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UKPDS (United Kingdom Prospective Diabetic Study)TRIAL:1977-1997

showed that every 1% reduction in glycated haemoglobin there was 25%

decrease in microvascular disease.eye complication decreased by
19%,nephropathy by 25% and improvement in vibration perception in
diabetic neuropathy patients
DCCT(Diabetes Control and Complications Trial)1983-1993,on 1441
volunteers with type 1 diabetes,showed that in intensive group with
median HbA1C of 7.3%,the retinopathy was reduced by 76%,kidney
disease by 50% and clinical neuropathy by 60%
EDIC study(Epidemiology of Diabetes interventions and
complications)continued from DCCT in 1993,showed that intensive blood
glucose control reduces cardiovascular disease by 42% and non fatal heart
attack,stroke,or death from CVS cause by 57%
ADVANCE study(Action in Diabetes and vascular disease)2008-conducted
in over 10,000 patients with type 2 diabetes,showed that an intensive
strategy with conventional agents can achieve mean HbA1C level of
65%safely and reduce diabetic nephropathy by 20% and microalbimunuria
by 30%
CURES-Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiological study-conducted on 20,000
individuals in Madras showed that the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy
increase from 8.1%(HbA1C level<6.9%)to 31.7%(HbA1C level>10.3% and
risk factor for diabetic neuropathy and nephropathy was bad glycaemic
WESDR-Wisconsin Epidemologic study of diabetic retinopathy-2012:was
done on 2100 population,the prevalence of retinopathy was 12% when
HbA1c<7%,as compared to 40.7% when Hba1C levels >10% and
increased risk of PDR
A1CHEIVE study-done on 20,554 indian type2 DM patients showed that
patients with mean HbA1C of 9.2% had a higher prevalence of
neuropathy(24%),renal disease(21.%)eye disease(16%)-hence proving
glycemic control is of high importance
ETDRS study (Early treatment and Diabetic retinopathy)-done on 371
patients ,identified HbA1C as a most important risk factor for PDR
Stockholm diabetes intervention study-done on 100patients showed with
intensified treatment and decreased HbA1c,had fewer chances of diabetic
According to a study conducted in Tamil nadu on 1414 volunteers,on Sight
Threathening Diabetic Retinopathy (STDR) by Raman R et al the HbA1c
value >8.0% was significantly related with STDR. In a screening
programme, the cut-off value of HbA1c >8.0% provided a maximum yield
In a study done by Jocelyn Eid Fares et al it was concluded Incipient
nephropathy was present in 18 and absent in 99 patients. Mean HbA1C
was significantly higher in nephropathy than in non-nephropathy patients
A Italian multicentre study RIACE (renal insufficiency and cardiovascular
events) concluded that In patients with type 2 diabetes, HbA1c variability
affects (albuminuric) CKD more than average HbA1c

In a study conducted by Ishratkareem et al -The average concentration of

magnesium in groups I (diabetic without retinopathy), group II (diabetic
with retinopathy), and group III (control) were measured as 2.13 0.32,
1.2 0.38 and 2.60 0.37 meq/l respectively and HbA1c of 7,10,and 4.
Group I,group II and III were also compared with respect to glycosylated
hemoglobin, blood glucose,triglyceride and cholesterol levels.

Harold W.DeValket.al.,in his prospective study involving 61 diabetic

patients,showed the association between plasma magnesium
concentration and development or progression of retinopathy and have
concluded that magnesium supplementation may help to reduce the
development or progression of retinopathy

Hatwal A et al (1989) conducted a study in which Serum magnesium was

measured in 100 patients of type II diabetes mellitus (40 without
retinopathy, 40 with non-proliferative and 20 with proliferative
retinopathy) The serum magnesium levels were lower in diabetics than in
controls, and the levels in diabetics with non-proliferative and proliferative
retinopathy were significantly lower than in those without retinopathy

In an observational study, done by Sakaguchi et al we found that

hypomagnesemia was significantly associated with progression to ESRD in
patients with type 2 diabetic nephropathy but not in those with
nondiabetic CKD.

In a comparative study that involved 30 patients who had type 2 diabetes

without microalbuminuria, 30 with microalbuminuria, and 30 with overt
proteinuria,Corsonello et al. observed a significant decrease in serum
ionized Mg in both the microalbuminuria and overt proteinuria groups
compared with the nonmicroalbuminuric group.

Aradhana Sharma, et al(2007) conducted across-sectional study to

examine the relationship between serum magnesium in 50 type 1 and
type 2 diabetic patients with or without complications and 40 normal
healthy personsThere was strong association between hypomagnesaemia
and retinopathy