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Zig Bee

By Shadaan Hassan and Sheik Sohail Sultana

Moghal College of Engineering &Technology



tel no:9701896901,9440588894


ZigBee is a low-power wireless technology, rewriting the wireless sensor equation.

It is a secure network technology that rides on top of the recently ratified IEEE
802.15.4 radio standard. It is designed to interact with the remote controlled devices,
which are put under a single standardized control interface that can interconnect into
a network .Once associated with a network, a ZigBee node can wake up and
communicate with other ZigBee devices and return to sleep.

Zigbee’s key technical features include three license free frequency bands-
2.4GHz,868MHz,915MHz;multiple channels ;up to 100mts range; CSMA-CA
channel access; low power, long battery life; supporting up to 255devices per

Zigbee is used in home security systems where wireless sensors are easily installed
than sensors that need wiring. The same is true in industrial environments, where
wiring typically accounts for 80% of the cost of sensor installations. And then there
are applications for sensors where wiring isn't practical or even possible. ZigBee
promises to put wireless sensors in everything from factory automation systems to
home security systems to consumer electronics.


The network name comes from the zigzagging path a bee (a data packet) takes to get
from flower to flower (or node to node). The technique that honey bees use to
communicate new-found food sources to other members of the colony is referred to
as the ZigBee Principle. Using this silent, but powerful communication system,
whereby the bee dances in a zigzag pattern, they are able to share information such
as the location, distance, and direction of a newly discovered food source to her
fellow colony members.


• Low cost — Extends wireless to virtually any sensor

• Low power consumption — Ideal for battery operation
• Small size, light weight — Easy to integrate
• Ease of implementation
• Reliable data transfer
• Appropriate levels of security
• Direct sequence spread spectrum — Fast acquisition time
• Range- 50m typical (5-500m based on environment)
• Multiple topologies- star, peer-to-peer, mesh
• Data rates of 250 kbps (@2.4 GHz), 40 kbps (@ 915 MHz), and 20 kbps (@868


ZigBee stack architecture follows the standard Open Systems Interconnection (OSI)
reference model , ZigBee's protocol stack is structured in layers. The first two layers,
physical (PHY) and media access (MAC), are defined by the IEEE 802.15.4 standard.
The layers above them are defined by the ZigBee Alliance.
The model has five layers namely
1. Physical (PHY) layer 2. Media access control (MAC) layer
3. Network (NWK) and security layers 4. Application framework
5. Application profiles
Application Framework Device
Applicatio Applicati

n Object on (ZDO)
[On Endpoint
Object 1
[On Endpoint 1] [On Endpoint 0]


ty Application Support (APS) Layer




er Network (NWK) Layer


Medium Access Layer (MAC)


Physical (PHY) Layer

Figure: ZigBee Stack Model


ZigBee-compliant products operate in unlicensed bands worldwide, including

2.4GHz (global), 902 to 928MHz (Americas), and 868MHz (Europe). Raw data
throughput rates of 250Kbps can be achieved at 2.4GHz (16 channels), 40Kbps at
915MHz (10 channels), and 20Kbps at 868MHz (1 channel). The transmission
distance is expected to range from 10 to 75m, depending on power output and
environmental characteristics. Like Wi-Fi, Zigbee uses direct-sequence spread
spectrum in the 2.4GHz band, with offset-quardrature phase-shift keying
modulation. Channel width is 2MHz with 5MHzchannel spacing. The 868 and
900MHz bands also use direct-sequence spread spectrum but with binary-phase-shift
keying modulation

Table: Frequency bands and data rates

Spreading Parameters Data Parameters

Frequency Channel
PHY Chip Bit Symbol
Band Numbering Modulation Modulation
Rate Rate Rate
868 to 870 300 k 20 20 k
868 to 0 BPSK BPSK
MHz chip/s kb/s baud
MHz 902 to 928 600 k 40 40 k
1 to 10 BPSK BPSK
MHz chip/s kb/s baud
2.4 to
2.4 2.0 M 250 62.5 k 16-ary
2.4835 11 to 26 O-QPSK
GHz chip/s kb/s baud Orthogonal


The media access control (MAC) layer was designed to allow multiple topologies
without complexity. The power management operation doesn't require multiple
modes of operation. The MAC allows a reduced functionality device (RFD) that needn't
have flash nor large amounts of ROM or RAM. The MAC was designed to handle large
numbers of devices without requiring them to be "parked".

The MAC provides network association and disassociation, has an optional superframe
structure with beacons for time synchronization, and a guaranteed time-slot mechanism
for high-priority communications

Frame structure:
Figure illustrates the four basic frame types defined in 802.15.4: data, ACK, MAC
command, and beacon.
Figure:: The four basic frame types defined in 802.15.4: Data, ACK, MAC command,
and beacon

The data frame provides a payload of up to 104 bytes. The frame is numbered to ensure
that all packets are tracked. A frame-check sequence ensures that packets are received
without error. This frame structure improves reliability in difficult conditions.

Another important structure for 802.15.4 is the acknowledgment (ACK) frame. It

provides feedback from the receiver to the sender confirming that the packet was
received without error. The device takes advantage of specified "quiet time" between
frames to send a short packet immediately after the data-packet transmission.

A MAC command frame provides the mechanism for remote control and configuration
of client nodes. A centralized network manager uses MAC to configure individual clients'
command frames no matter how large the network.

Finally, the beacon frame wakes up client devices, which listen for their address and go
back to sleep if they don't receive it. Beacons are important for mesh and cluster-tree
networks to keep all the nodes synchronized without requiring those nodes to consume
precious battery energy by listening for long periods of time.

ZigBee's self-forming and self-healing mesh-network architecture lets data and control
messages pass from one node to another by multiple paths. This feature extends the
network range and improves data reliability. It may also be used to build large,
geographically dispersed networks with smaller networks linked to form a 'cluster-tree'



Full Function
Cluster Tree Device
Reduced Function Device

The NWK layer supports multiple network topologies including star, cluster tree, and
mesh, all of which are shown in Figure

In a star topology, one of the FFD-type devices assumes the role of network coordinator
and is responsible for initiating and maintaining the devices on the network. All other
devices, known as end devices, directly communicate with the coordinator. In a mesh
topology, the ZigBee coordinator is responsible for starting the network and for choosing
key network parameters, but the network may be extended through the use of ZigBee
routers. The routing algorithm uses a request-response protocol to eliminate sub-optimal
routing. Ultimate network size can reach 264 nodes (more than we'll probably need).
Using local addressing, you can configure simple networks of more than 65,000 (216)
nodes, thereby reducing address overhead

Security layer
Security and data integrity are key benefits of the ZigBee technology. ZigBee leverages
the security model of the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC sub-layer which specifies four security
services: access control—the device maintains a list of trusted devices within the network

• data encryption, which uses symmetric key 128-bit advanced encryption standard
• frame integrity to protect data from being modified by parties without
cryptographic keys
• sequential freshness to reject data frames that have been replayed—the network
controller compares the freshness value with the last known value from the device
and rejects it if the freshness value has not been updated to a new value



Potential applications of zigbee include the building automation, industrial, medical

and residential control & monitoring

A new twist on, "I've fallen and I can't get up”

The figure basically shows a home-
monitoring system for senior citizens.
Zigbee-based sensors keep an eye on
elderly residents living alone and warn
medics about changes in habits that are
potentially serious; It includes a light
switch with a tiny digital camera (left); a
pendant (center) worn around the neck;
and movement tags (right), which can let
the system generate an alert based either on
detected movement or the lack of any

Zigbee doesn't have the bandwidth to handle video. So light switch / camera
combos deliver still images to a controller. An alert from the pendant or from one
of the tags activates the camera.

The pendant includes accelerometers that detect the forces of a person falling. It
also contains a panic button. The device can send a warning either to a monitoring
company or family member if something is up. It can be programmed to generate
an alert, for example, if a bedroom or refrigerator door hasn't opened by noon
The bugs this system catches aren't in software

One of the more offbeat applications for Zigbee

sensors is in catching termites. Wireless bait stations are
devised which act as Zigbee nodes. In operation, the
bait stations go into the ground at numerous spots
surrounding a house. Each bait station has a special
sensor that triggers when termites eat at the wood it
contains. The station then signals this activity to a
receiver, which sends an e-mail.
This wireless approach beats the technique now used
on several levels. Existing methods force exterminators to
physically check each station for activity. Termites could
cause severe damage long before evidence of them could
turn up during a periodic inspection. In contrast, the
Zigbee bait stations monitor pest activity 24/7. And
exterminators need not make long trips just to examine
bait stations

Home to homeowner: "The water is leaking."

This type of home automation system called the Home Heartbeat system gives
homeowners an awareness of what's going on inside their house, even if they happen
to be thousands of miles away.

Two key components of the system are a base station and a Home Key. The Key is
envisioned to go into your pocket or onto a key chain. When the Key leaves the
range of the base station, it carries with it the last status of items such as doors,
windows, and lights, as read by sensors on the Zigbee network. Homeowners
wondering whether they left the garage door open could conceivably tell by looking
at the LCD in their Home Key. (However, the system stops short of asking a
sympathetic neighbor to come over and rectify the problem.)

The base station is smart enough to notice if one of the sensors changes state when
the Home Key is out of range. In this case it can send the homeowner's cell phone a
text message detailing what's wrong.

A variety of sensors have been devised for the system. In addition to proximity switches
for doors and windows, there are devices designed to detect leaking pipes, ac loads, and
even remind homeowners about periodic maintenance items such as low batteries in
smoke detectors or the need for seasonal gutter cleaning. One worthy piece of the
system is a water shut-off valve.

8.6 Zigbeef

Zigbeef is a solution for tracking cattle. Zigbee sensors give beef producers the ability to
electronically identify cattle whether their herds are crowded into chutes, gathered
into pens, or grazing open pasture. ZigBeef radio-based cattle ear tags
offer superior reading-range over passive wand-based tag technology. Producers
are no longer limited to infrequent opportunities to scan IDs. ZigBeef
allows identification of each animal on the range, pen, or working chute, at
virtually any time. ZigBeef tags use mass-produced, non-proprietary wireless
sensor technologies, offering a proven solution at an inexpensive price. [refer the
greeting preview for the figure].


There are many wireless monitoring and control applications for industrial and home
markets which require longer battery life, lower data rates and less complexity than
available from existing wireless standards like Bluetooth and Wi-Fi. So, there was a need
for a standard based, interoperable wireless technology that addresses the unique needs of
low data rate wireless control and sensor based networks. In this regard, zigbee was
poised to become the global control/sensor network standard.

Zigbee promises to put wireless sensors in everything from factory automation systems to
home security systems to consumer electronics. Zigbee is a new standard that still needs
to pass through the circles or rigorous technology critics and establish its own place in the
industry. The next zigbee challenge will be devising the proposed extension to the
802.15.4 standard,’4a’ which could be based on ultra-wideband (UWB).

1. Electronics for you- November 2004

2. Computer networks-by Tanenbaum
3. www.zigbeealliance.com
4. www.zigbee.org
5. www.zigbeef.com
6. www.nuri.com
System Operation