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This document’s main objective is to analyse the vibrational powerflow between the discharge tube, made
of polymeric material, and the compressor housing. Hence, the mechanical properties of elasticity modulus and loss
factor were determined for the new material. Therefore were presented formulations which allowed these properties to
be calculated, such as the natural frequencies of a cantilever beam by Timoshenko’s theory and the loss factor by half
power bandwidth method. Thus, there is a detailed description of how the experiments were conducted for obtaining the
frequency response curves from the polymer samples. These curves were used to determine the mechanical properties, in
which the elasticity modulus was given by the adjust of natural frequencies and the loss factor was given by half power
bandwidth calculation. Later on, these properties were used as parameters to feed a finite element model, which gave
the vibrational powerflow of the polymer tube. Finally, these results were compared with the powerflow from typical
coppered steel tube and conclusions were presented and discussed.

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V. Steffen, Jr; D.A. Rade; W.M. Bessa (Editors), ABCM, Natal, RN, Brazil, February 22-27, 2015

Vibrational Powerflow Analysis to the Hermectic Compressor Housing through the Discharge Tube made of Polymeric Material

Paulo Martins1 and Arcanjo Lenzi1

1

LVA - Laboratory of Acoustic & Vibrations, UFSC - Federal University of Santa Catarina, Mechanical Engineering

- SC, Brazil. Postal Code: 88040-900

Abstract: This documents main objective is to analyse the vibrational powerflow between the discharge tube, made

of polymeric material, and the compressor housing. Hence, the mechanical properties of elasticity modulus and loss

factor were determined for the new material. Therefore were presented formulations which allowed these properties to

be calculated, such as the natural frequencies of a cantilever beam by Timoshenkos theory and the loss factor by half

power bandwidth method. Thus, there is a detailed description of how the experiments were conducted for obtaining the

frequency response curves from the polymer samples. These curves were used to determine the mechanical properties, in

which the elasticity modulus was given by the adjust of natural frequencies and the loss factor was given by half power

bandwidth calculation. Later on, these properties were used as parameters to feed a finite element model, which gave

the vibrational powerflow of the polymer tube. Finally, these results were compared with the powerflow from typical

coppered steel tube and conclusions were presented and discussed.

Keywords: compressor housing, discharge tube, powerflow, polymer, mechanical properties determination

NOMENCLATURE

E = elasticity modulus, Pa

Fi = complex force in point i, N

fn = natural frequency, Hz

G = shear modulus, Pa

I = cross-sectional moment of inertia,

m4

L = beams length, m

Mi = complex moment in point i, N/m

n = vibration modes order, dimensionless

r = internal radius of tubes crosssection, m

S = cross-sectional area, m2

u i = complex velocity in point i, m/s

Wi = power in point i, Watts

Greek Symbols

fn = half power bandwidth, Hz

= loss factor, dimensionless

= complex angular velocity in point

i, rad/s

dimensionless

= Poissons coefficient

= density per unit length, kg/m2

n = angular natural frequency, rad/s

Subscripts

i = measurement point

x,y and z = measurement direction

INTRODUCTION

The hermetic alternative compressor have the electric motor and the compressing unit assembled on the same axis,

which is installed inside a housing made of steel composed by a base and a cover welded together hermetically. The

dynamic behaviour of the motor-compressing unit set, when in operating condition, excites the housing by mechanisms

of propagation such as the springs that supports the set, the inlet tube, responsible for taking the used cooling gas, and

the discharge tube, responsible for sending the same gas at higher pressure and temperature to the condenser, both linking

the compressing set to the housing. This is a basic description of a commom compressors power production and power

transmission mechanisms (HEINKLEIN, 2006).

The compressing unit consists in a solid block that holds a crank-connecting rod device, which gives the system

a typical imbalance effect and generates a substantial ammount of vibrational energy. This power is transmitted to the

other components linked to this excitation set, also it is radiated to the housings internal cavity and some is dissipated by

structural or material damping. All vibrational energy sent through these propagation mechanisms are subject to become

radiated noise by the compressor. The discharge tube is particularly important because its singular features such as to be

able to endure pressures up to 13 Bar and temperatures in the order of 120 C, making it an interesting component to be

analyzed separately from the others (SILVA, 2004).

Furthermore, one wish to reduce the total power that is flowing through the discharge tube by making it from a different

material than coppered-steel (commonly addressed as Bundy). A very good candidate and the object of study as well, is

a polymeric material, which can dissipate high levels of energy through viscous and hysteretic damping, thus decreasing

the vibrations transmitted to the housing.

This work was motivated by the possibility to enhance the compressors used in cooling systems, in order to achieve

lower levels of radiated noise, hence to empower customers well-being and satisfaction.

USED FORMULATIONS

The present work deals with a new kind of material, so one must guarantee that the mechanical properties used on

numerical simulations are according to reality. Thus the paper is based in two main formulations for the polymers

mechanical properties determination: the Timoshenkos beam theory to aid in the adjust of elasticity modulus, and the

half power bandwidth method to determine the loss factor. Thereafter, one must calculate the vibrational powerflow for

both the responses from discharge tubes made of coppered-steel and polymeric material, for comparison purposes. These

formulations are given in the following.

In Timoshenkos beam theory, which considers rotary inertia and shear deformations, the natural frequencies equation

for a clamped-free (cantilever, Figure 1) beam configuration is given by:

2 n

n =

L2

1 2

2

"

2

#

EI

1 I 2 n 21

E

1

1+ 0

,

S

2

SL2

G

(1)

where n is the vibrational modes order, L is the beams total length, E is the elasticity modulus, I is the crosssectional moment of inertia, is the density by unit length, S is the cross-sectional area, the shear modulus G is given by

E/2( + 1) and 0 is the effective shear area coefficient (TIMOSHENKO et al., 1974).

Figure 1 A cantilever beams schema.

For this research, the effective shear area coefficient used was for a tubular cross-section, that can be written in the

form:

0 =

6(r2 + R2 )2 (1 + )2

,

7r4 + 34r2 + R4 + (12r4 + 48r2 + R2 + 12R4 ) + 2 (4r4 + 16r2 + R2 + 4R4 )

(2)

in which r is the tubes internal radius, R is the external radius and the Poissons coefficient. Therefore the Equation

(1) was used to adjust the elasticity modulus E, with respect to the natural frequencies, obtained through the experimental

curves.

The method used for determination of the loss factor was the half power bandwidths, which analizes the regions

of resonance peaks in the experimental frequency response functions. At first, one needs to evaluate the difference

between the upper and lower frequencies (bandwidth), which contains the signal with 3 dB lower than the observed

peaks amplitude (half of the resonances power). Then one calculates the ratio between this bandwidth and the natural

frequency value:

(f ) =

fn

,

fn

(3)

where fn is the half power bandwidth from nth mode of vibration and fn is the central frequency, of resonance,

from the same mode.

The vibrational power flow represents the performed works rate or the energy supplied to a mechanical system, which

is important for one to know the vibrations propagation mechanisms between system components. This section is based

on the works of (GOUVEIA, 2003), (BAARS, 1996) and (STAUB, 2013).

Through considering an harmonic excitation load in the form of force applied on a mechanical systems point i,

given by Fi , which causes an instant velocity u i at the same point. This excitation transmits a power Wi that can be

written as:

P. Martins, A. Lenzi

Wi =

1

Re{Fi u i },

2

(4)

Similarly, if the excitation is given by a moment Mi , and the response in function of angular velocity i , hence the

power Wi is given by:

Wi =

1

Re{Mi i }.

2

(5)

As one knows, the loads will be divided in forces and moments on x, y and z directions so the i-points total power

can be written as:

Wi =

i

1h

}

2

(6)

The Equation (6) will be posterily used to evaluate the vibrational power flow, from the discharge tube to the housing,

with simulated forces and velocities from harmonic analysis using finite element method. The point of interest is the

tube-housing intersection, from which the forces, moments, linear and angular velocities will be measured only in nodes

and alements common to both components.

Experiment Description

The experimentally obtained frequency response functions are used to determine the elasticity modulus E from the

resonance frequencies and the loss factor from the half power bandwidth, while further mechanical properties were

taken from the literature, being the Poissons coefficient = 0.45, density = 2175 kg/m3 and shear modulus obtained

as G = E/2( + 1). There were tubular shaped test specimens, with lengths 85.65 mm and 139.51 mm, both with 6 mm

external diameter and thickness of 1.5 mm (Figure 2).

Figure 2 Test specimens and detail of fixation apparatus.

Initially, the specimens were tested at room temperature (circa 23 C) and then they were submitted to a controlled

variation of temperature, from 0 C to 50 C, 5 C steps. Without temperature variation, the the frequency range was from

10 Hz to 5000 Hz with a digital resolution of approximatelly 0.78 Hz. For temperature variation tests, the range was from

10 Hz to 2000 Hz (0.31 Hz freq. resolution), because the used transducers limitations. Figure 3(a) shows the assembly

of experiment without temperature variation.

At room temperature, the test specimens were excited with a white noise signal. The vibration on the input edge,

which the fixation apparatus is attached to the shaker, was measured using an accelerometer (B&K 4517, 5 g mass) for

reference signal, and the response on the free end was obtained with a Laser vibrometer (Ometron VH-1000-D). With

varying temperature, because of shaker diameter and instrumentation limitations, only the 139.51 mm lengths sample

was measured. The same accelerometer was used as reference but, on the free end, a magnetic transducer (B&K Type

MM 0002) were used instead of Laser (Figure 3(b)).

Thereafter, evaluating the response and reference spectras ratio, one obtained the typical frequency responce functions, with well spaced peaks, which can be used for mechanical properties determination.

The frequency responses measurements for each test specimen were repeated at least three times in order to verify

generated datas repeatability and consistency.

Results for elasticity modulus and loss factor are shown in Figures 4 and 5 respectively. Loss factor values obtained

for all modes considered coherent oscillates between 0.025 and 0.031. One notes a very small increasing-with-frequency

behaviour. However, this variation is too small and can be considered negligible.

Figure 3 Experiments assembly for frequency response tests: (a) at room temperature, (b) with temperature

variation.

(a)

(b)

Elasticity3Modulus3E3[GPa]

Figure 4 Elasticity moduli adjusted mode-to-mode using Timoshenkos beam theorys analytic formulation.

139.51 mm length by green #, 86.65 mm lenght by blue #

1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

Frequency3[Hz]

Figure 5 Loss factors obtained from half power bandwidth. 139.51 mm length by green #, 86.65 mm lenght by

blue #

0.05

Loss Factor

0.04

0.03

0.02

0.01

0

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

Frequency [Hz]

By using the same methodology for the earlier mechanical properties determination, but now with the experiment

assembly inside a thermal chamber, one was able to obtain the elasticity modulus E and the loss factor as functions

of temperature. For frequencies above 2000 Hz the coherence no longer met the analysis criteria for being below 70 %,

because of the new assembly limitations with the magnetic transducer. Also, a small metal disc, of negligible mass, was

attached on tubes free end for the transducer be able to capture the structures vibration (Figure 3(b)).

In all measured frequency response functions was observed at least four clear flexural modes, allowing to create a

dispersion plot with 200 points for elasticity modulus and loss factor. Afterwards, an average from the modal elasticity

modulus was calculated in order to build the plot on Figure 6:

Loss factor results were suppressed here as their temperature variation were very small. The values were around 0.025

and 0.03 [dimensionless], so the later simulations considered a temperature-constant loss factor value of 0.03.

P. Martins, A. Lenzi

Elasticity5Modulus5E5[GPa]

1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

10

20

30

40

50

Temperature5[C]

Figure 7 Finite element model of a typical compressors housing and discharge tube.

This sections methodology counted on ANSYS v.13 commercial software to aid on the finite element methods

simulations for obtaining the forces and displacements values in the tube-housings intersection. These values were used

to the vibrational power flow equation presented in Section 2 (Equation 6). A typical hermetic compressors geometry

for housing and discharge tube were used, meshed with shell-type elements (SHELL181 in softwares library), of 4 main

nodes with 6 degrees of freedom each, x, y and z translations and rotations (ANSYS, 2009).

The simulations consisted in harmonic analysis, i.e., each frequency step of the problem were solved, from 10 Hz to

5000 Hz. The tube was excited with unit displacements in all three linear directions, on the excitation point (Figure

7), and 13 Bar of hydrostatic internal pressure was applied. Hence, the force and displacement responses were read from

the tube-housing intersection, then the displacements were derived into velocities so that the power flows could be

calculated.

The tubes mechanical and geometric (thickness) properties used in these simulations were the ones obtained earlier

for the polymeric material as: frequency-dependent elasticity modulus E() varying circa 0.6 to 0.8 GPa, constant loss

factor = 0.03, density = 2175 kg/m3 , Poissons coefficient = 0.45 and 1.5 mm thick. Afterwards, this tubes results

were compared to one with typical coppered-steel properties, which are constant E = 195 GPa, = 0.01, = 7800

kg/m3 , = 0.3 and 0.52 mm thick. Both results can be observed in Figure 8.

Observing Figure 8, one can perceive a high attenuation on the power flow by using polymeric material. It is also

noted that the higher frequencies, next to the housing resonances (above 3000 Hz), are the most different in comparison

with coppered-steels. In low frequency regions (below 1500 Hz), one can see an accumulation of peaks for both polymer

and coppered-steel tubes and a certain similarity on the frequencies they occur, nevertheless the plastics amplitudes are

most often below metals as expected.

The present paper investigated the use of a polymeric material to the confection of a typical hermetic compressors

discharge tube. The materials mechanical properties were determined by using polymer test specimens in tubular shape

with 139.51 mm and 86.65 mm length, 6 mm external diameter and 1.5 mm thick, by adjusting a Timoshenkos beam

model, in a 10 Hz to 5000 Hz frequency range at room temperature, and 10 Hz to 2000 Hz range with controlled temper-

Figure 8 Coppered-steel (Bundy) and polymeric tubes power flows with a typical geometry of a compressors

discharge tube, with internal pressure of 13 Bar

S

100

100

S

Coppered-Steel

Polymer

80

50

60

20

-50

-20

trans

S[dB]

40

-40

-100 S

-60

1000

2000

3000

FrequencyS[Hz]

4000

5000

S

102

103

FrequencyS[Hz]

ature variation from 0 C and 50 C, 5 C steps. The measured elasticity modulus were considered frequency-dependent,

with an average value of 0.7 GPa. The loss factor were considered constant with average value equal to 0.03.

One concluded that the polymer reduce the total transmitted power in about 16 dB with respect to the metal. Notwithstanding, is recommended to take in consideration others compressors components, in order to verify if the polymeric

tubes high powerflow frequencies are fairly distant of modal regions, so that internal resonances do not interfere on the

power transmission.

The power flows reduction by the new material is even more interesting if analised through an healthy individuals

aural perceptions curves. As this work was motivated by hearing comfort, knowing that the humans auditory system

is more sensitive to frequencies next to 3000 Hz (Figure 9), the polimeric material turns to be an excelent candidate in

lowering noise levels, being very accurate for this works main objective.

Figure 9 Equal loudness curves for humans auditory system

With respect to the materials characterization, one suggests as future researches, the verification of values of Poissons

coefficient and polymers density, because these data were obtained from the literature and its confirmation would be

essential to corroborate the results.

One recommends as well, the analysis of new geometries for the polymeric discharge tube, as the polymers mechanical properties gives a whole new perspective in how it could fit inside the compressor. The use of optimization algorithms

could aid a lot in this aspect.

REFERENCES

Ansys, Inc., Theory Reference for the Mechanical APDL and Mechanical Applications, 12.1 ed., P. Kohnke, Ed.,

Canonsburg, 2009.

Baars, E., Fluxo de Potencia Vibratoria em Componentes Estruturais tipo Barras e Vigas [Dissertation], Florianopolis,

1996.

P. Martins, A. Lenzi

Gouveia, V. L., Fluxo de Energia Vibratoria Atraves da Base de Fixaca o de Maquinas para a Estrutura de Plataformas

Offshore [Dissertation], Florianopolis, 2003.

Henklein, P., Analise de Ensaios de Desempenho de Compressores Hermeticos durante o Transitorio [Dissertation],

Florianopolis, 2006.

Silva, A. R., Minimizaca o do Fluxo de Potencia Atraves do Tubo de Descarga de Compressores Hermeticos [Dissertation], Florianopolis, 2004.

Staub, D., Analise do Fluxo de Energia Vibratoria entre Componentes Estruturais Tpicos de uma Plataforma de

Extraca o de Petroleo [Dissertation], Florianopolis, 2013.

Timoshenko, S. P., Young, D. H. and Weaver, W. J., Vibration Problems in Engineering, 4th ed., New York: John Wiley

& Sons, 1974.

Van Krevelen, D. W., Properties of Polymers: Their correlation with chemical structure; their numerical estimation and

prediction from additive group contributions, 3rd ed ed., Amsterdam; London; New York; Tokyo: Elsevier, 1990.

RESPONSIBILITY NOTICE

The author(s) is (are) the only responsible for the printed material included in this paper.

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