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LTE fundamentals and system architect

Ahmad Talaat
NSN Saudi - NPO

Nokia Siemens Networks

Contents
LTE Drivers
LTE Main Requirements
Network Architecture Evolution
Key Features and Basics
LTE Network Architecture
Highlight on some Important NSN Features

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The way to the Long-Term Evolution (LTE): a 3GPP driven


initiative

LTE is 3GPP system for the years 2010 to 2020 &


beyond.

It shall especially compete with WiMAX 802.16e/m


It must keep the support for high & highest
mobility users like in GSM/UMTS networks

The architectural changes are big compared to


UMTS

LTE commercial launch has started early 2010.

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LTE Drivers
Wireline Evolution:
pushes higher data
rates

Wireless Data
extensively used:
Pushes more capacity

Driving to clear
LTE Targets

Other Wireless
technologies:
Competition pushes new
capabilities
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Flat Rate pricing:


pushes cost efficiency

What are the LTE challenges?


The Users expectation

..leads to the operators challenges

Best price, transparent flat rate


Full Internet
Click-bang responsiveness

reduce cost per bit


provide high data rate
provide low latency

User experience will have an


impact on ARPU

Price per Mbyte has to be reduced


to remain profitable

Throughput

Latency
Cost per MByte

HSPA

LTE

HSPA

LTE

UMTS

HSPA

I-HSPA

LTE

LTE: lower cost per bit and improved end user experience
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Reduction of network cost is necessary to remain


profitable
Revenues and Traffic
decoupled

Traffic volume

Traffic

/bit

Revenue
Profitability
Network
cost

Time

Voice
dominated
Source: Light Reading (adapted)
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Data
dominated

Contents
LTE Drivers
LTE Main Requirements
Network Architecture Evolution
Key Features and Basics
LTE Network Architecture
Highlight on some Important NSN Features

Nokia Siemens Networks

LTE = Long Term Evolution


Next step for
GSM/WCDMA/HSPA
and CDMA

A true global roaming technology

Peak data rates of 303


Mbps / 75 Mbps

Enhanced consumer experience

Low latency 10-20 ms


Scalable bandwidth of
1.4 20 MHz

Easy to introduce on any


frequency band

OFDM technology

Flat, scalable IP based


architecture
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Decreased cost / GB

Schedule for 3GPP releases

Next step for

A true global roaming technology

GSM/WCDMA/HSPA
and cdma2000
Specification:
UMTS/
WCDMA
3GPP Rel. 99/4
2000

HSDPA
IMS

HSUPA
MBMS
WLAN IW

HSPA+
LTE Studies

LTE & EPC

LTE-A
studies

LTE-A

Rel. 5

Rel. 6

Rel. 7

Rel. 8

Rel. 9

Rel. 10

2003

2005

2007

2008

2009

2011

year

LTE have been developed by the same standardization organization. The target has been
simple multimode implementation and backwards compatibility.
HSPA and LTE have in common:
Sampling rate using the same clocking frequency
Same kind of Turbo coding
The harmonization of these parameters is important as sampling and Turbo decoding are
typically done on hardware due to high processing requirements.
WiMAX and LTE do not have such harmonization.

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LTE-A: LTE-Advanced

Comparison of Throughput and Latency (1/2)

Peak data rates of

Enhanced consumer experience:

303 Mbps / 75 Mbps

- drives subscriber uptake

Low latency 10-20

- allow for new applications

ms

- provide additional revenue streams

Max. peak data rate


350
300

Mbps

250

Downlink
Uplink

Latency (Rountrip delay)*

200
150

GSM/
EDGE

100

HSPA
Rel6

50
0
HSPA R6

Evolved HSPA
(Rel. 7/8, 2x2
MIMO)

LTE 2x20 MHz


(2x2 MIMO)

LTE 2x20
MHz (4x4
MIMO)

HSPAevo
(Rel8)
LTE
min max

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

180

DSL (~20-50 ms, depending on operator)


* Server near RAN

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200 ms

Scalable Bandwidth
Scalable bandwidth

Easy to introduce on any


frequency band: Frequency
Refarming
(Cost efficient deployment on lower

Scalable bandwidth
of 1.4 20 MHz

frequency bands supported)


Urban
2.6 GHz

LTE
UMTS

2.1 GHz

or
2.6 GHz

LTE

2006

LTE

UMTS

2.1 GHz
2008

2010

2012

2014

2016

2018

2020

2018

2020

Rural
UMTS

900 MHz GSM

LTE

or

2006
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LTE

GSM

900 MHz

2008

2010

2012

2014

2016

Increased Spectral Efficiency


LTE efficiency is 3 x HSPA R6 in
downlink
HSPA R7 and WiMAX have Similar
Spectral Efficiency

OFDMA technology
increases Spectral
efficiency

bps/Hz/cell

All cases assume 2-antenna terminal reception


HSPA R7, WiMAX and LTE assume 2-antenna BTS transmission (2x2 MIMO)
2.0
1.8
1.6
1.4
1.2
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0

Downlink
Uplink

Reference:
- HSPA R6 and LTE R8 from 3GPP R1-071960
- HSPA R6 equalizer from 3GPP R1-063335

HSPA R6

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ITU contribution from


WiMAX Forum shows
DL 1.3 & UL 0.8 bps/Hz/cell

HSPA R6 +
UE
equalizer

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HSPA R7

WiMAX

LTE R8

- HSPA R7 and WiMAX from NSN/Nokia


simulations

Reduced Network Complexity

Flat, scalable IP based


architecture

Flat Architecture: 2 nodes architecture


IP based Interfaces

Flat, IP based architecture


Access

Core

Control

MME

IMS

HLR/HSS

Internet
Evolved Node B

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Gateway

LTE/SAE Requirements Summary


1. Simplify the RAN:
- Reduce the number of different types of RAN nodes, and their complexity.
- Minimize the number of RAN interface types.

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Increase throughput: Peak data rates of UL/DL 50/100 Mbps


Reduce latency (prerequisite for CS replacement).
Improve spectrum efficiency: Capacity 2-4 x higher than with Release 6 HSPA
Frequency flexibility & bandwidth scalability: Frequency Refarming
Migrate to a PS only domain in the core network: CSFB for initial phase
Provide efficient support for a variety of different services. Traditional CS services
will be supported via VoIP, etc: EPS bearers for IMS based Voice

8. Minimise the presence of single points of failure in the network above the eNBs S1Flex interface

9. Support for inter-working with existing 3G system & non-3GPP specified systems.
10. Operation in FDD & TDD modes
11. Improved terminal power efficiency
A more detailed list of the requirements and objectives for LTE can be found in TR 25.913.

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Contents
LTE Drivers
LTE Main Requirements
Network Architecture Evolution
Key Features and Basics
LTE Network Architecture
Highlight on some Important NSN Features

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NSN Network Architecture Evolution (1/4)


3GPP Rel 6 / HSPA
Internet
Node B

RNC

SGSN

GGSN
User plane
Control Plane

Original 3G architecture.
2 nodes in the RAN.
2 nodes in the PS Core Network.
Every Node introduces additional delay.
Common path for User plane and Control plane data.
Air interface based on WCDMA.
RAN interfaces based on ATM.
Option for Iu-PS interface to be based on IP.
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NSN Network Architecture Evolution (2/4)


3GPP Rel 7 / HSPA

SGSN
GGSN

Internet
Node B

RNC

Direct tunnel
User plane
Control Plane

Separated path for Control Plane and User Plane data in the PS
Core Network.
Direct GTP tunnel from the GGSN to the RNC for User plane data:
simplifies the Core Network and reduces Signalling.
First step towards a flat network Architecture.
30% core network OPEX and CAPEX savings with Direct Tunnel.
The SGSN still controls traffic plane handling, performs session and
mobility management, and manages paging.
Still 2 nodes in the RAN.
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NSN Network Architecture Evolution (3/4)


3GPP Rel 7 / Internet HSPA

SGSN
GGSN

Internet
Node B
(RNC Funct.)

Direct tunnel
User plane
Control Plane

I-HSPA introduces the first true flat architecture to WCDMA.


Standardized in 3GPP Release 7 as: Direct Tunnel with collapsed
RNC.
Most part of the RNC functionalities are moved to the Node B.
Direct Tunnels runs now from the GGSN to the Node B.
Solution for cost-efficient broadband wireless access.
Improves the delay performance (less node in RAN).
Deployable with existing NSN WCDMA base stations.
Transmission savings
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NSN Network Architecture Evolution (4/4)


3GPP Rel 8 / LTE

MME

SAE GW

Internet
Evolved Node B

Direct tunnel
User plane
Control Plane

LTE takes the same Flat architecture from Internet HSPA.


Air interface based on OFDMA.
All-IP network.
New spectrum allocation (i.e 2600 MHz band)
Possibility to reuse spectrum (i.e. 900 MHZ)

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NSN Network Architecture Evolution - Summary


3GPP Rel 6 / HSPA
Internet
Node B

RNC

3GPP Rel 7 / HSPA

SGSN

GGSN

SGSN
GGSN

Internet
Node B

3GPP Rel 7 / Internet HSPA

RNC

Direct tunnel
SGSN
GGSN

Internet
Node B
(RNC Funct.)

3GPP Rel 8 / LTE

Direct tunnel
MME
SAE GW

Internet
Evolved Node B
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Direct tunnel

Contents
LTE Drivers
LTE Main Requirements
Network Architecture Evolution
Key Features and Basics
LTE Network Architecture
Highlight on some Important NSN Features

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LTE Radio Interface Key Features


LTE Radio
Access Network
(EUTRAN)

Evolved Packet Core (EPC)


SAE-GW
MME

eNode-B

Serving
GW

PDN
GW

LTE Radio Interface Key Features

Retransmission Handling (HARQ/ARQ)


Spectrum Flexibility
FDD & TDD modes
Multi-Antenna Transmission
Frequency and time Domain scheduling
Uplink (UL) Power Control
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Packet
Data
Network

EUTRAN Key Features


LTE Radio
Access Network
(EUTRAN)

Evolved Packet Core (EPC)


SAE-GW
MME

eNode-B

Serving
GW

EUTRAN Key Features:


Evolved NodeB
IP transport layer
UL/DL resource scheduling
QoS Awareness
Self-configuration
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PDN
GW

Packet
Data
Network

EPC Key Features


LTE Radio
Access Network
(EUTRAN)

Evolved Packet Core (EPC)


SAE-GW
MME

eNode-B

Serving
GW

PDN
GW

EPC Key Features:


IP transport layer
QoS Awareness
Packet Switched Domain only
3GPP (GTP) or IETF (MIPv6) option
Prepare to connect to non-3GPP access networks
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Packet
Data
Network

Multiple Access Methods

Frequency Division

Time Division

User 3

User ..

OFDMA

CDMA

TDMA

FDMA

User 2

User 1

Frequency Division

Code Division

Orthogonal subcarriers

OFDM is the state-of-the-art and most efficient and robust air interface
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The Rectangular Pulse


Fourier
Transform
spectral power density

amplitude

Time Domain

fs

Ts

time

1
Ts

Inverse
Fourier
Transform

Advantages:
+ Simple to implement: there is no complex
filter system required to detect such pulses
and to generate them.
+ The pulse has a clearly defined duration.
This is a major advantage in case of multipath propagation environments as it simplifies
handling of inter-symbol interference.

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Frequency Domain

fs

frequency f/fs

Disadvantage:
- it allocates a quite huge spectrum. However
the spectral power density has null points
exactly at multiples of the frequency fs = 1/Ts.
This will be important in OFDM.

Air Interface - OFDM Basics


Data is sent in parallel across the set of subcarriers, each subcarrier only
transports a part of the whole transmission
The throughput is the sum of the data rates of each individual (or used)
subcarriers while the power is distributed to all used subcarriers
FFT ( Fast Fourier Transform) is used to create the orthogonal subcarriers. The
number of subcarriers is determined by the FFT size ( by the bandwidth)
Power

bandwidth

frequency
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The OFDM Signal

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OFDMA Parameters in LTE


Channel bandwidth: DL bandwidths ranging from 1.4 MHz to 20 MHz
Data subcarriers: the number of data subcarriers varies with the
bandwidth
72 for 1.4 MHz to 1200 for 20 MHz

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Resource Block and Resource Element


Physical Resource Block PBR or Resource Block RB:
12 subcarriers in frequency domain x 1 slot period in time domain
Capacity allocation based on Resource Blocks
Subcarrier 1

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

180 KHz

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

Resource Element RE:


1 subcarrier x 1 symbol period
theoretical min. capacity allocation unit
1 RE is the equivalent of 1 modulation
symbol on a subcarrier, i.e. 2 bits
(QPSK), 4 bits (16QAM), 6 bits (64QAM).

Subcarrier 12 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
1 slot

1 slot

1 ms subframe

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Resource
Element

Physical Resource Blocks

12 subcarriers
..

Resource
block

a RB consists of 12 consecutive
subcarriers in the frequency domain,
reserved for the duration of 0.5 ms
slot.

The smallest resource unit a


scheduler can assign to a user is a
scheduling block which consists of
two consecutive resource blocks

1 ms subframe
or TTI

0.5 ms slot

Time

During each TTI,


resource blocks for
different UEs are
scheduled in the
eNodeB

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In both the DL & UL direction, data is


allocated to users in terms of
resource blocks (RBs).

..
Frequency

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LTE Channel Options

Bandwidth options: 1.4, 1.6, 3, 3.2, 5, 10, 15 and 20 MHz

Subcarriers in frequency domain (15 kHz or 7.5 kHz subcarrier spacing)

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Channel bandwidth
(MHz)

1.4

10

15

20

Number of
subcarriers

72

180

300

600

900

1200

Number of resource
blocks

15

25

50

75

100

LTE RRM: Scheduling

Motivation
Bad channel condition avoidance

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CDMA

OFDMA

Single Carrier transmission


does not allow to allocate
only particular frequency
parts. Every fading gap
effects the data.

The part of total available


channel experiencing bad
channel condition (fading)
can be avoided during
allocation procedure.

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Contents
LTE Drivers
LTE Main Requirements
Network Architecture Evolution
Key Features and Basics
LTE Network Architecture
Highlight on some Important NSN Features

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Network Architecture Evolution


HSPA

Direct tunnel

I-HSPA

LTE

HSPA R6

HSPA R7

HSPA R7

LTE R8

GGSN

GGSN

GGSN

SAE GW

SGSN
RNC
Node B
(NB)

SGSN

SGSN
RNC
Node B
(NB)

Node B +
RNC
Functionality

Flat architecture: single network element in user


plane in radio network and core network

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MME/SGSN

Evolved
Node B
(eNB)

User plane
Control Plane

Evolved Packet System (EPS) Architecture - Subsystems


The EPS architecture goal is to optimize the system for packet data transfer.
There are no circuit switched components. The EPS architecture is made up of:
EPC: Evolved Packet Core, also referred as SAE
eUTRAN: Radio Access Network, also referred as LTE
EPS Architecture
LTE or eUTRAN

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SAE or EPC

EPC provides access to


external packet IP networks and
performs a number of CN
related functions (e.g. QoS,
security, mobility and terminal
context management) for idle
and active terminals

eUTRAN performs all radio


interface related functions

LTE/SAE Network Elements


Main references to architecture in 3GPP specs.: TS23.401,TS23.402,TS36.300

Evolved UTRAN (E-UTRAN)

Evolved Packet Core (EPC)


HSS

eNB
Mobility
Management
Entity

Policy &
Charging Rule
Function

S6a

MME

X2

S10

S7

Rx+
PCRF

S11
S5/S8

S1-U
LTE-Uu

LTE-UE

Evolved Node B
(eNB)

PDN
Serving
Gateway

PDN
Gateway

SAE
Gateway

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SGi

Contents
LTE Drivers
LTE Main Requirements
Network Architecture Evolution
Key Features and Basics
LTE Network Architecture
Highlight on some Important NSN Features

38

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UL Physical Resource Block: DRS & SRS


The Demodulation Reference
Signal is transmitted in the third
SC-FDMA symbol (counting from
zero) in all resource blocks
allocated to the PUSCH carrying
the user data.

12 subcarriers
..

..
Frequency
1 ms subframe
or TTI

This signal is needed for channel


estimation, which in turn is
essential for coherent
demodulation of the UL signal in
the eNodeB.

0.5 ms slot
Time

Sounding Reference
Signal on last OFDM
symbol of 1 subframe;
Periodic or aperiodic
transmission

Demodulation
Reference Signal in
subframes that carry
PUSCH

The Sounding Reference Signal

PUCCH: Physical UL Control Channel


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SRS provides UL channel quality


information as a basis for
scheduling decisions in the base
station. This signal is distributed in
the last SC-FDMA symbol of
subframes that carry neither
PUSCH nor PUCCH data. [SRS is
always disabled in FDD RL30 and
before.]

RL30

Uplink Scheduler
IAS: Interference Aware Scheduler UL
Improvement in UL coverage by optimizing the cell edge performance

Flexi eNodeB takes into account the noise and interference measurements together with
the UE Tx power density (= UE TX power per PRB) when allocating PRBs in the
frequency domain
Cell edge users are assigned to frequency sub-bands with low measured inter-cell
interference
Up to 10% gain for cell edge users in low and medium loaded networks
Easier to implement than channel aware scheduling (no sounding reference signal used)

High Tx power density indicates


cell edge users / strong interferers

eNode B
measured
interference

PRBs
subband with high
interference
subband with low
interference
subband with medium
interference

Feature ID(s): LTE619


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LTE46, UL Channel Aware Scheduling


Channel Unaware Scheduling (CUS)
random allocation of PRBs => averaging of inter-cell interference
simple and robust, no UL channel sounding required
no FDPS gain

Interference Aware Scheduling (IAS, LTE619)


rudimentary interference reduction via coarse segmentation
scheduling criterion based on Tx power density =>Tx power per PRB
no UL channel sounding required
lower FDPS gain than CAS, LTE46
Channel Aware Scheduling (CAS, LTE46)
very similar implementation in RL15 and RL40
sophisticated SRS- and PUSCH-based PRB allocation according to UE
specific channel state information (CSI)
UL channel sounding required
FDPS gain (low for a high # of PRBs allocated to a specific UE )
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RL40

LTE RRM: Connection Mobility Control


Handover Types
Intra-RAT handover
Intra eNodeB and Inter eNodeB handover
Above handovers can also be Inter-frequency handovers (RL20) i.e. to support different
frequency bands and deployments within one frequency band but with different center
frequencies

Data forwarding over X2 for inter eNodeB HO


HO via S1 interface (RL20): HO in case of no X2 interface configured between serving
eNB and target eNB

Inter-RAT handover
LTE to WCDMA: RL30
WCDMA to LTE: RL40
LTE to CDMA2000: RL40 (CDMA2000 to LTE not assigned)

LTE GSM and GSM LTE: not assigned

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Intra frequency handover via X2


A reliable and lossless mobility
Basic Mobility Feature
Event triggered handover based

on DL measurements (ref.
signals)
Network evaluated HO decision
Operator configurable
thresholds for
coverage based &
best cell based handover
Data forwarding via X2
Radio Admission Control (RAC)
gives priority to HO related
access over other scenarios

S1

X2

S-GW

MME

P-GW
S1

Feature ID(s): LTE53


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RL20

Intra LTE Handover via S1


Extended mobility option to X2 handover
Handover in case of
no X2 interface between eNodeBs, e.g. multi-vendor scenarios
eNodeBs connected to different CN elements
Operator configurable thresholds for
coverage based (A5) and
best cell based (A3) handover
DL Data forwarding via S1
Admission Control gives priority to HO
related access over other scenarios

Blacklists

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Feature ID(s): LTE54

RL20

Inter Frequency Handover


Multi-band mobility
Network controlled
Event triggered based on DL
measurement RSRP and RSRQ

Inter frequency measurements


triggered by events A1/A2

Operator configurable thresholds for


coverage based (A5),
best cell based (A3) handover

Service continuity for LTE deployment


in different frequency bands as well
as for LTE deployments within one
frequency band but with different
center frequencies
Blacklists
Feature ID(s): LTE55
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RL30

Inter RAT Handover to WCDMA


Coverage based inter-RAT PS handover
Only for multimode devices supporting
LTE and WCDMA

Event triggered handover based on DL


measurement RSRP (reference signal
received power)

Operator configurable RSRP threshold


Network evaluated HO decision

Target cells are operator configurable


An ANR functionality may be applied
optionally

Blacklisting
eNB initiates handover via EPC

Feature ID(s): LTE56


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RL30

eNACC to GSM
Network Assisted Cell Change to GSM
Service continuity to GSM
Network change from LTE to GSM in
RRC Connected Mode when LTE
coverage (RSRP) is ending

Prior to actual reselection process the


measurements of 2G network are
triggered

Only applicable for NACC capable


devices

Inter RAT measurements triggered by


events A1/A2

Operator configurable handover


threshold (event B2)

Target cells for IRAT measurements can


be configured by the operator

Blacklisting of target cells is supported


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Feature ID(s): LTE442

LTE735: RRC Connection Reestablishment


Advanced failure handling
eNode B takes UE back to RRC

S-GW MME

CONNECTED

UE initiated procedure
Typical scenarios:
Radio link failures (e.g. T310
expires)

Handover failure (e.g. T304


expires)

RRC connection reconfiguration


failure

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UE reverts back to
source cell due to
handover failure

RL30

Automated Neighbor Relation (ANR) Configuration

Neighbour relations are important as wrong neighbour definitions cause HO


failures and dropped calls
Self configuration of relations avoids manual planning & maintenance

ANR covers 4 steps:


1)
2)
3)
4)

The scope within ANR is to establish an X2 connection between source and


target nodes and for that it is necessary that source eNB knows the target eNB
IP@
How the source eNB gets the IP@ differentiates the ANR features:

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Neighbour cell discovery


Neighbour Sites X2 transport configuration discovery (i.e. Neighbour Site IP@)
X2 Connection Set-up with neighbour cell configuration update
ANR Optimization

Central ANR (RL10)


ANR (RL20)
ANR- Fully UE based (RL30)

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3GPP ANR Configuration Principle


Neighbor

Site

Site

UE

eNB - B

connected

MME

eNB - A

New cell
discovered

New cell
identified
by ECGI

S1 : Request X2 Transport Configuration (ECGI)

relays
request

S1: Request X2 Transport Configuration


CM
S1: Respond X2 Transport Configuration (IP@)
relays
response

S1 : Respond X2 Transport Configuration (IP@)


CM
Add Site & Cell
parameter of
eNB-A

X2 Setup : IPsec, SCTP, X2-AP [site & cell info]


CM

CM
Neighbor Cell Tables in both eNB updated

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Add Site & Cell


Parameter of
eNB-B

Thank You

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