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PITANJA IZ GRAMATIKE

1. Uses of the Present Simple Tense


2. Uses of the Present Continuous Tense
3. Verbs that do not usually take the continuous form
4. Uses of the Past Simple Tense
5. Expressing past habits
6. Uses of the Past Continuous Tense
7. Uses of the Past Perfect Simple Tense
8. Uses of the Past Perfect Continuous Tense
9. Uses of the Present Perfect Simple Tense
10. Uses of the Present Perfect Continuous Tense
11.
Present tenses used to express future
12.
Uses of the Future Simple Tense
13.
Uses of the Future going to
14.
Uses of the Future Continuous Tense
15.
Uses of the Future Perfect Tense
16.
Reported Speech: questions
17.
Reported Speech: statements and orders (requests)
18.
Sequence of tenses
19.
Cases when tenses do not change in reported speech
20.
Uses of articles: zero article
21.
Uses of articles: definite article
22.
Uses of articles: indefinite article
23.
Participle clauses
24.
Conditionals: zero and I
25.
Conditionals: II and III
26.
Mixed conditionals
27.
Avoiding if in conditionals
28.
Form and use of the passive voice
29.
Defining vs. non-defining relative clauses
30.
Verbs + gerund
31.
Verbs + gerund vs. verbs + infinitive
32.
Countable and uncountable : nouns that can be both
33.
Nouns that have only the plural form
34.
Nouns that have only the singular form ( unmarked plural
forms)
35.
Nouns that can be both singular and plural in meaning
while singular in form
36.
Plural of nouns
37.
Irregular plural of nouns
38.
Foreign plurals
39.
Saxon and Norman genitives
40.
Uses of some / any, much / many
41.
Uses of little / a little, few / a few

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Formation of adjectives (prefixes and suffixes)


Types of adjectives
Comparison of adjectives
Compound adjectives
Adverbs: formation and type
Adverbs: comparison
Adverbs: position
Modal verbs: can
Modal verbs: could
Modal verbs: should
Modal verbs: must
Modal verbs: have to
Use of modal verbs to express deduction
Causative have / get
Infinitives: types and usage
Question tags
Possessive pronouns vs. possessive adjectives
Interrogative pronouns vs. interrogative adjectives
Reflexive pronouns
The pronoun it
Subjunctive (expressing wishes)
Types of sentences
Diminutives
Inversion

USES OF THE PRESENT SIMPLE TENSE


1)regular repeated activities:
She drinks coffee every morning.
2)permanent situations:
He is from Hungary.
3)scientific facts:
Water boils at 100 degrees.
4)newspapers headlines
5)dramatic narration
6)conditional sentences types zero and one
7)discussing a book/play/movie
8)spoken instructions, jokes, formal letters
9)timetabled future events

The train leaves at 10AM.


USES OF THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE
1)actions happening now
2)actions happening around now:
I am reading a good book.
3)temporary situations:
Shes living here until she finds a flat.
4)annoying habits (with ALWAYS):
He is always snoring.
5)changing situations:
More and more people are learning English.
6)for arranged future events:
I am seeing Larry at 8.

USES OF THE PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE TENSE


1)sth started in the past and is still going on:
He has lived in Japan for three years.
2)sth has happened in the recent past and the consequences
are present now:
I have cut my finger.
3)sth has happened in unfinished time (today, this week,
this morning):
Have you seen Jack today?
4)for describing repeated actions that have continued up till
now:
Weve seen three films this week.
-since gives us the point in time when sth has begun
-for gives us the period of time how long sth has lasted
USES OF THE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS
TENSE

1)for recent activities-when we can still see the effects:


Why are you so sweaty?
I have been running for hours.
2)to show sth is temporary:
Shes been learning Italian but knowing her shell give up
soon.
3)to show sth isnt complete:
Ive been typing these letters all morning and I am still not
done.
I have typed three letters this morning. (a complete action)
USES OF THE PAST SIMPLE TENSE
1)for finished past actions, we usually know the exact time:
She went to Greece in 1994.
2)for past habits (always with a time reference):
They always had dinner late.
3)for consecutive actions-following each other:
She washed her hair, dried it and went out.
4)for events which took place over a specific period of time:
She was his nurse from 1995 to 1999.

USES OF THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE


1)a continuous past event:
She was working very hard for his company.
2)an incomplete action:
He was reading a book on the plane. (incomplete)
He read a book on the plane. (complete)
3)for an interrupted past action:
She was cooking when the phone rang.
4)for two simultaneous actions (happening at the same
time):
She was sleeping while he was writing his essay.
5)for anticipated actions which didnt happen:
They were going to Wales but had to cancel the trip.

USES OF THE PAST PERFECT SIMPLE TENSE


1)for a past activity which occurred before another past
activity:
When Paul came, the guests had already left.
2)for expressing past wishes:
If only he had come to the party. (but he didnt)
3)past perfect doesnt change in the reported speech.

THE USE OF THE PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE


-expresses an older situation (like the Past Perfect Simple)
but we also want to emphasize the continuity of the activity:
He had been looking for a job for years before he was offered
this one.
USES OF THE FUTURE SIMPLE TENSE
1)for future facts;
She will be 25 next month.
2)for decisions made at the moment of speech:
We are out of bread, Ill go and get some.
3)for predictions based on our opinion or expectations:
I think they will break up soon.
4)for promises, threats, offers, requests:
Ill tell your father how naughty you are.
USES OF THE FUTURE GOING TO
1)for predictions based on evidence or previous knowledge:
She is going to have a baby.
2)for intentions, not sth decided at the moment of speech:
I am going to study in London.

3)for insisting that people do/dont do things:


You are going to finish that soup whether you like it or not!

USES OF THE FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE


1)for actions or events which will be in progress at a certain
point in the future:
This time next week we will be studying for our exams.
2)to be more polite:
Will you be going to Pauls party?
3)for actions which will occur in the natural course of events:
The plane will be landing soon.
USES OF THE FUTURE PERFECT TENSE
-for events which will be completed at a certain time in the
future:
By 2020. we will have finished this project.
ZERO ARTICLE
No article is used in front of:
1. names of continents, most of the countries, mountains,
lakes: Asia, Peru, lake Ontario
2. names of cities, towns, villages (the only exception for
cities is the Hague)
3. names of streets and roads: Oxford street
4. names of magazines
5. names of illnesses
6. uncountable or countable plural nouns used in general
sense:
I love dogs more than cats.

7. names of days, months, times of day and night, meals,


means
of transport
8. names of languages
9. names of airports, train stations, universities
10.names of churches and cathedrals
11.fixed expressions with zero article:
to / at / from work
in class
to / at / from university, school, college
to / in / out of prison, hospital, bed
INDEFINITE ARTICLE
1. with singular countable nouns when sth is mentioned
for the first time
2. with names of jobs Hes a doctor.
3. with 100,1000,1 000 000 There are a hundred people.
4. in exclamations with singular countable nouns:
What a fantastic view !
5. with expressions of frequency:
once a week, two times a day
6. with names of people when we dont know them:
There is a Mr. Williams to see you.
7. when two things are often mentioned together as if
they are one : a knife and fork, a cup and saucer
8. with expressions of quantity : a lot of, a little of, a
couple of
9. if we say : A Mathew Stephens hangs on our bedroom
wall , we are talking about the paining done by this
artist

DEFINITE ARTICLE

1. when sth has already been mentioned before :


The book you told me about is great.
2. when there is only one in the context or in the world :
The Queen is going to give a speech.
3. when it is clear form the context what we are talking
about :
Could you close the door, please ?
4. with the names of rivers, seas, oceans, mountains
ranges, groups of islands : the Alps, the Adriatic sea
5. with the names of countries in the plural : the United
Kingdom
6. with the names of hotels, cinemas, theatres
7. names of newspapers
8. names of nationalities : The French are usually seen as
romantic.
9. with superlatives
10.with adjectives used as nouns : The rich can never
understand the problems of the poor.
11.with surnames when we are talking about the whole
family:
The Smiths have moved away
QUESTION TAGS
- We use QTs to ask people if they agree with us or to
check if sth is true
- If the sentence is affirmative, the QT is negative, and
the other way round
- QTs consist of an auxiliary verb (be / do / have) or a
modal verb AND a personal pronoun :
She is so smart, ISNT SHE ?
- If, in a sentence, we have an auxiliary and a full verb, to
make a QT we repeat the auxiliary:
They have seen us, HAVENT THEY ?
- if there is only full verb, we add DO in the QT:

He comes today, DOESNT HE ?


modal verb is repeated in the tag:
She couldnt come, COULDNT SHE ?
in sentences with LETS we use SHALL:
Lets go out, SHALL WE ?
in imperatives we use WILL or WOULD:
Take the dog for a walk, WILL YOU ?
with NOBODY or SOMEBODY we use THEY:
Nobody came, DID THEY ?
with NOTHING we use IT:
Nothing is wrong, IS IT? (we cannot use double negative
in English)

DIMINUTIVES
- Diminutives indicate smallness
- they arent so often in English as in other languages
- in some cases we get diminutives by adding a suffix to
a noun:
a small book booklet
a small pig piglet
a small duck duckling
a small statue statuette
a small kitchen- kitchenette
a small bird birdie
- sometimes, there is a different word for diminutive:
a small cat kitten
a small dog puppy
- but, in most cases, we add SMALL or LITTLE in front of a
noun
CONDITIONALS: ZERO AND FIRST
- zero conditional describes situations which are always
true:

If you learn well, you get higher grades.


present simple is used in both clauses
first conditional describes a possible situation in the
future
we have a possible condition and a probable result:
If it rains, Ill get wet.
( present simple + will (or can, may) followed by
infinitive )
we can use WILL in both clauses to express willingness:
If youll wash, Ill dry the dishes.
if we add SHOULD we sound less certain:
If you should see Mat, he may be a little upset.
in order to sound more formal, we use inversion:
Should you see Mat, he may be a little upset.
instead of IF we can use PROVIDED, PROVIDING,
UNLESS
Unless you invite her, she wont come.
CONDITIONALS: SECOND AND THIRD

- second conditional describes an unlikely or imaginary


situation in the present or future
- the unreality is shown by tense shift backwards:
If I were taller, I would be a basketball player.
( past simple + would (or could, might) followed by
infinitive)
- if we add WERE TO we sound less certain
If you WERE TO tell him the truth, you might hurt him.
- if we need to sound more formal, we use inversion:
WERE YOU to achieve the goal, you would be promoted.
- we use second conditional to sound more polite, too:
Would you mind if I opened the window ?
- third conditional describes an imaginary situation in the
past:
If you had been nicer, they wouldnt have left.
( past perfect + would have followed by past participle)

- if we want to be more formal, we use inversion:


Had I known the truth, I could have saved him.
MIXED CONDITIONALS
- it is possible for each of the two clauses in a conditional
sentence to have a different time reference
- we can mix second and third conditional
1. If you had brought the map, we wouldnt be lost now.
( imaginary past situation and a result in the present )
2. He wouldnt have married her if he didnt love her.
( sth that didnt happen because of the present situation )
AVOIDING IF IN CONDITIONALS
- an inversion of subject and verb may be used instead of
if:
Should you see Tom, he may be a little upset.
Were you to lose the key, I would be really angry.
Had Tom come, I would have been satisfied.
- this is mostly used in written language
- we can also introduce conditionals by conjunctions: as
long as, provided (that), supposing (that), on condition
that
Provided that you come on time, you can get the job.
- there are phrases used instead of if :
WITH LUCK, well be there in time. (if we are lucky)
GIVEN TIME, he will change his mind. ( if we give him
time)
WITHOUT YOUR HELP, I would have been lost. (if you
hadnt helped me)
- we can also use UNLESS instead of if:
Ill come tomorrow UNLESS it rains.

RELATIVE CLAUSES

- a relative clause gives extra information about people,


things, places
- it is introduced by a relative pronoun:
WHO for people
WHICH for things
THAT for people and things
WHOSE for possession
And also WHEN, WHERE, WHY
- there are two types of relative clauses defining and
non-defining
defining relative clause gives extra information which is
essential to the meaning of the sentence:
My sister who lives in Berlin has two children.
( I have three sisters, so the relative clause tells you which
one)
- THAT can be used instead of WHO and WHICH
- We can omit the relative pronoun if it isnt the subject
of the sentence:
This is the girl (who) I told you about.
- non-defining relative clause gives extra information
which isnt essential for the meaning of the sentence:
My sister, who lives in Berlin, has two children.
(I only have one sister, so the information isnt essential)
- non-defining clauses are always between commas or
between a comma and a full stop
-we cannot use THAT in this kind of relative clauses
VERBS THAT DO NOT USUALLY MAKE
CONTINUOUS TENSES
- verbs are divided into activity and state verbs
- activity verbs are for example walk, talk, work, smile,
play, complain
- they can be used in all tenses;
He talks too loudly.
They havent talked to each other for a long time.

She will be talking to her boss.


- state verbs arent usually used in continuous tenses
- there are four groups of such verbs:
1. activities of the mind (admit, know, want)
2. emotions (love, hate, adore)
3. senses (feel, hear, smell)
4. having and being ( appear, be, have, possess)
- some of these state verbs can be used in a continuous
tense, with different meaning
1. They have two cars. (possess- a state)
We are having lunch. (eat- an activity)
2. I feel this I is bad. (believe- a state)
Im feeling hungry. (experience- an activity)
3. I think you are wrong. (believe- a state)
What are you thinking about? (consider-an activity)
4. It looks as if its going to rain. (seem-a state)
Why are you looking at me? (watch-an activity)

CAUSATIVE HAVE / GET


FORM: have / get + object + past participle
- we use it when sth is done FOR the subject, not BY the
subject:
I have my teeth checked every year.
- we can use either have or get, but in some cases only one
form is possible:
1. in the present perfect, we use only HAVE
Have you had your room redecorated ?
2.when sth is urgent, we usually use GET
I really must get my head checked.
3.in imperatives we use GET
Get your hair cut!

- there is also non-causative use of HAVE STH DONE


We had our roof torn off in the storm !
(nobody did anything, it was our experience)
SAXON AND NORMAN GENITIVE
- genitive is also called the possessive case
- it is used to show that sth belongs to sb
- SAXON GENITIVE is marked by apostrophe and S to the
noun, eg. Franks car
- if the noun is in the plural, we add only the apostrophe
eg. Girls dolls
- if two names go together, we add S to the last
eg. John and Jacks home
- to the nouns with irregular plural we also add S
eg. childrens books
- with compound nouns we add S to the last element
eg. sister-in-laws
- NORMAN GENITIVE is marked by OF
eg. the key of the door
- we cannot say the keys door because it is a non-living
thing
- every S construction has an OF equivalent (eg. a
mans voice-a voice of a man) but not the other way
around ( we can only say a leg of the table)
FORMATION AND USE OF THE PASSIVE VOICE
FORM: appropriate form of the verb TO BE + past participle
- the subject of the active sentence becomes the object
of the passive
- we use the passive voice when:
a) we want to put an emphasis on the person or thing
affected by the action
b) we dont know or dont want to say who did it

c) we want to sound more formal


- the object of the passive sentence is called the agent
- it can be omitted when:
a) it isnt important
b) it is obvious The thief was caught. (by the police)
c) it is unknown or secret
d) already mentioned
e) it is people in general
- some verbs have two objects- direct and indirect
- in that case both can become subjects of a passive
sentence
He gave the book to Mary.
(book is indirect; Mary is direct object)
The book was given to Mary.
Mary was given the book.
INVERSION
-it is usual for the verb to follow the subject
- sometimes this word order can change and this is called
the inversion
- we can put an adverbial phrase at the beginning of the
sentence, especially in formal or literary style:
He found three letters. INSIDE THE FIRST was a short note.
- inversion often occurs after HERE and THERE:
Here comes Sandras car.
- we can use inversion in conditional sentences, to make
them sound more formal and to avoid if:
Had I known you were coming, I would have prepared sth.
- Inversion after negative adverbials:
Seldom do we have such an opportunity.
- inversion in expressions: only after, only once, only
then:
Only once did I manage to see him.
THE PRONOUN IT

- personal pronouns are called that way not because they


refer to people but because they refer to grammatical
persons (first, second and third person)
Your breakfast is ready. IT is on the table.
- IT can refer to a thing, a quality, an event, a place
Loyalty must be earned. IT cant be bought.
- we also use IT to identify people
Theres a knock at the door. Who is it?
ITs the postman.
- we also use IT if we dont know the sex of a baby
IT is a cute baby, is IT a boy or a girl?
- IT can also be used for animals
I hate this dog. IT never stops barking.
- we often use IT to refer to time, weather, temperature,
distance In these cases IT is called an empty subject
IT is 8 oclock.
IT is hot.
IT is noisy in here.
-we can begin sentences with
IT IS or IT WAS + subject + THAT if we want to
emphasize sth. These are called cleft sentences
IT was Fred who called last night. (and not Jim)

TYPES OF SENTENCES
-there are simple, compound and complex sentences
SIMPLE sentences consist of subject + verb
- they can be;
statements- give us onformation, can be affirmative or
negative
interrogative- we ask for information
commands- instruct sb to do sth
exclamations- express feelings
COMPOUND consist of two or more clauses joined by a
conjunction ( and, or, but)
eg. A man stole the money and hid it in the house.
COMPLEX consist of main + subordinate clause

eg. If you won a lot of money, youd be able to buy a


house.
- the main clause can stand alone, subordinate cannot
- subordinate clauses can be:
a) a relative clause:
This is the man WHO STOLE YOUR MONEY.
b) a reason clause:
He was very angry BECAUSE SHE WAS SO LATE.
c) a time clause:
He saw her in the centre WHILE SHE WAS SHOPPING.
REPORTED SPEECH-QUESTIONS
There are two kinds of questions in English: YES/NO and WHquestions. YES/NO questions begin with auxiliary verb; WHquestions begin with who, what, why, how
YES/NO questions
-when there is no question word in the direct speech, we use
if/whether
-word order is the same as in the statement
Have you ever been here?
Tom wanted to know IF I HAD BEEN there.
( word order as in the statement; tense changes; here
becomes there, no question mark in the end)
WH-questions
-the word order is again important:
question word + subject + verb
What your favourite colour?
Mary asked me WHAT MY FAVOURITE COLOUR WAS.
( no question mark in the end; the pronoun changes from
your into my)

REPORTED STATEMENTS AND ORDERS


I want to see this place thoroughly.
He said HE WANTED TO SEE THAT PLACE THOROUGHLY.

-the tense changed; THIS becomes THAT; I becomes he


Go outside!
The teacher told me TO GO outside.
-in orders we use TO-infinitive
-in the negative sentences:
Dont touch this button!
we put NOT in front of the infinitive:
He told me NOT TO TOUCH that button.
SEQUENCE OF TENSES
Direct speech-we repeat the exact words sb said or wrote.
Indirect speech-we report sth said or written and since this is
usually done after the time it was said or written we have to
shift the tenses. This is called sequence of tenses.
PRESENT TENSES PAST TENSES
Present Simple-Past Simple
Present Continuous-Past continuous
Present Perfect-Past Perfect
PAST TENSES-PERFECT TENSES
Past Simple-Past Perfect
Past Continuous-Past Perfect Continuous
Past Perfect-no change
MODAL VERBS
Can, shall, will, may, must- could, should, would, might, had
to
OTHER CHANGES
now-then
here-there
this-that
these-those
today-that day
yesterday-the day before
tomorrow-the next day
a few days ago-a few days before
CASES WHEN TENSES DO NOT CHANGE IN

REPORTED SPEECH
1)Past Perfect never changes in the reported speech:
I had met you before.
He told me he had met me before.
2) if sth is going to happen soon:
He told me the bar will open tonight.
3)we dont change the tense when the reporting verb is in
the present (when reading a letter or newspapers):
The paper SAYS it will be rainy today.
4)when the reporting verb is in the past but we want to show
that the statement is still true:
Tom said Bill IS his cousin.
5)we dont change should, would, might, ought to:
They said they COULD come the next day.
6)we dont change the tense when expressing wishes with
unreal past:
I wish I was older.
He said he wished he WAS older. (NOT had been older.)
ADVERBS-FORMATION AND TYPE
-adverbs go with verbs and tell us how sth happens or how
sth is done
-most adverbs are formed by adding the LY suffix to
adjectives:
nicely, quickly, usually
-some adverbs have the same form as adjectives, for
example FAST and HARD:
He is fast. / He runs fast.
-adverbs are also: yesterday, always, well, abroad
TYPES
a)adverbs of manner-how sth is done
badly, in a hurry, well
b)adverbs of place-where sth is done
somewhere, here, abroad
c)adverbs of time-when sth is done

yesterday, now, 6 weeks ago


d)adverbs of frequency-how often sth happens
always, sometimes, usually
e)adverbs of degree-show us to what extent sth is true
almost, rather, quite
f)adverbs of viewpoint-give an opinion
surprisingly, amazingly, obviously
ADVERBS-COMPARISON
-only gradable adverbs can be compared
-GRADABLE means that we can imagine degrees in the
quality and use it with words like VERY, OFTEN, TOO
-comparison is not possible with adverbs such as;
daily, extremely, only, really (they are not gradable)
-some adverbs have the same forms as adjectives, so they
compare the same way:
fast faster - fastest ( we dont use THE in superlatives with
adverbs)
-LY adverbs of manner usually have two or more syllables,
so we add MORE/MOST
easily more easily most easily
-cases of irregular comparison:
badly worse worst
well better best
late later latest
little less least
much more most
-we can also compare adverbs using:
a)ASAS She sings as sweetly as her sister.
b)THETHE The faster you drive THE sooner well arrive.
c)AND It rained more AND more heavily.
ADVERBS-POSITION
1)adverbs of manner, place, time usually go in the end of the
sentence;

He came late.
-if they are all in one sentence, the order is manner-placetime
He waited patiently here for 30 minutes.
-sometimes they can be placed at the beginning, when we
want to create an atmosphere:
Slowly, he walked out of the room.
2)adverbs of frequency go before the verb in simple tenses:
I always chew gum.
-after the auxiliary:
She has always been there for him.
-after the verb BE:
Im never late.
-sometimes at the beginning of the sentence, for emphasis:
Usually, he was late.
3)adverbs of degree go before the word they modify:
She almost died.
4)adverbs of viewpoint go at the beginning:
Surprisingly, she wasnt at home.
FORMATION OF ADJECTIVES
(SUFFIXES AND PREXIFES)
-adjectives go with nouns and describe it
-they give us information about:
age- an old man
shape-a round table
origin-a Swiss knife
1)they can be formed by adding suffixes to verbs:
-able : enjoyable, washable
-ful : careful, helpful
-less : useless
-ed : amazed
-ing : exciting
2)we can also add suffixes to nouns:
-al : professional
-ic : metallic

-ful : successful
-less : hopeless
-ous : dangerous
3)we can also add prefixes to adjectives to give them the
opposite meaning:
dishonest
uninterested
immoral
illegal
irresponsible
inadequate

TYPES OF ADJECTIVES
-adjectives are used with nouns to describe them in more
details (a new idea, a bright light, an old man)
1)a group of adjectives which identify qualities someone or
sth has are called QUALITATIVE ADJECTIVES
a sad girl, a small child, a healthy baby
2)a group of adjectives which identify someone or sth as a
member of a class CLASSIFYING ADJECTIVES
a daily shower, financial help
3)a group of adjectives which are used to emphasize your
feelings about the person or the thing you are talking about
EMPHASIZING ADJECTIVES
Complete, absolute, utter (He is a complete idiot.)
4)a group of adjectives which make the reference more
precise POSTDETERMINERS
LAST few years, FOLLOWING brief discussion
5)a group of adjectives which identify the colour of sth
COLOUR ADJECTIVES
so-called VALUE ADJECTIVES indicate personal opinion
-if more than one goes with the noun, they go in this order:
size-age-shape-colour-origin-material
their huge circular swimming pool

the dirty old metal garden seat

COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES
-an adjective describes a person, thingwhich a noun refers
to
-adjectives give us an information about:
quality a nice day
size a big car
age a young girl
temperature a cool evening
shape a round table
colour blue eyes
origin a Swiss knife
1)adjectives with one syllable are compared by adding ER/EST
long longer the longest
2)if they end in E we add only R/-ST
nice nicer the nicest
3)if they end with a combination of a short vowel and a
consonant, we double the consonant before adding suffixes
Thin thinner the thinnest (sad, wet, fat, big)
4)if they end in Y we change Y into I
heavy heavier the heaviest
5)adjectives with two or more syllables are compared by
adding MORE/THE MOST
beautiful more beautiful the most beautiful
6)some long adjectives can be compared in two ways
simple simpler the simplest

simple more simple the most simple


(common,gentle,clever)
7)there is also irregular comparison (bad, good, much/many,
little)
8)we can also compare adjectives by using
Enough This house isnt big enough.
Too They were too tired.
Asas Was the film as interesting as the book?
so that It was so simple that I managed it on my own.
COMPOUND ADJECTIVES
-a compound adjective is an adjective made up of two parts
and is usually written with a hyphen, for example
well-dressed, never-ending
-their meaning is usually clear from the words it combines
-the second part of the compound adjective is frequently a
present or past participle
-a large number of compound adjectives describe personal
appearance: curly-haired, long-legged
-another set describes a persons character:
absent-minded, easy-going, two-faced
-a preposition can also be the second part of a compound
adjective : broken-down, worn-out, well-off
-we can make various compound adjectives by changing one
part:
curly-haired
first-hand
red-haired
first-class
long-haired
first-born
COUNTABLE AND UNCOUNTABLE:
NOUNS THAT CAN BE BOTH
-opsti deo o imenicama
1)some nouns like: stone, hair, cake can be both countable
and uncountable
-they can refer to a single thing or a substance:
Theres a hair in my soup. She had long, curly hair.
Give me a glass of water. Do you know who invented
glass?

2)some uncountable nouns can be countable when they


refer to a certain kind of a thing:
Do you drink wine?
Theyve got a very good white wine.
3)words for drinks, for example: coffee, tea, beer
Coffee is not expensive these days.
Why dont we stop for a coffee?
4)time, space, room can also be both
I dont have time.
She had a great time.
NOUNS THAT HAVE ONLY THE PLURAL FORMS
-opsti deo o imenicama
-some nouns only have plural forms, for example
1)subjects: maths, statistics
2)games: billiards, darts
3)also nouns like: aerobics, genetics, measles
-these nouns have plural form but they are used with
singular verb forms:
The news WAS terrible.
Maths IS a difficult subject.
-other nouns that have only plural form are used with plural
verb forms
-those are nouns like: authorities, stairs, sights
-they are used with the definite article:
He fell off the stairs.
We wanted to see the sights.
-nouns for clothes and tools which are made of two joined
parts also have only plural forms: scissors, trousers, glasses,
jeans, pyjamas
-if we want to refer to them in singular or plural, we use a
pair of
She bought two pairs of blue jeans.

NOUNS THAT HAVE ONLY THE SINGULAR FORM


( UNMARKED PLURAL FORMS )
-opsti deo o imenicama
-nouns that only have singular forms are:
advice, information, luck, homework, traffic
-if we want to talk about a certain amount, we use:
a piece of (advice)
a few pieces of (information)
a pile of (rubbish)
a lump of (sugar)
a few drops of (water)
a touch of (flu)
a few slices of (bread)
-some of these nouns have their pairs which can be used in
plural:
work jobs
luggage suitcases
bread- a loaf
money- a note, a coin
clothing- a garment
poetry- a poem
NOUNS THAT CAN BE BOTH SINGULAR AND PLURAL IN
MEANING WHILE SINGULAR IN FORM
-opsti deo o imenicama
-some nouns have singular form but can be seen as singular
or plural, for example TEAM
Our team is winning. (we see the team as a single unit)
Our team are winning. (the team seen as members of a
group)
-other nouns like this are: army, staff, public, jury, press,
band, family
OPSTI DEO O MODALIMA (uz svaki modal)

1)they arent used when sth definitely exists or has definitely


happened. They are used when we expect sth, when sth is
not possible, when we think sth is necessary
2)modals dont get S in the third person singular
3)they are followed by bare infinitive (infinitive without TO)
The exception is OUGHT TO.
4)questions are formed by inversion
5)they can refer to the future
6)in the past we add HAVE+PAST PARTICIPLE
MODAL VERBS: CAN
1)this modal verb is used to express possibility:
It can rain tomorrow.
2)to express that sth is always true:
Cycling in big cities can be dangerous.
3)to express permission:
Can I go outside?
4)ability:
He can speak four languages.
5)offer:
I can help you with your luggage.
6)it is used with verbs of perception (hear, smell, see, feel)
7)negative form CANT expresses prohibition:
You cant leave now.
8)it is used for logical deduction-making conclusions based
on evidence:
His car isnt here, he cant be at home. (present)
Her light was off, she cant have been in her office. (past)
9)for the future we use be able to
10)for the past can + have + past participle
MODAL VERBS: COULD
1)this modal verb expresses possibility:
It could rain today.
2)permission
3)general past ability:
He could swim at the age of six.
-if sth happened only on one occasion:
He managed to jump over the fence.

4)offers
5)with verbs of perception (hear, smell, see)
6)for expressing wishes:
If only he could come. (present)
I wish she could have been there. (past)
7)in the past we use could + have + past participle
MODAL VERBS: SHOULD
1)it expresses mild obligation, advice, recommendation:
You should see a doctor.
2)it is used for predictions, when sth is logical:
He should be here by 9.
3)used in conditionals:
If all goes well, he should manage to get away.
-it is used to make conditionals more formal:
Should you happen to see him, please tell him to be careful.
4)past should + have + past participle:
I should have gone to the party. (regret)
You should have taken that job. (criticism)

MODAL VERBS: MUST


1)must expresses personal obligation:
I must stop smoking.
-unlike must, have to expresses an obligation coming from
a third person:
You have to wear a seat-belt.
2)must can be stronger than have to when it is used for
urgency:
You must phone home at once!
3)expresses recommendation, strong advice:
You simply must come to my party.
4)used for logical deduction-making conclusions based on
evidence:
He promised to come, he must be here. (present)

He was ill, he must have gone to see a doctor. (past)


5)negative form mustnt expresses prohibition
6)negative form to express lack of obligation is dont have to
7)in the past we use had to
MODAL VERBS: HAVE TO
This modal verb, unlike others, is followed by TO infinitive
1)it expresses obligation coming from a third person
-unlike HAVE TO, MUST expresses personal obligation
2)for lack of obligation we use dont have to
3)to express the future, we can add adverbials:
You have to leave before 9 tomorrow.
4)in the past we use had to (didnt have to)
5)neednt have to can also be used for lack of obligation in
the past but the meaning isnt the same:
I didnt have to go to the office yesterday. (so I didnt)
I neednt have gone to the office yesterday. (I did go but
unnecessarily)
-it can be used for logical deduction-making conclusions
based on evidence in American English:
This has to be the best film I have ever seen.
EXPRESSING PAST HABITS
-we can use Past Simple, used to and would
-PAST SIMPLE always needs a time reference:
I collected stamps when I was a child.
-with USED TO we dont need a time reference, we can only
say:
I used to collect stamps.
-USED TO shows that things happened in the past and this is
now finished
-we cannot use it to say how long sth took or how many
times sth happened, for this we use Past Simple
-USED TO isnt used with FOR and SINCE
-it goes with both action and state verbs:
I used to get up really late.
He used to have a beard.

-WOULD also expresses a past habit:


He would get up early.
-it is only used with action verbs
-it is used for regular activities, especially in narrative, or
when we are reminiscing. WOULD is never used at the
beginning of the story, the scene must first be set with Past
Simple or USED TO:
When I was a boy we always spent (OR used to spend) our
holidays on a farm. Wed get up at five and wed help milk
the cows

PRESENT TENSES USED TO EXPRESS FUTURE


-Present Simple is used for timetabled events and regular
schedule:
What time does the bus arrive in Seattle?
-it is used in subordinate clauses, after: WHAT, WHERE,
WHEN, IF, UNTIL
Ill tell you when I find out.
-asking for and giving instructions:
Where do I pay?
What do we do now?
-Present Continuous is used for personal arrangements and
fixed plans
-time and place have been decided:
Im seeing Larry on Saturday.
What are you doing tonight?
Im washing my hair.
-it is associated with future arrivals and departures, so it is
used with verbs: arrive, come, leave, go
Hes arriving tomorrow at 13.10.
-it is also used with verbs of movement, for actions just
beginning:
Are you coming to the pub?
Im just popping out to the post office.
-present perfect:
She isnt coming out until shes done her homework.

FOREIGN PLURALS
-words which are borrowed from other languages, especially
from Latin, still form their plurals according to the rules of
those languages
-many of them are technical or formal
1)nouns ending in US have plural endings I
radius-radii, stimulus-stimuli
2)nouns ending in UM have a plural ending A
memorandum-memoranda
3)those ending in IS have plural ending ES
analysis-analyses, diagnosis-diagnoses
4)those ending in A end in AE /e/ in the plural
larva-larvae
5)some of these borrowed nouns can have S in the plural
antennas, formulas
6)some have two plural forms, and the form with S is more
common in less formal English
appendix-appendices / appendixes
tempo-tempi / tempos
PLURAL OF NOUNS
1)we usually add S to the singular
days, dogs, houses
-S can be pronounced as
/s/ books
/z/ dogs
/iz/ houses
2)if nouns end in -CH, -SH, -SS or X, we add ES
kisses, brushes, churches
3)to the nouns that end in O we usually add ES
tomatoes, potatoes
-in some cases we can add either S or ES:
tornados / tornadoes
-we add only S:
a)when the noun ends in -OO (bamboos)
b)to abbreviations (kilos)
c)to Italian music terms (pianos, solos)
d)to proper nouns (Eskimos)
4)initials can also be made plural by adding -S

UFOs, VIPs, MPs (members of the Parliament)


5)compound nouns
-in noun + noun combinations usually the second word gets
S
boyfriends
-in some cases only the first element gets S
mothers-in-law
-when there is only one noun in the combination it gets S
regardless of its position the word
passers-by, onlookers
-when there is no noun, the last word gets S
grown-ups, breakdowns
IRREGULAR PLURAL OF NOUNS
1)if a noun contains F in turns into V before adding a suffix:
wife- wives
wolf-wolves
-there are exceptions like: gulf, staff where we add only S
without the change of F
-some nouns can have both forms:
dwarf-dwarfs/dwarves
2)if a noun contains Y it changes into I before adding ES:
city-cities
country-countries
-if Y is in front of a vowel, it doesnt change:
days, toys
-noun lady changes into ladies but in compound nouns it
stays in the singular: lady friends
3)a group of nouns turn into plural by an internal vowel
change:
man-men woman-women tooth-teeth mouse-mice
-in compound nouns with man and woman both nouns
change into plural: women students
4)to some nouns we add EN, a suffix from the past:
ox-oxen child-children
-noun brother can also have this suffix brethren which is
used in religious contexts
5)some nouns are the same in the singular and plural:
fish, deer, offspring, sheep, species
My gold fish has / have died.

OPSTI DEO O IMENICAMA


Proper (India)
NOUNS

concrete (book)
countable
common

abstract (idea)
concrete (clothes)
uncountable
abstract (love)

-countable nouns have singular and plural forms


-they can be used with: indefinite article, numbers, many,
few/a few
-uncountable nouns have only one form
-they can be used with: much, little/a little
POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS VS. POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES
-they express possession, belonging
- possessive adjectives go with nouns:
This is MY house.
- possessive pronouns are used without nouns:
These things are MINE.
- we use poss. pronouns when we talk about the same type
of thing that has just been mentioned but to show it belongs
to someone else:
Jane showed them her passport, then I showed MINE.
- poss. pronouns are also used in phrases beginning with
OFF:
He is a friend of MINE.
Tom was a student of YOURS.
- poss. adjectives in English are used with parts of body,
which is not the case in our language:
Emma shook HER head.

I cut MY hand.
- we can use own after poss. adjectives to show that sth
belongs to a certain person and nobody else:
I have MY own flat.
- ITS without an apostrophe expresses possession:
This is my dog, ITS name is Jack.
poss. adjectives: my, your, his, her, its, our, your, their
poss. pronouns: mine, yours, his, hers, ours, yours, theirs
REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS
- they refer back to the subject:
I cut MYSELF.
- in the plural F turns into V and we add ES
ourselves, yourselves, themselves
- some verbs are always followed by a reflexive pronoun, for
eg.
He prides HIMSELF on his collection.
- some verbs can but dont have to be followed by a reflexive
pronoun:
I cut MYSELF.
OR
I cut my hand.
- we can use a reflexive pronoun for emphasis:
He HIMSELF cleaned the whole house.
- there are many idioms with reflexive pronouns, like:
Help YOURSELF. (take as many/much as you want)
Go by YOURSELF. (alone)
- in a sentence, a reflexive pronoun can be:
a) a direct object- My brother has hurt HIMSELF.
b) an indirect object- He soon found HIMSELF a new house.
c) used after prepositions- She lives by HERSELF.
SOME / ANY , MUCH / MANY
- these are called QUANTIFIERS, they express quantity

- SOME and ANY can be used with both countable and


uncountable nouns:
some furniture / some books
any milk / any ideas
- we use SOME and ANY when we are not interested in the
exact quantity:
There are some letters on the table.
- SOME is also used in the meaning certain:
There are some people waiting for you.
- SOME is used in affirmative sentences, ANY in questions
and negative sentences
- MANY is used with countable, MUCH with uncountable
nouns
Many houses / much love
- HOW MANY is used when we want to find out the number of
people or things
- HOW MUCH is used when we want to find out the quantity
of a substance or a liquid
LITTLE / A LITTLE , FEW / A FEW
-these are called QUANTIFIERS, they express quantity
- HOW MUCH is used for the quantity of a substance or a
liquid
- it is used with uncountable nouns, and we can answer with
LITTLE / A LITTLE
- LITTLE means hardly any at all
He has little money so he is very poor.
- A LITTLE means a small quantity
He has a little money so can manage.
- HOW MANY is used for a number of people or things
- it is used with countable nouns, and we can answer with
FEW / A FEW
- FEW means hardly any at all
Shes very lonely because she has so few friends.

- A FEW means a small number


She has a few friends so she isnt lonely at all.
SUBJUNCTIVE ( EXPRESSING WISHES )
- for expressing wishes that havent come true in the present
or might come true in the future, we use WISH + PAST
SIMPLE:
I wish I had a car.
- to talk about things which didnt come true in the past, we
use WISH + PAST PERFECT:
He wishes he had worked harder.
- to talk about wishes for the future, we use WISH + WOULD:
I wish it would rain soon.
- when we use WISH + WOULD, we can also talk about
peoples irritating habits
I wish he wouldnt snore.
- to talk about our own irritating habits, we use COULD
I wish I could eat less.
- IF ONLY is used with the same verb forms like wish and it
expresses stronger feelings:
If only I could see him now.
- ITS TIME + PAST SIMPLE is used for present and future, for
sth that should have been done before:
Its (high) time you went home now.
- ID RATHER + PAST SIMPLE is used when we want sb to do
sth for us now or in the future;
Id rather you stayed with me.
- SUPPOSE has three meanings:
a) sth may happen- Suppose someone sees us !
b) sth is unlikely to happen- Suppose someone told you this
lie !
c) sth could have happened but didnt- Suppose you had
studied more.

INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS VS INTERROGATIVE


ADJECTIVES
- interrogative adjectives are used with nouns:
WHICH bag is yours ?
- interrogative pronouns are used alone:
WHICH of these was bought yesterday ?
- WHAT is used for things but also for people when it is
before a noun:
WHAT doctor did you see?
- WHICH is used for things
- WHAT is used when there is a wide choice of possible
answers:
WHAT sport do you play ?
- WHICH is used for a limited number of possible answers:
WHICH finger did you cut ?
- sometimes both are possible:
WHICH / WHAT train did you take ?
- WHO / WHOSE are used for people
- WHO can be a subject or an object of a sentence:
WHO rang you?
WHO did you ring?
- WHOSE expresses possession
- Can also be a subject or an object
USE OF MODAL VERBS TO EXPRESS
DEDUCTION
- deduction is making conclusions based on evidence
- sth can be:
a) a possibility ( based on a speculation )
She may be at home.
b) certainty ( based on a fact )
She is at home.

c) or we can use evidence to make a conclusion:


The light is on, he MUST be at home.
- in the present we use MUST + INFINITIVE ( without to )
His car isnt in the garage, he MUST BE at work.
- in the past we use MUST HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE
She went to bed early, she MUST HAVE BEEN really tired.
- in the negative form we use CANT
present: You CANT BE hungry, you have just eaten.
past: He CANT HAVE SEEN me, I was really careful.
PARTICIPLE CLAUSES
- there are three participles:
present VERB + ING
past VERB + ED for regular verbs or a different form for
irregular verbs
perfect HAVING + PAST PARTICIPLE
- participle clause contains a participle and it can express:
1)activities happening at the same time:
SEEING him at the door she knew sth was wrong.
2)one activity happening after another:
On OPENING the letter she was shocked by the news.
3)one activity finished before another one started:
HAVING SPENT all the money she went home.
4)it can have the meaning because:
BEING a mean person, he never buys presents.
5)it can show result:
It rained yesterday, completely RUINING our holiday.
6)it can be used instead of IF;
TAKEN regularly these pills can help.
- participle clauses can be introduced by: while, when , after,
by, on, since
After CRYING all day long, she finally fell asleep.
VERBS + GERUND

FORM OF THE GERUND: VERB + ING


-it is also called a verbal noun
-gerund can be the subject of the sentence:
EATING out is expensive.
- it can be the object:
My brother enjoys FISHING.
- some verbs are always followed by a gerund:
a)verbs that express likes and dislikes 9enjoy, love,
prefer)
b)verbs like: admit, consider, finish, prevent, risk
- it can also be used after ADJECTIVE+PREPOSITION
combinations:
Im BORED WITH DOING all the work in this house.
( worried about, sorry for, good at, afraid of)
VERBS + GERUND VS. VERBS + INFINITIVE
- some verbs can be followed by gerund or infinitive:
a)with no change in meaning ( start, begin continue)
It started to rain / raining.
b)with a slight change in meaning ( love, hate, prefer)
-verb + gerund for general statements
I like drinking coffee.
-verb + infinitive for specific information
I like to drink coffee at noon.
c)with a change in meaning (try, remember, forget, regret)
- They stopped to talk.
( stop one activity in order to do another)
They stopped talking.
( stop doing sth)
- I regret to inform you that he had died.
( I regret sth I am going to do)
I regret marrying him !
( I regret sth I have already done)

INFINITIVES; TYPES AND USAGE


Types of infinitives:
1)bare infinitive (without to)- GO
2)TO infinitive which can be
present infinitive- TO GO / continuous form-TO BE GOING
perfect infinitive- TO HAVE GONE / continuous form-TO
HAVE BEEN GOING
- bare infinitive is used with:
-modal verbs- How dare you SAY that !
-let and make- Let me GO !
-would rather- Id rather DO it myself.
- TO infinitive is always used with certain verb, like:
agree, choose, decide, expect, hope, manage
- perfect infinitive is used:
-with past modals- He could HAVE BEEN very successful.
-in the third conditional- If he had come, you would HAVE
REALISED the truth.