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ARCH 331

Note Set 12.1

Rigid and Braced Frames

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Notation:

E

= modulus of elasticity or Young’s

F x

modulus = force component in the x direction

F y

= force component in the y direction

FBD

= free body diagram

G

= relative stiffness of columns to beams in a rigid connection, as is

I

= moment of inertia with respect to neutral axis bending

k

b

c

L

M

V

= effective length factor for columns

= length of beam in rigid joint

= length of column in rigid joint

= name for length

= internal bending moment

= name for a moment vector

= internal shear force

= summation symbol

Rigid Frames

Rigid frames are identified by the lack of pinned joints within the frame. The joints are rigid and resist rotation. They may be supported by pins or fixed supports. They are typically statically indeterminate.

Frames are useful to resist lateral loads.

indeterminate . Frames are useful to resist lateral loads. Frame members will see  shear 

Frame members will see

shear

bending

axial forces

and behave like beam-columns.

bending  axial forces and behave like beam-columns. Behavior The relation between the joints has to

Behavior

The relation between the joints has to be maintained, but the whole joint can rotate. The amount of rotation and distribution of moment depends on the stiffness (EI/L) of the members in the joint.

End restraints on columns reduce the effective length, allowing columns to be more slender. Because of the rigid joints, deflections and moments in beams are reduced as well.

deflections and moments in beams are reduced as well. Frames are sensitive to settlement because it

Frames are sensitive to settlement because it induces strains and changes the stress distribution.

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ARCH 331

Types

Gabled has a peak

Note Set 12.1

Portal resembles a door. Multi-story, multiple bay portal frames are commonly used for commercial and industrial construction. The floor behavior is similar to that of continuous beams.

Staggered Truss Full story trusses are staggered through the frame bays, allowing larger clear stories.

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the frame bays, allowing larger clear stories. Su2014abn Staggered Truss Connections Steel – Flanges of members

Staggered Truss

Connections Steel – Flanges of members are fully attached to the flanges of the other
Connections
Steel – Flanges of members are fully attached to the flanges of the
other member. This can be done with welding, or bolted plates.
Reinforced Concrete – Joints are monolithic with continuous
reinforcement for bending. Shear is resisted with stirrups and ties.
Braced Frames
Braced frames have beams and columns that are “pin”
connected with bracing to resist lateral loads.
Types of Bracing
 knee-bracing
 diagonal (including eccentric)
diagonal
X
 X
 K or chevron
 shear walls – which resist
lateral forces in the plane
of the wall
shear walls
K (chevron)

Rigid Frame Analysis

Structural analysis methods such as the portal method (approximate), the method of virtual work, Castigliano’s theorem, the force method, the slope-displacement method, the stiffness method, and matrix analysis, can be used to solve for internal forces and moments and support reactions.

Shear and bending moment diagrams can be drawn for frame members by isolating the member from a joint and drawing a free body diagram. The internal forces at the end will be equal and opposite, just like for connections in pinned frames. Direction of the “beam-like” member is usually drawn by looking from the “inside” of the frame.

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ARCH 331

ARCH 331 Note Set 12.1 Su2014abn P M+ M+ M+ Frame Columns Because joints can rotate

Note Set 12.1

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P M+ M+ M+
P
M+
M+
M+

Frame Columns

Because joints can rotate in frames, the effective length of the column in a frame is harder to determine. The stiffness (EI/L) of each member in a joint determines how rigid or flexible it is. To find k, the relative stiffness, G or , must be found for both ends, plotted on the alignment charts, and connected by a line for braced and unbraced fames.

where

G

 EI l c  EI l b
 EI
l
c
 EI
l
b
fames. where G     EI l c  EI l b E =

E = modulus of elasticity for a member I = moment of inertia of for a member l c = length of the column from center to center l b = length of the beam from center to center

For pinned connections we typically use a value of 10 for .

For fixed connections we typically use a value of 1 for .

fixed connections we typically use a value of 1 for  . Braced – non-sway frame

Braced non-sway frame

Frame Design

of 1 for  . Braced – non-sway frame Frame Design Unbraced – sway frame The

Unbraced sway frame

The possible load combinations for frames with dead load, live load, wind load, etc. is critical to the design. The maximum moments (positive and negative) may be found from different combinations and at different locations. Lateral wind loads can significantly affect the maximum moments.

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ARCH 331

Note Set 12.1

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ARCH 331 Note Set 12.1 Su2014abn Plates and Slabs If the frame is rigid or non-rigid,

Plates and Slabs

If the frame is rigid or non-rigid, the floors can be a plate or slab (which has drop panels around columns). These elements behave differently depending on their supports and the ratio of the sides.

depending on their supports and the ratio of the sides.  one- way behavior: like a

one-way behavior: like a “wide” beam, when ratio of sides > 1.5

two-way behavior: complex, non-determinate, look for handbook solutions

Floor Loading Patterns

With continuous beams or floors, the worst case loading typically occurs when alternate spans are loaded with live load (not every span). The maximum positive and negative moments may not be found for the same loading case! If you are designing with reinforced concrete, you must provide flexure reinforcement on the top and bottom and take into consideration that the maximum may move.

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you must provide flexure reinforcement on the top and bottom and take into consideration that the

M

M

V

ARCH 331

Note Set 12.1

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Example 1

The rigid frame shown has been analyzed using an advanced structural analysis technique. The reactions at support A are: A x = -28.6 k, A y = -15.3 k,

M

M

&

A = 208 k-ft. The reactions at support D are: D x = -11.4 k, D y = 15.3 k,

D = 110 ft-k. Draw the shear and bending moment diagrams, and identify V max

M max

Solution:

NOTE: The joints are not shown, and the load at joint B is put on only one body.

40 k B 15 ft C 12 ft 18 ft A D
40 k
B 15 ft
C
12 ft
18 ft
A
D
B 40 k 208 k-ft A 15.3 k 12 ft
B
40 k
208 k-ft
A
15.3 k
12 ft

28.6 k

B

C

15 ft

C

18 ft 110 k-ft D 11.4 k 15.3 k
18 ft
110 k-ft
D 11.4 k
15.3 k
15.3 k 12 ft 28.6 k B C 15 ft C 18 ft 110 k-ft D

+ V

+ V
+
V
15.3 k 12 ft 28.6 k B C 15 ft C 18 ft 110 k-ft D
15.3 k 12 ft 28.6 k B C 15 ft C 18 ft 110 k-ft D
+
+
15.3 k 12 ft 28.6 k B C 15 ft C 18 ft 110 k-ft D

+ M

15.3 k 12 ft 28.6 k B C 15 ft C 18 ft 110 k-ft D
15.3 k 12 ft 28.6 k B C 15 ft C 18 ft 110 k-ft D
+
+

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+
+
deflected shape (based on +/- M)
deflected shape
(based on +/- M)

ARCH 331

Note Set 12.1

Example 2

The rigid frame shown has been analyzed using an advanced structural analysis technique. The reactions at support A are: A x = 2.37 kN, A y = 21.59 kN, M A = -4.74 kNm. The reactions at support C are: C x = -2.37 kN, C y = 28.4 kN, M C = -26.52 kNm. Draw the shear and bending moment diagrams, and identify V max & M max .

Solution:

By MBA Bx B 4.74 kNm A 2.37 kN 21.59 kN 6 m
By
MBA
Bx
B
4.74 kNm
A
2.37 kN
21.59 kN
6 m
By MBC MBA B Bx Bx By
By
MBC
MBA
B
Bx
Bx
By
10 kN/m MBC 26.52 Bx B 5 m C 28.41 By
10 kN/m
MBC
26.52
Bx
B 5 m
C
28.41
By

kNm

2.37 kN

kN

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10 kN/m

B 5 m C 6 m A
B
5 m
C
6 m
A

Reactions These values must be given or found from non-static analysis techniques. The values are given with respect to the global coordinate system we defined for positive and negative forces and moments for equilibrium.

Member End Forces The free-body diagrams of all the members and joints of the frame are shown above. The unknowns on the members are drawn positive on one body for a joint, and the opposite directions are drawn on the other body of for the joint. We can begin the computation of internal forces with either member AB or BC, both of which have only three unknowns.

Member AB With the magnitudes of reaction forces at A known, the unknowns are at end B of B x , B y , and

M BA , which can get determined by applying

Fx 0

,

Fy 0

, and

M

B

0

. Thus,

Fx 2.37kN Bx 0

B x = -2.37 kN,

Fy 21.59kN By 0

B y = -21.59 kN

M B 2.37kN(6m)4.74kN mM BA 0

M BA = -9.48 kNm

Joint B The joint is shown to illustrate that the forces and moments on the cuts will be equal and opposite, resulting in the forces and moment at joint be on body BC to be opposite from those on body AB: B x = 2.37 kN, B y = -21.59 kN and M BC = -9.48 kNm

Member BC All forces are known, so equilibrium can be checked:

Fx 2.37kN 2.37kN 0

Fy 21.59kN 28.49kN (10kN / m)5m 0

M B 28.41kN(5m)10kN / m(5m)(2.5m)26.52kN m9.48kN m 0

21.59 kN + V (2.84 m) (2.16 m) -28.41 kN + V -2.37 kN
21.59 kN
+ V
(2.84 m)
(2.16 m)
-28.41 kN
+
V
-2.37 kN
23.3 kNm + M -9.48 kNm -26.52 kNm 6 4.74 kNm + M -9.48 kNm
23.3 kNm
+ M
-9.48 kNm
-26.52 kNm
6
4.74 kNm
+
M
-9.48 kNm
deflected shape (based on +/- M)
deflected shape
(based on +/- M)

800 N/m

ARCH 331

Note Set 12.1

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Example 4

The rigid frame shown has been analyzed using an advanced structural analysis technique. The reactions at support A are: A x = -3.42 kN, A y = -5.44 kN, M A = 12.63 kNm. The reactions at support D are: D x = 7.42 kN, D y = 25.44 kN, M D = -6.12 kNm. Draw the shear and bending moment diagrams, and identify V max & M max .

20 kN

B 8 m C A D C x
B 8 m
C
A D
C
x

5 m

60 kN-m

Solution:

B y M B BA B x A 3.42 kN 12.63 kNm 5.44 kN 0.8
B
y
M
B
BA
B
x
A
3.42 kN
12.63 kNm
5.44 kN
0.8 kN/m
5
m

B

20 kN M BC MCB B x 8 m C Cy B y
20 kN
M
BC
MCB
B
x
8 m
C
Cy
B y

Cx

M

C y CD C D 5 m
C y
CD
C
D
5
m

60 kNm

6.12 kNm

7.42 kN

25.44 kN

Reactions The values given were found from non-static analysis techniques and put on the FBD’s.

Member End Forces The free-body diagrams of all the members and joints of the frame are shown above assuming joint force directions on one body and opposite directions on the joining body. Because there is a force and moment at C, these must be put on only one body of the joint, and it doesn’t matter which body.

Member AB

Fx 3.42kN 0.8kN / m5mBx 0

Fy 5.44kN By 0

B y = 5.44 kN

B x = -7.42 kN

M B 3.42kN(5m)0.8kN / m(5m)(2.5m)12.63kN mM BA 0

Joint B

Member BC

M BA = M BC = 14.47 kNm

Fx 7.42kN Cx 0

Fy 5.44kN Cy 0

C x = 7.42 kN C y = 5.44 kN

M BA = 14.47 kNm

MC 14.47kN m5.44kN(8m)MCB 0 M CB = -29.05 kNm

Joint C

Member CD

(checking)

M CB = M CD = -29.05 kNm

Fx 7.42kN 7.42kN 0

Fy 5.44kN 20kN 25.44kN 0

M C ( 29.05kN m)60kN m6.12kN m7.42kN(5m) 0

+ V -7.42 kN + V -5.44 kN 7.42 kNm 3.42 kN + V
+
V
-7.42 kN
+ V
-5.44 kN
7.42 kNm
3.42 kN
+ V
30.95 kNm + M -6.12 kNm 14.47 kNm + M -29.05 kNm 14.47 kNm +
30.95 kNm
+
M
-6.12 kNm
14.47 kNm
+ M
-29.05 kNm
14.47 kNm
+ M
-12.63 kNm

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+ M -6.12 kNm 14.47 kNm + M -29.05 kNm 14.47 kNm + M -12.63 kNm

deflected shape (based on +/- M)

ARCH 331

Example 5

Note Set 12.1

Find the column effective lengths for a steel frame with 12 ft columns, a 15 ft beam when the support connections are pins for a) when it is braced and b) when it is allowed to sway. The relative stiffness of the beam is twice that of the columns (2I).

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2I I I 15 ft 12 ft
2I
I
I
15 ft
12 ft
allowed to sway. The relative stiffness of the beam is twice that of the columns (2I).

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