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A Report on Apparel Internship

BachelorofFashionTechnology(ApparelProduction)

SubmittedBy

AnuragSingh
Avinashkumar

UndertheGuidanceof

Mr.SaurabhChaturvedi

DepartmentofFashionTechnology,NationalInstituteofFashion
1
Technology,Kangra,2015

ABSTRACT
Through critical and deep study, this report examines the type of Apparel production
system that are used in apparel industry of India. It shows the analysis and comparison
of production systems with respect to cost, quality and productivity. Since the production
of Apparels mainly depends upon the production system, its selection needs to be done
carefully.
This report is an effort of the students of Bachelor of Fashion Technology (B.FTech.),
National Institute of Fashion Technology, Kangra. It talks about functions of Creative
Clothex, prevalent in Noida, UP.
This study is based on the analysis of the handling time required to complete all the
operations related to apparels, this also focuses on the positive and negative aspects of
apparel industry. It demonstrates that the industry has made significant process towards
comprehending the necessity of proper production system which has implications on the
overall productivity of an apparel industry.

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that this Project Report titled Apparel Internship is based on our i.e.
Anurag Singh and Avinash Kumars original research work, conducted under the
guidance of Mr. Saurabh Chaturvedi towards partial fulfilment of the requirement for
award of the Bachelors Degree in Fashion Technology (Apparel Production), of the
National Institute of Fashion Technology, Kangra. No part of this work has been copied
from any other source. Material, wherever borrowed has been duly acknowledged.

Signature of Students
____________________
_______________________

Mentor
Name Mr. Saurabh Chaturvedi
Associate professor
National Institute of Fashion Technology, Kangra

Acknowledgement
We would like to add a few heartfelt words for the people who helped us to complete
this project.
We wish to express our gratitude to everybody who has assisted us in the learning
process during this internship. There are many to whom expression of gratitude is
inevitable, but there are some special people who have to be given prominence, without
whom we would not have reached the conclusion of this project so quickly and
efficiently. We wish to thank our Course Coordinator and mentor, Mr. Saurabh
Chaturvedi for providing this wonderful opportunity and encouraging & motivating us.
No amount of Gratitude is adequate for Mr. Mohit Singhal, Managing Director,
Creative Clothex, for his consent in allowing us to conduct our internship in their
esteemed company.
We are grateful to Ms. Tanushree Mitra, Head PPC Department for providing us with
all facilities required during our internship period.

CONTENTS
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Topic
Introduction
Company profile
About Company
Creative vision
Creative social responsibilities
Key strength
Product range
Major buyers
Company hierarchy
Organization hierarchy
Department study
Merchandising
Sampling
CAD
Fabric sourcing
Fabric stores
Purchase
Trims and accessories store
IE
Accounts
Human resource management
Production planning & control
Production
Finishing and packaging
Maintenance
Projects
Project - 1
Introduction
Objective
Process flow
Data collection
Capacity study
Observations & Suggestions
Layout study
Results
Project - 2
Introduction
Problem definition & methodology
Identification of defects by DMAIC process
Define phase
Measure phase
Analyze phase
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Improve phase
Control phase

INTRODUCTION
6

As per our course curriculum fourteen weeks internship is mandated, which aims
practical understanding of various processes related aspects of the industry. Internship
enables students to get a better understanding of a company, and also gaining
knowledge on its functioning.
We have chosen to pursue our internship at Creative Clothex at Noida, Uttar Pradesh.
As this company is Indias largest manufacturer for Adidas Group in the domestic
market. In compilation of this Internship report, all our efforts have been made to
present a comprehensive picture of the activities undertaken at Creative Clothex.

OBJECTIVE OF INTERNSHIP
Gain in-depth knowledge of the working of the industry in terms of

Organization structure
Infrastructure
Material & manufacturing process
Departmental study
Quality control
CSR

COMPANY PROFILE

Name: Creative Clothex , Noida


Established: 1997
Owner: Mr. Mohit Singhal
Address: A-1 , Sector 59, Noida, Uttar Pradesh
Work Force: 550
Capacity: 50,000 60,000 garments/month
Annual Turnover: 35 crore
About Company
The company was formed in 1997 with a vision to cater to the ever growing domestic
and overseas markets and since then the company has been quite active in the
domestic market and has now started exports as well. Since its inception the company
has been producing knitted and woven garments for the top international and domestic
brands present in the domestic market
At Creative, our focus is to service our customers and enable them to grow with us. We
understand that each customer is different, and needs specialized attention. Our focus
has always been on our customers expectations and their highly specialized individual
needs.
Our goal is to win our customers trust and confidence through our reliability, so we can
develop long-term programs and alliances.
We are fraternity in search of excellence in the product that we make, whom to sell,
whom we buy from and how we deal with each other. We work for the Sake of
Excellence. In all that we do we are guided by A sense of Fairness, A sincerity of
Purpose and Empathy towards all.

Creative Vision
Be Number one, in providing Whole Life value to our people so as to nurture their
individual potential and aspirations and synthesize them towards creating an Organic
Organization .
To be Number one, in delivering Value to our clients, with state of the art Apparel
Manufacturing Facilities and world class services in India. We define value as the
composite of price, Quality, Quick response, Reliability and Newness.
We firmly believe value can be created only if we forge a trust based network of
relationships, both with clients and suppliers, with complete transparency and common
vision based on the principle of equitable sharing of gains, so that all energies can be
focused on the product and service. In doing so, adopting a Participative Mode, rather
than a Linear Mode of working.
Creative Social responsibility
At Creative, We believe in fair employment opportunities for one and all and providing
necessary infrastructure and a healthy and safe work environment to all. We have been
following Adidas Standards of Engagement manuals and have been an Adidas
approved factory for labour compliance and Health and Safety compliance.
In Addition to this we are ourselves dedicated in providing good work environment to all
our workers. In the end we can sum up by saying that Creative is continuously gearing
itself to deliver a more value-added, wider range of finished products. Driven by the ever
growing needs of our customers in terms of newer fashions, fabrics, colors, styles we
constantly create new synergies blending our strengths and creative ideas for faster
deliveries and reducing costs by enhancing quality and improving productivity.

KEY STRENGTHS
Creative Clothex is one of the largest manufacturers for Adidas group in India.
Creative Clothex is one of the most successful professionally managed
companies in India.
Well qualified trained and committed professionals with a shared vision.
Highly qualified Design team, Product development skills.
All Department and offices are electronically linked to facilitate all time access to
information
Focus on quality and a proven track record.
PRODUCT RANGE

They are one of the distinguished manufacturers and suppliers of


sports range of ladies wear, kids wear and mens wear. Products
includes:Sports Jackets
Sports Shorts
Sports T- Shirts
Track Suits
Track Pants
Sweatshirt
MAJOR BUYERS

10

The Company has its own active brand named AURRO and AEGLE.

COMPANY HEIRARCHY
OWNER

FINANCE HEAD

CASHIER HEAD

ACCOUNTS
OFFICER

AUDITOR

HEAD
ADMINISTRATI
ON

HEAD
OPERATIONS

MERCHANDISI
NG HEAD

SOURCING
HEAD

SENIOR
MERCHANTS

FABRIC
SOURCING

JUNIOR
MERCHANTS

TRIM
SOURCING

LOGISTICS
MANAGER

DOCUMENTATI
ON
ASSISTANTS

HR MANAGER

COMPLIANCE
MANAGER

ADMIN
OFFICEER

11

DIFFERENT DEPARTMENTS IN COMPANY


1. Marketing and Merchandising
2. Sampling
3. CAD
4. Fabric sourcing
5. Fabric store
6. Purchase
7. Trims & accessories store
8. Account
9. Human Resource Management
10. Production planning and control (PPC)
11. Factory IED
12. Production
13. Maintenance

12

MERCHANDISING DEPARTMENT
A merchandiser is an interface between the buyer and the supplier who has to ensure the quality
of production and timely delivery. Merchandising is a process through which products are
planned, developed, executed and presented to the buyers. It includes directing and overseeing
the development of product line from start to finish.
ROLE OF THE DEPARTMENT

To look for the appropriate market


To get the samples made according to the buyers specification
To estimate and quote the cost of the garment to the buyer and negotiate with them
Getting orders
Constant interaction with the buyer for the approval
To get the fabric and trims in-house for bulk production
Coordinating with the PPC and production

OBJECTIVE OF MERCHANDISER

To create market
Understanding buyers requirements
Sourcing of materials, fabrics
Select the range
Creating the product
Taking buyers approvals
Negotiation with buyer
Procuring the orders
Materializing the order
Execution the order
Coordination between production and production planning department
Dispatching the shipment

After shipment dispatching merchandiser is also responsible for buyer claims, profit and
subsequent orders. If buyer has any problem in quality of the product then it is the responsibility
of the merchandiser to resolve the problem with the buyer.

ACTIVITIES OF MERCHANDISING SECTION


1) ORDER CONFIRMATION AND FOLLOW UP:
13

This department is the main link between the factory and the buyers. The buyers rely on
the merchandisers to provide them with the information regarding the capacity available,
the style feasibility and the setting up of delivery dates for the shipment.
This process involves receiving the initial order details from the buyers representative
and communicating through E-mail and telephonic conversations.
The merchandising team keeps the buyer updated about all the developments taking place
regarding the order.
The order booking and the order confirmation details are received by the merchandising
team who further transfers this information to the other departments.
2) PREPARATION OF BILL OF MATERIALS:

The merchandising team receives the details of all the style features in the particular

order. This also includes the following :


Fabric quality details
Thread Details
Finish Details
Accessories like beads, sequins, laces etc.
Prints and Embroidery
Trims like buttons, zippers
Wash care labels
Size labels
Brand labels
Packing Material details
Hangtags
Besides receiving this information from the buyer, the merchandisers also receive the

Fabric consumption per garment for each size from the sampling section, Thread
consumption per garment from the Planning department and the accessories requirement
per garment from the sampling department.
Based on this information received, the merchandiser prepares a Bill of Materials (BOM).
This has the complete details of the requirement of all the parts going into the making of
the garment. Each of the material is stated above is mentioned per garment.
3) COORDINATING THE SAMPLE DEVELOPMENT PROCESS:
The merchandising department plans and coordinates the activities of the sampling
department.
The sampling section is given the TECHPAK which contains all the relevant details.
14

The samples to be made are planned in the merchandising department and the plan is
given to the sampling section.
The samples are sent to the merchandising department for initial approvals according
to the spec sheet provided by the buyer. The nsamples are sent to the buyer for
approvals only when they are approved by the merchandising department.
The sampling department is also informed by the merchandising about the types of
samples required by the buyer.
The merchandiser receives the buyer comments for all the samples and makes it sure
it is informed to the sampling and the necessary changes made in all the required
areas.
4) INTERPRETING THE TECHPAK / TECHNICAL FOLDER PROVIDED BY THE
BUYER:

The Technical Folder/Tec pack is the reference for each department whenever it comes to
any information about the buyer requirements. The buyer states all his requirements in a
very precise manner which is contained in this document. The following are the common
details which are found in the Technical Folders of all the buyers:
Size wise quantity
Color Wise Quantity
Destination wise quantity
Dispatch dates for all the lots and the quantity for the lots
Total Order quantity
Cutting Details
Construction Sheet
Finishing and Packing Details
Specification Sheet
Measurement Chart
Fabric Details
a. GSM of all the types of fabrics used in the garment
b. Fabric construction
c. Fiber types
d. Fabric width
e. Fabric/garment finish type and hand feel description
f. Buyer nominated supplier (in certain cases)
g. Fabric Swatch
Trims Details
a. Button Size
b. Threads used
c. Thread tkt no.
d. Labels details
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e. Trims Swatches
Accessory Details

COSTING

Zipper
Accessories

Buttons
Threads
Trims

Size Label

Total Cost
Labels

Wash Care Label

Embroidery
Company Tag

Packaging
Fabric Cost
Washing
Cut Make Cost

COSTING SHEET
The costing sheet is the addition of all the costs involved in the making of the garment and then
it is coated to the buyers. It contains per piece and the total cost (of all the pieces). It includes the
details like, cost of fabric, trims, washing, embroidery, sampling, testing, freight, duty, insurance
etc.
Basic costs while calculating costing are 1. Factory costs
2. Trim costs
3. Yield costs
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4. Cost of embroidery
1. FACTORY COST: - Factory cost includes cutting cost, making cost , packing cost. It
depends basically on the style. The complex the style, higher the rate proportions.
2. TRIMS COST: - Trims can be both local and imported. Imported trims can be duty free
or otherwise. It includes label cost, accessories cost, button cost, Zipper cost, washing
cost etc. Trims cost is taken including wastage. The nominated supplier of trims of Pearl
Global Ltd. Is AVERY DENNISON.
3. YEILD COST: - It is an estimation of average consumption of fabric. It is decided by
preparing a mini marker which includes wastage of fabric due to laying, cutting, fabric
defect, end cutting loss, marker loss. Average of 10% extra margin is taken.
4. COST OF EMBROIDERY: - Cost of embroidery includes the machine depreciation
cost, and it is proportional to the number of stitches used. The time taken from the
coming of the order to the day of shipment is 2-3 months. Basically this is the total
processing time of the sample from approval of the sample. 45 days are kept by the
merchandiser for the production. Embroidery cost for one logo of Adidas group is 6 rs. /
Unit. Fabric is the main cause of delay so merchandiser keeps few days for the safer side.
The merchandiser also coordinates with the Production Planning department, Quality
department, Fabric department, Production department, Finishing department, washing
department. The merchandiser also to keeps a track of the styles and make sure
everything moves as per order on time.

MANUFACTURING COST
The manufacturing costing is done according to the assumed SMV which is given by IE viz. if
the garment SMV is 6 min then actual manufacturing cost will be 60 i.e. 9-10 mark up is
multiplied with SMV. The cost which is charged from buyer is 200 by adding 25% profit.
Costing is done
I.
Style-wise Costing
In pre-cost, includes actual fabric cost, trims cost and value added cost like handwork, artwork,
add a work, embroidery etc.
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Production Cost + Raw material Cost + Contribution

Pre-Cost
The costs involved in each process are
Stitching cost/piece + 25%
Cutting cost
Finishing cost
Direct Cost (Manpower Department wise)
Indirect Cost (Sub Department)
Overheads (Plant+ M/c rent+ Electricity+ Water + Fuel)
MERCHANDISE COST
When pattern master prepared the pattern and the sample is made according to the pattern. Then
mini- marker is prepared in CAD and average costing is being done.
The average costing is done by below formulae{Total length + margin (5cm)} * {Total width + Margin (5cm)}* GSM/ 10000 = A
A/no. of pieces = Total cost of the garment
Merchandise prepared the costing sheet including factory cost, Trim cost, Yield Cost and
embroidery cost. Then the costing sheet is send to the buyer and if the cost satisfies the buyer
then only order of that product is given.

SAMPLING DEPARTMENT

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OBJECTIVES OF THE DEPARTMENT


The sampling department is one of the most important departments and it plays a vital in the
uplifting of a unit. Sampling department directly co-ordinates with the merchandising and
production department. Sampling is done to see how the product will look like when produced in
bulk and to check whether there are any discrepancies in the pattern are made according to the
buyers specification.
Merchandiser procures order from the buyer. The buyer sends spec sheet, sketches, fabric details,
embellishment details, stitch type etc to the merchandiser. Merchandiser files this information
along with the details regarding costing, average, proto, fit, correction, size set and approval in to
a style package and hands it over to the Sampling department head.
TYPES OF SAMPLES

Proto Sample
Salesman sample(SMS)
Fit Sample
Pre Production Sample
Size Set
TOP Sample
Shipment Sample
19

FUNCTIONING OF THE DEPARTMENT


Sampling is the product development stage. It is a process by which a small number of garments
are made so as to match the buyer requirement and to get approval from the buyer so as to start
off the production. The sampled garments represent the accuracy of the patterns and quality of
production skills and techniques. The samples not only serve the purpose of communicating
correctly with the buyer regarding their styles and products, but it also helps to calculate the
fabric consumption along with that of thread and other accessories used.
It is different from bulk production as here each tailor is multi skilled. This department makes
samples on the basis of specifications and requirements sent by the buyer in the tech pack.
Proto Sample
Buyers give either a specification sheet which is called Tech pack or only sketches and mention
the age group of the users and define the styles. If buyer demands the samples on substitute fabric
then it is send to buyer on substitute fabric along with costing. The costing part was done by
merchandisers. On the basis of costing merchandisers negotiate with buyer. Proto sample is sent
for confirmation of style and looks of the garment. Once proto sample is approved by the buyer
then the fabric, colour, trims etc. are also decided.
Salesman sample(SMS):
This sample is made so as to cover all the color and size options of the style but the fabric color
may not be exactly matching with the required color. The sample need not be of the exact fit.

Fit Sample:
While fabric and trim ordering is happening, simultaneously the sample approval procedure is
also underway. The moment a style is selected it goes to the tech department for fitting. Here
models wear the samples and they are evaluated in terms of fit, construction, measurement. The
buyer then sends out comments, which are called as fit comments. In case another sample is
requested the factory makes the same incorporating the comments and send again to buyer. This
process is called fit cycle. Different customers have different no of fit cycles.
PP Sample:

20

Once the fit sample is approved the factory makes a PP (Pre-production) sample. This can be
called by different names such as sealer sample, green tag sample etc. This sample is sent out the
buyer for final approval and once approved becomes the final sample on the basis of which entire
production is made and audited. This is the most important sample and one should take care that
everything on this sample is correct as this then becomes the standard.
Once PP sample is approved the next step is to make a SIZE SET. All the fit samples and the PP
samples are in the medium size, now the medium size is these are then graded into the different
sizes as per the purchase order. But this all activity of size-set is done in the pre-production
execution department after the pp approval.
Size Set sample:
This sample is made in all the sizes. It is done to check the fit of all the sizes. Fabric and trims
need not be as required for actual production.
THE DETAILS ATTACHED TO THE GARMENT SAMPLE
After the confirmation of order, each sample sent to the buyer has the following details attached
to it, with the help of a tag. It contains the details pertaining to both, what the buyer has
demanded and what supplement fabric/trim etc they have used (if applicable).
Ref no.,
Color

Fabric :Composition
Description
Quantity
Style no/ Size

Machine details
There were a total of 20 machines in the sampling department.
10 operators
14 SNLS without UBT, 2 Overlock, 2 Kansai(waistband elastic attachment & stripes
attachment, 1 buttonhole m/c, 1 flatlock
1 cutting table
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1 quality check table


2 pattern making tables
14 racks for patterns

CAD DEPARMTENT
GARMENT EXPORTS has its own CAD department for varied style garments are made with
help of Richpeace software package.

FUNCTIONS OF CAD ROOM


CAD department is responsible for the following functions:
Determining cutting average for costing
Making the most efficient cutting marker
Development and alteration of patterns
Development of size set pattern by grading
Digitizing the pattern
BASIC WORKFLOW
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Firstly the merchandiser sends the following documents to the CAD room:
Approved style sheet and spec sheet containing all the measurements.
Graded measurement spec sheet.
Fabric detail sheet containing information like fabric form
(Open roll or folded form), roll size, GSM, type of fabric, style no, vendor, buyer etc.
PROCESS CHART

Digitizing

Order and Processing the


Marker

Grading

Marker Making

Plotter

DIGITIZING
Digitizing is a process of implementing the pattern of a particular style which are fed into the
computer system by using a digitizer and specially designed cursor for computerized marker
making. The paper patterns are placed on digitizer with the help of magic tape. The care must be
taken while placing the pattern on the digitizer board. The pattern should be free from any folds
and the grain line of the patterns should be parallel to x-axis. Pattern information such as an
order name, pattern description, and grain line are fed into the system. Every corner of the
pattern is traced by the cursor so as to get the exact shape of the pattern. Once all the information
is correctly fed into the system, then only the computer software accepts the particular pattern
and saves it on the system. These digitized patterns are thus ready for grading.
GRADING
Grading means the stepwise increase or decrease of a master pattern pieces to create larger or
smaller size. The starting point can be the smallest size or the middle size. Grading alters the
overall size of a design but not its general shape and appearance.
ORDER AND PROCESSING OF MARKER
Pattern information is put. Models are formed by grouping and lay limits are set.
PLOTTING
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The marker is printed with the help of Gerber plotter and spread on top of the lay. This helps in
recognition of garment parts after cutting.
MARKER MAKING
Marker is the best possible arrangement of all pattern pieces in the available width of the fabric
so has to utilize minimum fabric and reduce fabric wastage. All the required information is fed
into the system by the digitizing. The patterns are ready for marker making. Individual pieces can
be moved around the screen using a mouse, to produce an optimized layout the system is
programmed to calculate material utilization i.e. efficiency and cutting waste. Before making the
final marker, a combination of pattern arrangements, in a given width, are made so as to achieve
maximum efficiency.

24

PROCESS FLOW

Receive
patterns
Digitize
pattern to
feed in
Pattern
correction
Pattern
grading

Output to
Graphtec
plotter

Cut ratio
planning
Marker
planning
according to
the cut plan

Output
marker to
plotter

WORK FLOW
IN CAD
DEPARTMENT

Send to
cutting room
for cutting

Pattern sent
to
merchandiser
for sampling

Output mini
marker to
printer

Send to
merchandiser
for costing

25

FABRIC SOURCING DEPARTMENT


The company is sourcing 90% of its fabric from mills in Taiwan and Hongkong which
include all kind of Polyester fabrics, Nylon fabrics, and Cotton Polyester fabrics. We are
sourcing fabrics with quick dry finishes, water resistant finishes, Water Proofing finishes,
etc. The Company is equally competent in sourcing branded accessories like buttons,
zippers, zipper puller, patch labels etc. from Taiwan and Hongkong. We also add value
to the garments by the way of embroideries and prints and have dedicated factories
doing the same for us. We firmly believe in making our company a one stop shop for all
kinds of sportswear products from a basic t-shirt or shorts to something as complicated
as Hi Tech Jackets.
OBJECTIVES OF THE DEPARTMENT
Fabric sourcing department is basically engaged in determining how and where its merchandise
i.e. fabric will be obtained. It works in co-ordination with the merchandising department and
looks after the delivery of the required goods within the scheduled time and cost. A fabric
sourcer must have knowledge about all varieties of fabric in order to execute their function
effectively
FUNCTIONING OF THE DEPARTMENT
STORAGE
Location system of storage is followed i.e. fabric packages are stored in two areas
(a) Checked fabric and
(b) Unchecked fabric.
Such system maintenance of the store makes it easy to locate the fabric whenever needed in future.
FABRIC ISSUE
The fabric store issues the fabric for cutting on challan. All fabric is not issued at one go; instead it
is issued as required. The challan contains information regarding style no, color, buyers name, and
quantity to be issued and issued for which production unit.

26

FABRIC STORE
Fabric Store maintains the fabric coming from the suppliers. It enters the data regarding the
inward and outward movement of the fabric in the specified quantity, both to and from the
departments.
It stores the fabric in such a way so as to make the identification of the fabric rolls easy and the
person issuing the rolls does not waste time searching for them. They also receive the unused
fabric not required any further from the production floor. Their responsibility is to maintain the
fabric till a suitable time, because the same fabric can be used to create samples for the buyers in
case the fabric meets the required quality. As soon as the fabrics are received by the stores, each
roll is checked for width and length is mentioned in the reports. In case of large variance between
the mentioned width and the observed width, the supplier is informed.

Fabric receiving in the store


Fabric deliver schedule from merchandiser
Fabric In-house
Fabric Un-loading
variance in qty report(if applicable)
Width checking report
Inspection sorting report
Goods Receive note to merchandiser
Rolls Allotted with roll card and allotted to racks with bin cards
Inspection
Fabric Inspection
Centre to Selvedge Variation
Fusing Shrinkage & Bonding Strength
27

Heat Shrinkage
Shade Batching for the whole lot
Stocking of inspection rolls to the allotted racks
Fabric issue

Fabric Requisition Slip from cutting


Fabric Issue
Rements received from cutting with OCR
Stocking of remenents

Tracking method followed in the stores:Currently the system being followed is that of using a BIN CARD. All the details mentioned in
the Bin Card are filled up in the card and the card is stuck on each roll of fabric. This is in the
form of a hard paper sheet pre printed with all the parameters. Each roll can be distinctly
identified by having a look at the Bin Card. Whenever any person is sent to issue a roll, he just
has to read the basic details mentioned on the card. The fabric is stacked in the racks according to
buyer.
Records maintained in the stores
1. Packing List from the supplier:- This Report consist of the fabric received details with the
invoice quantity, color details, etc
2. Goods Received note copy: - This is made by the fabric store in charge and sent to the
merchandiser on the receipt of the fabric and one copy keeps with him.
3. Width Inspection Report: - On the receipt of fabric with of each roll is checked and a
report id maintained.
4. Stock Report: - This report is maintained as a soft copy for the details of the stock present
in the fabric store and updated time to time.
5. Fabric Inspection Report: - This Report is maintained in the stores for the inspection of
the fabric.
6. Fusing Shrinkage Report: - This report is maintained for the Fusing shrinkage of the
fusing received.
7. Width Checking Report: - This report is maintained for the width checking of the fabric
received.
8. Inspection Sorting Report: - The rolls which are to be inspected for the whole lot are
sorted and its details are maintained in this report.
9. Heat Shrinkage Report:-This report is maintained for the heat shrinkage of the fabric
received.
10. CSV Report: - Centre to selvedge inspection is done and maintained in this report.
11. Shade Card: - This is made for the shade batching of the lot.
28

FABRIC INSPECTION

In GARMENT, four point grading system is followed in the fabric audit department. All fabrics
are inspected under the 4 point inspection system. Penalty points are assigned based on the
standard fault size for every type of fault and chalk marks are then put for the identification of
serious defects in the subsequent process.
Fault description under the 4 point inspection system:
LEVEL
0-3 inches
3-6 inches
6-9 inches
Over 9 inches

POINT
1
2
3
4

Here the fabric acceptable level is maintained at:


30 points per 100 sq yards for mill made/ imported fabric.
40 points per 100 sq yards for power loom fab
The fabric length of the roll piece is checked and compared against length declared by

supplier.
For every fabric order one meter of fabric is kept aside for lab testing and quality
standard reference randomly.
The inspection results are then filled in goods inspection reports (GIR).
The GIR reports have following categories:

29

There is a space in the bottom for Remarks; where whether the roll is acceptable or rejected is
specified.
The fabric is issued for cutting, if both Lab & Audit reports are O.K. However, the
cuttings are kept for reference.
INSPECTION INSTRUCTIONS
The width is checked and average width is mentioned.
The fold length is checked and the average is mentioned.
The reed is checked and +/- 2 threads is acceptable.
Centre to selvedge color variation is not acceptable.
For the bowing level is checked for by the following set acceptance levels:

WIDTH

LEVEL

Up to 44 inches

1 acceptable

45 to 60 inches

1.5 acceptable

60 to 72 inches

2 acceptable

MACHINE DETAILS: RAMSONS CHECK MATE


Type
Power input
Power output
Gear motor
Power consumption

R 501
1 , 220 v, 50 Hz
3 , 220 v, 50 Hz
1 hp, 100 rpm.
0.75 kw

30

PROCESS FLOW OF FABRIC STORE

Start

Receive fabrics

kage test on minimum 2 bits/bale


Verify
or minimum
whether quantity
10 bits of
received
consignment
match with
Forward
quantity
one ordered
meter of each consignment for lab tes
If No

If Yes

rm to stores and prepare goods received


Inspection
note
based
(in case
on four
of imported
points system.
fabric) Match bulk with approved dye lot, width of fabric
If No

If Yes

Name shade lot as ABC

Send to merchant for buyers approval

If No

If Yes

Forward to cutting dept.

If approved
Reject lot
End

31

PURCHASE DEPARTMENT
Objective of the department
The purchasing department is similar to the sourcing department but the main difference is that
the sourcing department works for sourcing the fabrics alone while the purchasing department
works for sourcing the accessories and trims. However, the working procedure is the same
Functioning of the department

32

The merchandisers give the techpack and the BOM (Bill Of Materials) for a particular style to
the purchasing department and the concerned person will start the further process and for costing
purposes the in-house price is given like, the cost involved in the production and also the price
involved for a unit involved with respect to the complete procedure involved for its production.
In the process of doing the in-house price, suppose the cost of 100 pieces of button is Rs.32 then
a Tax of 2% + 14% of excise duty + 10% of per unit price is added as the transportation charges
and this all together makes the in-house price (a hidden margin of 5% is also taken into
consideration).
This breakup is given to the merchandiser by the purchasing department for the costing purpose,
the cost sheet is made by the merchandisers and the order is confirmed by the buyer based on the
cost sheet given by the merchandiser.
After the order is being confirmed by the buyer the merchandiser will sit with the other
concerned departments and then the exact quantity required and the breakup of the trims and
accessories with respect to color, size, MOQ, etc., will be given by the merchandiser to the
purchasing department in the form of a sheet which is generally followed in the industry for all
the orders irrespective of the buyer.
Once the purchasing department receives this format, then the PO is sent to the concerned
department for accessories and trims. Once the first shot of the raw materials is sent by the
supplier then the lab dips is done and is approved by the buyer.
After receiving the goods from the supplier they are checked for the quantity and also checked
according to the inspection criteria specified by the buyer and replaced if any of them are not
meeting this criterion. This department also keeps in track of all the quantities received in-house
timely. The goods are generally received in breakups as suggested by the merchandiser according
to the requirements stated by the planning and the production department and this breakups will
have specified date and quantity and if this breakups is not being mentioned then the order is
being placed with the supplier several times for small quantities and POs have to be sent all the
time so, in order to overcome this a breakups are being is given.
Then the purchase department has to follow up with the supplier for deliveries as and when the
merchandiser asks for the new set of the materials for that particular style and then the
department also has to maintain the receipts and also they have to maintain the documents of the
inspections that are being carried out for those materials.

TRIMS & ACCESSORIES STORE


The acceptance of the raw materials or the accessories is generally done in terms of documents
i.e., whatever it may be whether acceptance and revival whenever they are done they are done
33

according to the documents that have been received from the merchants and also the department
also makes the document for anything they carry out within their roof.
The department first receives a PO copy from the merchants, which the merchants would have
sent it to any one among the three above mentioned supplier types. As soon as the accessory
department comes to know about the date on which they will receive that particular material they
will make a note of it in their ERP that they will be receiving that material.
Once the material reaches the stores on the prescribed day and date the concerned person verifies
the materials against invoice/ Delivery Challan and packing list which they would have received
from the merchant as already stated.
After it is confirmed that the received materials is according to the documents then they carry out
a quality inspection and this inspection is carried out irrespective to the type of the buyer. The
company carries this inspection as per AQL standard 1.0 for all the types of goods received.

34

AQL quantity chart:


Lot size or quantity being audited

Inspect

Accept

less than 151

151-280

20

281-500

32

501-1200

32

1201-3200

50

3201-10000

80

10001-35000

125

35001-150000

200

150001-5000000

315

10

500000-above

500

14

After inspecting the materials for the quality as per AQL then the allocation of trims done based
on the nature of the item.
Then the department prepares the GRN (goods receipt notes) according to the materials received
and against the documents received obtained from the merchants and they also do the bill entry.
The bills whatever they enter is been forwarded to the accounts department for the payments and
to fulfill other formalities and a copy of it is also given to the sourcing department in order to
inform them about the materials in-housed.
After this the department has to carry out two processes hand-in-hand they are,
Sub contracting: In this method they prepare the work order and also the delivery
challan and then they keep all the documents and also forward the trims along with the
document for processing.
Production issues: Another thing that they have to do is identify trims which has been
approved by merchants and then prepare the delivery challan and keep the trims ready to

35

issue to the factories. Materials to be issued after inspected by security against DC as


already mentioned.
TRIMS & ACCESSORIES STORE PROCESS FLOW

36

Start

Accept & receive materials against documents

Prepare PRE GRN

Verify materials against invoice/ Delivery challan & packing list

Carry out quality & quantity inspection as per AQL 1.5

Allocation of trims based on the nature of the item

Prepare GRN & do the bill entry. The same is forwarded to accounts for payment

PRODUCTION ISSUES

SUB-CONTRACTING

Prepare work order

Prepare delivery challan

Identify trims which have been approved by merchants

Prepare delivery challan & keep trims ready to issue to the factorie

Forward trims along with documents for processing


Materials to be issued after inspection by security against DC

Material outward

37

IE DEPARTMENT
Objective of the department
The IED department has to work with many other departments as this department gives the entire
idea of the garment construction and the thread and trims consumption criteria, operators skill
level categorization and other related aspects hence they play a vital role in determining the cost
38

of producing a single piece of the garment and they also calculate the cost of the factory for that
particular style of garment.
Functioning of the department.
The IED department helps the planning department to know the time required for the production
of that particular style of the garment by calculating the SAM value for it and they also help in
knowing the capacity of the factory based on which the planning department takes a decision if
they have to proceed with the item or no.
The IED calculates the SAM value for the garment, calculates the productivity of the given style
for the initial costing and also calculates or counts the accessories consumption by the style and
gives all these details to the merchandising department for the costing purpose because the entire
costing criteria depends on these aspects and the IED also gives the merchants suggestions
regarding the reduction of the cost of manufacturing the garment by modifying any of the steps
and the method of doing it.
The IED people prepare the style bulletin which includes the different types of seams and
stitches that has to be done for the garment and it also includes the length of the seams and the
types of stitches that has to be carried out at different places of the garment as per the buyers
specifications and approval. Types of thread (which is the TEX), area of placement of the trims
and accessories and its location different kinds of labels that are supposed to be placed, the
criteria under which the finished garment has to be checked, the times at which the inspection
has to be carried out will also be mentioned in the style bulletin, this bulletin will be similar to
the Tech Pack but contains more technical data than that.
This department will analyze and estimate the manpower and their skill level which is required
for the production of the garment, they also set a target to the batch for an hour, for a shift and
for a month which will help them to maintain their outputs and also helps in timely completion
of the order or sometimes earlier. They will also give the target to each operator based on his/her
capacity and skill in order to help them finish their piece of work on time and also maintain the
quality of their work.
After setting the targets for a batch and also for each operator then they will calculate the
efficiency. This efficiency is purely based on the daily output of the batch as well as the single
operator and then they come up with the monthly output by the particular batch.
This department maintains a file which is the DPR (Daily Production Report), in this report they
update the batch number, style/item number, actual output, committed output, SAM value of the
garment (both actual and that particular days SAM value), total production till date, average
efficiency of the batch till date, peak efficiency achieved, if the company was working that day
or not, if there was a delay of production then the reason behind it, information about the batch
setting prior to the mass production, etc., all this will be mentioned in this DPR.
Based on the operators performance which would have been observed for a specified period of
time, the department will allocate a grade to the operator which is as follows.
Skill type
A
B
C

39

Grade
Highly skilled
Skilled
Semi skilled

The operators for each batch are taken in a ratio of,


20% - Highly Skilled
25% - Skilled
55% - Semi skilled
This is done irrespective to any style and buyer and the complication of the style.
A record is maintained in which the skills of operators are updated on timely bases. Because of
maintaining this record they keep in track of the operators skill and his efficiency, working
method and after a particular span of time they update the record.
Suppose a new operator joins and he is completely unaware of stitching then a training for about
45 50 days is given to him/her and then based on their learning and grasping capacity a grade is
been allocated to them primarily. Suppose the operator/new employee knows or has a previous
work experience in a garment industry then he is just been asked about his job which he/she
would have done in the previous factory and then he/she is just given an hours test to know his
skills and then grade is been allocated.
Every day the IED team there will be a meeting where in which they speak about the
maintenance of efficiency of the batch in the production floor. They also conduct a production
review meetings with the operation team in which they discuss about the line and the operation
carried out in the batch suppose the previously planned flow is not giving the estimated
efficiency and output then they will think of changing the line plan and review it and later follow
the right one.

40

PROCESS FLOW OF IED


Start

Pre-production
activities

Production
department

Preparing operation
bulletin

Calculate
accessories
consumption

Hourly production tracking

Reducing bottleneck
operations by proper line
balancing

Capacity study

Efficiency calculations

End

41

Training new
trainees

Fixing grade of
operators

ACCOUNTS DEPARTMENT
Under administrative direction, plans, organizes and directs the companys Finance and
Administration Department; also serves as Treasurer; provides highly responsible Administrative
staff assistance to the General Manager; and performs other related work as required.
This department is responsible for company-wide finance and related administrative support
services. Areas of program responsibility include, but are not limited to, accounting, budgeting,
financial planning and reporting, debt management, cash management, purchasing, information
systems, liability insurance and customer service. This class is distinguished from other
department management classes by its overall responsibility for directing financial and
administrative services.
This department reports to the General Manager.
TYPICAL DEPARTMENT TASKS
1. Develops, plans and implements goals and objectives for the finance and administration
department, prepares and administers internal policies and procedures relating to departmental
program activities; interprets and explains applicable rules, laws and regulations to supervisors
and others.
2. Directs, oversees and participates in the departmental program work plan; assigns work
activities, finance and administration projects and programs; monitors work flow; reviews and
evaluates work products, methods and procedures; implements needed work process and
automation improvements and methods for improving customer service.
3. Manages the preparation and maintenance of a variety of financial records and reports,
including those related to the general ledger, accounts payable, accounts receivable, payroll, job
costing, inventories, budgets and fixed assets; ensures the purchasing of materials, supplies and
equipment are conducted in accordance with company policies and procedures.
4. Oversees preparation and presentation of the annual budget; supervises data gathering and
financial planning work associated with rate setting; prepares rate analyses.
5. As Treasurer, oversees cash management, investment, and debt management activities.

42

6. Coordinates departmental activities with other departments and divisions; provides responsible
advice and counsel to the General Manager, and department and division managers on a variety
of financial and administrative issues; oversees the maintenance of departmental records and
files; administers liability claims and property insurance programs.
7. Manages information technology support services for the company including installation,
maintenance and upgrade of both mainframe and network based applications pursuant to an
information technology master plan; through user groups and other means, explores
opportunities to improve efficiency and productivity through user friendly information
technology enhancements.
8. Conducts financial reviews of company operations and activities and reports findings and
recommendations to the General Manager and Board of Directors; serves as liaison with external
auditors and coordinates their activities on behalf of the company.
9. Attends Board of Director and Board Committee meetings; prepares and presents staff reports
and agenda items for consideration by the Board; serves as advisor to the General Manager and
Board as to financial planning and administration.
10. Coordinates preparation of the annual budget request for the finance and administration
department; reviews staffing, equipment, and supply needs based upon recent trends and
planned.

43

HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT


Human Resource Management (HRM, HR) is the management of an organization's employees.
While human resource management is sometimes referred to as a "soft" management skill,
effective practice within an organization requires a strategic focus to ensure that people resources
can facilitate the achievement of organizational goals. Effective human resource management
also contains an element of risk management for an organization which, as a minimum, ensures
legislative compliance.
Human resources management involves several processes. Together they are supposed to achieve
the above mentioned goal. These processes are usually performed in the HR department, but
some tasks can also be outsourced or performed by line-managers or other departments. When
effectively integrated they provide significant economic benefit to the company.

Workforce planning
Recruitment
Skills management
Training and development
Personnel administration
Compensation in wage or salary
Time management
Employee engagement activities
Personnel cost planning
Performance measuring system
CSR(Corporate Social Responsibility)

44

PROCESS FLOW OF FACTORY HR DEPARTMENT

Recruitment and
Selection

Training

Compensation and
Benefits

Welfare

Exit Formalities

Compliance

Industrial Relations

Public Relation

45

PROCESS FLOW OF HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT

Start

HR Planning

Recruitment and
Selection

Training and
Development

Performance

Compensation and
Benefits

Exit

Legal

Administration

46

Production planning and control (PPC)


The planning department has the responsibility of converting the orders booked by the merchant,
to the production team for the easy execution of the order. Based on the TnA and the availability
of the line the PPC team allocates the order on the production floor as which process has to be
done at what time. The production is done in the section system with front, sleeve, collar, cuff &
back as the preparatory section and one assembly section. The operators are dedicated to the each
operation as per the capacity planning and delivery date of the order.
Work flow
Tech Pack and style details from
the merchant and T n A

Style study for cutting, sewing &


finishing or any out-house activity

Discussion with production


department for the process

SMV values for the style from IE


department

Giving Feedback to merchandiser


about sample feasibility

Daily Production report from the


each department

47

DETAILED TERMS FOR PRODUCTION PLANNING AND CONTROL:

Receiving Order Clarity Detail from Merchant:


The Planning receives the details of the order. Based on the information available, the order
feasibility is worked out.

SMV Details from IE:


The SMV analysis of the sewing styles is done by the IE department. The target for the styles
is set up for each operation at the specific efficiency.

Order Clarity Details to Floor:


The order clarity details i.e. the order quantity, delivery dates and the production Details are
passed on to the Floor by the Planning section.

Daily Order Status Report


Each department has to submit the daily order status report to the department.
The measures required to be taken if the order is not going on as expected can
Only come when the daily reports are available.

PRODUCTION DEPARTMENT
Hear the production is doing by CUT TO PACK process all the cutting, sewing and packing is
on one line itself. Like that total 10 lines is therein different two floors and in one line 35
machines are there and for that line one separate cutting and finishing table is there
Cutting production consist of all the process activities involved in reducing the bulk material
used in apparel in to the component parts making up the apparel.
The cutting room is a combined section for spreading, cutting, ticketing, fusing, printing and
bundling. This is just near to the fabric store. There is one spreading table of 23 feet length. The
lay is cut by straight knife on the cutting table and the blocks are transferred to numbering table
and then for fusing/printing/embroidery and then for bundling.

48

BASIC WORK FLOW


Spreading and Cutting department receives the order for cutting a garment style from the
production manager. Cutting order is an authorization by the production manager to cut a given
amount of styles, from the spreads. It comes in form of a package file that carries the following
details:
Sampling average, weight of garment (base fabric consumption only), and other trims

averages.
Measurement sheet
Design worksheet of the garment
Purchase order
Fabric requisition sheet
CAD mini marker
Marker planning- length of lay etc., size ratio and colors in which the patterns are to be
cut.

Spreading

Spreading is the process of superimposing plies of fabric on a horizontal table in a manner,


which permits these plies to be cut simultaneously into product components acceptable for
assembly. For this, first of all a thin brown paper sheet is spread on the table using an adhesive
tape to prevent the bottom plies from shifting during spreading. Then the actual spreading
process begins with the laying of first fabric layer on this brown sheet and subsequently the other
plies are laid.

49

The spreading of this lay is done manually. The length of the lay depends upon the quality of the
fabric & length of the marker as specified by the CAD. Whereas the lay height depends upon the
thickness of the fabric.

Length of spreading table

23.6 feet(283)

Width of spreading table

6 feet(72)

Height of spreading table

3 feet(37.5)

Table top type

Sunmica

Spreading mode

FONO

No of table

Cutting

The lay is cut with the help of electrically powered straight knife cutting machines or CAM m/c.
The machine is moved through the lay following the pattern lines of the marker and the
reciprocating blade cut the pieces of the fabric progressively. Notches are also added. The
garments are kept aside as and when they are cut.
Spread
Place marker
Cut pattern pieces
50

Sorting and Ticketing

The pieces cut out from the lay are now sorted out size wise. All the components of one garment
size are brought together. It is very important to take care that pieces cut from two different bolts
(bundles) of fabric are not mixed up. This is because within a lot there are bolt-to-bolt variations
in the colour shade. The sorted pieces are now ticketed. Ticketing is the process of marking the
cut components for shade matching precision, and sequence identification. The worker secures
one end of the stack and puts on the ticket using ticket gun as he flips over the cut parts. The
ticket contains the size, bundle number and piece number and serves as important means to track
the parts of the garment in the assembly line from start to end. After ticketing cut panels are sent
for fusing/printing/embroidery processes.
Embroidery
The cutting department is responsible for sending the cut components of a style for embroidery
as stated in the production package. They check for any embroidery and follow up these
departments accordingly. Blocks of panels are sent for embroidery, which are checked after
receiving back. To avoid mixing of the panels, the cut panels are sorted according to size wise.
Fusing

51

Fusing is also carried out in the cutting room itself. The parts to be fused are separated from the
bundle. The fusing material (like interlining) is cut according to the size of the components to be
fused. The components along with the cut fusing material are kept between two papers sheets
and the pack is passed through the fusing machine. By means of the temperature and the pressure
fusing takes place at a particular speed and for a particular time. The pack comes out at the other
end on the conveyors and the pieces are removed and re bundled.
Bundling

The checked components of one style and in one size are now clubbed and bundled using ties.
The size of bundle depends upon the requirement of the production plant. Each bundle will
contain pieces of the same style and same size only. The cutting department issues the amount
required by the production department when asked for.

52

WORK FLOW
Acquire fabric from
fabric store

53

Cut sample to check

Require
Checking

no

Yes

Send to CAD for


Change

Cut for initial size set


Receive changed
pattern from CAD
Assemble and check

Require changes

no

Yes

Issue job order


Cut plan

54

SEWING
Bulk cutting
Sorting
Bundling
Issue to sewing

Sewing has always been the most dominant of all the process in the garment industry. Much of
the application of technology to clothing manufacture is concerned with the achievement of
satisfactory construction of seams and permutation and combinations during line balancing for
getting the maximum output without compromising with the quality standards.
Sewing section in the unit consists of two floors which accommodate about 350 machines and
distributed into 10 lines. Each line has a supervisor monitoring the production and trying to
balance the line himself.
The production floor does production in two types,
- Piece rate production
- Assembly line production

PROCESS FLOW FOR BULK PRODUCTION

55

Size Set Approval

Pilot Run

Loading of garment for Bulk Production

Inline Inspection

Final Inspection

Dispatch to Finishing

The production floor will receive the details like,


the style or the garment,
number of operators required,
the batch for which the style has to be installed,
any extra kinds of machines that are to be used for the particular style,
target for each day
Breakup of the production quantity.
After receiving all these details they send a request for the cut parts from the cutting and sorting
section and the request is sent to the accessory stores for all the accessories that are required for
the particular style then they start the production for the new style.
Before starting the proper production the production floor does a process of batch-setting for the
floor which is training the operators for the new style that has to be produced bulk, this teaching
session will go on for about 3-4 hours maximum. After this batch setting process the production
starts with a smaller commitment i.e., may be for 50 pieces for the entire day and then the
56

production gradually increases from 50 100 150 and so on, this will make the operators learn
slowly and precisely about the processes that has to be carried out for the particular style.
Once the cut parts is received from the cutting and sorting section then the parts are prepared and
assembled according to the line that is planned. After the assembling of the parts is done then
there will be a line checking, where the shade matching and the measurements are checked and
sent.
During the process of garment making there exists two types of checking, they are
In-process checking.
End line checking. Here there exists both AQL audit and normal checking.
The garment making is divided into three different stages and at these three stages the checking
is done.
The flow of material in the production floor is through the bundle system and each operator gets
a bundle containing similar pieces and there will be about 15 20 pieces in each bundle and the
operator completely finishes the job and sends it to the next operator to do the next operation on
them. Each bundle contain different components of same garment. The movement of the
materials within the operators in the batch/line is generally zig zag motion which is followed.
The checking person will be present at a position where the garment is partially finished and it is
as mentioned checked thrice in the line and sometimes more than three and this depends on the
buyer as well as the number of components present in the garment.
The supervisor plays a vital role in the production floor. He manages the entire batch which is
been allocated to them and they have the following functions to perform,
1. They have to convey the proper stitching method to the operators.
2. Guide the operators when they face difficulty in making an operation and teach them
the most suitable and an easy method of performing the task.
3. Check if the entire operator in the batch/line is busy with the work being allocated to
them.
4. If the operator does not have any material to work on then the supervisor has to get
him/her their material and ask them to work.
5. Complain the production managers if the operators are not performing their best.
6. Have to maintain a proper communication between the operators and the management.
7. Should be in a position to tell the manager about each operators skill level whenever
asked for.

57

8. When any operator is on leave then the supervisor has to make sure who can be a
better person to fit into that vacant place.
9. At times the supervisor himself sits and performs the operation if necessary.
10. The supervisor should be in good terms with all the operators by having a friendly
approach to them and also must make sure that none of them create any trouble for the
factory at any time.
The production managers help the planning department during planning or allocating a particular
line for the style by telling them the capacity of the line and also telling them about the skills of
the operators.

58

PROCESS FLOW OF SEWING

Start
Bulk Production
Cut parts received from cutting
Sewing process begins
Assembly
In line checking
Button & button hole/ Bar tack
Ironing
Spotting
Final checking
Measurement checking
Tagging
Packing
Auditing by buyer QA
Dispatch
59

End

WORKING OF A SEWING ROOM


ISSUE OF THE CUT PARTS
The cut parts are dispatched to the sewing section and stored in the warehouse. Then it is
bundled and fed into the sewing line. Every bundle of cut parts is accompanied with a job card.
FEEDING TO THE LINE
The bundles are fed into the lines .Each bundle during our studies carried 20 pieces.
INLINE INSPECTION
After every critical operation an inline inspection personal is placed to keep a track of quality of
the pieces manufactured. This checking is placed before the final assembling of the garment
because alterations are difficult and sometimes even impossible after the completion of the
garment. The checking is done for stitching quality, seams, fabric, shades etc.
Pieces not up to the mark are sending for rework/alteration, the rate being 10-12%. The same
operator has to mend the fault in manufacturing, and is supposed to complete all the alterations
before ending is/her shift for the day.
FINAL INSPECTION
Final inspection consists of thread cutting, shade variation checks, check for faults in
manufacturing fabric faults etc. The rejected parts are considered as seconds and were, quite
obviously not added to the shipment lot. The rate of rejection was 1-2%.
SUPERVISORS
Line supervisors or in-charge has a critical role in function of his line. They continuously
monitor the operators.

60

FINISHING AND PACKAGING


The finishing department is the department which comes after all the departments and it plays an
equally important role in the final appearance of the garment. This department includes majorly
of the following steps:

SEMI PRESSING:

This happens when a garment is difficult to inspect in the crushes manner as it comes from the
washing department hence, they do a partial pressing for the garments and then inspect it and
trim it and then send it to the complete pressing process.

TRIMMING:

This involves the removal of the extra threads from the garment at the stitched areas.

INSPECTION:

The inspection carried out here is according to the AQL 2.5 system and sometimes it depends on
the buyer also i.e., if the buyer emphasizes for a 100% inspection then the company has to do as
specified.

PRESSING:

61

The pressing is done after the garment has been completely inspected and the garments are
pressed on the basis of how they will be folded during packing.

TAGGING SECTION:

Once the garments are been done with the inspection and complete pressing then they are sent
for tagging the labels and the labels include the size labels, price tags and miscellaneous labels if
any required by the buyer. Once the tagging is done the garments are folded according to the
buyers specification and also they are either folded plainly or sometimes they are folded after
they are put to the hangers as per the buyers specifications again.
The packing material, PCB details, number of size ratios that are supposed to be put in are all
suggested by the buyer and the packing is done according to these specifications.

PACKING:

The packing is always done in the carton boxes and there are several criteria for the packing of
the garments they are as follows,
There are generally two kinds of packing the garment,
1. The garment is individually packed/wrapped in the poly bag whose design will be
specified by the buyer or plain poly bag packing and then the entire garments (as
per the packing criteria) is arranged in the carton box.
2. The other method is that the garments are just folded and arranged in the carton
boxes without putting them in the poly bag.

MAINTENANCE

62

MAINTENANCE PROCESS FLOW


IE department sets the OB
and list of attachments.

Maintenance department looks for the availability of the work aid, attachments and the
machinery requirement in-house or otherwise order them to the supplier

Regularly keeps an update on the needle breaks and their causes so that it can be rectified
in the near future

Keep the machines in running


condition

Keeps a record of all the attachments used for the particular style for future reference in
case the style repeats
ROLES OF THE MAINTENANCE DEPARTMENT
PROVIDES
The necessary machines, instruments and appliances to carry out the manufacturing.
FACILITATE
The department with necessary work aids and environment.
SERVE
The employs with necessary needs.
MAINTAIN
63

The maintenance department is responsible not only for the maintenance of the machines but it is
also responsible for providing and maintaining the facilities for the production activities e.g.
illumination, air circulation, work place engineering, compressed air etc.
The condition of machines & working atmosphere in the department is mainly dependent on the
care taken and working in habits of the operators and all other floor employees.
TYPES OF MAINTENANCES
Breakdown Maintenance
Corrective Maintenance
Preventive Maintenance
Scheduled Maintenance

a) BREAKDOWN MAINTENANCE: - When the machine appliance stops completely & is not
in condition to be operated. This is carried out as and when the problems are highlighted by
concerned operators in the shop floor.
b) CORRECTIVE MAINTENANCE: - When the maintenance is carried out for the correction
of the problem served when the machine is running.

64

c) PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE: - The basic objective of this checking is to take


precaution breakdowns which are caused by certain well defined parameters in machine /
process. This type of maintenance is carried out when a problem is predicted before it can cause
a trouble. It thus prevents the trouble.
d )SCHEDULE MAINENANCE - In this stage a certain checking schedule is framed which
would include parameters to be checked, frequency of checking and next due date for
rechecking. This type of maintenance is carried out on the parts of the machine/appliances to
avoid the problems which otherwise would normally occur. Thus, it is another form of the
preventive maintenance
WORKING ENVIRONMENT
The maintenance Department is also required to provide clean and healthy working environment.
They have to provide the illumination level, air circulation, compressed air etc to the each
department.
WORK RELATED SAFETY MANAGEMENT
With the passage of time and safety management has also got importance, especially with buyers
using it for vendor evaluation. The maintenance department is responsible for the work related
safety of the employees e.g. proper machine covers, indications and instructions in danger zone
on machine and in the department.
In company, machine oil is changed once in 3-4 months and machine is cleaned on weekly basis.
The oil level in every machine is checked once in every week. In maintenance room, each
equipments, attachments, oils, nuts, bolts, needles, feed dog, presser foot etc are stored in a
proper way by listing each box.

65

PROJECTS

66

Project 1- Process Improvement from cut to load


Objective:

To study, analyse and improve cutting room efficiency and capacity.


To use various tools and calculate the present capacity of the cutting
section.
Activities in Cutting Room

1. Receive cut order plan


2. Load in spreader
3. Preparation of Table
4. Paper work
5. Spreading of fabric
6. Transport to cutting table
7. Marker spreading
8. Paper work for cutting challan
9. Cutting
10.
Transport to Ticketing table
11.
Ticketing 1 (for fusing, printing and embroidery)
12.
Ticketing 2 (for rest pieces)
13.
Transport to fusing
14.
Fusing/Heat transfer/Embroidery
15.
Sorting (according to size wise after embroidery)
16.
Embroidery Checking
17.
Bundling
18.
Transport to Sewing Floor

Total Activities=18

Process Flow of Spreading and Cutting Room


PPC
67

Fusing

Cut Order
Printin
Embroide
Cutting
Spreading
Sorting
Ticketing
Spreading
Cutting
In
Preparation
Fabric requisition
of
g
ry
Room
charge
Checking
Bundling

Fabric store

Data Collection:

Determination of SMV for all the operations in spreading & cutting.


Determination of capacity for each process in spreading and cutting
department.
Identification of bottleneck operations.

68

To determine the average throughput time for different types of fabric.


i.e. body fabric, hosiery and lining fabric.
Study of the existing layout with reference to material flow & explore
scope of improvement.

Man Power Allocation:Process

Strength
2
12
3
3
3
4
2
6
5
1
4

Store Helper

Spreading
Cutting
Cutting Helper
Ticketing
Bundling
Fusing
Heat transfer printing
Checking and Sorting
Data Entry
Quality Auditor

Capacity Study:Process
Spreading

Cutting

Ticketing

Fusing

Unit Time
13.86
sec/gmt/grou
p
39 min 12
sec/gmt/mast
er
29.16
sec/gmt/pers
on
6.84
sec/gmt/pers
on

Strength
4 groups of
12 ppl

Capacity
8312 gmt/day

6 ppl (3
master,3
helper)
3 ppl

6612 gmt/day

2 ppl

4210 gmt/day

69

2979 gmt/day

Sorting after
embroidery
Embroidery
checking
Bundling

6.6
sec/gmt/pers
on
12.0
sec/gmt/pers
on
43.75
sec/gmt/pers
on

3 ppl

13091
gmt/day

2 ppl

4800 gmt/day

4 ppl (1 for
bundle info
entry)

1975 gmt/day

2 way marker (M,L)


180 plies and garment contains
25 parts

Observations and Suggestions:-

3 parts for fusing, 1 part for

Observation
Manpower
allocation is not
proper.
Sometimes hand
scissor is used
instead of end
cutters.

Reason for
current status
Required
manpower is not
available.
Lack of proper
cutting
equipment.

Suggestion

Splicing is not
Many people
done at any level. think that it is
wastage of time,
nothing more.
Sometimes
Defect
spreader stops
marks.
Utilizing
end bits.
Paper work.
Measure
length and
width of ply.
Roll
change.
Wait for the

Future effect

Need more
manpower for
cutting.
Only end cutters
should be used
for proper edge
cutting.

Reduce time and


improve capacity
and efficiency.
Improve
efficiency and
neatness.

Splicing should
be used for
preventing value
loss.
Allocate material
and manpower as
per requirement
and helpers
should be fast.

Reduce re-cutting
and wastage of
fabric.

70

Save time and


increase
efficiency and
capacity.

lay to be
cut or
moved to
the cutting
machine.
Sometimes
shifting of lay
from spreading
table to the
cutting table.
(This will
decrease tension
in lay due to
pulling and also
distortion in lay.)

Lack of tables
and slow work.
Cutting helpers
are not
comparatively
fast enough to
remove the cut
parts from cutting
table.

Air floatation
table should be
used. (Before
shifting of lay
make sure that
air flotation is on
and running at
highest level)
Cutting helpers
and others should
be well trained.
Table surface
quality should be
good enough and
more tables
should be placed
as per work
processes.

Lay will not be


distorted and
tension between
plies maintained.

Sometimes, New
lays are started
on the completed
ones. (This will
distort either or
both of the lays
when the former
lay is moved for
cutting.)

Lack of tables
and available
table surface is
not good which
take more time
for cutting and
other processes.

Cut parts kept


under the
spreading,
cutting tables.

Lack of
supervision and
racks are not
used.

Proper racks
should be used to
keep the cut
parts according
to production
lines.

Reduce time for


searching the
particular style
cut parts and
extra space will
be clear.

Two tables are


only used for end
bits.

Racks are not


used for end bits
due to lack of
supervision and
work stress.

Racks should be
used individually
for each and
every style under
the proper
guidance of

Use those tables


for other
purposes and
finding a
particular style
fabric end bit will

71

Reduce loss of
time and lays
could be spread
separately and
spreading,
cutting will be
easy.

supervisor.
Marker rack is not Carelessness of
in a proper
cutting in-charge.
condition.

Some ticketing
workers are slow
enough to
complete the
work in specified
time period.

Not well trained


or irresponsible.

In absence of
cutting in-charge,
some workers
dont do their
work sincerely.

Carelessness and
lose control on
workers.

Proper
Due to work
synchronization is stress on cutting
not maintained.
in-charge.
Supervisors
supervise the
process but not
the
synchronization.
This has to be
taken in care.

Cutting in-charge
should be aware
about each and
every element in
cutting room
even a single
piece of fabric.
Every worker
should be trained
enough to
complete the
work in a specific
time and
responsible too.
All workers
should be
responsible and
sincere enough
for their work.
Cutting in-charge
should have
management and
leadership
qualities to
control and
motivate the
workers.
Proper
synchronization
should be
maintained by
the cutting incharge and the
supervisor across
all the operations
and processes.

72

be easier for recutting.


Improve cutting
room efficiency
and neatness of
cutting floor.

Reduce
throughput time
from cut to load.

Workers should
be motivated by
setting a target
per day for their
respective work,
Motivation
increases the
confidence and
sincerity towards
their work.

This will improve


efficiency of
cutting room and
reduce
throughput time.

Layout Study: We have studied cutting room layout carefully and we suggest
some improvisations for better material flow.
During layout study of cutting room, we found that there was a
lot of space which is not being used in a proper way. So we
discussed it to our mentor (PPC head) and suggest her that this
space can be used for various purposes to improve the capacity
and efficiency of cutting room.
We have allocated some tables to reduce material movement
time and better smooth flow of materials. Ticketing can be done
near on cutting tables.
We suggest that more cutting tables should be placed to improve
the cutting capacity.
Sorting and Embroidery checking can be done simultaneously. So
we can allocate manpower as per necessity.
We allocate extra manpower (sorting and embroidery checking)
for bundling process.

Factors Causing delay:-

Waiting time
Negligence of operators
Paper work
Measuring length and width of ply
Roll changing
No proper identification
Zigzag movement due to improper lay out
73

No proper planning
Improper machine use
Defect marks
Sharing of working instruments
Absence of operators
Workers fatigue
less experienced workers
Poor machine performance
Due to excess humidity and temperature

No accountability in the department


No standard operation followed by operator

Recommendations:-

74

Sorting and Embroidery checking can be done simultaneously so that we can


allocate some manpower as per necessity, which reduce idle time and
improve efficiency and productivity.

Proper production planning


Minimum waiting time
Proper allocation of manpower
Effective application of industrial engineering
Well trained operator
Proper layout plan
Minimum rework
Smooth running of cutting machine
Pressure bar and stand for all spreading table should be provided
Manual counting is not required
Correct roll
Shade variation, length
Width of the fabric should be issued by proper identification
CAD sheet and slip to be same books to note down production to be
given to all panel checkers as one common book is used
Style and color-wise cut audit parts need proper identification
Humidity and temperature measuring instruments should be available
for smooth working
Proper quality checking
Minimum inspection time
Reduced zigzag movement

75

Capacity Study (after implementation of project):Process


Spreading

Cutting

Ticketing

Fusing

Heat transfer
printing
Bundling

Unit Time

Strength

Capacity

Extra
Capacity
1802 gmt/day

11.39
sec/gmt/grou
p
27 min 12
sec/gmt/mast
er
18.56
sec/gmt/pers
on
6.08
sec/gmt/pers
on

4 groups of
12 ppl

10114
gmt/day

6 ppl (3
master,3
helper)
3 ppl

12705
gmt/day

2 ppl

4737 gmt/day 527 gmt/day

20 sec/gmt
31.62
sec/gmt/pers

6 ppl
6 ppl (1 for
bundle info

8640 gmt/day
2732 gmt/day 757 gmt/day

76

6093 gmt/day

4655 gmt/day 1676 gmt/day

on

entry

3 way marker (S, XL, XXL)


240 plies and garment contains
16 parts

PROJECT 2: Rework reduction through six sigma approach

2 parts for fusing, 2 parts for

Introduction

Rework is a vital issue for poor quality product and low production rate. Reworks are the non
-productive activities focusing on any activity that customer are not willing to pay for. Nonproductive activities describe that the customer does not consider as adding value to his
product. By reacting quicker in minimization of reworks to make a product as per customer
demand with expected quality, the company can invest less money and more costs savings.
Therefore, a study was carried out in the garment industry named Creative clothex located at
Noida, U.P, India at sewing section to identify reworks so as to eliminate them for saving time,
cost and improved product quality.

Problem Definition and Methodology


In the Apparel Manufacturing Industry, main raw material is fabric; others are different types of
trimming and accessories. Operational wastages in the Apparel manufacturing process are- top
surface rework, printed label rework, sewing fault rework, pinhole rework, fabric rework
Improper fly shape, and other reworks. The general methodology followed to minimize reworks
is given below.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Analysis of data collected in order to identify majorly occurring defects


Categorization of defects
Implementation of check sheets to capture defects in different departments
Introduction of Inline Inspection on Sewing floor through a pilot run in one line
Training on the Sewing floor to QCs, supervisors and checkers on filling in the format
and on making Cause & Effect Diagrams
6. Analysis of defects occurring in the check sheets implemented in various departments
and devising suggestions to improve upon them
7. Spreading of Inline inspection to other lines
8. Tracking of improvements and comparing them with previous situation

77

Identification of Defects
DMAIC PROCESS
DEFINE PHASE

Currently in Line 5 , average rework in sewing is 20-22% for August, 2015 , This
results extra cost, operator time, increased lead time leading to delay in delivery,
customer dissatisfaction in terms of reliability resulting in loss of confidence.

MEASURE PHASE
Defect Zones
A zone

The defects of the garment which is visible when it is packed.

B zone

The defects of the garment which is visible when garment is opened flat.

C zone

The defects which can be seen when the garment is turned.

78

Defect Collection (for one week)


Garment :- Reebok Jacket

Defecte
Inspected
d
Quantity
Quantity

DEFECT

% defected

Cumulative %
defected

Joint Out

18

44

40.9

22.5

Label Centre out

62.5

6.3

Puckering at Waistband

21

38.1

10.0

Reverse stitch showing


(waistband join, binding)

50.0

5.0

Care label to much inside

50.0

2.5

33.3

1.3

12

25.0

3.8

Stripe gap uneven


(waistband join)
Waistband extension
uneven

1
3

Reverse join (cuff join)

20.0

1.3

Cuff attached

12

66.7

10.0

Pocket width
uneven(pocket attach)

33.3

1.3

Teeth stain

100.0

10.0

Panel up-down

66.7

5.0

Number mismatch

100.0

3.8

Uneven stitch(neck
topstitch)

100.0

8.8

Stitch on print

100.0

3.8

Wrong thread

50.0

2.5

79

End finish not ok

33.3

1.3

Holing gap not ok

33.3

1.3

80

157

Rank

DEFECT

Cumulative % of defects

Joint Out

22.5

Puckering at Waistband

10.0

Cuff attached

10.0

Teeth stain

10.0

Uneven stitch(neck topstitch)

8.8

Label centre out

6.3

Reverse stitch showing


(waistband join, binding)

5.0

Panel up-down

5.0

Waistband extension uneven

3.8

10

Number mismatch

3.8

80

25 22.5
20
15
8.8

10

6.3

5
0

10

10

3.8

3.8

3.8

2.5

2.5

1.3

1.3

1.3

1.3

1.3

10

ANALYSE PHASE
Failure Mode Effect Analysis (FMEA)
Process
Potential
Potential
Function/
Failure mode Effect(s) of
Requirements
(-ve)
failure
(+ve)
Parts Rework < Parts Rework
2%
> 2%

SEV

High
8
rejection
Low
8
Productivity
Low
8
efficiency

Unskilled
Operator
Lack of
Understanding
Lack of SOP
SOP not
followed
Pressure to
produce
Poor raw
material quality
Cut parts
quality

Poor quality 8
Over time
Cost
Reliability
reduced
Delay in
Delivery

Potential
Cause (s)

5
5
8

81

OCC

Current
process
control

DET

Risk
Priority
No.

Skill Matrix

432

160

384

384

10

320

320

512

5
8
8
4
8
8

PP
meeting
Mock
display
Mock
display
No Control
RM
Inspection
Panel
Inspection

OTIF
reduced
Raw
material
wastage

Missing panels

Bundle
Ticket

432

Wrong side
Numbering
Sticker

Panel
Inspection

320

120

160

280

432

576

Bond
Strength
report

288

Bond
Strength
report

288

No Control

10

480

Lay
markers as
per fabric
width

192

Buyer
Specs
followed

336

Line

320

Customer
Dissatisfacti 7
on

Marking Pens (
without trial
run)

Stopped
using
marking
pens

No feeding
8
to Assembly

Needle Size
( without trial
run)

R & D in
Sampling

Increased
WIP

Wrong Pattern

Work
Pressure

Unavailability/
Wrong /
Missing of
Emb

High
Absenteeis
m

Poor fusing
quality

Improper
Temperature
for Fusing due
to neglegency
Improper
Pressure for
Fusing due to
neglegency
Poor quality
numbering
stickers
Parts cut in
selvedges
Matching
standards not
followed in
cutting
Delay in
82

Verified
and Seal
by
Sampling
head
Quality
and
Quantity
inspection
Bond
Strength
report

embroidery
panels
Delay in print
panels

Delay in tapes

Delay in labels

Delay in
buttons

Wrong label
placement
Wrong issues
of Labels
Wrong issues
of buttons
Wrong issues
of Threads
Trims missing
in trim cards
Machine not
set as per
standard
Wrong folders
& Guides

Process
Function/
Requirements
(+ve)

Potential
Failure
Potential Effect(s)
mode (
of failure
-ve)

SEV

83

320

320

320

320

Tech pack

96

Trim Card

144

Trim Card

144

Trim Card

144

Trim Card

512

SPI
mockup

384

280

120

120

DET

Risk
Priority
No.

Same machine
bobbin case
not used

SPI not set as


per spec

Potential
Cause (s)

Loading
Plan
Line
Loading
Plan
Trims
checklist /
Prod Plan
Trims
checklist /
Prod Plan
Trims
checklist /
Prod Plan

PP
meeting
Bobbin
case bag
with m/c
number
Inline /
Endline
checking

Current
OCC process
control

Assembly
Rework < 2%

Assembly
Rework > High rejection
2%

8 8

Unskilled
Operator

Skill Matrix 6

432

Low Productivity

Lack of
Understandi 5
ng

PP meeting 4

160

Low efficiency

Lack of SOP 8

Poor quality

Over time Cost

SOP not
followed
Pressure to
produce
Poor raw
material
quality
Cut parts
quality
Missing
panels
Missing
sticker in
parts
Marking
Pens
( without
trial run)
Needle Size
( without
trial run)

Reliability reduced 5
Delay in Delivery 8
OTIF reduced

Raw material
wastage

Customer
Dissatisfaction

No feeding to
Finishing

384

384

No Control

10

320

RM
Inspection

320

512

432

8
6

Panel
Inspection
Bundle
Ticket

Bundle
Ticket

576

Stopped
using
marking
pens

120

R & D in
Sampling

160

280

280

280

320

320

Increased WIP

Wrong
Pattern

Work Pressure

Bundle mix
5
up

High Absenteeism 5

Delay in
5
ready parts

Shade Variation
7
in garments

Delay in
tapes

Delay in
labels

84

Mock
display
Mock
display

Verified and
Seal by
Sampling
head
Serial
matching by
helpers
Production
report / plan
Trims
checklist /
Prod Plan
Trims
checklist /
Prod Plan

Delay in
buttons
Wrong label
placement
Wrong
issues of
Labels
Wrong
issues of
buttons
Wrong
issues of
Threads
Trims
missing in
trim cards
Machine not
set as per
standard
Wrong
folders &
Guides
Same
machine
bobbin case
not used

Trims
checklist /
Prod Plan

320

Tech pack

96

Trim Card

144

Trim Card

144

Trim Card

144

Trim Card

512

SPI mockup 6

384

PP meeting 7

280

Bobbin case
bag with m/c 3
number

120

Inline /
Endline
checking

120

SPI not set


5
as per spec

HIGHER RPN CAUSES


SEV

Potential Cause (s)

OCC

Current process control

DET

Risk
Priority
No

Cut parts quality

Panel Inspection

512

Unskilled Operator

Skill Matrix

432

85

Missing panels

Bundle Ticket

432

Unavailability/ Wrong /
Missing of Emb.

Quality and Quantity


inspection

432

Poor fusing quality

Bond Strength report

576

Poor quality numbering


stickers

No Control

10

480

Trims missing in trim


cards

Trim Card

512

Missing sticker in parts

Bundle Ticket

576

Poor Cutting quality

Panel Inspection

512

Bundle mix up

Bundle Ticket/ Sticker

512

Lack of SOP

No control

10

400

Uncut threads

Inline / End line checking

576

Numbering stickers not


removed

Inline / End line checking

432

Sticker marks

Inline / End line checking

432

Stains

Inline / End line checking

432

Estimated Root Cause


1

Poor fusing quality

Missing sticker in parts

Uncut threads

Cut parts quality

Trims missing in trim cards

Bundle mix up

Poor quality numbering stickers

Unskilled Operator

Missing panels

10

Unavailability/ Wrong / Missing of Emb


86

11

Numbering stickers not removed

12

Sticker marks

13

Stains

Actual Root Cause Identification


List of Top Defects

Joint Out
Puckering at Waistband
Uneven stitch (neck topstitch)
Label centre out
Cuff attached
Panel up-down
Uneven width(welt pocket, waistband )
Waistband extension uneven
Number mismatch

Ishikawa Diagram for Armhole joint out

Man

Metho

Uneven width at armhole


Uneven width during handling
Operator handling
New operator
Uneven width during handling
Self-checking method not adopted
New operator
Armhole downstitch
Pressure on operator for production
Side seam join up dow

Notch not matching


Notch missing

M/c breakdown
Improper line matching of body

Uneven shape of sleeve


87

Fabric quality

Uneven sleeve line match

Armhole
joint out

Machi

Materi

Causes

Effect

GEMBA- Armhole Joint Out


Causes
Man
Uneven Width at armhole
Uneven width during
handling
Operator handling
New Operator
Self checking method not
adopted
Armhole downstitch
Previous operation
Mismatch of notch
Operator's negligence
Disturbance by others
Side seam join up down
Machine
Improper machine
pressure foot
Improper line matching of
body
Machine settings

SOP/SPEC
Even armhole piping required, correct use of folders
Proper width should be maintained by the operator himself or use
guides
Training; Smooth pull, smooth peddling, smooth feeding maintaining
equal allowance throughout the operation
Operator should be properly trained for the operation they are
supposed to perform
Operators should have a habit of regularly checking their work and the
pieces they are handed, they should not neglect any fault
Should be even and done carefully according to specifications
provided
Operators should always check the pieces for any faults
Notches should be properly marked and matched
Operators should be trained well not to neglect problems or faults
Operators should not disturb others
Side seam should be carefully done matching the notches
Should be proper as per style ensuring correct holding capacity.
Front and back body line should correctly match
Reconditioning and resetting as per fabric quality, feed time and looper
time

Machine breakdown
Method
88

Uneven width during


handling
Improper/ wrong method of
finishing
Pressure on operator
Material
Notch not matching
Notch missing
Uneven shape of sleeve

Operators should be properly trained to maintain even widths


GSD

Notch should be properly done in cutting


Notches should not be missed in cutting
Cutting should be properly done of parts

Causes Validated through Gemba

Uneven width during handling


Operator handling
Armhole down stitch
Side seam join up down
Improper method of notch matching
Operators negligence
Improper line matching of body
Mismatch of notch
Uneven shape of sleeve
Fabric quality
Uneven sleeve line match
Disturbance by other operators

Why Why Analysis

Improper
feeding
1

Operator
Handling
Unnecessary
pulling of plies

Armhole down
stitch

Non-uniform

Inadequate
Skill
Difficult to
handle material
Notch not
marked properly
Improper
sleeve shape
Required A*
operator
Required
training
Frequent
89

Required A* operator
Proper training to be given
Frequent Operator change
Buyer Requirement

Operator busy talking

operator change
Inadequate
Skill
Too much WIP

Operators
negligence

Too much
Rework

Frustration

Bad mood

side seam up
down

Difficult to
handle fabric
Unnecesary
pulling of plies
Operator
negligence
Too much
rework

Improper line
matching of
body

Disturbance
by other
operators

Improper
machine
working
Too much
rework
Inadequate
skill
Pressure for
production
Pressure for
production
Fight with
other operators
Personal
problems
Buyers
specification
Operation
requirement
Too much WIP
Inadequate
skill
Pressure for
production

Required A* operator
Required training
Frequent Operator change
Non-availability of maintenance
personnel

Required A* operator
Too much WIP
Operator inefficient

Inadequate Skill
Too much rework

Too much WIP


Operator inefficient

Inadequate skill
Improper
machine
working

Nonavailability of
maintenance
personnel

To give rework
pieces
To show the
mistake
To talk
To get their
work done

Other operators
cant do that
work
Other
operators are
overloaded
90

Under-skilled operator

Inadequate skill

Mismatch of
Notch

Notch not
marked
correctly
Notch not
followed
properly by
sleeve attach
operator

Operator not
paying attention

Talking with other operators

Operator
inefficiency

Inadequate skill

Operator not
paying attention
Pressure for
production

Pressure for production


Bad day
Too much WIP
Operator inefficient

Ishikawa Diagram for Number Mismatch

Man

Metho

Pieces mixed
Operator handling
Improper Numbering
Self-checking method not adopted by
Shortage of parts
Sticker area chopped
in overlock
Different
size parts mix up
Improper Bundling
Improper Print of Numbers
Number sticker removed

Machi

Number
Mismatc
h

Materi

Effect

Causes
91

GEMBA- Number Mismatch


Causes
Man
part mix up

SOP/SPEC

Improper numbering

Operators should be careful about the number on the parts


stitched together
ticketing should be carefully done

Improper bundling

Bundling should be properly done

Shortage of parts

Cutting plan should be properly made

Proper instruction to workers

workers should be given proper instructions about different


measurements required
Training; Smooth pull, smooth peddling, smooth feeding
maintaining equal allowance throughout the operation

Operator handling
New Operator
Self checking method not
adopted

Operator should be properly trained for the operation they are


supposed to perform
Operators should have a habit of regularly checking their work
and the pieces they are handed, they should not neglect any fault

Operator's negligence

Operators should be trained well not to neglect problems or faults

Machine
Improper print of numbers

Ticketing machine should be properly checked and serviced

Method
Sticker area chopped in
overlock

sticker should be placed in such a way that it does not get


removed or chopped in any operation

Material
Sticker removed

Sticker should have a proper quality of adhesive

Causes Validated through Gemba

Pieces mixed
Operator handling
Improper Numbering
Improper print of numbers
Self checking method not adopted by operators
Shortage of parts
Different size parts mix up
92

Improper Bundling
Number Sticker Removed
Sticker area chopped in overlock

Why Why Analysis


1
Pieces Mixed
2
3

Improper
Numbering
Improper print of
numbers

Improper instruction
Operator negligence
Improper Handling
Negligence while ticketing

Required A* operator
Too much WIP
Required Training
Inadequate Skill
Operator busy talking
Ticketing Machine not ok Require Maintenance
Ticketing Machine not
Inadequate Skill
handled properly

Operator
inattentive
Required A*
Too much WIP
Inadequate Skill
operator
Non-availability of
Operators
Improper machine working maintenance
negligence
personnel
Required A*
Too much Rework
Inadequate skill
operator
Bad mood
Personal problems
Required A*
Parts mixed after cutting Operator Negligence
operator
Pieces wrongly numbered Operator Negligence
Required training
Frequent operator
Improper bundling Parts mixed while
Operator Negligence
distributing
change
Inadequate
training staff
Cutting not planned
Shortage of parts
properly
Ineffective Adhesive
Number Sticker
Problem with ticketing
Required
Improper ticketing
removed
machine
maintenance
Operator negligence

6
7

Required training

93

8
Disturbance by
other operators

Sticker area
chopped in
overlock

Operator Negligence

Required training

Other operators cant do


that work
Other operators are
overloaded

Under-skilled
operator

To give rework pieces


To show the mistake
To talk
To get their work done

Inadequate skill

Require method
improvement

Placement of sticker

Ishikawa Diagram for Puckering at waistband

Man

Metho

Carelessness
Improper pre-setting of waistband
Unskilled operator
Top ply is pushed and bottom ply is held back
Plies in the seam not being aligned properly
Improper tension setting
Improper SPI causing
structural
Different
composition of bobbin
jamming and needle thread

Puckering
at
waistban
d

Wrong pressure foot which holds the


top ply whereas bottom ply is fed at a
faster pace

Machi

Materi

Effect

Causes

94

Ishikawa Diagram for Waistband extension uneven

Man

Metho

Unskilled operator
Margin not followed while attaching waistband
Waistband edge not fnished properly
Improper folder setting on
machine
Zipper not attached properly
which led to mismatch in left
and right front of the garment

Machi

Waistban
d
extension
uneven

Materi

Effect

Causes
95

IMPROVE PHASE
Solutions to the Root Causes
Armhole Joint Out Problem
Sl.
No.

Root Cause

Corrective Action

Preventive Action

Ignorance by the
operator

Operators should be properly


told the pros and cons of
ignorance

Tight control should be


exercised by the supervisor
and QC

Patterns not
placed correctly The cutting operators should
The pattern placement should
match the pattern from one
while cutting
be checked by the operator

Improper edge of the fabric and handle


before cutting
handling while
the fabric properly
cutting
A list of required settings for
Iron box setting
Iron box settings should be
different fabrics should be
not suitable for the changed according to the
prepared and hung near the
fabric
fabric being ironed
ironing table
The speed of the machine
The operators should maintain
Over speed while
should be adjusted to the
the speed as per the SOP of
stitching
required speed by the
the operation
maintenance people

Uneven
Edge guide should be
Operator should check for the
sleeve attach
provided
Uneven margin Operator should be shown the correct attachment of the
pieces
during sleeve
videos showing correct

Responsibility

attach
method of stitching
Wrong matching of Front & Back matching helper Needs part wise serial follow
F&B pieces
should take care of the serial
up
96

QC
Department

Cutting Dept.

nos. of the pieces.

Number Mismatch Problem


Sl.
No.

Root Cause

Corrective Action

Preventive Action

Lack of attention of
issuing authority
leading to size mix

Issuing authority in cutting


dept. should take care

Proper ticketing & bundling


should be done

Man-handling the
bundles in cutting
dept.

Lack of selfchecking by the


operators

Responsibility

The bundles should be


immediately sent to sewing
after cutting to avoid any
storage in cutting leading to
man-handling of bundles
The operators should selfcheck the pieces as per 6
sigma training
Puckering at waistband
Problem

Sl.
No.

Root Cause

Corrective Action

Preventive Action

Responsibility

Pressing was done by steam


iron with a spray of starch
Improper preover it. This made the
setting of waistband
Proper pressing should be
handling of the waistband
after thumb
done
easier while stitching and
pressing
thus reduced puckering at
the waistband.
Waistband extension uneven
Problem

Sl.
No.
1

Root Cause

Corrective Action

Preventive Action

Improper folder

The folder guide was

Provide proper folder guide

97

Responsibility

setting on machine

adjusted and improper


materials handling avoided

Margin not followed


The operator was instructed
while attaching
to be careful while feeding
waistband and
and following the margins
waistband edge not
strictly
finished properly

CONTROL PHASE

Used to ensure that the improved process is maintained and to establish controls for the
same
Develop Control Plans/ Quality Plans/ Procedures & Standardize the improved process
Evaluate Benefits / results
Check before after through individual Control charts, Histograms, etc.
Evaluate Sigma Level Before & after

98