\
CHAPTER
3
TRANSVERSALITY CONDITI
ONS
OINT
FOR
VARIABLE
ENDP
PROBLEMS
The
calculus
differential
Euler
equationthe
of
basic
necessary
_{n}_{o}_{r}_{m}_{a}_{l}_{l}_{y}
two
and
condition
_{a}
in the
variationsis
equation
with
fixed
_{s}_{e}_{c}_{o}_{n}_{d}_{}_{o}_{r}_{d}_{e}_{r}
constants.
points,
the
containing
initial
arbitrary
terminal
For
problems
two 
given 
boundary conditions 
provide 
sufficient 

information 
to 
definitize 
the 
two 
arbitrary 
constants. 
But
to
the
discretionary
if
initial
or
terminal
then
the
the
at time
of
point
is
variable
(subject
will
the
no
PT
In
choice),
a boundary
case,
for
preceding
condition
if
faces
the
problem.
be missing. 
Such 
will 
be 
dynamic 
monopolist 
of 

externally 
imposed 
price 
choice
as an integral
part
instance,
chapter
can treat
T ,and
the optimization
that case, the boundary condition P(T) = PT will no longer be available, and the void must be filled by a
transversality condition. In this chapter we shall develop the transversality conditions appropriate to various types of variable terminal points.
3.1
THE
GENERAL
CONDITION
For expository
convenience,
TRANSVERSALITY
we shall assume that only
the terminal point is variable. Once we learn to deal with that, the technique is easily extended to the case of a variable initial point.
The
VariableTerminalPoint
objective
is
to
Problem
Our new
Maximize
or minimize
Yy] = /*~(t,y, yf) dt
0
(3.1)
y(0)
= A
(A given)
subject
to
and
Y ( ~)=Y T
( T ,~~f r
This
_{t}_{h}_{a}_{t}
"free"
choice
although
to the problem.
optimal
differs
_{t}_{h}_{e}
from
the
time
previous
and
version
terminal
of
the
state
problem
a
y,
part
in
_{t}_{e}_{r}_{m}_{i}_{n}_{a}_{l}
T
are now
of
the
that
in the sense that
T
is
process.
free, only
they
It
have
is
to
become
be
understood
of
T
positive
values
are relevant
To
develop
the
necessary
conditions
for
an
extremal, 
we 
shall, 
as before, 
employ a perturbing 
curve 

p(t), 
and 
use 
the 
variable 
E 
to generate neighboring 
paths for comparison 
with 
the 
extremal. 
First, suppose 

that 
T * 
is 
the 
known 
optimal 
terminal 
time. 
Then 
any 

value 
of 
T 
in the immediate 
neighborhood 
of 
T* can be 
expressed 
as 

where 
E 
represents 
a 
small 
number, 
and 
AT 
represents 
an arbitrarily 
chosen (and 
fixed) 
small 
change 

in T. Note that since T* is known 
and 
AT 
is a prechosen 
magnitude, T can be 
considered 
as a function 
of E ,T(E) 

with derivative 

7 r n 

The 
same 
E 
is used 
in conjunction 
with 
the 

_{p}_{e}_{r}_{t}_{u}_{r}_{b}_{i}_{n}_{g} _{c}_{u}_{r}_{v}_{e} 
_{p}_{(}_{t}_{)} _{t}_{o} generate 
neighboring 
paths 
of 

the extremal y*(t): 

However, although the 
p(t) curve 
must 
still 
satisfy 
the 

condition 
p(0) 
= 
0 
[see 
(2.2)1 
to 
force 
the 
neighboring 

paths 
to 
pass 
through 
the fixed 
initial 
point, the 
other 

conditionp(t) 
I = 0should now 
be dropped, 
because 
y, 
is free. 
By 
substituting 
(3.4) 
into 
the 
functional 
V[y], 
we 

get 
a function 
V(E) akin 
to 
(2.121, 
but 
since 
T 
is 
a 

function 
of 
E 
by (3.2), 
the 
upper 
limit of 
integration 
in 

the V function 
will also vary with 
E: 
(3.5)
^{~}^{(} ^{c}^{=}
kT'"~[t, y*(t)
+ rp(t), y*'(t)
+ rpf(t)] dt
Y(t> 
~'( t 

Our problem is to optimize this V 
function 
with 
respect 

to 
E. 

definite integral (3.5) falls into the general 
form 
of 
(2.10). 
The V/d~ is therefore,
by
(2.111,
on the
right closely resembles the one encountered in (2.13) arlier development of the Euler equation. In fact, much of the rocess leading to (2.17) still applies here, with one exception.
[Fyrp(t)];f
in (2.16) does not vanish
since
in the present
we have
problem,
that
in (2.171,
value
p(T) z 0. With this amendment
= [F,,],=,p(T),
[Fy,p(t)],=,
assumed
result
to the earlier
term in (3.6)
=
[ [
p(t)
1
Fy  F'!
dt + [FY*],=,p(T
can also 
write 

Second 
term in (3.6) 
= [Fit=, AT 
these 
into 
(3.6), 
and 
setting 
d V / d ~= 0, 
we 
obtain 
the 
new 

p(t)[Fy 
 :FYr] dt + [Ff]t=T~(T)+ [F]~=TIT = 0 
three
terms
on the lefthand
its own arbitrary
element:
side
of
(3.71, each
contains
p(t) (the
entire
perturbing
_{c}_{u}_{r}_{v}_{e}_{)} 
_{i}_{n} _{t}_{h}_{e} (T) (the terminal value on the perturbing 

curve) 
in the second 
arbitrarily 
chosen 
change 
in 
T) in 
the third. Thus we cannot offsetting or cancellation of terms. Consequently, in order tocondition (3.7), each of
the three
terms
must
individually
be set o
T FIGURE FIGURE 
3.1 3.1 

Step 
ii 
To 
this 
end, 
we 
first 
get 
rid 
of the 
arbitrary 

_{q}_{u}_{a}_{n}_{t}_{i}_{t}_{y} _{p}_{(}_{T}_{)} _{b}_{y} 
transforming 
it into terms 
of 
AT 
and 

AyTthe 
changes in 
T 
and 
y,, 
the 
two 
principal 

variables 
in 
the 
variableterminalpoint 
problem. 
This 
can 
be done 
with 
the 
help 
of Fig. 3.1. The 
AZ' curve 

represents 
a neighboring 
path 
obtained 
by 
perturbing 
the 

AZ 
path 
by 
~p(t ),with 
E 
set 
equal 
to 
one 
for 
convenience. 
Note 
that while the 
two curves 
share 
the 

same 
initial 
point 
because p(0) = 0, they 
have 
different 
heights
perturbing
the vertical
at
t
_{y}_{,}
can
11,
_{r}_{e}_{s}_{u}_{l}_{t}_{i}_{n}_{g}
be
also
the
AZ'
= T
because
The
p(T) #
0 by
_{c}_{o}_{n}_{s}_{t}_{r}_{u}_{c}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}
of
the
But
p(T),
direct
_{o}_{f}
_{t}_{h}_{e}
by
in
T
=
E
curve.'
distance
_{f}_{r}_{o}_{m}
altered
curve
magnitude
measures
perturbation.
the
amount
if
AT
shown
change
as
ZZ',
the
by
should,
inasmuch
since
out
EAT (= AT
> 0, be
extended
to
2".2 As 
a result, 
yT 
is further pushed up by the vertical 

distance 
between 
Z' 
and 2". For a small 
AT, this 
second 
change
the total
in
y,
can be
change
in y,
approximated
from
point
Z
by
to point
y'(T) AT. Hence,
Z"
is
Rearranging
this
relation
allows
us to express
p(T) in
terms 
of 
AyT 
and 

AT:3 

'~echnically, 
the 
point 
T 
on 
the 
horizontal 
axis 
in 
Fig. 
3.1 
should 

be labeled 
T*. We 
are omitting 
the 
* 
for 
simplicity. 
This 
is 

justifiable 
because 
the 
result 
that 
this 
discussion 
is 
_{l}_{e}_{a}_{d}_{i}_{n}_{g} 

to(3.9)is 
a 
transversality 
condition, 
which, 
as 
a standard 

practice, 
is 
stated in terms 
of 
T (without 
the *) anyway. 

'~lthough we are initially interested 
only 
in the solid portion 
of 
the 
AZ 

path, the equation 
for 
that 
path 
should 
enable 
us 
also 
to plot 
the 

broken 
portion 
as 
an 
extension 
of 
AZ. 
The 
_{p}_{e}_{r}_{t}_{u}_{r}_{b}_{i}_{n}_{g} _{c}_{u}_{r}_{v}_{e} _{i}_{s} _{t}_{h}_{e}_{n} 

applied to the extended 
version 
of 
AZ. 
~ h resulte
3
3.1.
in (3.8) is valid
even
if
E
is
not
set equal
to one
as
in
_{S}_{t}_{e}_{p} _{i}_{i}_{i}
dropping the first term in (3.7), we finally arrive at the
desired general transversality condition
Using (3.8) to eliminate
p(T) in (3.7), and
Fig.
This 
condition, unlike 
the 
Euler equation, 
is 
relevant 

only 
to 
one point 
of time, T .Its role 
is to take 
the place 
of
the
missing
terminal
condition
in the
present
problem.
Depending 
on the 
exact 
specification of 
the 
terminal 
line 
or curve, 
however, 
the 
general condition 
(3.9) can 
be 

written in various 
specialized forms. 
3.2 
SPECIALIZED TRANSVERSALITY 

CONDITIONS 

In 
this 
section 
we 
consider 
five 
types 
of variable 

terminal 
points: 
vertical terminal 
line, 
horizontal 

terminal 
line, 
terminal curve, 
truncated 
vertical 

terminal 
line, and 
truncated horizontal 
terminal line. 

Vertical 
Terminal 
Line 

(FixedTimeHorizon Problem) 

The 
verticalterminalline case, 
as 
illustrated 
in 
Fig. 

1.5a, involves 
g fixed 
T .Thus 
AT 
= 
0, and the 
first 

term in 
(3.9 ) drops 
out. But since 
Ay, 
is arbitrary 
and 

can 
take 
either 
sign, 
the only 
way 
to 
make 
the 
second 

term in (3.9) vanish 
for sure is 
to 
have Fy r= 0 
at 
t = 

T .This 
gives 
rise 
to 
the transversality 
condition 

which is sometimes 
referred to as the natural 
boundary 

condition 

Horizontal Terminal Line 
(FixedEndpoint Problem)
For the horizontalterminalline case ,as illustrated in
have
Ay, = 0 but AT is arbitrary. So
automatically drops out, but the first does not. Since AT
is arbitrary, the only way to make the first term vanish for sure is to have the bracketed expression equal to zero Thus the transversality condition is
Fig. 1.5b ,the situation is exactly reversed;
we
term
now
the second
in (3.9
It
might
F(t
capital
be
useful
to
give
an
economic
_{l}_{e}_{t}
,where
interpretation
interpret
represents
to
(3.10 ) and
as
a
_{(}_{3}_{.}_{1}_{1}_{)} .To _{f} _{i}_{x} _{i}_{d}_{e}_{a}_{s}_{,}
profit
function
taking
_{u}_{s}
y
net
,y ,y')
stock, and y' entails
represents
resource
away from the current profitmaking busines
operation, so as to build up capital which will enhance _{f}_{u}_{t}_{u}_{r}_{e} _{p}_{r}_{o}_{f}_{i}_{t}_{.} _{H}_{e}_{n}_{c}_{e} there exists a tradeoff between current profit and future profit. At any time _{t}_{,} _{w}_{i}_{t}_{h} _{a}
given capital stock y, a specific investmen _{d}_{e}_{c}_{i}_{s}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{}_{s}_{a}_{y}_{,} _{a} decision to select the investment rate yl,will result in the current profi _{F}_{(}_{t}_{,} _{y}_{,} _{y}_{'}_{,}_{)}_{.} _{A}_{s} _{t}_{o} _{t}_{h}_{e} effect of the investment decision on future profits, i enters through the intermediary of capital. The rate of
capital accumulation
value
F(t, y, y',) to see the overall (current as well as future
profit implication of the investment decision. The
imputed (or shadow) value to the firm of a unit of
is measured by the derivative Fy,.This means that if we
is y',;
if we can convert
that into a
_{p}_{r}_{o}_{f}_{i}
measure,
then we can add it to the _{c}_{u}_{r}_{r}_{e}_{n}_{t}
capita
decide
to leave
(not
use
up) a unit
of
capital
at the
terminal 
time 

it will entail 
a 
negative value equal 
to Fyg.Thus, 
at 
t 
= T, 
the 
value 

measure 
of 
y', 
is 
y', 
Fyto.Accordingly, 
the overall profit implication 
of 
the 

decision 
to 
choose 
the 
investment rate y', 
is 
F(t, y, y',) 
 yb Fyg.The gen 
eral expression
Now
for this
is
we can interpret
F  y'Fy,, as in (3.11).
the transversality
condition
(3.11) to mean that
in a problem with a free terminal time, the firm should
select
capital
(current and future) profit. In other words, all the profit opportunities should have been fully taken advantage of by the optimally chosen terminal time. In addition, (3.10)which can equivalently be written as [  FY,],=, = Oinstructs the firm to avoid any sacrifice _{o}_{f} _{p}_{r}_{o}_{f}_{i}_{t} _{t}_{h}_{a}_{t} will be incurred by leaving a positive
terminal capital. In other words, in a freeterminalstate problem, in order to maximize profit in the interva [0, T ] but not beyond, the firm should, at time T, us up all
the capital it ever accumulated.
a
T
such that
a decision
t
=
T, no
longer
to
invest
yield
any
and
accumulate
overal
will, at
Terminal
Curve
With
1.5c,
a terminal
neither
curve
AyT nor
yT = +(T),as illustrated
AT
is
assigned
a
zero
in Fig.
value,
so
neither 
term 
in 
(3.9) drops out. However, for a small 

arbitrary 
AT, the terminal curve 
implies that 
Ay, _{q}_{S}_{=}_{A}_{T}_{.} 
So it is possible to eliminate Ay, in (3.9) and combine the
two
terms
Since
AT
into the form
[F y1FYp + F,vqS]tTAT
= 0
is arbitrary,
we can deduce
the transversality
condition 

Unlike 
the 
last 
two 
cases, 
which 
involve 
a single 

unknown 
in 
the terminal 
point 
(either 
y, 
or 
TI, 
the 

terminalcurve 
case 
requires 
us to determine 
both 
y, 

and T. Thus two relations 
are needed for this purpose. 
The transversality condition (3.12) only provides one; the
other is supplied by the equation y, = +(T 1.
Truncated
Vertical
Terminal
Line
The usual 
case of vertical 
terminal 
line, with 
AT 
= 0, 
specidixes 
(3.9) to 
When the line is truncatedrestricted by the terminal _{c}_{o}_{n}_{d}_{i}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{y}_{T} _{2} _{y}_{m}_{i} where yminis a minimum permissible
level
types
possible
> ymi nor y,*
of
of
ythe
outcome:
optimal
y,*
solution
can
have
two
y,*
= ymin .If
> ymin
the terminal restriction is 
automatically 
satisfied; that 

is, 
it 
is 
nonbinding. 
Thus, the transversality 
condition 
is 

in that event 
the same as (3.10): 

The basic reason 
for 
this 
is that, 
under 
this outcome, 

there 
are admissible 
neighboring 
paths 
with terminal 

values 
both 
above 
and 
below 
y,*, so that 
Ay, = y,  yT* 

can 
take either 
sign. Therefore, 
the 
only way 
to 
satisfy
(3.13) is to have
The
other
outcome,
Fy,= 0 at
t = T
y,*
= y,,,,
on the
other
hand,
only 
admits 
neighboring 
paths 
with 
terminal 
values 
y, 

2 y,*. 
This 
means 
that 
Ay, 
is 
no longer 
completely 
arbitrary (positive or negative) ,but is restricted 
to 
be 
nonnegative. terminal value Assuming the p(T ) > 0,as perturbing curve in Fig .3.1,Ay, r 
to 0 have would 

mean that E 2 0 ( E = 1 in Fig .3.1) .The nonnegativity 

of E , in turn ,means condition (3 .13)which has that the transversality its roots in the firstorder 

condition d V / d ~= O must be changed 
to 
an 
inequality as in the KuhnTucker conditions.* 
For 
a 
maximization called for, and problem (3.13 ,the should I type become of inequality 
is 

(3.15) [ F y l] t =T A I~~0 

And since Ay, 2 0, (3.15) implies condition 

(3.16) [Fy,]t=TsO for~,*=~, 
Combining 
(3.14) 
and 
(3.16), 
we 
may 
write 
the 

following summary statement of the transversality condition for a maximization problem 

(3.17) 
[F~)],=,5 0 
YT* 2 Ymi 

(YT*  ~rnln)[~Y']t=T= 

[for maximization 
of 
V 

4 ~ o anr 
explanation 
of the 
KuhnTucker 
conditions, 
see Alpha 
C 

_{C}_{h}_{i}_{a}_{n}_{g}_{,} 
_{F}_{u}_{n}_{d}_{a}_{m}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{a} 
Methods of 
Mathematical 
Economzcs, 3d ed 
McGrawHill,
New
York, 1984, See. 21.2
is instead
inequality sign in (3.15) must be reversed, and the transversality condition becomes
If
the
problem
to
minimize
V, then
(3.17')
[FY*]t=T2 0
(YT* ~rnin)[Fy#]~== 0
YT* 2Ymin
[for minimization
The
tripartite
complicated,
but its
condition
(3.17 )or (3.17' ) may
the
of
V]
seem
practical problem solving, we can try the [Fy#1,=, = 0
condition in (3.14) first, and check the resulting yT* value. If yT* 2 ymin then the terminal restriction is satisfied, and the problem solved. If y,* <
application is not. In
y,,, 
on 
the 
other 
hand, 
then 
the optimal 
y, lies 

below 
the 
permissible 
range, 
and 
[F,,],,, 
fails 
to 
reach 

zero on the truncated 
terminal 
line. So, in order 
to 
satisfy 
the complementaryslackness 
condition 
in 
(3.17 
) or 

(3.17') 
we 
just 
set 
y,* 
= y,,, 
treating 
the 
problem 
as 
one with
a fixed
terminal
Truncated
Horizontal
_{p}_{o}_{i}_{n}_{t}
_{C}_{l}_{"}_{,} _{y}_{m}_{i}_{n}
Terminal
Line
The horizontal 
terminal 
line 
may 
be 
truncated 
by 
the 

restriction 
T 
5 
T,,, 
where 
T,, 
represents 
a 

maximum 
permissible 
time 
for completing a 
taska 
deadline. 
The 
analysis 
of 
such 
a situation 
is 
very 

similar 
to 
the truncated 
vertical 
terminal 
line 
gust 

discussed. 
By 
analogous 
reasoning, 
we 
can 
derive 
the 

following 
transversality 
condition 
for 
a maximization 
problem: 

(3.18) 
[ F ~ ~ F ~ ~ ] ~T*IT,,,~,L O 
( T *  T,,)
maximization
of
V]
[ F  y1FY,]t =,= 0
If
in
the
problem
(3.18) must
is
to
minimize
be changed,
and
V, the
the transversality
first
inequality
[for
condition 
is 

(3.18') 
[ F  Y 'F ~~]I~0,, T* I T,, 

(T*  T,,) 
[F  ytFY.],=, = 0 
[for minimization
of
V]
EXAMPLE 
1 
Find 
the 
curve with the shortest 
distance 

_{b}_{e}_{t}_{w}_{e}_{e}_{n} 
_{t}_{h}_{e} 
_{p}_{o}_{i}_{n}_{t} 
(0 ,l ) and the line 
y 
= 
2 
 
t. 

Referring 
to 
Fig. 
3.2, 
we 
see that this 
is 
a 
problem 
with
similar
a terminal
to
the
curve y(T) = 2  T ,but otherwise
Example
shortestdistance
problem
in
Sec.
2.2. Here,
the problem
is
to
Minimize
ny]= /*(I
0
+ y12)1'2
dt
subject 
to 
y(0) 
= 1 

and 
y(T) 
= 2 
 T 
Y
it
4
is
of
_{1} _{2}
It has previously
been
t
FIGURE
3.2
shown that with
the given
_{i}_{n}_{t}_{e}_{g}_{r}_{a}_{n}_{d}_{,} 
_{t}_{h}_{e} _{E}_{u}_{l}_{e}_{r} 
equation 
yields 
a straightline 
extremal, 
say, 
with
condition
two
y*
=a t + b
arbitrary
constants
a
and
b.
From
y(0) =
1, we
can readily
determine
the
that
initial
b
=
1.
To determine 
the other 
constant, a, we 
resort 
to 
the 

transversality 
condition 
(3.12). Since we have 

the transversality 
condition 
can be written 
as 

(1 +y")1/2 
+ ( 1  yl)rl(l 
+yr2)l" 
= 
o 

(at 
t = T 
Multiplying
through
by
(1 + y'2)1/
2and
simplifying
we can reduce this equation 
to 
the 
form 
yt 
= 
1 (at 
t = 

T).But 
the 
extremal 
actually 
has 
a constant 
slope, 
y*' 
= a,at all values of t.Thus, we must have 
a 
= 
1. And 

the extremal is therefore y*(t) = t + 1 

As shown in Fig. 
3.2, 
the 
extremal 
is 
a 
straight 
line that meets the terminal line at the point
line
and the extremal are, respectively+ , 1 and +1.Thus the
two lines are orthogonal (perpendicular) to each other. What the transversality condition does in this case is to
require
Moreover ,we note that the slopes
(;,
1;).
of
the
terminal
the extremal
to be orthogonal
to the _{t}_{e}_{r}_{m}_{i}_{n}_{a}_{l}
_{l}_{i}_{n}_{e}
EXAMPLE
2
Find
the extremal
of
the functional
FIGURE
3.3
with
_{f}_{r}_{e}_{e}_{.} _{H}_{e}_{r}_{e} _{w}_{e} _{h}_{a}_{v}_{e} _{a} horizontal terminal line as depicted
in Fig. 3.3.
boundary
conditions
y(0) =
1, y,
=
10, and
T
The general solution
of
the
Euler
equation
for
this problem has previously been found to be a quadratic
path (Sec. 2.2, Example 1)
Since
y(0) =
1, we
have
c, =
1. But
the
other
constant
_{c}_{,} _{m}_{u}_{s}_{t}
condition
_{b}_{e}
_{d}_{e}_{f}_{i}_{n}_{i}_{}_{t}_{i}_{z}_{e}_{d}
(3.11)+ .Since
with
the help
F
= ty'
+ y'2+
of
the transversality
so that
F,,
= t
+ 2y1
that
condition
becomes
ty'+y12 yp(t + 2y') = 0
_{(}_{a}_{t}
_{t} _{=} _{T}
which
is,
terminal
reduces
extremal
time.
the
to
is
To
y'2
=
0
required
meet
this
or
to
y'
=
have
0
at
a zero
condition,
we
t
=
T .That
slope
differentiate
at the
the 
general 
solution 
to 
get 
y*'(t), then 
set 
t 
= T ,and 

let 
y*'(T) 
= 0. 
The 
result 
_{+} is 
the 
equation 

 T/2 + c, = 0; it 
follows 
that _{c}_{,} _{=} _{T}_{/}_{2} .However, _{w}_{e} 

still 
cannot 
determine 
the 
specific 
value 
of 
cl without 

knowing 
the value 
of 
T 

To 
find 
make 
use 
of the information that 

y, 
= 
10 
T ,we (horizontal terminal line). Substituting 

and letting c2 = the 1 into the resulting general expression solution, take 
t c, = T/2 T ,and = value setting the stipulated 

10, we obtain 
the equation 
The
_{n}_{e}_{g}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{v}_{e} _{v}_{a}_{l}_{u}_{e}_{,} _{w}_{e} end up with T* = 6. Then it follows
that c, = 3, and the extremal is
solution
values
of
T
are therefore
rt 6. Rejecting
the
This 
time 
path is 
shown 
in Fig. 
3.3. As required 
by 

_{t}_{h}_{e} _{t}_{r}_{a}_{n}_{s}_{v}_{e}_{r}_{s}_{a}_{l}_{i}_{t}_{y} 
condition, 
the extremal indeed attains 

a zero slope 
at 
the terminal point 
(6, 101.Unlike 
in 

Example 1, where 
the transversality condition 
translates 

into 
an orthogonality 
requirement, 
the transversality 

condition 
in 
the 
present 
example 
dictates 
that 
the 

extremal 
share 
a common 
slope 
with 
the given 

horizontal 
terminal 
line 
at 
t = T. 
Application
to the Dynamic
Monopoly
Model
Let
us
now
consider
the
Evans
monopolist
a
variable
as a problem
with
terminal
state
P,
a fixed
2
P,,.
model
of
terminal
With
a
dynamic
time
the
T ,but
<
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