Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 56

Chapter 1

Invitation to biology

Learning objective
To explore several aspects of biology

Learning outcomes
To explain the level of organization
To discuss the unity of life

To explain the diversity of life

To explain the classification system
To discuss the scientific approach to
study nature
To explain the philosophy of science

The Science of Nature
How Living Things Are Alike
How Living Things Differ
Organizing Species Information

The Nature of Science

Philosophy of Science


Scientific and
systematic study
of life

1.1 The Science of Nature

All matter consists of atoms, which combine
as molecules
Organisms are individuals that consist of one
or more cells
Cells of larger multicelled organisms are
organized as tissues, organs, and organ

Organization Among Organisms

A population is a group of individuals of a species in a
given area
A community is all populations of all species in a
given area
An ecosystem is a community interacting with its
The biosphere includes all regions of Earth that hold

Life Vs nonlife
All things (living and non living) consist of the
atoms then joins as molecules
Unique properties of life emerge as certain
molecules and organized into cells
Higher levels of lifes organization include
multicelled organisms, populations, communities,
ecosystems and biosphere
Emergent properties occur at each successive level
of lifes organization


We study the world of life at different levels
of organization, from atoms and molecules to
the biosphere

Life emerges at the level of cells

1.2 How Living Things Are Alike

Life has underlying unity: All living things
have similar characteristics
1. Continual inputs of energy and cycling of
materials maintain lifes complex organization

2. Organisms sense and respond to change

3. All organisms use information in DNA inherited
from parents to function and reproduce

Organisms Require Energy and

All organisms require energy and nutrients to
sustain themselves
The capacity to do work

Substance that an organism needs for growth
and survival, but cannot make for itself

Producers and Consumers

Producers harvest energy from the
environment to make their own food by
processes such as photosynthesis
Examples: ?
Consumers eat other organisms, or their
wastes and remains
Examples: ?

sunlight energy
A Producers harvest energy from
the environment. Some of that
energy flows from producers to
plants and other
self-feeding organisms

animals, most fungi,
many protists, bacteria

Organisms Sense and Respond to Change

Organisms keep conditions in their internal
environment within ranges cells tolerate
a process called homeostasis
Set of processes by which an organism keeps its
internal conditions within tolerable ranges
Includes body fluid composition and temperature

Stimulation and Response

Every organism senses and responds to
conditions inside and outside itself

Organisms Use DNA

DNA contains information that guides all of
an organisms metabolic activities, including
growth, development, and reproduction
Small variations in DNA structure give rise to
differences between species and individuals
The passage of DNA from parents to offspring
is inheritance



All organisms are alike in key respects:
Consist of one or more cells

Live through inputs of energy and raw materials

Sense and respond to changes in their external and
internal environments
All function and reproduce with the help of DNA
(molecule that offspring inherit from parents;
encodes information necessary for growth, survival,
and reproduction)

1.3 How Living Things Differ

Different types of organisms differ greatly in
details of body form and function
Biodiversity is the sum of differences among
living things
Variation among living organisms

Diversity of Life
Prokaryotes : Bacteria and archaeans are
single-celled, and their DNA is not contained
within a nucleus
Eukaryotes (protists, plants, fungi, and
animals) can be single-celled or multicelled,
and their DNA is contained within a nucleus

Protists are the simplest eukaryotes, ranging
from amoebas to giant kelps
Many fungi are decomposers, including
Most plants are photosynthetic producers that
provide food for most other organisms
Animals eat other organisms; they include
herbivores, carnivores, scavengers, and

Prokaryote - Bacteria

Prokaryote - Archaeans

Eukaryote - Protists

Eukaryote - Fungi

Eukaryote - Plants

Eukaryote - Animals


The world of life shows great diversity
Many millions of kinds of organisms (species)
have appeared and disappeared over time
Each species is unique in at least one traitin
some aspect of its body form or behavior

1.4 Organizing Species Information

Each type of organism has a unique, two-part
The first part is the genus name
When combined with the specific epithet, it
designates a particular species

Linnaean taxonomy (Carolus Linnaeus) sorts

all species into taxa on the basis of shared

Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778)

Father of Taxonomy
His system for naming,
ranking, and
classifying organisms
is still in wide use

Escherichia coli or Escherichia coli

Genus is CAPITALIZED (written first)

Species is lower case
Written in Latin
Italicized OR underlined

Scientific Name

Genus and species

Homo sapiens
Homo sapiens

Linnaean Classification

3 Domains or 6 Kingdoms

Any Other Name

Individuals of a species share a unique set of
Morphological traits
Physiological traits
Behavioral traits

Species can be hard to distinguish

biological species concept

1.5 The Nature of Science

1) Critical thinking is judging the quality of
information before accepting it
2) Scientists make and test potentially
falsifiable predictions about how the natural
world works

3) Science addresses only what is observable

(1) Thinking About Thinking

Critical thinking, the self-directed act of judging the
quality of information as one learns, is an important
part of science
critical thinking
Judging information before accepting it

Systematic study of the observable world

(2) How Science Works

Generally, a researcher observes something in nature,
uses inductive reasoning to form a hypothesis for it,
then uses deductive reasoning to make a prediction
about what might occur if the hypothesis is not wrong
Predictions are tested with observations,
experiments, or both
Experiments typically are performed on an
experimental group as compared with a control
group, and sometimes on models

Conclusions are drawn from experimental

results, or data
A hypothesis that is not consistent with data
is modified
Making, testing, and evaluating hypotheses is
the scientific method

The Scientific Method



Biological systems are usually influenced by

many interacting variables
An independent variable influences a
dependent variable

Research in Field and Lab

Examples of Experiments
Researchers use experiments to unravel
complex natural processes by changing one
variable at a time
Experiments are designed in a consistent way
Researchers change an independent variable,
then observe effects of change on a dependent
Helps determine cause-and-effect relationship in
a complex natural system

Potato Chips and Stomachaches

Butterflies and Birds

How do peacock butterflies defend themselves
against predatory birds?
1. Wing-flicking shows wing spots
2. Hissing and clicking sounds

1. Wing spots scare predators
2. Sounds deter birds

a Wing spots
painted out

b Wing spots
visible; wings

c Wing spots
painted out;
wings silenced

d Wings painted
but spots visible

e Wings
cut but not

f Wings painted but

spots visible; wings
cut but not silenced

Stepped Art
Fig. 1-14, p. 18

Key Concepts
The Nature of Science
Science helps us be objective about our
observations by addressing only the observable
It involves making, testing, and evaluating

1.6 Philosophy of Science

Science helps us be objective about our
observations because it is only concerned
with testable ideas about observable aspects
of nature
Opinion and belief have value in human
culture, but they are not addressed by

About the Word Theory

A scientific theory is a longstanding
hypothesis that is useful for making
predictions about other phenomena it is
our best way of describing reality
A law of nature describes something that
occurs without fail, but for which we do not
have a complete scientific explanation

Limits of Science
Subjective values (moral, aesthetic or
philosophical) cant be tested by the scientific
Science doesnt address the supernatural, or
anything beyond nature

Deoxyribonucleic acid; carries hereditary information that
guides growth and development

In multicelled species, an increase in the number, size, and
volume of cells

Multistep process by which the first cell of a new individual
becomes a multicelled adult

Processes by which parents produce offspring

Transmission of DNA from parents to offspring

Member of a large group of single-celled organisms

Member of a group of single-celled organisms that
differ from bacteria

Double-membraned sac that encloses a cells DNA

Organism whose cells characteristically have a