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Proceedings of the Fourth (1994) Internationai Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference

Osaka, Japan, April 10-15, 1994


Copyright 1994 by The International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers
ISBN 1-880653-10-9 (Set); ISBN 1-880653-11-7 (VoL I)

A Comparative Study on Theoretical and Experimental


of Padeyes Under In-Plane Loads

Strengths

Y.S. Choo, K.C. Choi and K.B. Lee


National University of Singapore
Singapore

Padeyes

and

pin-eonnections

are

commonly

components in onshore and offshore installation.

used

as

Elastic stress concentration factor


Bearing stress concentration factor
"Loaded-edge" distance along the line of load P referenced from the
hole centre-line = a (see Fig. 1)
Distance from centre of hole to constrained edge
Tensile load on padeye applied via pin
Ultimate strength of padeye
Reference strength of padeye with tolerance ratio (X.= 1.01
Computed strength corresponding to tolerance ratio (X.

lifting

Despite of their apparent

geometric simplicity, the nonlinear elasto-plastic behaviour of padeyes under


increasing loading is complex.

Present design approaches normally limit the

maximum elastic stresses calculated

from simplified

equations

to within

allowable stress limits and are very stringent on the pin-hole tolerance.
This paper presents parametric
quasi-static

"Unloaded-edge"

results for padeyes subjected to in-plane

loads using nonlinear

finite element analyses and a simple

graphical plot which facilitates the evaluation of padeye strength in relation


to its geometric ratios.

The current results are shown to correlate closely

with published experimental results and provide better correlation than some
standard design equations.
parametric
strength.

The effect of different padeye shapes, for the

range investigated,

is found to have marginal

influence

distance perpendicular to line of load P

(see Fig. 1)
Thickness of padeye (see Fig. 1)
Width of pad eye = 2r) (see Fig. 1)
Pinlhole tolerance factor = dh/d.. = rl/r2
Applied displacement along line of load P (see Fig. 4)
Equivalent plastic strain
Coefficient of friction
Yield stress at plastic strain gP
Averaged bearing stress

on

The reduction in ultimate strength of padeyes with large pinlhole

Maximum tensile stress in padeye around hole diameter


Ultimate tensile strength
Ultimate shear strength

tolerance is significantly lower than predicted by elastic theory due to stress


redistribution within the padeye plate.

KEYWORDs:

Padeyes, pin-eonnections,

strength comparison, nonlinear

behaviour, finite element analysis, design codes


Padeyes or pin-eonnections
offshore
NOMENCLATURE
a
"Loaded-edge" distance along the line of load P referenced from the
a'

hole centre-line = L (see Fig. 1)


"Loaded-edge" distance along the line of load P, measured from

be

edge of hole (see Fig 1)


"Unloaded-edge" distance, measured from the side of hole to the

C,
<I..
d..

edge of padeye (see Fig. 1)


Strength reduction ratio = p / P'"
Diameter of hole = d = d"... = 2rl (see Fig. 1)
Diameter of pin = d,,;., = 2r2 (see Fig. 1)

are integral components for onshore and

lifting of modules, jackets and structures.

The strength

of a

properly designed padeye is critical to the success of the installation phase.


The selection of padeye size, shape, and pin hole dimensions are contingent
to the selected
module/jacket
uncommon

shackle,

geometry,

to encounter

and

installation.

and/or

shackles

orientation

with

reference

weight and centre of gravity (C.G.).


situations

increased with an associated


tensions;

sling

where the module/jacket

shift in C.G. position

from different

It is not
weight has

and change in sling

manufacturers

These changes impact the performance

to the

being used

for

of the designed padeye