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# Systematic Error - All readings or measurements being always above or

always below the true value by a fixed amount. Example: zero error,
background radiation. Can only be eliminated if source of error is known
and accounted for.
Random Error - Result in readings or measurements being scattered
about a mean value. Equal chance of being positive or negative. Example:
variation in diameter of wire. Can be eliminated by taking average of

## Distance - The length of a path followed by an object.

Displacement - The distance moved in a specified direction from a
reference point.
Instantaneous Speed - Rate of change of distance travelled w.r.t.
time.
Average Speed - Distance travelled over time taken.
Instantaneous Velocity - Rate of change of displacement travelled
w.r.t. time.
Average Velocity - Change in displacement over time taken.
Instantaneous Acceleration - Rate of change of velocity w.r.t.
time.
Average Acceleration - Change in velocity over time taken.
Uniformly Accelerated Motion - Motion of an object whose
velocity is increasing at a steady rate.
Trajectory - Path described by a projectile.
Range - Horizontal displacement on the plane between the point of
projection and the point of impact.
Angle of Projection - the angle between the direction of projection
and the horizontal plane through the point of projection.
Time of Flight - time taken from the point of projection to the point
of impact.
N1L - A body continues in its state of rest or uniform motion in a
straight line unless a resultant force acts on it.
N2L - The rate of change of momentum of a body is proportional to
the resultant force acting on it and occurs in the direction of the
force.
N3L - If a body A exerts a force on body B, then body B exerts an
equal but opposite force on body A.
Momentum (of a body) - is defined as the product of its mass and
its velocity, = mv.
Principle of Conservation of Linear Momentum - The total
momentum of a system remains constant, provided no net external
force acts on it.
Impulse - Product of a force F acting on an object and the time t
for which it acts (i.e. area under F-t graph).
Archimedes' Principle - states that the upthrust experienced by
an object in a fluid is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by

the object.
Principle of Flotation - A body that is floating at equilibrium in a
fluid displaces a weight of fluid equal to its own weight.
Average Force <F> - momentum change/time interval.
Force - Any action that causes a change in the physical shape or
the state of motion of an object. Types: Gravitational,
Electromagnetic, Strong Nuclear and Weak Nuclear.
Weight - Measure of the gravitational force that Earth exerts on the
object. W = mg.
Mass - Measure of inertia and is the property of the body which
resists change in motion.
Friction - Force that the surface applies anti-parallel to an object's
motion. Can be kinetic (between 2 objects moving relative to one
another) or static (between 2 objects at rest)
Density - Mass per unit volume, = m/V.
Pressure - Magnitude of the normal force per unit surface area, p =
F/A.
Moment - The moment of a force about a pivot is defined as the
product of the force and the perpendicular distance from the pivot
to the line of action of the force, = F*l
Couple - A pair of equal and opposite parallel forces whose lines of
action do not coincide. Torque of couple = one force * perpendicular
distance between forces.
Center of Gravity - The point through which the entire weight of
the body may be considered to act.
Power - Rate of work done or energy conversion w.r.t. time. P =
dW/dt = Fv.
Average Power <P> - given by W/t.
Angular Displacement is the angle the object moves through
during a specified time interval.
Angular Velocity of a body is defined as the rate of change of its
angular displacement w.r.t. time. Is a vector quantity.
Period T is the time taken for one complete revolution.
Frequency f is the number of revolutions per unit of time.
Newton's Law of Gravitation - states that every two particles in
the universe attract each other with a force that is directly
proportional to the product of their masses and inversely
proportional to the square of the distance between them, F =
-GMm/r2. Negative sign indicates gravitational force is an attractive
force.
Gravitational Field - is a region of space in which a mass placed in
it will experience a gravitational force. Can be visualised as an array
of imaginary field lines in which the tangent at each point of the
field line points in the direction of the gravitational force, and

## density indicates strength.

Gravitational Field Strength at a point in space is defined as the
gravitational force experienced per unit mass at the point, g =
-GM/r2. Is essentially acceleration of free fall at that point.
Gravitational Potential Energy U of a mass in a gravitational
field is defined as the work done by an external force in bringing of
the mass from infinity to that point, U - -GMm/r.
Gravitational Potential at a point in a gravitational field is
defined as the work done by an external force in bringing a unit
mass from infinity to that point, = U/m = -GM/r. Potential Energy
is negative because gravitational force is attractive, so the external
force must be opposing the direction of motion.