function should also be weakly integrable. So, any strong notion of

integrability should = Gelfand-Pettis integrability.

Lemma. Suppose (X, , ) is a mesaure space, V a real Banach space and

: X V a simple function with finite support. Then is Pettis integrable

and the integrals coincide.

16

P

Proof. Let = ni=1 Ei vi be the standard representation of . Then the

Bochner integral of , I V is

Z

I =

d =

X

n

X

(Ei )vi .

i=1

() =

X

n

Ei vi

i=1

n

X

Ei (vi ).

i=1

(I ) =

X

n

(Ei )vi

i=1

n

X

(Ei )(vi )

i=1

Z

() d =

X

n

X

(Ei )(vi )

i=1

= (I )

This proves that is GP integrable and the integrals coincide.

Theorem. Suppose V is a Banach space. If a function f : X V is Bochner

integrable, then f is GP integrable and the two integrals coincide.

Proof. Since f is Bochner integrable, there exists a sequence

of
simple func

tions with finite support {n } such that the real function
f n
is Lebesgue

integrable for each n and

Z

f n
d = 0,

lim

n

Z

If = lim

n d.

n

17

Z

(If ) = lim

n d

n X

Z

= lim

n d

n

X

Z

= lim

(n ) d,

n

integral of f , as required.

Thus, we have Bochner = Gelfand-Pettis. The reverse arrow does not

hold in general.

Example of a GP integrable function which is not Bochner integrable

Let (X, , ) be the measure space with X = [0, 1] and = the Lebesgue

measure on [0, 1]. Let V be the real Banach space c0 . We consider the

function f : X V defined by

f (x) = {nIn (x)}

1

1

where, In is the interval

, , In is the characteristic function of In

n+1 n

and {nIn (x)} is a sequence of non-negative integers for any x X. Clearly,

a sequence {nIn (x)} has atmost one non-zero term and hence is a member

of c0 . So, f is well-defined.

1

Then f is GP integrable and the GP integral of f is the vector

n+1

c0 . But we note that

X

f
=

nIn ,

n=1

means that f is not Bochner integrable.

18

References

(1) W. Rudin: Functional Analysis, Second Edition, Springer (1999)

(2) Charalambos D. Aliprantis, Kim C. Border: Infinite Dimensional Analysis - A Hitchhikers Guide, Studies in Economic Theory, SpringerVerlag (1994)

(3) J. Diestel, J. J. Uhl, Jr.: Vector Measures, Mathematical Surveys, Number 15, AMS (1977)

(4) Raymond A. Ryan: Introduction to Tensor Products of Banach Spaces,

Springer (2002)

(5) B. J. Pettis: On Integration in Vector Spaces, Trans. of AMS, Vol. 44,

No. 2 (Sep. ,1938), pp. 277-304

(6) Garrett Birkhoff: Integration of Functions with Values in a Banach

Space, Trans. of AMS, Vol. 38, No. 2 (Sep. ,1935), pp. 357-378

(7) Jose Rodrguez: Some Examples in Vector Integration, Bull. Aust. Math. Soc.

(2009)

(8) Paul Garrett: Vector-Valued Integrals, http://www.math.umn.edu/

~garrett/ (2008)

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