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Equipment and Systems

for Corn Wet Milling

Corn Wet Milling Process Flowsheet

Dewatering, Germ Washing,


and Fiber Washing
Dewatering and Germ Washing
Economical corn wet milling practice
requires dewatering of the supply
stream ahead of the degerminating
mills. Also the separated germ must
be washed to get a high purity germ
product free of starch.

Gravity-Fed DSM Screens


Dewatering and germ washing are
done more effectively with Dorr-Oliver
DSM screens. The DSM screens for
these applications are gravity fed over
a weir. A single stage screen is used
for dewatering. For germ washing,
however, three stages of DSM screens
are used. The wash water flows
countercurrently and removes the
starch quite efficiently as the germ
moves forward from stage to stage.
Benefits of Gravity-Fed
DSM Screens
No maintenance necessary as
screen media is rugged stainless
steel and there are no moving parts.
Space needed is minimal since
units are compact and handle
high throughputs. Cascade
mounting arrangement of three
screens also makes effective use
of available space.
Operation is trouble free due to
non-blinding, wedge wire screen
surface.
No fumes and spillage as screens
are totally enclosed.
Fiber Washing
To get maximum starch recovery,
while keeping any fiber in the final
product to an absolute minimum, it is
necessary to wash the free starch
from the fiber during processing.

Pressure-Fed 120 DSM Screens


Most plants accomplish this very
economically today with the DorrOliver Fiber Washing System. The
system consists of six stages of 120
DSM screens. The pressure fed screens
are arranged for countercurrent
washing of the fiber, with the starch
reporting to the undersize. The
extremely fine separations are possible
only with our highly polished wedge
wire screen surfaces with openings as
fine as 50 microns. The DSM screens
precisely selected screen media and its
proven reliability are unmatched by
equipment using fragile textiles or
thin etched screens.
Benefits of Pressure-Fed
120 DSM Screens
Close tolerance, engineered feed
system distributes feed flow
across screen surface with high
velocity for highly effective
separation.
Systems multi-stage
countercurrent flow design
assures maximum starch yield.
High capacity compact design
drastically curtails space needed
for fiber washing operations.
Requires little operator attention
because system is designed for
small sumps, uses standard
pumps and has simple
instrumentation.
Long service life due to no
moving parts, quick reversible
and totally enclosed design.
Screens available in single,
double and triple width
configurations for maximum
flexibility in system design.

Pressure-Fed DSM Screen

Gravity-Fed DSM Screen

Germ Separation &


Starch Washing Systems
Germ Separation
After the corn kernels are steeped for
softening, they are cracked open to
release the germ. The germ contains
the valuable corn oil. The germ is
separated from the heavier density
mixture of starch, hulls and fiber
essentially by floating the germ
segments free of the other substances
under closely controlled conditions. This
method serves to eliminate any adverse
effects of traces of corn oil in later
processing steps.
Manifolded DorrClone Systems
To accomplish this critical separation
most efficiently, most plants today use
Dorr-Olivers compact manifolded
two-stage Germ Separation System.
Specially sized DorrClone cyclones and

engineered flow distributions are


specifically designed for the magma/
germ separation. Because of the high
centrifugal forces employed, germ is
separated instantly. The first pass makes
a selective separation for optimum
purity and the second pass increases
germ recovery by capturing any germ
that may have been bypassed in the
first stage. This system has given
processors a new standard of process
control and sanitation.

Benefits of Germ
Separation DorrClones
Maximum germ oil recovery (very
low loss of the valuable process
fraction).
Easy maintenance and quick
replacement of individual cyclone
units because of the quick opening
couplings.
Rapid response to process changes
through single instrument control.
Totally enclosed design assures
clean and fume-free operating
area.
Lightweight construction and
shipment as a complete factory
assembled package means low
cost installation.
Modular system design allows easy
expansion when production
demands dictate.
Starch washing
The starch slurry from the primary
separation contains some insoluble
protein and much of the solubles. They
have to be removed before a top
quality starch can be made. Modern
plants are using Dorr-Oliver Starch
Washing Systems for this important
task.

Hydrocyclone Starch
Washing System
A typical Dorr-Clone or Hydrocyclone
Starch Washing System consists of
batteries of 10 mm cyclones in
completely unitized and enclosed
housings, arranged for efficient
countercurrent washing. The centrifugal
forces needed to make the separation
are derived from energy supplied by
pumps. The high rotational velocities in
the individual cyclones cause the starch
to concentrate in the underflow while
the suspended gluten follows the
overflow wash water stream. The
multi-stage systems provide easy and
precise control of the process, resulting
in the uniform, high quality starch
required in todays highly demanding
marketplace. The latest in starch
washing technology incorporates
recently developed high-efficiency
10mm cyclones for the Starch Washing
System. These high capacity units
incorporate advanced flow channeling
with superior materials and layout to
save money in installed cost and
operating power. Varying plant
capacities can be handled.
Benefits of Starch
Washing Hydrocyclones
Easy operation because simplified
control system uses self regulation
of intermediate stages.
Improved sanitation since system is
completely closed and pressurized
Low maintenance. The only
moving parts are in the standard
centrifugal pumps.
Capital cost is less because of the
systems compactness, which saves
on space, and easy expandability
when additional capacity is needed

Gluten Dewatering

Gluten Dewatering
Before the gluten moves on to drying
it is good practice to dewater the
gluten slurry from the gluten
thickener, which obviously saves on
the energy required to thermally dry a
high moisture product. This is usually
accomplished economically on a
rotary drum filter with belt discharge.
Dorr-Oliver Eimco
E-Belt Drum Filter
Dorr-Oliver Eimco E-Belt Drum Filters
for corn wet milling applications have
been adapted to meet the industrys
specific needs for corrosion resistance
and sanitation. Filters are of stainless
steel construction and are equipped
with streamlined internal piping and
valves, snap-in plastic supporting
media and easily adaptable discharge
mechanisms.
Its reliable filtration enhances product
recovery minimizing protein loss.

Benefits of E-Belt Drum Filters


No more blinding problems and
greatly improved washing and cloth
tracking with the revolutionary
swivel roll concept that doesnt
require filter cloth rubber edges.
Delivers high rates of filtration and
high hydraulic capacity for cake
dryness enhancement.
Hi Hydraulic capacity
Food design for cleaning and
sanitation
Innovative cloth alignment design
Low installation costs and clean
working environment due to
compact design.
No operator attention required.
Minimal maintenance

Starch Washing and Filtration

Pneumapress automatic pressure


filters were successfully introduced into
the starch washing and dewatering
process in 1997. Since that time, the
Pneumapress design has evolved to
meet the changing needs of the
industry and Pneumapress equipment
is now installed by the majority of the
major starch producers worldwide. The
starches processed on the Pneumapress include corn, wheat, potato and
tapioca starches including modified,
industrial and food grade varieties.
Pneumapress filters are installed in
starch plants the USA, Germany,
Thailand, Korea, France and Italy.

Pneumapress Sanitary Multi-Module Filter

Cake discharge from filter

Filter enclosed in sanitary housing

The design focus of Pneumapress for


the starch industry is to provide a
mechanically simple, sanitary and
efficient filter. Pneumapress filters do
not require rubber seals or diaphragms, simplifying the operation
and maintenance of the equipment.
Significant repeat business and
referral sales are indicative of the
success of the Pneumapress design.
The most common throughput sizes
for single filters on native starches are
in the range of 6 to 25 metric tons
per hour dry solids and for modified
starch are in the range of 4 to 20
metric tons per hour dry solids.
The cleaning and hygiene requirements at food starch plants are
becoming more stringent. Pneumapress has recognized this need and
created a patented sanitary design
option to enable ease of cleaning and
sanitization. This option incorporates
a fully automatic clean in place (CIP)
system.

The Pneumapress filter can be totally


enclosed to prevent product contamination and provide increased safety
for those working in the vicinity. This
enclosure may be designed in 316
stainless steel to provide the ultimate
in sanitary design and safety.

Benefits of Pneumapress Filters


Very dry filter cakes with highly
effective cake washing when
required
Highest throughput per unit area
of any filter, which minimizes the
required filter area, equipment
size, number of moving parts and
maintenance downtime
Advanced filter media design and
effective filter media cleaning
provide very clean filtrate
Mechanically simple design
eliminates consumables such as
diaphragms and seals
Filter plates are made completely
from 316 stainless steel
An isolatable plate design
provides very high equipment
availability
Sanitary or industrial design with
optional filter housing, structure
cladding, and CIP systems
Single-sided cake discharge
Low installation costs

Starch Conversion and


Hydrogenation
Polishing syrup
To remove impurities from syrup in
the sweetener plant, general industry
practice is to use a precoat vacuum
filter, simply because precoat filters
produce the clearest syrups.
Hydrogenation:
Through Catalytic reactions, starch
can be converted into a wide family
of low calories sugar used in food
and pharmaceutical products.

Dorr-Oliver Eimcos
Precoat Filter
features a slow and precise knife
advance system that assures the
lowest precoat expense without
affecting the machines high throughput rates. The precoat material can be
applied to the filter in varying
thicknesses and users get longer
processing cycles between filter
medium replacements. The units
exclusive scraper design enables the
operator to better control removal of
impurities with minimum loss of
precoat material, and this also keeps
operating costs down.
Benefits of Pre-Coat Filters
Consistently clear and better
quality syrup.
Longer operating cycles and
equipment life.
Can be readily adapted to meet
varying process needs.
Effective use of precoat, without
waste, lowers operating costs.
Revolutionary precoat discharge
system electronically control for
reduced precoat consumption
and longer filtration cycle.

Dorr-Oliver Eimco Precoat Filter

IBF, Indexing Belt Filter


Dorr-Oliver Eimco IBF is one of the
many products in our portfolio for
vacuum filtration of a wide range of
hydrogenated compounds. The
continuous operation together with a
simple mechanical design reduce
maintenance offering steady and
reliable operation.
Benefits of IBF Filters
Food design, FDA validated.
Totally enclosed execution for
solvent washing
Smooth filtration with no particle
size modification.
Superior washing efficiency for
maximized product recovery.
Cleaning in place for complete
sanitation.
Dorr-Oliver Eimco Indexing Belt Filter (IBF)

Dry Solids Content

*% D.S. = Be deg x 1.7770


Specific Gravity of Starch 1.5 - 1.6

Water Content

Be

Sp Gr

% D.S.*

Lbs/Gal

Lbs/Gal

Oz/Gal

Gr/Gal

Gm/Liter

Lbs H2O Gal Susp

Lbs H2O Lb Starch

Gal H2O Lb Starch

0.0

1.0000

0.00

8.328

0.000

8.328

0.5

1.0035

0.89

8.357

0.074

1.184

518

8.87

8.283

111.93

13.437

1.0

1.0069

1.78

8.386

0.149

2.384

1043

17.85

8.237

55.28

6.636

1.5

1.0105

2.66

8.416

0.224

3.584

1568

26.84

8.192

36.57

4.390

2.0

1.0140

3.55

8.445

0.300

4.800

2100

35.95

8.145

27.15

3.260

2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5

1.0176
1.0211
1.0248
1.0285
1.0322

4.44
5.33
6.22
7.11
8.00

8.475
8.504
8.535
8.566
8.596

0.376
0.453
0.531
0.609
0.688

6.016
7.248
8.496
9.744
11.008

2632
3171
3717
4263
4816

45.18
54.28
63.63
72.98
82.32

8.099
8.051
8.004
7.957
7.908

21.54
17.77
15.07
13.07
11.49

Temperature Corrections
Temperature

Add (Be)

67

.1

73

.2

79

.3

85

.4

91

.5

97

.6

103

.7

2.586
2.133
1.809
1.570
1.379

5.0

1.0358

8.89

8.626

0.767

12.272

5369

91.79

7.859

10.25

5.5

1.0396

9.77

8.658

0.846

13.536

5922

101.38

7.812

9.23

1.231
1.108

6.0

1.0433

10.66

8.689

0.926

14.816

6482

110.96

7.763

8.38

1.006

6.5

1.0470

11.55

8.720

1.007

16.112

7049

120.67

7.713

7.66

0.920
0.845

7.0

1.0508

12.44

8.751

1.089

17.424

7623

130.49

7.662

7.04

7.5

1.0547

13.33

8.784

1.171

18.736

8197

140.32

7.613

6.50

0.780

8.0

1.0585

14.22

8.815

1.253

20.048

8771

150.15

7.562

6.04

0.725
0.675

8.5

1.0624

15.10

8.848

1.336

21.376

9352

160.09

7.511

5.62

9.0

1.0663

15.99

8.880

1.420

22.720

9940

170.16

7.460

5.25

0.630

9.5

1.0703

16.88

8.914

1.505

24.080

10535

180.34

7.409

4.92

0.591

10.0

1.0742

17.77

8.946

1.590

25.440

11130

190.53

7.356

4.63

0.556

10.5

1.0782

18.66

8.979

1.676

26.816

11732

200.71

7.303

4.36

0.523

11.0

1.0822

19.55

9.013

1.762

28.192

12334

211.14

7.251

4.12

0.495

11.5

1.0862

20.44

9.047

1.849

29.584

12943

221.56

7.198

3.89

0.467

12.0

1.0903

21.32

9.080

1.936

30.976

13552

231.99

7.144

3.69

0.443

12.5

1.0944

22.21

9.114

2.024

32.384

14168

242.65

7.090

3.50

0.420

13.0

1.0986

23.10

9.149

2.113

33.808

14791

253.32

7.036

3.33

0.400

13.5

1.1028

23.99

9.185

2.203

35.248

15421

263.98

6.982

3.17

0.381

14.0

1.1071

24.88

9.220

2.294

36.704

16058

274.89

6.926

3.02

0.363

14.5

1.1114

25.77

9.256

2.385

38.160

16695

285.79

6.871

2.88

0.346

15.0

1.1156

26.66

9.291

2.477

39.632

17339

296.82

6.814

2.75

0.330

15.5

1.1199

27.54

9.327

2.569

41.104

17983

307.84

6.758

2.63

0.316

16.0

1.1242

28.43

9.363

2.662

42.592

18634

318.98

6.701

2.52

0.303

16.5

1.1286

29.32

9.399

2.756

44.096

19292

330.25

6.643

2.41

0.289

17.0

1.1330

30.21

9.436

2.851

45.616

19957

341.63

6.585

2.31

0.277

17.5

1.1375

31.10

9.473

2.946

47.136

20622

353.02

6.527

2.22

0.267

18.0

1.1419

31.99

9.510

3.042

48.672

21294

364.52

6.468

2.13

0.256

18.5

1.1465

32.88

9.548

3.139

50.224

21973

376.14

6.409

2.04

0.245

19.0

1.1500

33.76

9.586

3.236

51.776

22652

387.89

6.350

1.96

0.235

19.5

1.1556

34.65

9.624

3.335

53.360

23345

397.23

6.289

1.89

0.227

20.0

1.1602

35.54

9.662

3.434

54.944

24038

411.49

6.228

1.81

2.170

20.5

1.1649

36.43

9.702

3.534

56.544

24738

423.48

6.168

1.75

0.210

21.0

1.1696

37.32

9.741

3.635

58.160

25445

435.58

6.106

1.68

0.202

21.5

1.1744

38.21

9.781

3.737

59.792

26159

447.80

6.044

1.62

0.194

22.0

1.1791

39.09

9.820

3.839

61.424

26873

460.02

5.981

1.56

0.187

22.5

1.1840

39.98

9.861

3.942

63.072

27594

472.49

5.919

1.50

0.180

23.0

1.1888

40.87

9.901

4.047

64.752

28329

484.95

5.854

1.45

0.174

23.5

1.1937

41.76

9.941

4.151

66.416

29057

497.41

5.790

1.39

0.167

24.0

1.1986

42.65

9.982

4.257

68.112

29799

510.11

5.725

1.34

0.161

24.5

1.2036

43.54

10.024

4.364

69.824

30548

522.93

5.660

1.30

0.156

25.0

1.2086

44.43

10.065

4.472

71.552

31304

535.76

5.593

1.25

0.150

Minerals Processing
Technology Center
FLSmidth Salt Lake City, Inc.
7158 S. FLSmidth Drive
Midvale, UT 84047-5559
Tel: +1 801 871 7000
email: info.slc@flsmidth.com

.9

118

1.0

123

1.1

These tables are based on the work of J.E. Cleland, E.E.


Fauser and W.R. Fetzer.
See Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, Analytical
Edition, Vol. 15, pp 193-200, 1943

Customer Service
FLSmidth is your One Source for spare parts,
service, maintenance, asset management,
and operational services. Our Customer
Services provide a wide range of services for
food processing equipment and systems
including process design, equipment
installation, troubleshooting, process and
mechanical analysis, and commissioning of
new plants.
We design and install your processing
systems with quality Dorr-Oliver, EIMCO,
Krebs and Pneumapress equipment. Our
experts provide the tools to ensure that your
systems continue to operate at optimum
levels, all the time. It is by no means a radical
concept. Indeed, everyone promises it; we
deliver it!

Copyright 2010 FLSmidth A/S. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. FLSmidth is a (registered) trademark of FLSmidth A/S. This brochure makes no offers, representations or
warranties (express or implied), and information and data contained in this brochure are for general reference only and may change at any time.

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Baume Conversion Tables for Starch Suspensions - 60F

Suspension @ 60F