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Additional Mathematics SPM Chapter 4

CHAPTER

Simultaneous Equations

1. (a) y x 2 = 0

y = x + 2..................... 1

x2 6y + 17 = 0........................... 2

Substitute 1 into 2,
5x + x2 = 48 3(1 3x)
= 48 3 + 9x

x2 4x 45 = 0
(x 9)(x + 5) = 0

x 9 = 0 or x + 5 = 0

x = 9 or
x = 5

Substitute 1 into 2,

x2 6(x + 2) + 17 = 0

x2 6x 12 + 17 = 0
x2 6x + 5 = 0
(x 1)(x 5) = 0

x 1 = 0 or x 5 = 0

x = 1 or
x = 5

Substitute x = 9 into 1,
y = 1 3(9)
= 26

Substitute x = 1 into 1,

y = 1 + 2
= 3

Substitute x = 5 into 1,
y = 1 3(5)
= 16

Substitute x = 5 into 1,

y = 5 + 2
= 7

\ The solutions are x = 1, y = 3 and x = 5,
y = 7.

(d) y + 2x 5 = 0

y = 5 2x...................... 1
xy = 4 x2....................... 2

(b) 2y + x = 5
x = 5 2y............................. 1

xy + y = 0..................................... 2

Substitute 1 into 2,
x(5 2x) = 4 x2
5x 2x2 = 4 x2

x2 5x + 4 = 0
(x 1)(x 4) = 0
x 1 = 0 or x 4 = 0

x = 1 or
x = 4

Substitute 1 into 2,
(5 2y)y + y = 0
5y 2y2 + y = 0
2y2 6y = 0
2y(y 3) = 0

2y = 0 or y 3 = 0

y = 0 or
y = 3

Substitute x = 1 into 1,
y = 5 2(1)
= 3

Substitute y = 0 into 1,
x = 5 2(0)
= 5

Substitute x = 4 into 1,
y = 5 2(4)
= 3

Substitute y = 3 into 1,
x = 5 2(3)
= 1

The solutions are x = 9, y = 26 and x = 5,


y = 16.

The solutions are x = 1, y = 3 and x = 4, y = 3.

(e) y + 3x 4 = 0

y = 4 3x................. 1

y2 2xy + 4x2 = 3......................... 2

The solutions are x = 5, y = 0 and x = 1, y = 3.

(c) 3x = 1 y
y = 1 3x............................ 1
5x + x2 = 48 3y.......................... 2

Substitute 1 into 2,

(4 3x)2 2x(4 3x) + 4x2 = 3

16 24x + 9x2 8x + 6x2 + 4x2 3 = 0

19x2 32x + 13 = 0

(19x 13)(x 1) = 0

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Additional Mathematics SPM Chapter 4

19x 13 = 0 or x 1 = 0
13
or
x = 1
x =
19
13
Substitute x = into 1,
19
13
y = 4 3
19
37
=
19
Substitute x = 1 into 1,
y = 4 3(1)
= 1

(5x 8)(x 8) = 0

5x 8 = 0 or x 8 = 0
8

x = or
x = 8
5
8
Substitute x =
into 1,
5
8
5 40
5
y =
2
= 16

1 2

1 2

Substitute x = 8 into 1,
5(8) 40
y =
2
= 0

13
The solutions are x = 1, y = 1 and x =
,
19
37
y=
.
19

(f) 3 y = 2x
y = 3 2x............................ 1

x2 + y2 = 5.................................... 2

8
, y = 16 and x = 8,
5

2y + 5 = 3x
3x 5

y =
.............. 1
2
1

xy + 7 + x = 0.......................... 2
3
Substitute 1 into 2,
1
3x 5
+ 7 + x = 0
x
3
2
1
3x2 5x
+ 7 + x = 0

3
2
2

6, 3(3x 5x) + 42 + 2x = 0
9x2 15x + 42 + 2x = 0

9x2 + 13x 42 = 0

(9x 14)(x + 3) = 0
9x 14 = 0
or x + 3 = 0
14
x =
or
x = 3
9
14
into 1,
Substitute x =
9
14
3
5
9

y =
2
14
5

3
=
2
29
=
6
Substitute x = 3 into 1,
3(3) 5
y =
2
= 2
14
29

The solutions are x =
,y=
and x = 3,
9
6

y = 2.

1 2

1 2

y
x

= 4 +
5
2
20 + y
x
=
2
5
5x = 2(20 + y)
5x = 40 + 2y
5x 40
y =
....................... 1
2

xy + 32 = 4x................................. 2
(g)

Substitute 1 into 2,
5x 40
x
+ 32 = 4x
2

x(5x 40) + 64 = 8x
5x2 40x + 64 = 8x
5x2 48x + 64 = 0

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y = 0.

(h)

Substitute 1 into 2,

x2 + (3 2x)2 = 5
2

x + 9 12x + 4x2 5 = 0

5x2 12x + 4 = 0
(5x 2)(x 2) = 0

5x 2 = 0 or x 2 = 0
2

x = or
x = 2
5
2
into 1,
Substitute x =
5
2
y = 3 2
5
11
=
5
Substitute x = 2 into 1,
y = 3 2(2)
= 1
2
11

The solutions are x = , y =
and x = 2,
5
5

y = 1.

The solutions are x =

Additional Mathematics SPM Chapter 4

(i) 3x 5y = 4
4 + 5y
.................................1

x =
3
6y
3x
+ y = 11

x

1 2

6y

1 x 2 + xy1 3xy 2 = 11xy

xy, xy

1
Substitute y = into 1,
4
1
5 12
4

x =
12
1
=
6

1
Substitute y = into 1,
6
1
5 12
6

x =
12
1
=
4

6y2 + 3x2 = 11xy..............2

Substitute 1 into 2,
4 + 5y 2
4 + 5y
6y2 + 3
= 11y
3
3
2
2
44y
+
55y
(4
+
5y)
6y2 + 3
=
3
9
2
16
+
40y
+
25y
44y
+
55y2
=
6y2 +
3
3

1 2

1
1
1
\ The solutions are x = , y = and x = ,
6
4
4
1

y = .
6


3, 18y2 + 16 + 40y + 25y2 = 44y + 55y2

12y2 + 4y 16 = 0

4,
3y2 + y 4 = 0

(3y + 4)(y 1) = 0
3y + 4 = 0
or y 1 = 0
4
y = or
y = 1
3
4
Substitute y = into 1,
3
4
4+5
3
x =
3
8
=
9
Substitute y = 1 into 1,
4 + 5(1)
x =
3
= 3
8
4

The solutions are x = , y = and x = 3,
9
3

y = 1.

2. (a) 1 + x y = 0
y = 1 + x.......................... 1
2xy x2 = 4................................ 2
Substitute 1 into 2,
2x(1 + x) x2 = 4
2x + 2x2 x2 = 4

x2 + 2x 4 = 0

b2 4ac
b ABBBBBB
x = , where a = 1, b = 2, c = 4
2a
22 4(1)(4)
2 ABBBBBBBBB
=
2(1)
20
2 ABB
=
2
= 1.236 or 3.236
Substitute x = 1.236 into 1,
y = 1 + 1.236
= 2.236

Substitute x = 3.236 into 1,


y = 1 3.236
= 2.236

(j) 12x = 5 12y


5 12y
x = ...................... 1
12
1
1
= 10
x
y

xy, y = 10xy x...................... 2

(b) 2y = 3x 4
2y + 4

x = ..................... 1
3

y2 = 5xy + 1..................... 2

Substitute 1 into 2,

5 12y
5 12y
y = 10y
12
12

12,
12y = 10y(5 12y) (5 12y)

12y = 50y 120y2 5 + 12y
120y2 50y + 5 = 0


5, 24y 10y + 1 = 0
(4y 1)(6y 1) = 0
4y 1 = 0 or 6y 1 =
1
y = or
y =
4

2 1

The solutions are x = 1.236, y = 2.236 and


x = 3.236, y = 2.236.

Substitute 1 into 2,
2y + 4

y2 = 5y + 1
3

3y2 = 5y(2y + 4) + 3

3y2 = 10y2 + 20y + 3
7y2 + 20y + 3 = 0

0
1

6
3

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Additional Mathematics SPM Chapter 4

Substitute x = 2 into 1,
y = 22 + 6
= 10

b2 4ac
b ABBBBBB
y = , where a = 7, b = 20, c = 3
2a
202 4(7)(3)
20 ABBBBBBBBB
=
2(7)

\ D(2, 10)
Height of gate = CD

= 10 m

316
20 ABBB
=
14
= 0.159 or 2.698

Width of gate = BC

=22

=4m

Substitute y = 0.159 into 1,


2(0.159) + 4
x =
3
= 1.227

4.
y = x2 6x + 11.................... 1
y + 2x 7 = 0...................................... 2
Substitute 1 into 2,
x2 6x + 11 + 2x 7 = 0

x2 4x + 4 = 0
(x 2)2 = 0

x = 2
The x-coordinate of point B is 2.

Substitute y = 2.698 into 1,


2(2.698) + 4
x =
3
= 0.465

The solutions are x = 1.227, y = 0.159 and


x = 0.465, y = 2.698.

(c) 2x y = 3
y = 2x + 3............................. 1
1

x = x + y

x, 1 = x2 + xy............................ 2

5. Area of rectangle =
(2x + 20)(y + 10) =
2xy + 20x + 20y + 200 =
xy + 10x + 10y =

Circumference of circle = 2(28)


22
= 2
28
7
= 176 cm

Substitute 1 into 2,

1 = x2 + x(2x + 3)
= x2 + 2x2 + 3x
3x2 + 3x 1 = 0

Perimeter of rectangle = 176


2 (2x + 20 + y + 10) = 176
2x + y + 30 = 88

y = 58 2x....... 2
Substitute 2 into 1,
x(58 2x) + 10x + 10(58 2x) = 110
58x 2x2 + 10x + 580 20x = 110
x2 24x 235 = 0

\ a = 3, b = 3, c = 1

b2 4ac
b ABBBBBB
x =
2a
32 4(3)(1)
3 ABBBBBBBBB
=
2(3)

21
3 ABB
=
6
= 0.264 or 1.264

\ a = 1, b = 24, c = 235
b2 4ac
b ABBBBBB
x =
2a

Substitute x = 0.264 into 1,


y = 2(0.264) + 3
= 3.528

(24)2 4(1)(235)
(24) ABBBBBBBBBBBBBB
=
2(1)
1516
24 ABBBB
=
2
379
= 12 ABBB
379 or 12 ABBB
379
= 12 + ABBB
= 31.47 or 7.47

Substitute x = 1.264 into 1,


y = 2(1.264) + 3
= 0.472

The solutions are x = 0.264, y = 3.528 and


x = 1.264, y = 0.472.

Substitute x = 31.47 into 2,


y = 58 2(31.47)
= 4.94

3.
y = x2 + 6............................... 1
y 4x 2 = 0...................................... 2
Substitute 1 into 2,
x2 + 6 4x 2 = 0
x2 4x + 4 = 0
(x 2)2 = 0

x = 2

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420
420
420
110............. 1

Substitute x = 7.47 into 2,


y = 58 2(7.47)
= 72.94

Additional Mathematics SPM Chapter 4

3.
2x y = 3

y = 2x 3............1
x2 2y2 xy + 27 = 0....................2

\ Possible length = 2x + 20

= 2(31.47) + 20 or 2(7.47) + 20

= 82.94 cm
or 5.06 cm

\ Possible width = y + 10

= 4.94 + 10 or 72.94 + 10

= 5.06 cm
or 82.94 cm

Substitute 1 into 2,

x2 2(2x 3)2 x(2x 3) + 27 = 0
x2 2(4x2 12x + 9) 2x2 + 3x + 27 = 0
x2 8x2 + 24x 18 2x2 + 3x + 27 = 0

x2 3x 1 = 0

The possible lengths and widths are 82.94 cm and


5.06 cm or vice versa.

\ a = 1, b = 3, c = 1
b2 4ac
b ABBBBBB
x =
2a

(3)2 4(1)(1)
(3) ABBBBBBBBBBB
=
2(1)
13
3 ABB
=
2
= 3.303 or 0.303

1. 2x + y = 6

y = 6 2x.................. 1
y2 y + x = 13........................ 2
Substitute 1 into 2,

(6 2x)2 (6 2x) + x = 13
36 24x + 4x2 6 + 2x + x 13 = 0
4x2 21x + 17 = 0
(4x 17)(x 1) = 0
4x 17 = 0 or x 1 = 0
x = 1

x = 17 or
4
17
Substitute x =
into 1,
4
17
y = 6 2
4
5
=
2

Substitute x = 3.303 into 1,


y = 2(3.303) 3
= 3.606

Substitute x = 0.303 into 1,


y = 2(0.303) 3
= 3.606

The solutions are x = 3.303, y = 3.606 and x = 0.303,


y = 3.606.

1 2

4. r + s = 3

s = 3 r................................1
r2 4s = 10....................................2

Substitute x = 1 into 1,
y = 6 2(1)
=4
5
The solutions are x = 17 , y = and x = 1, y = 4.
2
4

Substitute 1 into 2,

r2 4(3 r) = 10
2
r 12 + 4r 10 = 0

r2 + 4r 22 = 0

2.
x 2y = 0

x = 2y.................1
y2 xy + x + 3 = 0...................2

\ a = 1, b = 4, r = 22

b2 4ac
b ABBBBBB
r =
2a
ABBBBBBBBBB
4 42 4(1)(22)
=
2(1)

Substitute 1 into 2:
y2 (2y)(y) + 2y + 3 = 0
y2 2y2 + 2y + 3 = 0

y2 + 2y + 3 = 0

y2 2y 3 = 0
(y + 1)(y 3) = 0

y + 1 = 0 or y 3 = 0

y = 1 or
y = 3

104
4 ABBB
=
2
= 3.099, 7.099

Substitute r = 3.099 into 1,


s = 3 3.099
= 0.099

Substitute y = 1 into 1,
x = 2(1)
= 2

Substitute r = 7.099 into 1,


s = 3 (7.099)
= 10.099

Substitute y = 3 into 1,
x = 2(3)
=6

The solutions are s = 0.099, r = 3.099 and s = 10.099,


r = 7.099.

The solutions are x = 2, y = 1 and x = 6, y = 3.

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Additional Mathematics SPM Chapter 4

5.
2x y = 5..................1
2y x = 3xy................2
From 1, y = 2x + 5............3

Substitute x = 4 into 1,
y = 3 (4)
=7
Substitute x = 1 into 1,
y = 3 1
=2

Substitute 3 into 2,
2(2x + 5) x = 3x(2x + 5)

4x + 10 x = 6x2 + 15x
6x2 + 12x 10 = 0
3x2 + 6x 5 = 0

The other solution is x = 4, y = 7.

b2 4ac
b ABBBBBB
Use formula x = , where
2a
a = 3, b = 6, c = 5.

3.
x + y = 6

y = 6 x...........................1
x2 y = 4...............................2

Substitute 1 into 2,
x2 (6 x) = 4
x2 6 + x + 4 = 0
x2 + x 2 = 0
(x + 2)(x 1) = 0

x + 2 = 0 or x 1 = 0

x = 2 or
x = 1

b2 4ac
b ABBBBBB
x =
2a
62 4(3)(5)
6 ABBBBBBBBB
x =
2(3)
= 0.63 or 2.63

Substitute x = 0.63 into 3,


y = 2(0.63) + 5
= 6.26

Substitute x = 2 into 1,
y = 6 (2)
=8

Substitute x = 2.63 into 3,


y = 2(2.63) + 5
= 0.26

Substitute x = 1 into 1,
y = 6 1
=5

The solutions are x = 0.63, y = 6.26 and x = 2.63,


y = 0.26.

The solutions are x = 2, y = 8 and x = 1, y = 5.


4.
2y x = 0

x = 2y...............................1

1. x = y................................1
xy x = 0................................2

x = x + y
x, 1 = x(x + y)

1 = x2 + xy.....................2

Substitute 1 into 2,
y2 y = 0
y(y 1) = 0

y = 0 or y 1 = 0

y = 1

Substitute 1 into 2,
1 = (2y)2 + (2y)(y)
1 = 4y2 + 2y2
6y2 = 1
1
y2 =
6
1
y =
6
= 0.4082

From 1,
y = 0, \ x = 0
y = 1, \ x = 1

ABB

The solutions are x = 0, y = 0 and x = 1, y = 1.


2. x + y = 3

y = 3 x.......................1
2x2 + xy = 4.............................2

Substitute y = 0.4082 into 1,


x = 2(0.4082)
= 0.8164

Substitute 1 into 2,
2x2 + x(3 x) = 4
2x2 + 3x x2 4 = 0

x2 + 3x 4 = 0
(x + 4)(x 1) = 0

x + 4 = 0 or x 1 = 0

x = 4 or
x = 1

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Substitute y = 0.4082 into 1,


x = 2(0.4082)
= 0.8164

The solutions are x = 0.8164, y = 0.4082 and


x = 0.8164, y = 0.4082.

Additional Mathematics SPM Chapter 4

5. y + x = 0

x = y............................. 1
x2 + y2 = 8............................... 2

Substitute x = 9 into 1,
7 2(9)
y =
3
25
=
3
Substitute x = 2 into 1,
7 2(2)
y =
3
=1

Substitute 1 into 2,
(y)2 + y2 = 8
2y2 = 8

y2 = 4

y = 2
From 1,
y = 2, \ x = 2
y = 2, \ x = 2

\ The solutions are x = 2, y = 1 and x = 9, y = 25 .


3

Hence, the coordinates of A are (2, 2) and the


coordinates of B are (2, 2).

9. y 3x + 5 = 0
y = 3x 5................. 1
3x2 + 5x = 6 + y................... 2

6. x + 2y = 4

x = 4 2y................ 1
x + y2 4 = 0........................ 2

Substitute 1 into 2,
3x2 + 5x = 6 + 3x 5
3x2 + 2x 1 = 0
(3x 1)(x + 1) = 0
3x 1 = 0 or x + 1 = 0
1

x = or
x = 1
3
1
Substitute x = into 1,
3
1
y = 3 5
3
= 4

Substitute 1 into 2,
(4 2y) + y2 4 = 0
4 + 2y + y2 4 = 0

y2 + 2y 8 = 0
(y + 4)(y 2) = 0

y + 4 = 0 or y 2 = 0

y = 4 or
y = 2

1 2

At B, substitute y = 4 into 1,
x = 4 2(4)
= 12
Hence, the coordinates of B are (12, 4).

Substitute x = 1 into 1,
y = 3(1) 5
= 8
1
\ The solutions are x = , y = 4 and x = 1,
3
y = 8.

7.
1 y = 0

y = 1.............. 1
x2 + y2 2y + 3x 3 = 0.............. 2

Substitute 1 into 2,
x2 + 1 2 + 3x 3 = 0

x2 + 3x 4 = 0
(x + 4)(x 1) = 0

x + 4 = 0 or x 1 = 0

x = 4 or
x = 1

10.
2y + x = 5

x = 5 2y....................... 1
x2 + y2 = 10............................. 2

Substitute 1 into 2,

(5 2y)2 + y2 = 10
25 20y + 4y2 + y2 10 = 0
5y2 20y + 15 = 0
5,
y2 4y + 3 = 0
(y 1)(y 3) = 0

y 1 = 0 or y 3 = 0

y = 1 or
y = 3

The points of intersection are (4, 1) and (1, 1).

8.
3y + 2x = 7
7 2x
y = ......................... 1
3
x2 + xy 6 = 0.............................. 2

Substitute y = 1 into 1,
x = 5 2(1)
=3

Substitute 1 into 2,
7 2x
6 = 0

x2 + x
3
2
3, 3x + x(7 2x) 18 = 0
3x2 + 7x 2x2 18 = 0

x2 + 7x 18 = 0
(x + 9)(x 2) = 0

x + 9 = 0 or x 2 = 0

x = 9 or
x = 2

Substitute y = 3 into 1,
x = 5 2(3)
= 1

The solutions are x = 3, y = 1 and x = 1, y = 3.

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Additional Mathematics SPM Chapter 4

11.
2y + 3x + 5 = 0

Substitute 1 into 2,
3y2 + (15 6y)2 2(15 6y) = 15
3y2 + 225 180y + 36y2 30 + 12y 15 = 0
39y2 168y + 180 = 0

1 3x 2+ 5 2.............1

y =

1
xy + x + 7 = 0............................2
3
Substitute 1 into 2,
3x + 5
1
x
+ x + 7 = 0
2
3
6, 3x(3x + 5) + 2x + 42 = 0
9x2 15x + 2x + 42 = 0
9x2 + 13x 42 = 0
(9x 14)(x + 3) = 0
9x 14 = 0
or x + 3 = 0

x = 14 or
x = 3
9
Substitute x = 14 into 1,
9
14
3
+5
9
y =
2
29
=
6

31

3, 13y2 56y + 60 = 0
(13y 30)(y 2) = 0
13y 30 = 0
or y 2 = 0
30
or
y = 2

y =
13
Substitute y = 30 into 1,
13
x = 15 6 30
13
15
=
13

24

1 2

1 2

Substitute y = 2 into 1,
x = 15 6(2)
=3

\ The solutions are x = 15 , y = 30 and x = 3,


13
13
y = 2.

Substitute x = 3 into 1,
3(3) + 5
y =
2
=2
The solutions are x = 14 , y = 29 and x = 3,
9
6
y = 2.

14. A = 3B = C
1 + 4y = 3(y 2x)
1
= y +
x +7
1 + 4y = 3(y 2x)
1 + 4y = 3y 6x

y = 1 6x................................... 1
1

1 + 4y = y +
x +7
1
x, x(1 + 4y) = x(y +
x + 7)

x + 4xy = xy + 1 + 7x
3xy 6x 1 = 0............................... 2

12.
xy + 2x = 2........................... 1
2y + 2x = 2
y + x = 1

y = 1 x..................... 2

Substitute 2 into 1,
x(1 x) + 2x = 2
x x2 + 2x = 2

x2 x 2 = 0
(x 2)(x + 1) = 0

x 2 = 0 or x + 1 = 0

x = 2 or
x = 1

Substitute 1 into 2,
3x(1 6x) 6x 1 = 0
3x 18x2 6x 1 = 0
18x2 + 9x + 1 = 0
(6x + 1)(3x + 1) = 0
3x + 1 = 0
or 6x + 1 = 0
1
1

x = or
x =
3
6
1
Substitute x = into 1,
6
1
y = 1 6
6
=0

Substitute x = 2 into 2,
y = 1 2
= 3

Substitute x = 1 into 2,
y = 1 (1)
=0

1
Substitute x = into 1,
3
1

y = 1 6
3
=1

The solutions are x = 2, y = 3 and x = 1, y = 0.

13.
6y + x = 15

x = 15 6y..................1
3y2 + x2 2x = 15..........................2

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2
2

1
1
The solutions are x = , y = 0 and x = , y = 1
6
3

Additional Mathematics SPM Chapter 4

15. Substitute x = p, y = q into


2y + x = 3y + 1............................ 1
and xy + 2 = 2y + x............................. 2

2x2 6x = 0
2x(x 3) = 0
2x = 0 or x 3 = 0

x = 0 or
x = 3

From 1, 2q + p = 3q + 1

p = q + 1..................... 3
From 2, pq + 2 = 2q + p................... 4

Substitute x = 0 into 1,
y = 15 0
= 15

Substitute 3 into 4,
q(q + 1) + 2 = 2q + q + 1
q2 + q + 2 = 3q + 1
q2 2q + 1 = 0
(q 1)2 = 0

q = 1

Substitute x = 3 into 1,
y = 15 3
= 12

The solutions are x = 0, y = 15 and x = 3, y = 12.

Substitute q = 1 into 3,
p = 1 + 1
=2

18. x 3y = 1

x = 1 + 3y.............. 1
xy + 2y2 3 = 0...................... 2

Hence, p = 2, q = 1.

Substitute 1 into 2,
y(1 + 3y) + 2y2 3 = 0
y + 3y2 + 2y2 3 = 0
5y2 + y 3 = 0

16. Substitute x = 3p, y = 2q into


3y
4x
+ 5 = 0.........................1

y
2x
y
2
and x 2 = 0.........................2
2
3

\ a = 5, b = 1, c = 3
b2 4ac
b ABBBBBB
y =
2a

3(2q)
4(3p)
From 1, + 5 = 0
2(3p)
2q

12 4(5)(3)
1 ABBBBBBBBB
=
2(5)

6p
q

5 = 0
p +
q

61
1 ABB
=
10
= 0.681, 0.881

pq, q2 + 6p2 5pq = 0......................... 3

2q
2
From 2, (3p) 2 = 0
3
2

q 2p 2 = 0

q = 2p + 2....... 4
Substitute 4 into 3,
(2p + 2)2 + 6p2 5p(2p + 2) = 0
4p2 + 8p + 4 + 6p2 10p2 10p = 0
2p + 4 = 0

p = 2

Substitute y = 0.681 into 1,


x = 1 + 3(0.681)
= 3.043

Substitute y = 0.881 into 1,


x = 1 + 3(0.881)
= 1.643

The solutions are x = 3.043, y = 0.681 and x = 1.643,


y = 0.881.

Substitute p = 2 into 4,
q = 2(2) + 2
=6
Hence, p = 2, q = 6.

19. Volume = 6
2xy = 6

xy = 3.......................................... 1

Total length of edges = 24


4x + 4y + 4(2) = 24
4x + 4y = 16

x + y = 4

y = 4 x............... 2

17.
Perimeter = 36
15 + (y 3) + (x + 9) = 36

x + y + 21 = 36

y = 15 x............ 1

Substitute 2 into 1,

x(4 x) = 3
4x x2 = 3
x2 4x + 3 = 0
(x 1)(x 3) = 0

x 1 = 0 or x 3 = 0

x = 1 or
x = 3

Use Pythagorass theorem,


PR2 = PQ2 + QR2
152 = (y 3)2 + (x + 9)2...................... 2

Substitute 1 into 2,

225 = (15 x 3)2 + x2 + 18x + 81

0 = (12 x)2 + x2 + 18x + 81 225

0 = 144 24x + x2 + x2 + 18x + 81 225
9

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Additional Mathematics SPM Chapter 4

Substitute x = 1 into 2,
y = 4 1
=3

Substitute y = 2 into 2,
x = 3 2(2)
= 1
11
2
For x = , y = ,
5
5
11
2p = and 3k =
5
11
p =
k =
10

Substitute x = 3 into 2,
y = 4 3
=1

The solutions are x = 1, y = 3 and x = 3, y = 1.


20. Substitute y = 0 into y = x2 + 4x,
x2 + 4x = 0
x(x + 4) = 0
x = 0 or x + 4 = 0

x = 4

For x = 1, y = 2,
2p = 1
and
1
p =
2

3k = 2
2
k =
3
1
2
11
The solutions are p = , k = and p = ,
2
3
10
2
k = .
15

Hence, C(4, 0).

Equation of straight line is


40
y = x + 4
04
y = x + 4............................................ 1
y = x2 + 4x......................................... 2

2. Let the length, breadth and height of the cuboid are


x cm, x cm and y cm respectively.
8x + 4y = 104
2x + y = 26

y = 26 2x................................ 1

1 = 2, x + 4 = x2 + 4x

x2 5x + 4 = 0
(x 1)(x 4) = 0

x 1 = 0 or x 4 = 0

x = 1 or
x = 4

4xy + 2x2 = 440.................................... 2

Substitute 1 into 2,
4x(26 2x) + 2x2 = 440
2,
2x(26 2x) + x2 = 220
52x 4x2 + x2 220 = 0
3x2 + 52x 220 = 0
3x2 52x + 220 = 0
(3x 22)(x 10) = 0
22

x = or x = 10
3
22
Substitute x = into 1,
3
22
y = 26 2
3
44
= 26
3
34
=
3

At B, substitute x = 1 into 1,
y = 1 + 4
=3

The coordinates of B are (1, 3).

1.
x2 + y2 = 5........................................... 1
x + 2y = 3

x = 3 2y................................... 2

Substitute 2 into 1,

(3 2y)2 + y2 = 5
9 12y + 4y2 + y2 5 = 0
5y2 12y + 4 = 0
(5y 2)(y 2) = 0
2

y = or y = 2
5
2
Substitute y = into 2,
5
2
x = 3 2
5
4
=3
5
11
=
5

Substitute x = 10 into 1,
y = 26 2(10)
=6
Volume = x2y or
Volume = x2y

= 102 6
22 2 34

=

= 600 cm3
3
3
13
= 609 cm3
27

1 2

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5
2

15

10

21

Additional Mathematics SPM Chapter 4

3.
x + y = 18
y = 18 x..................................... 1

(x 1)(y + 2) = 20............................... 2

Substitute 1 into 2,
(x 1)(8 x + 2) = 20
(x 1)(10 x) = 20
10x x2 10 + x = 20
11x x2 = 30
x2 11x + 30 = 0
(x 6)(x 5) = 0

x = 5 or x = 6

x2 + y2 = 194........................................ 2

Substitute 1 into 2,

x2 + (18 x)2 = 194
x2 + 324 36x + x2 194 = 0
2x2 36x + 130 = 0

x2 18x + 65 = 0
(x 5)(x 13) = 0

x = 5 or 13

Substitute x = 5 into 1,
y = 8 5
=3

Substitute x = 5 into 1,
y = 18 5
= 13

Substitute x = 6 into 1,
y = 8 6
=2

Substitute x = 13 into 1,
y = 18 13
=5

The solutions are x = 5, y = 3 and x = 6, y = 2.

Therefore, the two numbers are 5 and 13.

6. Area of rectangle ABCD =


(x + 2)(y + 3) =

xy + 3x + 2y + 6 =

xy + 3x + 2y =

1
4. y = x + 5................................. 1
2
x2 + y2 = 100........................................ 2

Perimeter of ABD =
y + 3 + x + 2 + 10 =

y + x =

y =

Substitute 1 into 2,
2
1
x2 + x + 5 = 100
2
1
x2 + x2 + 5x + 25 100 = 0
4
5
x2 + 5x 75 = 0

4
4,
5x2 + 20x 300 = 0
5,
x2 + 4x 60 = 0
(x + 10)(x 6) = 0

x = 10 or 6

Substitute x = 4 into 2,
y = 9 4
=5

Substitute x = 6 into 2,
y = 9 6
=3

Substitute x = 6 into 1,
1
y = (6) + 5
2
=8
Therefore, A(10, 0) and B(6, 8)

5.
AC =
(x 1) + (y + 2) =

x + y + 1 =

y =

24
24
9
9 x..............................2

Substitute 2 into 1,
x(9 x) + 3x + 2(9 x) = 42
9x x2 + 3x + 18 2x 42 = 0

x2 10x + 24 = 0
(x 4)(x 6) = 0

x = 4 or x = 6

Substitute x = 10 into 1,
1
y = (10) + 5
2
= 5 + 5
=0

10 + 6 0 + 8
Midpoint of AB = ,
2
2

= (2, 4)

48
48
48
42......................... 1

Therefore, x = 4, y = 5 or x = 6, y = 3.
7. x + y = 20
y = 20 x....................................... 1

x2 + y2 = 208........................................ 2

Substitute 1 into 2,

x2 + (20 x)2 = 208
x2 + 400 40x + x2 208 = 0
2x2 40x + 192 = 0
2,
x2 20x + 96 = 0
(x 8)(x 12) = 0

x = 8 or x = 12

9 cm
9
9
8 x...................... 1

11

Penerbitan Pelangi Sdn. Bhd.

Additional Mathematics SPM Chapter 4

9. (a) When x = 0,

y = 02 6(0) + 8

y = 8

Substitute x = 8 into 1,
y = 20 8
= 12

Substitute x = 12 into 1,
y = 20 12
=8

Area of OAC = 32
1
(OA)(OC) = 32

2
1
(8)(OC) = 32
2

OC = 8

Since y . x, therefore the solution is x = 8, y = 12.


8.
Area of rectangle = 420
(x + 10)(2y + 20) = 420
2,
(x + 10)(y + 10) = 210
xy + 10x + 10y + 100 210 = 0

xy + 10x + 10y 110 = 0......................1

Equation of the line AC is


x
y
+ = 1

8
8

x + y = 8

(b) x + y = 8
y = 8 x................................. 1

y = x2 6x + 8.............................. 2

Substitute 1 into 2,
8 x = x2 6x + 8

x2 5x = 0

x(x 5) = 0
x = 0 (rejected) or x = 5

Substitute 2 into 1,
(14 2y)y + 10(14 2y) + 10y 110 = 0
14y 2y2 + 140 20y + 10y 110 = 0
2y2 + 4y + 30 = 0
(2),
y2 2y 15 = 0
(y 5)(y + 3) = 0

y = 5 or y = 3

Substitute x = 5 into 1,
y = 8 5
= 3

Substitute y = 5 into 2,
x = 14 2(5)
=4

Substitute y = 3 into 2,
x = 14 2(3)
= 20

The solutions are x = 4, y = 5 and x = 20, y = 3.

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The coordinates of C are (8, 0).

Perimeter of the circle = Perimeter of the rectangle


2pr = 2(x + 10) + 2(2y + 20)
22
2 (14) = 2(x + 10) + 2(2y + 20)
7
2,
44 = x + 10 + 2y + 20

44 = x + 2y + 30

x = 14 2y.....................2

The coordinates of A are (0, 8).

12

Therefore, the coordinates of B are (5, 3).