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# Technische Universiteit Delft

## Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime and Materials Engineering

WB 1427-13 - Advanced Fluid Mechanics
Fall, 2015
Problem Set 3

Distributed:
Due:

## Tuesday September 29, 2015

Monday, October 12, 2015

Chapter 4,5 Fluid Mechanics, Kundu & Cohen
Question 1: From Kundu 4.5
The components of a mass flow vector u are u = 4x2 y, v = xyz and w = yz 2 .
1./ Compute the net mass outflow through the closed surface formed by the planes x = 0, x = 1,
y = 0, y = 1, z = 0 and z = 1
2./ Compute (u) and integrate over the volume bounded by the surface defined in part 1./
3./ Explain why the results for parts 1./ and 2./ should or should not be equal.
Question 2: From Kundu 4.40
Assume that an incompressible fluid undergoes a solid body rotation with constant angular velocity
= (x , y , z ).
1./ Compute the stress tensor ?
2./ Consider the case where x = y = 0. Use the momentum equation in cartesian coordinates
r 2 = x2 + y 2 .

## Question 3: From Kundu 4.44

1./ Write the 2 dimensional (planar) Navier Stokes equation for compressible flow with conservative
body forces
2./ Simply the equation by assuming the flow to be incompressible and the body forces conservative
3./ Cross differentiate these equations and eliminate the pressure to find a single equation for
z = v/x u/y.
4./ What processes might lead to the changes in z ?
Question 4: From Kundu 4.47
Consider a 2 dimensional incompressible flow
1./ Write the 2 dimensional incompressible Navier Stokes equation.
2./ Assume conservative body forces and assume that the velocity field u derives from a potential,
i.e. the components of u can be written as u = /x and v = /y, where the potential is
a scalar function of space and time. What are the simplified conservation of mass and momentum
1

equations for ?

## Question 5: From Kundu 4.70 (Graded)

A spherical bubble with radius R(t), containing gas with negligible density, creates purely radial
flow, ur (r, t), in an unbounded bath of a quiescent incompressible liquid.
1./ Determine ur (r, t) in terms of R(t) and its derivatives.
2./ Ignore body forces and assume the pressure at infinity to be p . Find and solve an equation
for the pressure distribution p(r, t) outside the bubble.
3./ Apply the proper boundary condition at the bubbles surface to find the Rayleigh-Plesset
+ 3/2R 2 + (4/R)R +
equation for the pressure pB (t) inside the bubble: (pB (t) p )/ = RR
2/R.
Question 6: Vorticity, from Kundu 5.3
The velocity field of a flow in cylindrical coordinates (R, , z) is u = (uR , u , uz ) = (0, aRz, 0)
where a is a constant.
1./ Show that the vorticity components are = (R , , z ) = (aR, 0, 2az)
2./ Verify that = 0
3./ Sketch the streamlines and vortex lines in an (R, z)-plane. Show that the vortex lines are given
by zR2 =constant.

## Question 7: Tears of Wine (Graded)

In a wine glass, a surface stress is created by an evaporatively-forced gradient in alcohol concentration. The goal of this problem is to estimate the surface tension gradient at the origin of the
surface stress.
1./ The glass of wine is represented by an inclined flat plate of angle with the vertical direction.
A thin layer of wine of constant depth d is flowing on the incline. The flow can be assumed to be
2-dimensional and unidirectional parallel to the plate. The pressure can be assumed to be constant
in the thin wine layer. Deduce an exact solution for the parallel flow forced by gravity and an
opposing tangential stress applied at the surface of a layer.
2./ Describe the dependence of the flow form on the dimensionless parameter /(gd cos ).
3./ Calculate the volume flux up the plane.
4./ This flow is responsible for the replenishment of tears of wine. Assuming d 0.1mm, and
that 30 tears fall in the glass per minute, estimate the surface stress and deduce the value of
the surface tension gradient. Make any assumption you think is necessary.