Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 3

Theory

Name

Descriptio
n

Example

Pro

Against

Cultural
Relativism

Relativism
postulates
there are no
universal
moral norms
for Right &
Wrong for
society and
hence its
members

Death
penalty is
right
response of
society for
certain
crimes; vs.
death
penalty is a
crime of
society
Slavery is
great for
those who
arent
slaves

Different
social
contexts
demand
different
moral
guidelines

Does not
explain how
an
individual
discovers
moral
guidelines

Acknowledg
es focus on
our own
well-being

Chip plant
manager
embarks on
hiring new
employees
to finish a
major
project

Offers
universal
moral
guidelines

Injustice can
occur when
powerful
individuals
put their
own
interests
first
No single
rule fully
characterize
s all actions

Prison
location

Down-toearth and
easily
applied,
assuming
due
diligence

Hard to
define
boundaries
to draw the
line

Exceptional
situations
do not
overthrow
moral rules

Ignores
apparent
unjust
distribution
of good
consequenc

Ethical
Egoism

Kantianis
m

Act
Utilitariani
sm

Rule
Utilitariani
sm

Each person
should focus
exclusively on
ones selfinterest

A method of
reasoning to
determine
universal
morals, based
on Categorical
Imperative, CI,
i.e. the bonafide will behind
actions
An action is
right or wrong
to the extent
that it
increases or
decreases the
total happiness
of affected
members of
society
Adopt moral
rules which, if
followed by
everyone, will
lead to the
greatest total

A must
keep
promise of
repaying B
1000 $,
even if it

Commen
t
(Ranking
)

happiness of
society

Social
Contract

Subjective
Relativism

Divine
Command
Theory

Morality
consists of
rules how
people treat
one another,
rules that
rational people
accept for
mutual benefit,
on the
condition all
others follow
those rules

Subjective
Relativism
postulates that
there are no
universal
moral norms
for Right &
Wrong for an
individual
In Subjective
Relativism a
person decides
Right & Wrong
Good actions
are those
aligned with
the will of God

would be of
1001 $
advantage
to A to
break it;
keeping
promises is
a rule with
high utility
drug
addicts, or
mentally
handicappe
d

Ali taking
home the
pencil and
paper at
work

What can
the bible tell
us about
Internet
conflicts?

es among
wide
spectrum of
society
members

Benefits
under
capitalist
freedom:
When all
members
are allowed
to act like
vultures, but
under
guidance of
social
contract, all
end up
acting like
doves

Can be
unjust to
those who
are unable
uphold their
side of the
contract

Intelligent
people can
have
opposite
opinions
about moral
issues, and
live
[sometimes]
happily
together

What is
right and
what you
do, are not
always
clearly
drawn

God is allgood, allknowing and


the ultimate
authority

There are
many holy
books, but
some
disagree, a
few strongly

Comment:
Based on the picture above, we able to conclude that rule is related morale
activities which bring positive effect to people and society. The purpose of each rule
are same and the morale of the society only can be maintain using rule.