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Dynamic Braking on

AC Haul Trucks
Surface Haulage Safety Workshop
National Mine Health and Safety Academy
Beckley, West Virginia
May 2005

The electrically driven Liebherr Rear Axle (T 282)


Axle Box
Torque Tube
Roller Bearings
Hub

T 282

Final Drive
Electric Motor (one per drive) with
motor speed dry disc brakes

Double discs per each rear wheel,


armature speed brakes and excellent accessibility

T 282
T 282

inside

Access from inside the axle box. Fully


protected from road dirt and weather.
Controlled brake cooling with forced air flow.

Double dry disc, armature speed brakes


for each rear wheel

On a Liebherr truck most of the deceleration by far


is done electrically not mechanically

NOTE:
The main system used to slow down a Liebherr truck is NOT its
mechanical brakes but instead the

Electrical System = Electric Retarding


The mechanical brake system (dry disc brakes on front and
rear wheels) are to be used only:
A. To bring the truck to a complete stop after it has been
slowed electrically to a near stand still
B. To stop the truck in an emergency
(Test per SAE J 1040)

Electric retarding is virtually wear free


The mechanical or service brakes on a Liebherr truck are
normally used very little and virtually NEVER during retarding
on a down hill run to keep the truck at a constant safe speed.

NOTE:
When retarding, the energy to slow down the truck is transformed
into electric energy. This electric energy is dispersed via the
electric resistor grids into the air in form of heat.
During retarding there is no friction of any components.
So, when slowing down the truck electrically

there is no component wear and


there is practically no required maintenance.

B1 - Retarding Horse Power


Retarding horse power: The electric drive system will retard the
loaded truck with up to 2 times the engine hp to a near stop of:
AC ~ 0.8 kmh / .5 mph or DC ~ 5 kmh / 3 mph.

B2 - Full Retarding with Dead Engine (AC drive)


Liebherr AC drive trucks have full retarding hp even with a dead
diesel engine.
During retarding the drive motors produce their own exciting current
(self excitation) which means that there is no current required from
the engine driven alternator.
This current will also power the grid cooling fan.
If grid cooling is still required once the truck has stopped, the
current will be automatically supplied by the diesel engine/alternator.

B3 - Automatic Brake Application (AC drive)


Automatic Brake Application : - The truck is brought to a final stop
and held in place with its mechanical disc brakes.
-The brakes are applied automatically . The computer gradually blends
in the brakes while blending out retarding between .8 kmh / .5 mph
and stop.
-The operator still has a third separate pedal to apply the brakes at will.
Full 30 pedal arc for both
- electric retarding pedal
and
- service brake pedal
provides safer control for
the operator
Accelerator pedal
Retarder pedal
Service brake pedal (for emergencies and uphill acceleration)

B4 - Service Brake System ISO requirements

ISO 3450:
The service brakes are required to bring the fully
loaded truck to a safe and complete stop five times
consecutively on an actual down hill grade of 9 1 %.

All four Liebherr truck models have been tested repeatedly


and met/exceeded the ISO 3450 requirements.

B6&7 - Hand Brake & Emergency Brake


Handbrake = Service brakes
will hold the fully loaded truck on
a slope of up to 25%
As a safety feature in an emergency
the handbrake can be applied while
driving
Electric toggle or rocker switch:
Hand brake

25%

B9 - Accumulators for Steering and Braking


Accumulators for steering and braking:
Independent nitrogen pressurized accumulators supply enough
energy after the diesel engine has stopped running to complete at
least
- three 90 steering actions
plus
- twelve complete brake applications

Min. three 90 steering actions

Twelve full brake applications

B10 - Anti-Roll-Back: AC Drive Truck


Anti-Roll-Back:
The truck will not roll back on a grade when starting to drive.
This works in forward and reverse.
The control system will allow the rear wheels to only turn in the
direction the operator has selected with the selector switch.

controlled via sensors


on both rear wheels

If the sensors on the rear wheels detect motion


in the opposite direction, the service brakes
are applied automatically and instantly.

B11 - Cruise Control


All Liebherr trucks have TWO semi-automatic retarding features:
a. Cruise Control
- functions in both propel and retard.
- as a down hill safety feature it will keep the truck at the set speed.
level

up

l
hil

level

y
do

Dumping

wn

Loading

x:

set C/C to high speed or


over-ride the y-setting with the accelerator pedal

y:

set C/C to maximum allowed down hill speed

hil
l

Loading

B12 - Two Speed Over Speed Retarding


All Liebherr trucks have TWO semi-automatic retarding features:
b. Two Speed Over Speed
- automatically starts the retarding process on a down grade and
prevents the truck from going faster than the set limit.
- there are two different automatic speeds, one for loaded and
one for empty.
- as a safety feature Two speed over speed will override
cruise control.
Note: If the truck in a given situation starts
retarding outside the retarding envelope, it
HAS to be slowed down by the operator with
the service brakes until it is inside the
envelope.

Service
brake
Electric
retarding

Retarding start outside the retarding envelope


necessitates application of service brake (DC & AC)

Service
brake

Electric
retarding

B13 - Slip/Slide Control: AC Drive Truck


Slip/Slide Control: Sensors on either rear wheel constantly report
the exact rpm of each wheel to the central computer. If there is a
discrepancy to the average travel speed of the two wheels, the
computer automatically will supply propelling:
retarding:

- less drive power to the


faster turning wheel or
- less retarding power to the
slower wheel

Curve travel: The computer automatically


considers the mandatory
rpm difference by
constantly monitoring
the front wheel steering
angle.

1- Difference between
Hand Brake, Park Brake and Emergency Brake
A- HAND BRAKE, all Liebherr truck models:
1. Applied by operator via toggle (or rocker-)
switch, located on center console
2. Applies full brake pressure from the two
brake accumulators to all service brakes
on front and rear wheels
3. Will only function with accumulators
pressurized. If one of the two brake
circuits has a line failure, the second one
will still function
4. Used when operator is inside cab with engine running and truck
stopped, i.e. during loading, dumping and while
being stopped and waiting
5. In an emergency the Hand Brake could be used to stop the truck
6. Designed to HOLD the fully loaded truck on inclines of up to 25%

1- Difference between
Hand Brake, Park Brake and Emergency Brake
C- EMERGENCY BRAKE, all Liebherr truck models:
1. In an emergency, i.e. electric retarding failure,
the Service Brake System is used
2. Operator controlled via the left foot pedal in the cab
3. Two independent Brake Circuits:

4. The service brakes are tested to fully comply with ISO 3450,
requiring to bring the fully loaded truck to a safe and
complete stop five times consecutively on an actual
down hill grade of 9 1 %

2- Whats so great about Liebherrs


Service Brake System?
a- Uncomplicated dry disc brake system
b- Service checks of discs and calipers/pads possible
at any time, anywhere, without tools
c- No separate, extensive liquid cooling system required
with its many must components: pump(s), valve(s),
cooling radiator and hydraulic pipe and hose circuitry
leading to & from all four wheels
d- Exchange of brake pads, calipers and discs possible
- with relatively simple tools,
- in relatively short time
- in the field, if required
AND
- without having to take the rear wheels off and
- without having to disassemble the rear wheel drive
or the front wheel bearing assembly respectively

2- Whats so great about Liebherrs


Service Brake System?
e- Complies with ISO 3450, requiring to bring the fully loaded truck to
a safe and complete stop five times consecutively on an actual
down hill grade of 9 1 %.
f-

Front, wheel speed*


T 252 & T 262: 6 calipers/2 discs*
TI 272:
8 calipers/2 discs*
T 282:
10 calipers/2 discs*
Front wheel brakes:
T 252 (inside)
T 262 (outside)

Rear, armature speedO


4 calipers/4 discsO
8 calipers/4 discs*
4 calipers/4 discsO
TI 272 (in)

T 282 (outside)

1
1

5
3

4
3

4- What are the mandatory service brake features in


case of an electric retarding failure?

ISO 3450:
The service brakes are required to bring the fully
loaded truck to a safe and complete stop five times
consecutively on an actual down hill grade of 9 1 %.

All four Liebherr truck models have been tested repeatedly


and met/exceeded the ISO 3450 requirements.

5- What keeps the fully loaded T 282 from rolling


backwards on a 15% upgrade when starting to drive?
a. Once stopped, the truck is held in place by the service brakes
(front and rear wheels) and/or the park brakes (rear wheels only)
The Service Brakes will hold the fully loaded truck on a slope
of at least 25%. They are applied by the
- service brake pedal, or
- automatically by the retarding pedal, or
- automatically by the anti roll back feature
- the Hand Brake = service brakes will hold the fully loaded
truck on a slope of at least 25%
The Park Brake (rear wheels only) will hold the fully loaded truck
on a slope of at least 15%

5- What keeps the fully loaded T 282 from rolling


backwards on a 15% upgrade when starting to drive?
a. Once stopped, the truck is held in place by the service brakes
b. When starting to drive up hill with the drive lever in up hill
direction (F or R), the AC drive system automatically will apply as
much up hill torque as required, to hold and accelerate the truck.
This is Part 1 of the automatic anti roll back feature which is
controlled by the computer
But what happens during that time when the brakes are already
released but the engine has not yet built up enough power to
create sufficient uphill torque???
Sensors on both rear wheels sense any motion of either wheel
The computer can determine if that motion is forward or reverse
If the control lever is in F but the computer senses R-motion,
(or visa versa) the computer automatically reapplies the service
brakes until the engine/drive motors have built up the power to
hold and accelerate the truck uphill
This is Part 2 of the automatic anti roll back feature

6- True or false? The T 282 has fully automatic retarding


when loaded and going down hill.
The T 282 and the T 252, T 262 and TI 272 do have TWO automatic
retarding features:
a. Cruise Control Adjustable by the operator, this feature functions in both propel
and retard. It will bring the truck up to or down to the set speed
and keep it there. Has to be initiated by the operator.
b. Two Speed Over Speed
Preset by the factory and adjustable by the mine, it automatically
will start the retarding process on a down grade and prevent the
truck from going faster than the set limit. There are two different
speeds, one for loaded and one for empty (weigh system required).
This feature can not be controlled by the operator (i.e. on/off)
As a safety feature it will override the cruise control setting
NOTE:
Limits have to be set to match existing operating conditions
Cruise Control has to be initiated by the operator while the
truck is still within the retarding envelope

NOTE: In either case the limits have to be set to match


existing operating conditions
Definition (sample chart T 262)

Operating conditions:
12% down hill,
2% rolling resistance
GVW 820 000 lbs
(Required rim pull for
retarding: 81 000 lbs )
Retarding limit:
Any retarding speed
between 6.5 and 16 mph
Speed too high or too low:
above 16 mph or below 6.5
Service brakes must
be applied
Retarding Window

Retarding Power
2x3 inverters

2x3 rectifiers
inverters

Choppers
DC

R L
3-phase
AC

Amount of retarding is
controlled by the computer
within the wheel drives via the retarding pedal

Grid box with fan

Retarding
What are the basics of electric retarding?
The rear wheels turn their respective electric wheel
motor, which now is working in alternator fashion,
producing electric current
The produced electric current is turned into heat
energy within the resistor grids
The produced heat is dissipated into the outside air
by a large blower fan
The total amount of all dissipated heat energy equals
the braking energy used to slow down the truck

Liebherrs three pedal operation gives the


operator better control of the trucks movements
Accelerator (throttle pedal)
Electronic. Tells the computer (CPU)
how fast the operator wants to go.
Electric Retarding
Electronic.Tells the computer (CPU)
when and how much the operator wants
to slow down.
Keeps truck at safe down hill speed.
Service Brake
Full hydraulic power brake. Pedal
resistance increases with brake power.
Full 30 pedal arc for both
- electric retarding pedal and
- service brake pedal
provides excellent control for the
operator

AC Retarding System: STOP and HOLD


At .5 mph / 0.8 km/h the service brakes on
all four wheels are applied automatically by
the computer, without the operator having
to do anything.
The service brakes will bring the loaded
truck to safe stop and will hold the truck
on any grade. Automatically.
Service brakes located
inside of axle box
(armature speed)
and cooled by forced air
Diesel

Wheel Motor

Performance Chart AC-Drive Truck

Diesel engine performance curve


Trolley performance curve
Electric retarding curve

Continuous extended
range retarding

Performance Chart AC-drive


Sample: T 282 Propelling
Gross Vehicle Weight x 1000
200
400
600
800 1000

300
280
260
240
220
200
180
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0

1200 lbs

Performance Chart

24

Curves based on
0% rolling resistance

22
20
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4

Percentage Grade

Rimpull x 1000

US units

T 282 (3500 hp):


GVW: 1,160,000 lbs
Actual grade: + 8%
(Roll resistance
grade equivalent =
1% for each 20 lbs
per ton of rolling
resistance)
@ 40 lbs/ton: + 2%
Effective Grade:10%
Required rim pull:
116,000 lbs

2
0

10

15

20

25 30
Speed

35 40

45 mph

Max. possible speed:


9.3 mph

Performance Chart AC-drive


Sample: T 282 Retarding
Gross Vehicle Weight x 1000
200
400
600
800 1000

300
280
260
240
220
200
180
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0

1200 lbs

Performance Chart

24

Curves based on
0% rolling resistance

22
20
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0

10

15

20

25 30
Speed

35 40

45 mph

Percentage Grade

Rimpull x 1000

T 282 (3500 hp):


GVW: 1,160,000 lbs,
Actual grade: + 8%,
(Roll resistance
grade equivalent =
1% for each 20 lbs
per ton of rolling
resistance)
@ 40 lbs/ton: - 2%
effective grade: 6%
Required rim pull
for safe retarding:
69,000 lbs
Safe retarding:
from 32.7 mph
down to ~zero mph

Torque Verification Calculations


1.
2.

The Performance Curve shows a total truck Retarding Rimpull of 700,000 Newtons, or 350,000 Newtons per wheelmotor.
SIBAS shows a maximum toque of 16573 Nm from each wheelmotor during Retard at 14 MPH and less.

Rimpull = Wheelmotor Torque x Gear Ratio / Rolling Radius


Tire Diameter = 3.693
Tire Radius = 3.693/2 = 1.8465 ~ 1.8 meters for Rolling Radius
Gear Ratio = 37.33:1

Rimpull = 16573 Nm x 37.33 / 1.8 m = 343,700 Newtons


Assume an Electrical Efficiency of 97%:
0.03 x 343700 = 10311 Newtons

Therefore, 343700 N + 10311 N = 354,011 Newtons per wheelmotor

Performance Curve - Nominal Load

Warning Decal in Operators Cab

Service Brake Application Report


date / time ................... : 11.05.2005
vehicle number ................ : 239
Data valid since .............. : 15.04.2005

16:19:21
16:11:37

Service Brake Applications:


Seconds on brake during this hour (hh:00 - hh:59);
5 - 10 mph ................:
0 s
10 - 15 mph ...............:
0 s
15 - 25 mph ...............:
0 s
25 - 30 mph ...............:
0 s
30+ mph ...................:
0 s
Seconds on brake during this day (0:00 - 24:00);
5 - 10 mph ................:
0 s
10 - 15 mph ...............:
0 s
15 - 25 mph ...............:
0 s
25 - 30 mph ...............:
0 s
30+ mph ...................:
0 s
Seconds on brake during this week (SUN - SAT);
5 - 10 mph ................:
0 s
10 - 15 mph ...............:
0 s
15 - 25 mph ...............:
0 s
25 - 30 mph ...............:
0 s
30+ mph ...................:
0 s
Seconds on brake since last clear
5 - 10 mph ................:
10 - 15 mph ...............:
15 - 25 mph ...............:
25 - 30 mph ...............:
30+ mph ...................:

(see Date valid since);


9 s
1 s
3 s
4 s
0 s

SAFE HAUL TRUCK OPERATION REQUIREMENTS:


1. A properly designed haul truck
2. A properly trained operator
3. Properly maintained equipment

Thank you
Liebherr Mining Equipment
Newport News, Virginia
www.liebherr.com

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