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NASA Technical

Memorandum

108852

Parametric Study on Laminar


Flow for Finite Wings at
Supersonic
Speeds
Joseph Avila Garcia, Ames Research

December

1994

National Aeronautics and


Space Administration
Ames Research Center
Moffett Field, California 94035-1000

Center, Moffett

Field, California

TABLE

OF

CONTENTS

Page
LIST

OF FIGURES

SUMMARY

....................................................................................................................

................................................................................................................................

INTRODUCTION

......................................................................................................................

Background
.....................................................................................................................
Laminar-flow
control .............................................................................................
Transition
Previous
Work
Current
GOVERNING
Mean

Work

...............................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................

EQUATIONS
.....................................................................................................
Flow ......................................................................................................................
Coordinate

transformation

.....................................................................................

Thin-layer

approximation

......................................................................................

Boundary-Layer
Linear Stability

Equations
Equations

11

Compressible
stability equations
...........................................................................
Solution of the eigenvalue
problem .......................................................................

13

stability

METHODS
Flow

block

diagonal

Boundary-Layer

Equations

Boundary-Layer

Stability

COMPUTATIONAL

GRID

algorithm

17

...................................................................

ADI algorithm

...........................................................

.............................................................................................
Equations

AND

...............................................................................

BOUNDARY

Grid Configurations
surface

ADI

CONDITIONS

.............................................

..............................................................................................

generator

(WSG)

.................................................

.............................

Volume grid generator


...........................................................................................
Boundary
Conditions
......................................................................................................
AUTOMATED
AND

Stability
Reynolds

STABILITY
DISCUSSION

ANALYSIS

.................................................................................

.................................................................................................

Automation
Validation
.....................................................................................
Number Effects ...............................................................................................

Angle-of-Attack

Effects

..................................................................................................

iii

P_liiOU_n"Ni

16
17

......................................................................................................................

Pulliam-Chaussee

Wing

equations

.........................................................................................................

Beam-Warming

RESULTS

9
10
11

NUMERICAL

Wing

4
6

.........................................................................

Incompressible

Mean

.............................................................................................
...............................................................................................

PAGE _P,,.ANIK riOT

18
18
18
18
19
19
19
19
20
20
21
21
21
23

F"N.ME_

Reynolds
Number Effects with Angle of Attack ............................................................
Sweep Effects ..................................................................................................................
CONCLUSIONS

AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Conclusions

Recommendations
REFERENCES

.....................................................................

.....................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................

...............................

.............................................................................................

24
25
26
26
27
28

APPENDIX

A .............................................................................................................................

59

APPENDIX

B .............................................................................................................................

63

APPENDIX

C ............................................................................................................................

85

APPENDIX

D .............................................................................................................................

93

iv

LIST

OF

FIGURES

Page

Figure
1.1

Transition

flow chart .........................................................................................................

2.1

General coordinate
transformation
from physical to
computational
space (ref. I0) ............................................................................................

32

2.2

Boundary-layer

33

2.3

Disturbance

4.1

Grid generation

5.1

Automated

6.1

Stability

6.2

Transition

6.3

Boundary-layer

6.4

Chordwise

6.5

Effect

of Reynolds

number

on crossflow

at 48%

6.6

Effect

of Reynolds

number

on crossflow

at 48% semispan

6.7

Effect of Reynolds
number on shear stress in the boundary-layer
at 48%
semispan
for x/c = 10% .....................................................................................................

43

Effect

44

code's
wave

coordinate

orientation

process

stability

of Reynolds

process

system

........................................

analysis

distribution

number

36

.........................................................................................
number

34
35

................................................................................

due to Reynolds

stability

pressure

coordinate

....................................................................................................

validation

front result

........................................................................

on the swept

analysis

automation

system

31

37

...............................................................

38

region ...........................................................................

39

(o_ = 0 ) ..........................................................................

40

on transition

Effect of angle of attack on transition


for Re = 6.34 million and 45 sweep

at 48%

semispan

semispan

..............................................

41

for x/c = 10% ......................

42

..............................................

prediction
at 48% semispan
................................................................................

45

Chordwise
pressure distribution
effects at 48% semispan
due to
angle of attack at Re = 6.34 million ..................................................................................

46

6.11

Effect

of angle of attack

on surface

flow patterns

47

6.12

Effect

of angle

on leading

edge

6.13

Effect of angle of attack on crossflow


for Re = 6.34 million and 45 sweep

6.10

of attack

............................................................

flow attachment

at 48% semispan

profiles at 48% semispan


................................................................................

...................

48

49

6.14

Maximum
crossflow
effect due to angle of attack at 48% semispan
for Re = 6.34 million and 45 sweep ................................................................................

50

Effect of angle of attack on crossflow


for Re = 12.68 million and 45 sweep

at 48% semispan
..............................................................................

51

Maximum
crossflow
effect due to angle of attack at 48% semispan
for Re = 12.68 million and 45 sweep ..............................................................................

52

Higher Reynolds
number effect with angle of attack on
transition
for the 45 sweep ..............................................................................................

53

6.18

Swept

54

6.19

Effect of sweep on surface flow patterns


Reynolds
number and 0 angle of attack

6.15

6.16

6.17

6.20

6.21

6.22

geometry

Effect of leading
at 48% semispan

surface

grids

...........................................................................................
at the lower
case ...................................................................

edge sweep on crossflow


profiles
(Re = 6.34 million and t_ = 0 ) .............................................................

55

56

Maximum
crossflow
effect due to leading edge sweep
at 48% semispan
for Re = 12.68 million and ct = 0 ........................................................

57

Effect of leading edge sweep on transition


at 48%
semispan
for Re = 12.68 million and ct = 0 ....................................................................

58

vi

PARAMETRIC

STUDY

ON LAMINAR
SUPERSONIC

Joseph
Ames

FLOW FOR FINITE


SPEEDS

WINGS

AT

Avila Garcia

Research

Center

SUMMARY

Laminar
eration

flow control

of High Speed

increase

range,

payload,

ture, and therefore


wings

at supersonic

speeds

Reynolds

the increased

angle

the amount

cost.

stability

of attack,

flow

over

of the next genan aircraft

capabilities

as well as lower

fuel requirements,

A parametric

study to predict

the extent

a computational

fluid dynamics

using

The results

can actually

delay

This results

investigated

showed

Therefore,

in viscous

in larger

code

cou-

were Reynolds

of attack

for

lift capability,

drag, due to the delay

payload

flow for finite

(CFD)

in angle

higher

will

skin tempera-

of laminar

in this study

that an increase

transition.

as well as a reduction

simultaneously.

in the development

of laminar

code. The parameters

and sweep.

numbers

can be expected

as a key element

was conducted

layer

angle of attack,

specific

identified
Extending

and altitude

the overall

pled with a boundary


number,

has been

Transports.

caused

by

in transition,

and range.

INTRODUCTION

Background
Laminar

flow control-

boundary-layer
active,

or reactive

control,
namic

control

the extent

of laminar

flow is equivalent

This delay in transition

Increasing

or control

of laminar

techniques

are categorized

Reynolds

(ref.

as those

parameters;

for example,

techniques

for example,

are categorized
wall suction,

A third form of flow control


which

1). Passive

means

techniques,

of altering

also known

the boundary-layer

pressure-gradient,-wall

flow

to delaying
is obtained

as natural

laminar

flow through

shaping,

sweep,

by passive,
flow (NLF)

normal

aerody-

angle of attack,

and

number.

Active
means;

transition.

out-of-phase

disturbances

already

trols include

periodic

trol is complex

disturbances
present,

as those

means

of altering

the flow through

outside

applied

heat transfer.
is reactive

flow control.

are artificially
thus stabilizing

heating/cooling

Reactive

introduced

the flow and delaying

and wall motion.

and, to date, is more of a theoretical

However,

method.

flow control

into the boundary


transition.
this method

is the process
layer
Some

by

to cancel

those

reactive

con-

of laminar

flow con-

The underlying

principle

of these

stage

in a process

sition is the eventual


layer" (ref. 1).
Prediction
sensitive
passive,

of boundary-layer

ary layer
bances

as one expert

that involves

transition

to any control parameter


and reactive flow controls

Transitionfigure 1.1 (ref.

techniques,

is an area which

that alters the mean


mentioned
above.

include

a viscous

process

freestream

known

vorticity,

The disturbances

in consideration

in the boundary

roughness,

vibrations,

eventually

(viscous)

ties due to crossflow


Once

waves

enter

or high Mach

the amplifications

numbers),

are large

and the flow becomes

(or TS waves),

enough,

transitional

One thing

that must be avoided

of these external

distur-

Identifying

and therefore

and

layer

for the preis a func-

is not usually

and then amplify.

For

by linear stability theory. The normal


in the boundary-layer
flow are
(inflectional)

vortices

nonlinearity

be noted

and therefore

flow studtes

waves

for curved

sets in through

(ref. 1). It should

in all laminar

the active,

processes
as described
in
disturbances
into the bound-

the critical

Rayleigh

and GtJrtler

of the flow is small compared


to the linear region
linear stability theory for preliminary
designs.

include

and sound.

as well as its environment,

layer

and must be

for a given problem,


is the basis
problem. The initial disturbance

low amplitude
disturbances,
the amplification
can be modeled
modes responsible
for the amplification
of these disturbances
Tollmein-Schlichting

physical
external

that tran-

in the boundary

methods

parameters

(ref. 2). Some

defining the initialization


of these external disturbances,
diction of transition
and creates an initial boundary-value
tion of the type of flow
known (ref. 1).

reliable

flow. These

as receptivity

surface

of disturbances

requires

The transition
process is composed
of several
1). The transition
process begins by introducing

through

instabilities

puts it, is "The realization

amplification

(i.e., instabili-

streamlines

secondary

(ref.

and tertiary

that the nonlinear

can still often

1).

portion

be approximated

is the introduction

of high levels

by

of

initial nonlinear
disturbances,
which cause a bypass of the _inear disturbance
regime and yield an
almost instantaneous
transition.
An example of such a nonlinear
transition
is attachment-line
contamination,
and is commonly
found in swept wings
edge caused by turbulent
flow from the fuselage.

due to lhe high crossflow

Previous
Laminar

flow control

began

in the 1930s with studies

which

investigated

(NLF) control, specifically


pressure gradient
tlows.
of the NACA 6-series airfoils in the 1940s. Natural

halted

1950s by the development

transonic/supersonic
and maintain

speeds

reasonable

three-dimensional
current

existing

of the wing

crossflow
means.

induces

of high speed jet ergine

and required

aircraft

the wing to be swept

performance

instability

The sweepback

a boundary-layer

that eliminated
crossflow.

to obtain

the ability

favorable

The sweep

methods

of natural

This research led to the


laminar flow research was later
aircraft.

(ref. 3). The effect

and highly

leading-

Work

laminar flow
development
in the

at the wing

These jet aircraft

reached

lower

numbers

of sweeping
to maintain

pressure

local mach
the wing
laminar

gradient

and adverse

pressure

introduced
flow through

near the leading-edge


gradient

near the

trailing-edgelikewiseinducescrossflowinstabilitieson thetrailing-edgeportion of
the more common
pressure
when

gradient

pressure

which

transition,

use of suction
crossflow

instability,
active

thins

thus extending

Further

development

cost fuel resource


interest

laminar

for more fuel efficient

this is by

(LFC).

was delayed

fuel efficiency

Reynolds

number,

LFC

(ref. 6).
of about

ten years

by the abundance

of low

1970s that

day.
to consider

A major

laminar-flow

control

skin friction

fuel efficiency

skin material
manufacturing
processes
to include strength and smoothness,
as well
in supercomputers
and computing
methods to analyze boundary-layer
stability for
have made

is turbulent

out

in the 1960s

It was not until the

designers

The

of extending

for a period

to the present

of
and

damping

feasibility

caused

such capabilities.

fuel efficiency

types
wings.

in this area peaked

the basic

aircraft

These

on swept

wall region,

as high as 30 million

has forced

control

ments in aircraft
as advancements

prediction,

affecting

flows

top requirement.

transition

factor

flow control
the effective

showed

and has continued

aircraft

to actively

with flow suction

lowering

in LFC

aircraft

gradient

of accomplishing

to the high viscous

numbers

and the high cost of designing


was recaptured

began

work

research

to improve

are amplified

of pressure

by attempts

flow (ref. 5). Work

The X-21A's

of the current

in LFC research

The need

closer

at Reynolds

necessity

One method

Unlike

a favorable

instabilities

the presence

as laminar

layer,

profile

the wing.

when

flows.

which

the boundary

flow techniques

due to the decreased

known

flow control,

are damped

inflectional

was then replaced

more commonly

with the flight test of the X-21A.


through

crossflow

can be reduced.

research

boundary-layer

which

by reducing

low pressure-gradient

as active

on the wing

the crossflow

instabilities

control

are categorized

moves

the three-dimensional

produce

laminar-flow

boundary-layer
controls

TS instabilities,

exist (ref. 4). Therefore,

these crossflow

NLF airfoils

Natural

two-dimensional

is applied,

gradients

over the wing,


using

viscous

drag.

Advance-

a more realistic

method

of improving

the amount

of laminar

flow over

aircraft

fuel efficiency.
Turbulent

skin friction

drag

is reduced

by extending

an aircraft.

Until recently,
most studies on laminar flow have been in the subsonic
flow region. Work done in
this subsonic
realm has shown that turbulent
skin friction drag can contribute
as much as 50 percent
of the total aircraft
nificant
(refs.

potential

drag (ref. 7). Studies


to increase

8 and 9). Another

reduction,
gross

which

weight

the cruise

benefit

allows

skin/structure

range/payload

laminar
Speed

flow
Research

requirements

study

(NLF)

is being

on finite

Program
for supersonic

conducted

swept

(HSRP)
laminar

wings
underway

Transports

ratio by increasing

flow at supersonic
material

speeds

options

(SSTs)

the extent
includes

have

shown

of laminar

aerodynamic

and, therefore,

decreased

sig-

flow
heating
aircraft

capability.

Current
A parametric

Supersonic

lift-to-drag

of laminar

for more

and increased

on typical

Work

as an effort

to numerically

at supersonic
at NASA

flow control

speeds.

predict

This study

the extent
is one part

to gain an understanding

(SLFC).

of natural
of the High

of the technical

As mentionedpreviously,by extendinglaminarflow overtheskin of


icant

decrease

in the turbulent

skin friction

which,

in turn, decreases

craft's body. Furthermore,


extending
laminar flow at supersonic
decrease the surface temperatures
allowing
for a more optimum
By understanding

the nature

ing benefits
can be expected
increased
payload,
decreased
cost,

and decreased

that are being

compressible

coefficients

addressed

compressible

boundary-layer

leading-edge

sweep

6.34 million

sweeps

stability
consists

study.

study

procedure

cases

These

(COSAL)

it, the followincreased


decreased

range,
initial

number,

angle

of attack,

and

compu-

(ref. 10). From the CNS code,

Cp's

number

the angles

of attack

Reynolds

are then used to compute

of 0, 5, and
the sweep

number

(ref.

pressure

the

under

of the extent

GOVERNING

12).

an angle-of-attack
the Reynolds

study,

and a

numbers
sweep

of

of 45 deg. The

10 deg at the two Reynolds

study addresses

and angle of attack

process

conducted

measure
flow.

transition

of 0 deg and leading-edge

The above

by the work

graphical
to turbulent

study,

study addresses

of 45 deg. Finally,
studies.

to predict

number

of attack

sweep

that was developed

code

at an angle

for the three

yields a three-dimensional
tion location of laminar

flow solver

cases.

of a Reynolds

of 45 and 60 deg at the lower

total of seven

(CNS)

The Reynolds

addresses

and leading-edge

to control

the use of the "Kaups and Cebeci" compressible


boundary-layer
the boundary-layer
parameters
are fed into a three-dimensional

and 12.68 million

angle-of-attack
values

study

on the air-

were analyzed through the use of an advanced


specifically
the Ames Research Center's
three-

for the various

profiles through
(ref. 11). Finally,

The parametric

flow and the ability

in this study are Reynolds

Navier-Stokes

(Cp) are obtained

boundary-layer
code (WING)

the total drag force

is a signif-

cost.

leading-edge
wing sweep. These parameters
tational fluid dynamics
(CFD) flow solver,
dimensional

laminar

there

speeds will also significantly


selection of skin material.

in future High Speed Research (HSR) aircraft designs:


fuel requirement,
increased options for skin material,

operating

The parameters

of supersonic

an aircraft,

was substantially
this study.
of laminar

number

the leading-edge
of 0 deg. This yields
automated

This automation
flow by predicting

through

procedure
the transi-

EQUATIONS

Mean

Flow

The physics of the flow in consideration


can be described
by the fundamental
equations
governing
viscous fluid flow. These fundamental
equation,,
are based upon the universal
laws of
conservation

of mass,

momentum,

and energy.

time-dependent,
nondimensional
Navier-Stokes
given in the following
vector form:

_gQ
+t

--4-

3E
OF
_x +-_y4

These

conservation

equations

3G
+z

_Ev+3Fv4
+x
"_y

laws are used to formulate

in Cartesian

oGv
+z

coordinates

the

(X, Y, Z) as

(2.1)

wherethe conservedquantityvector,Q, andthe Eulerflux vectors,E,


P
pu
O

and the viscous

.__

flux vectors

Ev

pu

pv

E=

[-

pu
2

pv

pw

puv

+p
F =

puv

F, G, are:

puw

pv 2 + p

pvw

pw

puw

pvw

pw 2 +p

_u(e + p).

_v(e + p)

w(e + p)

Ev, Fv, Gv, are:

= Re-I

"lTxx

1:xy

lyx

, Fv = Re -I

"l:zx

0
'txz

"l:yy

Gv

Re -I

'lTzz

lzy

.[3x

(2.2)

l:y z

_l]z

__y

with

"rxx = A(u x + Vy + w z ) + 21.tux


ryy = k,(u x + Vy + w z) + 21.try
rzz = A,(ux + Vy + w z ) + 2t.tw z
_xv = "yx = ll(Uy + Vx )
rxz = *Car= lI(u z + w x)
"fyz

= rZX' = I"l(v:

fix = YwPr-I

+ Wy)

'gxeI + Urxx + vr_,

+ W'Cx:

fly = y_'Pr -I tgy,e ! + UZyx + VZyy + W_:yz


flz = )qcPr-I
e I=e/p-0.5(u

(2.3)

3zeI + Urzx + Vrzy + wrzz


2+v 2+w

2)

p = (y - l)[e - 0.5p(u 2 + v 2 + w2)]

The variables
length,

are nondimensionalized

L, the velocity

by the corresponding

components
freestream

by dividing

by the freestream
values,

the spatial
speed

and the total energy

coordinates

of sound,

(x, y, z) by a reference

a_, the density

per unit volume,

and viscosity

e, by ( pa2)_.

Newtonianfluid is assumedwith coefficientof bulk viscosity_.obtainedfrom Stokes'hypothesis


_,= -2/3_t.It shouldbe notedthat"y"is theratio of specificheats,"_:" is thecoefficientof thermal
conductivity,"Re" is the Reynoldsnumber,and"Pr" is thePrandtlnumber.
Coordinate
these

equations

transformation-

To solve

into a generalized

body-conforming,

the governing

shown in figure 2.1. This allows the development


of body geometry,
with a simplified
application

it is necessary

to transform

coordinate

system

numerical
conditions.

algorithm,
independent
This transformation

of an efficient
of the boundary

maps the grid points in a one-to-one


correspondence
unit-volume
cells everywhere
(fig. 2.1). The general
(x,y,z)

equations,

curvilinear

with the physical points,


form of the transformation

(ref.

10) as

resulting
in a grid with
is expressed
as:

---->(_,rl,_)

_ : _(x,y,z)
rl = rl(x,y,z)

(2.4)

_ =_(x,y,z)
The chain

rule of partial

differentiation

is applied

to these transformation

equations

as follows:

_'--_= Xx_xx+ hx _-ff+ Zx_

_y

(2.5)

XY_xx + hY'ffh + ZY _zz

az= Xz +hz +ZzTzz


where

the metric

determined

terms

(_x, fix, _x, %y, fly, _y, _z, nz,

from the following

matrix

_q

differential

_q

_x

"fly

rlz

dy

;y

;z

dz

y_

in equation

2.5 can be

expressions:

E x]
dy

_z) appearing

yq

y//_gq

(2.6)

(2.7)

Therefore

{
Cx

Cy

Cz

qx

fly

rlz

xn

Yrl

zn

]
(2.8)

-(XnZ -xzn)
xcz -xz
-(xczn -xnz)

yqz-yCzrl
= J]-(y_z;

- y;z_)

[. YCZn- ynz
and the metric

terms

are represented

q
]

xny-xcyn
-(xCy-xCy)
xCy n -xny

as follows:

Cx = J(yqz
Cy = J(z_x-

-yCzq)
xqz)

Cz = J(xqy-xCyq)
qx = J(zcy

-yCz)

qy = J(xcz

-xz)

_z = J(ycxCx = J(Y@q

(2.9)

xCy)
-yqz)

Cy= J(xnz -xczn)


Cz =J(xcyq
where

J is the determinant

of the Jacobian

-xqy)

of the transformation

a(,n,)
-

Cx _y

_,,

nx
_x

TIz
_z

_y

(2.1 O)

which

can also be written

as

J = l/j

-1

=1/b(_'rl'_)
_(x,y,z)

- 1

z_
=
Applying

l/[x_(YrlZ

this transformation

yq

Y;

z_

z;

(2.11)

_ - y_Zrl) - Xrl(Y_Z _ - y_z_) + x_(y_Zrl


to the Navier-Stokes

equations

- yrlz_)]

2.1 gives

_Q _ _ _e _:_ _ _e_/
+_--_-_-_-nn
+-_-=_-ff_-+--_-_
+ _9_) or
(2.12)

where

= j-I

9U

pu

puU + _xP

pv

pvU + _yp

9_

pwU + _zP

(e + p)U
pV

9W

puV+rlxP

puW+_xp

pvV + fly p

pvW+_yp

pwV + rlz p

pwW + _zP

(e + p)V

(e + p)W

Ev=

j-I
--

_XTXX +_y_xy

+_z_xz

Tlxa:xx + rly'Cxy

+ TIz'Cxz

_x_yx

+_y_yy

+_z'Cyz

qx'l;yx

+ qz_yz

_x_zx

+ _y'_zy

+_z_zz

rlx'Czx + rly'Czy + Tlz'CzZ

+_y_y

+ _z_z

_xl3x

+ rlyTyy

Tlx_ x + lly_y

+ lqz_ z

0
_xa;xx

+_y'_xy

+_z_xz

_x_yx

+ _y'l:yy

+ _z'_yz

_x'_zx

+ _y_zy

+ _z'Czz

+ _y_y

+ _z_z

_x_x

where the components


of the shear-stress
tensor and heat-flux
the contra-variant
velocity components
(U, V, W) are

(2.13)

vector

were given

in equation

2.3 and

U=xU+ yV+ w
(2.14)

V = qxU+rlyV+qzW
W =_xU+_yV+_zW

Thin-layer
dependent
tries.

approximation-

three-dimensional

To alleviate

governing

some

equations.

high Reynolds

number

Large

Navier-Stokes

of this large

near the rigid boundaries.

the body

surface

ing be normal

be mapped

to this surface.

equations,

approximation

where

centrated

of CPU time are necessary

CPU requirement,

This thin-layer
flows,

amounts

the boundary
It should

to a coordinate
The resulting

be noted
surface

particularly

for flow about

complex

approximation

is applied

yields

the following

to the present

is thin and the effects


that the thin-layer

(for the present

study

grid has fine grid spacing

and much coarser spacing along the body. Therefore,


the viscous
are preserved
and those viscous terms in the stream and spanwise
approximation

final form of the governing

_)0 + c31_ _gF


03-'7 -_--_+_-t

study

mean

geometo the

involving

of viscosity

only

are con-

approximation

requires

_ = _min)

and that cluster-

in the body-normal

terms in the body-normal


direction are neglected.

o3G _ 1 (OS']
at
Re I
J

the time-

a thin-layer
is applicable

layer

to solve

that

direction
direction
This

flow equations:

(2.15)

where
0

_t

.(;_ +;_ +;_)v; + 7(;xU;+;yV;+ ;zW;);y


_t

(4 2 +;_

and

(_, i_, _" , and

+ ;2)[0.51a(u2

+_(;x

(_ are given

+v 2 +w2);

by equation

Due to the extensive


wing surface.
boundary-layer

mean

about

+;yV;

+ _zW_)

Equations
to obtain

was used to provide

an accurate

boundary-layer

only the pressure

This pressure distribution


was then supplied to a boundary-layer
profiles needed to predict transition.
The b_mndary-layer
code

boundary-layer
code uses a conical
assumes a polar coordinate
system
valid

(a2);]l

2.13.

of CPU time required

flow solution

Id

Pr(7 - 1)

u + ;yV + _zW)(;xU;

Boundary-Layer

the Navier-Stokes

for pressure

isobars

along

flow approximation
as shown in figure

constant

percent

chord

distribution

solution,
over

the

code to provide
the
WING was used. This

for the flow over a finite swept wing and


2.2 (ref. 11). This conical flow assumption
is
lines for wings

of trapezoidal

planform.

It

should be noted that this assumption


is not valid near the tip or root of the wing due to the strong
pressure
gradients
created in these locations
The governing

boundary-layer

equations

for the three-c imensional

with the above conical flow assumption


(3p/3r - 0), are given
momentum,
and energy equations
and are expressed
as:
Continuity

compressible

by the fundamental

flow,

equation:

(2.16)

_(pru) + _-_
3 (pw) + _zz(1)rv)
3
= 0
r-momentum

laminar
continuity,

equation:

au

waU

au

PU_-r+PT3--o+PV_zz-P

w:
r

I0

3(

au'_

=_zz_!Lt-_z)

(2.17)

0-momentum

equation:

3w
w Ow
3w
uw _
OU-_--r + P r_+ PV-_z - P r

Energy

l _)p

3 (cOw)

r 30 +_zz[._z

(2.18)

-----I-. ( l- r l)3Iu2+w22
Pvaz-az [Vr0z

(2.19)

equation:
[.-

3H

w 3H

3H

f'u-L-r+ 07 +
The following

boundary

conditions

0 [ _ 3H

are then applied:

at y=O;u=O,v=Vw,

W=O,(3-_-yH /

= O (at the wall)


w

at y _

where

y is the distance

ties at the wall.


denote

normal

The symbol

boundary-layer

Furthermore,

He , w _

to the wall,

3 represents

and the subscript

w indicates

the boundary-layer

direction,

component

in the radial

and v is the velocity

it should be noted that air is treated


number (Pr) is assumed constant.

Linear
The

w e (at the boundary-layer

edge)

the boundary-layer
and the subscript

e is used to

(r) direction,

w is the velocity

component

Compressible

Stability

AnaLysis

component

as a perfect

Stability

in the body-normal

gas, Sutherland's

direction

law is used

(COSAL)

code

is used to analyze

the stability

layer (ref. 12) in order to predict transition.


COSAL determines
compressible
Navier-Stokes
equations
using small-disturbance

theory

that the following

13). Note,

ible three-dimensional
for simplicity.

flow will begin

The derivation

derivation
by deriving

will be completed

for [a and

Equations

dimensional
boundary
of the three-dimensional
(ref.

quanti-

thickness,

edge quantities.

u is the velocity

normal to the radial


(fig. 2.2).
Finally,
the Prandtl

3; u --) Ue, H _

of the linear

stability

the incompressible
with the derivation

equation

of the threethe stability


stability

for the compress-

flow (p = constant)
of the compressible

condition
stability

equations.
Incompressible
expressed

stability

by the following

equationsnonlinear

The three-dimensional

Navier-Stokes

incompressible

flow is

equations:

_U

--+u.
3t

viscous

Vu=-'-Vp+
p

11

vV2u

(2.20)

V.u
The fluid motion

where,

is then decomposed

U and P are the mean

The x, y, z Cartesian
directions,
equations
neglected.

flow and an instantaneous

and higher

Finally,

dynamic

velocities

by a reference

(2.22)

p(x,y,x,t)

= P(x,y,z)

+ p(x,y,z,t)

(2.23)

flow velocities
are oriented

following

linearized

terms

powers

and pressures

disturbance

direction.

of the original

is applied

Ue, density

respectively

in the x, y, z directions.

so that x and z are the streamwise

and products

similitude

velocity

as follows:

+ fi(x, y, z, t)

The basic

away,

disturbance

= U(x,y,z)

and y is the body-normal

2.20 and 2.21.

subtracted

into a steady

(2.21)

u(x,y,x,t)

coordinates

respectively,

=0

These

nonlinear

are substituted

Navier-Stokes

equations

of the perturbation
where

all lengths

by 9e, pressure

and spanwise

disturbances
terms,

being

are scaled

very

into
are then

small,

by a reference

are
length

by peu2 e, and time by 1/Ue, yielding

1,

the

equations:
!
-- -t- U-Vu
bt

+ u. VU = -Vp+

-V2_
R

(2.24)

V. fi = 0
where

R is a characteristic

Furthermore,

a "quasiparallel"

tion of the body-normal


only varies

flows

(z) direction

flow assumption

number

defined

as:

flow is assumed,

coordinate

in the y direction

boundary-layer
spanwise

Reynolds

"y" for a given

(2.25)

which
point

i::nplies that the mean


along

and not in the x or z direction.

since,

at high Reynolds

are much

can therefore

smaller

numbers,

be represented

the body. This means

This

assumption

the :low gradients

than in the body-normal

flow is only a functhe velocity

is applicable
in the streamwise

(y) direction.

U(y)

and W(y)

The linear
(PDEs),

are the velocity

disturbance

and the following

equations
normal

as follows:

components

(2.26)

in the x _nd z directions,

are now homogeneous,


mode

(x) or

The quasiparallel

U = U(U(y),O,W(yi)
where

to

solution

applies:

12

separable

partial

respectively.
differential

equations

_exp[i(ot, x + 13z - cot)]


[*(Y)]

(2.27)

(P(Y) J
where
(ref.

o_ and 13 are the x and z components


1), and

for a given

fi,O,_,_
frequency

Substituting
tions 2.24

are the complex

of the disturbance

eigenfunctions

wave

vector,

that determine

k, as shown

the structure

equations

2.26 and 2.27 into the linearized

and 2.25 yields

the following

set of ordinary

Navier-Stokes

differential

equations

of the disturbance

disturbance

fi(o_2 + 132)

dW_,d__y_
-i131_ +1

(2.28)

_(0_2 + _2 )]

[d26v

(2.29)

- *(Or2 + _2 )]

(2.30)

iO_fi+ i13_v+ dv=0


dy
boundary
at

conditions

fi(0) = 0(0) = _(0)

as y --->oo (freestream);

an eigenvalue
This solution

problem

conditions

exists

can be expressed

(2.31)

are applied:

y = 0 (wall);

Note that the boundary

fi(y) --->0,

and equations

and a solution

exists

by the following

_(y)

Now

exists

the following

six arbitrary

--->0, _'(y)

for only a certain

dispersion

real parameters:

(Otr ,Oti ,_r ,_i ,cor,O_i )

13

--->0

2.31 are homogeneous;


combination

therefore

of o_, _, and o).

relation:

o_, 13, co are all complex.


there

= 0

2.28 through

co = co(o_,_)

where

equa-

(ODEs):

R [d2y

i(otU + [_W- w)C = -dsdP + I fd2v

the following

2.3

(co).

i(o_U + _W - co)fi + d___U_U


_ = -io_
dy

Next,

in figure

(2.32)

which

then form

an eigenvalue

problem.

Compressible
stability equations-equations
are an extension
of the above
The fluid motion
done

is decomposed

for the incompressible

Note that the temperature


The Cartesian
solid body
neous

equations

respectively,

2.33 through

The resulting

linear

Navier-Stokes

equations,

disturbance,

as was

as follows:

= U(x,y,z)

+ fi(x, y, z, t)

(2.33)

p(x,y,x,t)

= P(x,y,z)

+ _(x,y,z,t)

(2.34)

x(x,y,x,t)

= T(x,y,z)

+ _(x,y,z,t)

(2.35)

to take into account

x, y, z is used again

to it. The term u, represents

2.35 are substituted


is linearized

and neglecting

higher

the y-axis

pressure

powers

the basic

, _

Next,

Navier-Stokes
terms

and products

Finally, assuming
the basic flow is locally parallel as was done above
assumption
of equation
2.26, the linearized
compressible
Navier-Stokes
separable,
permitting
the following
normal mode solution:

to the

of the instanta-

and temperature.

compressible

away

effects.

is normal

the x, y, z components

into the nonlinear


by subtracting

the compressibility

in which

and p and "r are the instantaneous

equations

flow stability

u(x,y,x,t)

system

equation

viscous compressible
equations.

flow and an instantaneous

Navier-Stokes

term "r was added

coordinate

tions.

into a steady

nonlinear

and x, z are parallel

velocity,

The three-dimensional
derived incompressible

equa-

of the original

non-

of the perturbation

terms.

in the quasiparallel
flow
equations
become

,(y)/
=. _(y)texp[i(otx

+ 13z - cot)]

(2.36)

f)(Y) /

Here,

the quantities

with tildas

denote

, "_(Y) J

complex

disturbance

amplitudes.

Substituting
equations
2.26 and 2.36 into the linearized
compressible
yields the following
system of ordinary differential
equatio:ls:
(A D 2 + B D + C)_ --:0

14

Navier-Stokes

equations

(2.37)

where

D represents

"d/dy"

and

is the vector

defined

by

(2.38)

and A, B, C are 5 x 5 matrices

given

by

A_._

1 dBo
go

dTo T6

i(K - I)(0 2 + [_2)

0
B

i(k-

1)/_

2(_-

1)M2cj(o_U_

+ [3W o)

(0_2 + [32 )

1 dBo T'
Bo dTo
R

Bo_.
2 dgo

1 dg o (otU + _W6)
]-to dT o

1 dBo (ocW D _ [3U_))


go dTo

Bo dTo T;

2(y-

I)M2c(otW_
(or2 + [32 )

15

- 6U_))

1 dBo

dToT6

-JR

(tUo+13Wo

_T

+_o)- xic,2+132)1J
[--(_u

iR /

o + f_wo)

-[--{ccU

laoTo
,
|+'-R a.o%1_2+_2)
[

o + 13Wo

_m)+(Ot2

_to dTo

+_2)/X

'

"-[iRoT o/Tog

- 2i(y

-I)M20(aUo

+ 13Wg)lJ

(
/-'_"o

1
i.,_M2
(_U o

, f

iR / BT(7

q3Wo

- I)M2 1

(_u o + 13wo - co) j

+co) J
C

-l_(_U

o + DW o

120 O

--[(aUo

O
0
--m)+(R_ +ff_)--(7--

d21ao

+l_Wo).71
dT

_o

l I_[

o I

1 d_
I)M2 --(--(
Bo dTo

__L%
_-"o a.o
dTo (_Uo+{3%)}

To+ I_ug+_Wo')
d.ol|
aToJ

U'o 2

(o_W_ - 13Uo) ]

d"

Po

dTo

+ d_

(OtWo'_[gUo)]

dTo
+Wo 2 ) _ d._2o
dT

(TO )2
o

_ dgo T"'
dTo

ol
_[

iRo

o]

(ccU o+_W

I_T
-o_)+(ot

}
2 +[32)1

(2.39)
The boundary

conditions

for equation

2.37 are

y = 0; 01 - (I)2= 4 = 5 = 0
(2.40)
y _

The above
found

boundary

conditions

for the incompressible

expressed
by the dispersion
nents oc, 13 with the complex

oo; i = 2 = 04

and equations
derivation

2.37-2.39

represented

= 05

--") 0

re_resent

earlier.

an eigenvalue

This eigenvalue

problem

problem

can also be

relation of equation 2.23 which relates the wavenumber


vector
frequency
m. Also, note that again there exists the six arbitrary

parameters

16

as was
comporeal

(O_r,o_i,_3r,_3i
,cor,coi )
Solution
of the eigenvalue
problemThe eigenvalue
problem can be solved
four of the six parameters
mentioned above and finding the other two parameters
equations

2.28-2.31

for the incompressible

flow, or 2.37-2.39

for compressible

by specifying
by using
flow.

In order to

solve the eigenvalue


a temporal
decays only in time (temporally)

stability theory is used which assumes that the disturbance grows


and not in space (spatially). Since o_, [3 are the spatial parameters

and co is the temporal

(i.e., see eq. 2.36) of the disturbance,

real and co complex.

parameter
Therefore,

nent of the frequency

the disturbance

(coi) and grows

amplification

or decays

then o_, 13 are assumed

is represented

by the complex

or

to be
compo-

as follows:

coi > 0, grows


coi < 0, decays
Then a disturbance
follows:

level measurement

(N-factor

or N) is obtained

'_t

N =

for transition

and is represented

as

(2.41)

COi

c Re(Vg)

ds

where _'g is the group velocity (direction


and speed of the wave energy) (fig. 2.3). Assuming
a twodimensional
wave, the Gaster transformation
(ref. 15) can be used to estimate the group velocity
as
8oJ
"qg -

Note,

co = 2rcf and o_ = f. ). is the wave

(co) from one location


To compute
specified.

to another

the N-factor,

The N-factor

number.

downstream

The group

(f) and the disturbance

along

ity. Transition

is then predicted

at an N-factor

from previous

studies

wings

on swept

the curve

are two finite-difference

the thin-layer

approximation
nal implicit

Navier-Stokes

factorization
algorithm

scheme

the change

in frequency

length

(X) must be

on comparison

with empirical

velocdata

17).

in the compressible

These

finite-difference

in delta form by Beam

and Chaussee

wave

to the real part of the group

Flow

options

equations.

algorithm

by Pulliam

yields

METHODS

Mean
There

tangent

of 8 to 10 based

(refs. 4, 16, and

NUMERICAL

solve

velocity

location.

the real frequency

is then integrated

(2.42)

(ref. 19).

17

Navier-Stokes
schemes

and Warming

(CNS)

code

are the implicit


(ref. 18) and the diago-

to

Implicit methods are used over explicit methods to avoid restrictive


time-step
stability conditions
which occur when small grid spacing is required,
as in the present study. This high resolution
grid
spacing

requirement

is needed

to capture

the boundary-layer

viscous

effects

occurring

near the wall

in the present study. Unlike explicit methods that yield stiff problems
and restrict the time step to
very small values for stability,
implicit methods generally
avoid such stiffness problems
and allow
the use of a larger time step without loss of accuracy
(ref. 19).
Beam-Warming
order

accurate

or factored
algorithm

block

ADI algorithm-

in time and second-

to reduce
produces

the process

The Beam-Warming

or fourth-order

accurate

to a set of one-dimensional

a 5 5 block

tridiagonal

system

algorithm

an space.

is first-

The equations

problems

for each

that must be inverted

or second-

are spatially

time iteration.

for each spatial

split
The

dimension

for each time step, due to the second-order


central-difference
operators
being used. Further discussion of the accuracy
and stability characteristics
of this numerical scheme can be found in Beam and
Warming
(ref. 18). Based on linear
ble in two dimensions
but in actual

analysis, the following


numerical
scheme is unconditionally
stause, time step limits are encountered
because of the nonlinear

nature of the equations.


The algorithm
through the use of artificial dissipation
Pulliam-Chaussee
solve

diagonal

the Navier-Stokes

ARC3D

computer

ADI algorithm.
sides.

formations

which

pentadiagonal

ADI algorithm-

equations

greatly

The second
is known

uses a fourth-order-accurate

In this algorithm

matrices

simplify

the flux Jacobians


the iteration

need be inverted

than the Beam-Warming

was used for all mean flow computations

block

scheme

partial

differential

The compressible

equations

dures.

A global

boundary-layer

finite-difference
eigenvalue

operator

on both the left- and

by special

For this algorithm

Diagonal
similarity

trans-

only a set of scalar


several

times

The Pulliam-Chaussee

less

diagonal

in the p_esent study.

Equations

WING uses the Keller box method to solve the boundary-layer


equahas been proven to be an accurate and efficient
method to solve
of this type, as found

Boundary-Layer

second-order

used to

from the Pulliam-Steger

smoothing

above.

although

algorithm

at the Pulliam-Chaussee

described

Boundary-Layer

parabolic

taken

numerical

are diagonalized

process.

algorithm

The boundary-layer
code
2.16-2.19.
This method

basic

unstable,

for each time step, making this scheme

expensive

tions

is unconditionally
is maintained.

in the CNS code has been

code (ref. 19). This algorithm

This scheme

right-hand

in three-dimensions
terms the stability

stability

formulation
search

procedure

Stability
equations

in references

Equations
2.37 are solved

(ref. 14). The cote

includes

is used when n,) guess

by the COSAL
two eigenvalue

is available

A local eigenvalue
search is used when a good guess for the eigenvalues
imately 10 times faster than the global procedure
(ref. 14).

18

20-23.

code
search

using
proce-

for the eigenvalues.

is available;

this is approx-

COMPUTATIONAL

GRID

AND

Wing Grid
The computational
eration

code

required

grids

named

wing

by the above

NACA 6- and 6A-series


distribution,
or camber.
grid generation
acquired

codes

was developed
wings

instructions
several

to quickly

wing

direction

It should

surface
chord

be noted

surface

airfoil

ordinates,

to obtain

ordinates

for

airfoils of a given thickness,


thickness
using either the interactive
surface
the desired

airfoil

grid is then generated

grid generation

geometries.

This code

airfoil

grids. The following


spacing);

grid gen-

section
through

is
the

(ref. 27).

shape.

code

to allow

of spanwise

final spacing

a set of

and appendix
taper

C has

method

of creat-

ratio or aspect

cuts on the wing;

in the spanwise

above

single-element
A contains

the user a quick

is a list of the inputs:

number

mentioned

generates

Appendix

a copy of the code,

was designed

desired

surface

The

developed

(ref. 26). Once

B contains

WSG

direction

initial

ratio;

spacing

(wing-root

in

spac-

file.

that the process

necessary

file requires

a few steps and is described

the process,

refer

The surface

wing

appendix

sweep;

(wing-tip

ordinates

grid (VG)

ratio for a given

codes.

in this study.

from a code

HYPGEN

various

execution,

or quarter

ing); and airfoil

developed

The algebraic

and taper

pre-processing

ing single-element
the spanwise

generate

sweep

for program

edge

(WSG)-

from an algebraic

the three-dimensional

grid generator

generator

required

leading

grid is generated,

volume

with specified

or WSG

grid code, were obtained

S3D (ref. 25) or visual

use of the hyperbolic


surface

generator

were generated

airfoils (ref. 24). This code produces


These ordinates
are then redistributed

and the surface

Wing

surface

CONDITIONS

Configurations

used in this analysis

surface

BOUNDARY

to the instructions
grid generation

to obtain

the above-mentioned

in the flow chart

listed

in appendix

code requires

of figure

airfoil

ordinate

4.1. For a detailed

input

explanation

of

A.

only a few seconds

execution

time on an IRIS work-

station. One feature of the code includes a check for negative


trailing-edge
sweep, which can be
obtained when certain combinations
of taper ratio, aspect ratio, and leading-edge
sweep are chosen.
The reason
transition

for this check


analysis

Finally,

Volume

block

and checks

points

along

grid generator-

grids.

equations

The cell volume


generated.

swept-forward
surface

grid generator

the spanwise

direction

The three-dimensional

HYPGEN

accomplishes

consisting
check

The cell volume

uses the Vinokur


at the wing's

computational

relations

is one of two grid quality


check

being

used

is a cell volume

checks

computation

The second

19

wake,
grids

stretching

in the

routine

root, and tip sections.


for the various

wing

three-dimensional
grid generation
volume grid over the generated

this by solving

of two orthogonality

the grid for any types of distortions.

code currently

wing edges.

being studied are generated


using a hyperbolic
(ref. 27). This code generates a three-dimensional

surface

generation

analyze

note that the algebraic

(ref. 28) to cluster

geometries
HYPGEN

is due to the fact that the boundary-layer

cannot

the three-dimensional

hyperbolic

and one cell volume


conducted
using

tetrahedron

grid

check.

by HYPGEN

test is a Jacobian

code
single-

after

a grid is

decomposition,

computation

and uses a

finite volumealgorithm,specificallythe OVERFLOWflow solveralgorithm(ref. 29). If a grid


passesthe two tests,it shouldrun throughthe flow solver.Although,if anycell in the grid passesthe
secondtestandnot the first test,theaccuracymaybe affecledin thoseregions(ref. 27).

Boundary
The
far-field
wing's

Conditions

solid wall conditions


are specified
in CNS as no-slip
flow variables
are set to free-stream
flow conditions.
root which

eliminates

effects

due to the fuselage

and adiabatic.
A symmetry

that could

yield

The outer boundary


plane is used at the

leading-edge

or

flow contami-

nation also known as spanwise


turbulent
contamination.
This phenomenon
was first discovered
by
Gray (ref. 30) in flight at the Royal Aircraft Establishment
IRAE) in 1951 and is a nonlinear
transition as was discussed
earlier in the Introduction.

AUTOMATED

In order
analysis

to conduct

process

the following

parametric

due to the extensive

Once the automation


F-16XL Shipl flight
The automated

STABILITY

number

study

analysis

process

was created

used in this study to obtain transition


predictions,
be found in appendix
D. The automation
process
solution.

it was necessary

of man-hours

portion of the study was completed


test was used as a validation
case.
stability

This file contains

the pressure

ANALYSIS

required

to substantially

to obtain

it was necessary

using

a script

automate

a transition

the

prediction.

to perform

validation.

The

that combined

the three

codes

as illustrated
in figure 5.1. A copy of the script can
begins after a file is generated
from the mean flow

distributions

of the selected

span stations

for a specific

wing

geometry.
The pressure distributions
are supplied
tion at a time, which computes
the boundary-layer

to the boundary-layer
code (WING), one span staparameters
and profiles. Next the boundary-layer

outputs

AnaLysis

are supplied

to the Compressible

bances in the boundary-layer.


script run the stability code
most unstable

condition.

Stability

23 input files with the required COSAL input


is required in the script to analyze the selected

frequency

scan

requires

CPU time of 1.5 hours


time for a typical
code

WING

for an average

by setting

to measure

COSAL

processor

Cray

post-processing

codes

of frequencies.

run is approximately

23 runs for each of the 8 selected


on a single

u F a loop in the script

for the spectram


span stations.

job may run as long as 3 hours

and other

(COSAL)

the distur-

Note that for each span station the stability analysis requires that the
for a spectrum
of frequencies
between 0 and 40,000 Hz to determine
the

This is accomplished

The user time required

code

Y-MP

span stations
is needed

due to the added

in the developed

Finally,

30 seconds

an outer

and since

on the wing,

per case.

loop

the

a total average

The actual

turnaround

I/O time to run the boundary-layer

automation

noted that the stability analysis must be run with 64-bit precision (e.g.,
needed accuracy of the eigenvalue
search routine used in COSAL.

2O

to run a set of

script.

Also,

Cray Y-MP)

it should

due to the

be

RESULTS

As mentioned

in section

decreases

the skin friction

reduction

will allow

extending

laminar

tures,

allowing

for increased

addressed

wing

type aircraft,

the range

per foot based

sweep.

speeds

sweeps

selection

this study

of angle

of attack

number

consist

to validate

of the F-16XL

wing

cess, compared
result

study

the automation

transition

focused

Furthermore,

the surface

number,

on High

angle

Speed

tempera-

of approximately

of attack,

and

Civil Transport

to 10 deg. The Reynolds

Automation

process

validation

process

a full parametric
region

decrease

This drag

number

45,000

(HSCT)

of 1.12 million

feet is used.

The

of 45 and 60 deg.

case, using

previously

the number

study

5, the F- 16XL wing

the newly

obtained

developed

manually,

of man hours

required

to a matter

Number

was conducted,

of laminar

Validation

of section

Reynolds
Before

fuel requirements.

are Reynolds

is limited

dimensional
transition
front dropped from hours
time dropped from days to a matter of hours.

had a reasonable

significantly

force on the aircraft.

of skin material.

of 1.5 and altitude

well with the results

of the automated

and decreased

is being

Stability
In order

the skin of an aircraft

the total drag

will also significantly

in the present

Since

on a Mach

flow over

range/payload

for a more optimum

The parameters

laminar

DISCUSSION

in turn, decreases

flow at supersonic

leading-edge

leading-edge

1, extending
which,

AND

automated

as shown
to obtain

of minutes,

was used.

stability

in figure
a single

The results
pro-

6.1. As a

three-

and the overall

turnaround

Effects

it was necessary

flow. This was necessary

to establish

a baseline

so that the effects

case that

of changing

the vari-

ous parameters
could be distinguished.
To achieve a fair amount of laminar flow, maintain
supersonic cruise conditions
at 40,000 to 50,000 feet altitude, and achieve a free stream Mach number of
1.5, a Reynolds
changing
laminar
figure

number

length.

flow was decreased


6.2 by the transition

10 feet. The light gray


predicted.
(N-factors)
indicated
studies.

of 1.27 million

the root chord

The critical
transition

of the Reynolds

as the local Reynolds


fronts

region

of the chosen

signifies

prediction

number

study

was increased.
wing

of the wing

transition

level of 8 was chosen


studies

number

was then varied

showed

that the extent

This is illustrated

for two root chord


where

laminar

lengths,

flow

by
of

in
5 and

is no longer

laminar flow as predicted


for disturbance
levels
from 0 to 8. The disturbance
level of 8 is selected,

line, as the critical

disturbance

number
baseline

the portion

The dark gray region represents


in the boundary
layer ranging
by the solid black

swept-wing

per foot was used. The Reynolds

The results

(refs.

N-factor

for all of the following

as a conservative

4, 16, and 17). It should

value
be noted

based

parametric

on previous

that the transition

results near the tip and root of the wing are not valid due to the conical flow assumption
used in the
boundary-layer
code (WING). Tip effects also eliminate
the potential
for laminar flow near the wing
tip region. The analysis was therefore
only limited to the gray area shown in figure 6.3. Further
investigation
into the conical flow assumption
showed that for this configuration
the flow was not

21

truly conical,ascanbe seenin thepressurecoefficient(Cp)plots for the two Reynoldsnumbercases


in figure6.4.Thesepressurecoefficientplotsshowthe chordwisepressuredistributionversusthe
normalizedx/c locationsfor theeightspanstationlocationscomputedin theboundary-layerstability
analysis.Note thatif the flow wastruly conicalthe Cp distributionfor eachspanstationwould
basicallybesweptbackand,whenplottednormalizedwith the local chordlength,they would all
havethe sameCp distribution.The Cpdistributionresults(fig. 6.4) showthatfrom the midsemispan(48 percentsemispan)to thetip of thewing someconicalflow doesoccurfor approximatelythe first 20 percentchord.The Cpdistributionsalsoshowthat for the 33 percentsemispan
conical flow is only valid up to approximately10percentchord,andfor 13percentto 19percent
semispanthe conical flow assumptionis not valid at all. It shouldalsobenotedthatat higherangles
of attackthe wing tip effect becomesmorepronounced,further diminishingconicalflow nearthe
tip. Therefore,the wing root andtip regionswill not bediscussedfurther.This studywill only
includethe mid-semispan(48 percentsemispan)stationof the wing.
Furthermore,the pressuredistributionresult(fig. 6.4) showsthatthereexistsa strongfavorable
pressuregradientatthe leading-edgeof the wing anda strongadversepressuregradientat the
wing's trailing edge.As wasmentionedearlierin the introduction,laminarflow transitionstudies
havefoundthatthe three-dimensional
crossflowinstabilitiesareamplifiedin thepresenceof pressuregradientflows andthatthemorecommontwo-dimensionalTS instabilitiesaredampedin the
presenceof favorablepressuregradientflows. Therefore,all boundary-layerstabilitycalculationsto
determinetransition will be conductedfor crossflowinstabilitiesandnot TS instabilities.
In orderto study the flow morethoroughly,boundary-layerprofile plots weremadefor the two
Reynoldsnumbercasesat 48 percentsemispan.Sincetransitionis foundto occurbefore20 percent
chord,crossflowboundary-layerprofileswereplottedfromx/c of 0 percentto 21 percent,asshown
in figure 6.5.The crossflowprofilesrevealthattheinflection pointof the profile movescloserto the
wall asthe Reynoldsnumberis decreased.
Sincethe Reynoldsnumberis variedby changingthe root
chordof the wing, the boundary-layer'snormaldistancefrom the wall (y) is nondimensionalized
with the local boundarylayerthickness(d).Thecrossflowprofile atthe x/c stationof 10percentis
consideredfirst. Whenthecrossflowprofile is now plotted;is y/d versus the crossflow component,
the results

show

that the two Reynolds

figure

6.6 indicates

ferent

Reynolds

the two Reynolds


ary layer
case.

Only

that the inflection

number

cases

number

are lower

cases

cases

follow

of the crossflow

However,

for the higher

the x/c station

number

Reynolds

of 10 percent

profiles

a plot of y/d versus

(fig. 6.7) reveals

trend

(fig. 6.6). Also,

at the same y/d for the two dif-

stress

at the x/c of 10 percent

y/d, the shear

case and higher

to illustrate

the same

occur
shear

that, at a given

number

is shown

exactly

stresses

for the lower

the relationship

for

in the bound-

Reynolds

number

of the movement

of the

crossflow
inflection
point of figure 6.5 to the shear stress (fig. 6.7) due to Reynolds
number effects.
Finally, the crossflow
boundary-layer
profile results (figs. 6.5 and 6.6) show that changes in
Reynolds
Next,
figure

number

do not affect

stability

curves

6.8. This

figure

the critical boundary-layer


tions at which the given

the magnitude

of the transition

is a plot of chordwise

of the maximum

results

crossflow

at the 48 percent

x/c versus

frequency

semispan

velocities.
station

for the Reynolds

are shown
number

in

study

at

disturbance
level (N-factor)
of 8. Basically, this plot shows the x/c locafrequencies
yield the disturbance
level of 8, and it is defined that the x/c

value where this disturbance


level first occurs is where transition
is predicted.
For example,
for the
Reynolds
number of 6.3 million, the curve indicates
that the disturbance
level of 8 first occurs at the

22

x/c value

of approximately

12 percent

ber case of 12.7 million,


3 percent

the results

and a frequency

for a frequency

show

of 20,000

of 14,000

that the transition

Hz. Therefore,

Hz. For the higher

shifts forward

from the results

Reynolds

num-

to an x/c of approximately

of the linear-stability

theory's

transition
prediction
and the boundary-layer
profiles, its is revealed that a decrease in Reynolds
number yields higher shear stresses in the boundary
layer which act to damp out the crossflow
instabilities

and delay

transition.

Angle-of-Attack
Recall

that the results

in the wing

tip and root regions

assumption
made in the boundary-layer
diction results will only be addressed
following

Boundary-layer

stability

6.9. This figure

angles

of attack

due to the conical

solutions. Therefore,
the boundary-layer
at the mid-semispan
(48 percent semispan)

moves

Although

back

of 14,000

to study

flow

and transition
prestation for all the

span is shown
favorable

gradient

pressure

6.10.

The result
continues

back

produce

more delay
revealed

this trend

that as angle of attack

occurs

up to approximately

80 percent

chord

transi-

of transition,

at 48 percent

is increased
chord.

at a

of attack,

in the delay

chord

that

Hz.

than others.

cases

for the first 5 percent

show

of 12,000

in angle

in transition

case

location

case results

to 15.75 percent

for the three angle-of-attack

shows

transition

frequency

that for an increase

in angle of attack

distribution

at a critical

in

for the three

for the angle-of-attack

Hz, and the earliest

only moves

this shows

of attack

at the leading-edge

gradient

chord

are shown

frequency

The 5 deg angle-of-attack

that the transition

pressure

in figure

able pressure

is 14,000

18.5 percent

angles

semispan

level of 8. The results

frequency

Hz. Therefore,

at 48 percent

are plots of x/c versus

of 12.25 percent.

why an increase

a plot of the chordwise

analysis

which

disturbance

rdc value

aft and that certain

In order

curves

to approximately

the 10 deg case shows


frequency

tion moves

of the transition

of three

that the most unstable

at an approximate

transition

curves

consists

at the boundary-layer

of 0 deg indicate

critical

are not valid,

cases.

figure

occurs

Effects

semi-

a stronger

favor-

and then a smaller


The swept

wing's

three-

dimensional
crossflow
is expected to further destabilize
with increase in angle of attack, due to the
presence
of the stronger pressure gradients.
Therefore,
it is expected that the prediction
in transition
would move further forward. However,
this trend does not occur.
Next,
study

the surface

flow patterns

the flow characteristics.

the wing

as the angle

of attack

of the different

These

affected near the leading-edge,


where
flow at 48 percent semispan
is shown
the upper

wing

over the lower

surface,
wing

the leading-edge
noted

that because

increased,

including

surface.

reveal

a separation

the attachment
velocities

cases

are shown

occurring

to I0 deg. In order to better

(fig. 6.11 ) to

near the trailing

edge

see how the flow pattern

of

is

the flow on the wing first begins, a plot of the leading-edge


in figure 6.12. The dashed lines indicate the flow trace over

the leading-edge

point,

From this plot it is evident

on to the lower

the crossflow

patterns

increases

angle-of-attack

surface

of the wing

point rotates

below

at the leading-edge

23

and the solid lines indicate


that the flow attachment

as angle of attack

increases.

the leading-edge

as angle

location

are reduced.

point

the flow trace


moves

It should
of attack

below

also be
is

It was found
F-16XL
angle

from

a previous

parametric

(ref. 31) that the maximum

of attack

increased

due to the rotation

was then expected


that transition
would
show that the opposite trend occurs.
To further
in figure 6.13

study

crossflow

on the leading-edge

velocity

at a given

of the attachment

also rotate

point

forward.

profile

curves

are plotted

cases

the maximum

crossflow

exhibit

higher

up to approximately

case falls below

the findings

increasing

maximum

wing's

angle

This translates

is increased

5 percent

case at approximately

The results

of the angle

prediction.

8 percent

number

increases

the shear

flow instabilities
which
that maximum
crossflow
idate this possibility,

that near the leading

and downstream

3 percent

Crossflow
Reynolds
show

chord

boundary-layer

number

Further

downstream

results

are the same

the maximum

angle-of-attack

increase

in laminar
for the

Effects

study

show

of the Reynolds

with Angle

that maximum
number

in the boundary

angle-of-attack

for 0 deg angle


profiles

crossflow

the maximum

flow as the

crossflow

in the

crossflow

may directly

(fig 6.5(b))

thereby

Reynolds

influence

the

in Reynolds

damping

out the cross-

findings indicate
location.
To val-

number

flow of 12.7 mil-

is affected with changes in angle of attack. This


results (fig. 6.8) show that transition
occurs at

of attack.

for the three angles

are shown
is larger
crossflow

as in the previous

exhibit

of Attack

that a decrease

study at the higher

cross-

10 deg case.

by maximum

st_ldy show

layer

case

cases

increase

stresses

of 12.7 million

that the maximum

edge,

the lower

then delays the predicted


transition
location. The above
may have a major influence
on the predicted
transition

another

and remains

chord

lion was conducted


in order to see how transition
Reynolds
number flow is chosen since the earlier
nominally

chord

Finally, the 0 deg angle-of-attack


cases after 5 percent chord.

chord

Number

crossflows

10 deg angle-of-

into a 6.25 percent

of attack

The results

The

in

of attack

the maximum

case.

a plot of

is shown

angles

to 5 deg and a 3.25 percent

Reynolds

of the

this trend

of attack

chord

This leads to the speculation


that transition
may be directly
influenced
boundary
layer which is discussed
further in the next section.

transition

represent

angles

shows

of attack,

Results

for the higher

the 0 deg angle-of-attack

of attack

angles

to better

are larger

case after 16 percent chord.


the two higher angle-of-attack

angle

crossflow.

of attack

In order

After

of this study

are larger for the higher angle-ofthe trend reverses


and the lower

crossflows
chord.

It

curves are displayed


(48 percent semis-

"x/c" for the different

the 0 deg angle-of-attack

for the higher

higher

5 percent

case fall below

below the 5 deg angle-of-attack


slowly falls but remains above
In summary,

versus

as the

the leading-edge.

for x/c from 0 to 21 percent.

values.

that the maximum

for the 5 deg angle-of-attack

flow is larger

crossflow

"(W/Uoo)max"

6.14. This plot shows

(5 and 10 deg)
attack

decreased

underneath

Although,

crossflow
profiles reveal that the crossflow
velocity components
attack cases near the leading-edge.
However,
further downstream
angle-of-attack

line of the

location

investigate
the above findings, boundary-layer
crossflow
profile
for the three angle-of-attack
cases at approximately
mid-semispan

pan). The boundary-layer

figure

attachment

wing

lower

in figure

6.15.

for the higher


is larger
Reynolds

24

of attack

of 0, 5, and

The results
angles

from

of attack

10 deg at the higher

these crossflow

near the leading

for the lower angle-of-attack


number

angle-of-attack

study

cases.

profiles
edge.
These

(fig. 6.13).

plot of maximumcrossflowversuschordwisex/c locationfor this


exactly

the same

However,

as in the previous

as in the Reynolds

higher

Reynolds

earlier

lower

numbers

Reynolds

the boundary

layer

ther upstream
mum

results

crossflows

Transition

(fig. 6.15)

stability

flow has a direct

study,

curves

influence

away

Reynolds

edge.

number
angles

to move

forward
6.17.

to investigating

It was necessary

to keep the wing's

be misinterpreted
avoid

the effects

by other

sweeping

the wing

into the Mach

requirements,

the 60 deg sweep

as well as maintain

figure

into lower

shear

leads to a suspected
results

for the
to the

stresses

transition

(fig. 6.16)

show

in

fur-

that maxi-

results

is increased,

therefore

validate

cone,

Effects

which

area or local chord.

would

to shear
aspect

of sweep

so that the comparison

surface

the same

in the
cross-

location.

ratio constant

it was necessary

as shown

that maximum

cause

shock

the baseline

were also studied.


in sweep

would

not

It was also necessary

waves

clipped

and distort
delta

wing

to

the flow.
to obtain

ratio and local chord

lengths,

as shown

in

in figure

that the 60 deg-swept-

6.18.

Flow
wing

profiles

wall when compared

of angle of attack, the effects

in the wing's

Due to the above

almost

study.

of the crossflow

as the angle of attack

transition

aspect

changes

which

the crossflow

These

Sweep
In addition

points

this translates

case,

reveals

of attack.

of figure

on the predicted

(fig. 6.16)

angle-of-attack

from the viscous

Therefore,

In this region,

study

number

the inflection

are further

at the higher

is now predicted

Reynolds

case (fig. 6.13).

for the higher

are higher

boundary-layer

number

number

near the leading

lower

traces

of the two different

case appears

21 percent
sweep.
"x/c"

sweep

to have a flow separation

tip near the trailing


evaluated
in detail.
The results

wing

edge

of the wing.

of the crossflow

except

at 1 percent,

from about

Although,

effects

that the crossflows

results

of the maximum

plot (fig. 6.21)

shows

that the maximum

chord

and then drops

case maximum
chord. Overall,

below

6.19,

30 percent

as mentioned

due to sweep

Furthermore,

percent

cases

show

of the semispan

earlier,

(fig. 6.20)

show,

at all x/c locations

for the 60 deg sweep

crossflow

"(W/Uoomax"

crossflow

is slightly

that of the 60 deg sweep

all the way to the

only the mid-semispan

are stronger
versus

larger

at 3 percent

will be

up to

than the 45 deg

streamwise

location

for the 45 deg sweep


chord.

at 1

The 60 deg sweep

crossflows
are larger after 2 percent chord and slightly fluctuate
after 10 percent
these results show that maximum
crossflow
is larger for the higher 60 deg swept

wing.
Next,

stability

This is the same


show

curves

of the transition

results

type of plot as the one discussed

that transition

the 45 deg sweep

occurs

at approximately

10 percent

approximately

2 percent

and a frequency
of chord

when

earlier

semispan

case, transition

of approximately
the wing

is swept

25

are shown

in the angle-of-attack

an x/c of 12 percent

case. For the 60 deg sweep

approximately

at 48 percent

and a frequency

is predicted
20,000

in figure

study.

to occur

Hz. Transition

6.22.

The results

of 14,000

Hz for

at an x/c of
moves

from 45 to 60 deg. Therefore,

forward
these

results

alsoshowthatmaximumcrossflowis a majorinfluenceon transitionpredictionasfoundin the


angle-of-attackandReynoldsnumberstudiesabove.

CONCLUSIONS

A parametric

study

was successfully
layer

stability

to predict

completed
code.

the extent

using

The study

AND

RECOMMENDATIONS

of laminar

a computational

was conducted

flow for finite

fluid dynamics

wings

at supersonic

code coupled

to gain understanding

with a boundary-

of the technical

the area of supersonic


laminar flow control (SLFC) to assist in the High Speed
(HSRP) underway
at NASA. The effects of Reynolds
number, angle of attack,
investigated.

speeds

requirements

in

Research
Program
and sweep were

Conclusions

The results of automating


predict the three-dimensional

the boundary-layer
stability analysis has reduced the time required
transition
front location from hours to a matter of minutes. Further-

more, the automation


has reduced
days to a matter of hours.
The results
the amount

of the Reynolds

of laminar

the overall

number

flow over

increasing

the extend

study show

time for a transition

that a decrease

the wing and can be attrib_ted

crossflow
instabilities.
Essentially,
viscous wall region when Reynolds
therefore

turnaround

in Reynolds

to the effects

of laminar

The results
can actually
means
result

of the combined

be delayed

of delaying

is delayed

is an increase

downstream

effects

in angle

the maximum

in the laminar

An advantage

the maximam

of Reynolds

was accomplished

where

increases

of Reynolds

number

on

flow.

with an increase

transition

to the point

on the wing.

further

number

from

the crossflow
boundary-layer
profile is moved closer to the high
number is decreased,
damping
out the crossflow
instabilities
and

The results of the angle-of-attack


study revealed that an increase
attachment
point beneath the leading-edge
of the wing and increases
the leading-edge.
However,
higher angles of attack.

front prediction

to

number
of attack

crossflow

and angle
lbr specific

by decreasing
crossflow

is lower

flow over the wing

to this type of natural

in angle of attack moves


the maximum
crossflow

of attack
Reynolds

the Reynolds

show

control

for the

that transition

numbers.

This

so that transition

angle of attack.

a reduction

flow (NLF)

are lower

number

for the higher

and therefore

laminar

velocities

the
near

The

in the viscous

drag

is that the drag

increase
due to lift (caused by the increase in angle of attack) can partially be recovered
by the viscous drag reduction
due to the increase
in the laminar flow over the wing. The results basically
show
that if maximum
transition
crossflow
occurs,

crossflow

can further

is decreased

be delayed.

is a key to transition
increasing

the crossflow

near the location

Finally,
prediction.
instability

the results

As the wing
and therefore

26

where

transition

of the _weep
is swept
allowing

is predicted

study again

back

show

an increase

an earlier

to occur,
that maximum

in the crossflow

transition

prediction.

then

Recommendations

In the future,
supersonic

a leading-edge

speeds

A total drag
computed.
total drag.

on the extent
calculation

This would

Investigation
layer

code

reveal

uses a conical

replaced

with a three-dimensional

research

use the boundary-layer

Finally,
active

of laminar

the actual

should

flow conditions
of Reynolds

being

flow assumption
boundary-layer
information

to find the effects

of bluntness

at

flow.

effect

methods

be conducted

applied

and swept-wing
number,

show

of attack,

should

and sweep

that the two-dimensional

is not truly valid


code.

angle

configurations

for swept

Furthermore,

wings

boundary-

and should

it is recommended

from the Navier-Stokes

solutions

in place

the results

of this Supersonic

laminar-flow
laminar

control

flow for future

Natural
methods

Laminar
in order

high speed aircraft

27

Flow Study
to establish
design.

should

be

that future
of the

be combined

an optimum

method

be

on

solutions.

supersonic

ing supersonic

study

for the various

of the numerical

which

boundary-layer

shape

with
of achiev-

REFERENCES

Malik,

M. R.: Stability
and Aeronautics,

Bushnell,

AD-686178),

Srokowski,
Aug.

A. J.: Mass
1977.

Flow

Including

Pfenninger,

Kaynak,

11.

Kaups,

Using

12.

Malik,

Center,

White,

Flows.

Review

Reynolds

Sponsored
Flow

of Laminar

RP-1035,

AIAA

to the X-21

vol.

I, Sept.

Paper 77-1222,

Academic

Press,

New

Airplane.

York

J. Aircraft,

M. R." COSAL:

J. Aircraft,

A Black-Box
Dimensional

Fluid Flow.

Studies.

for Reducing

NASA

Quiet

Skin

TM-X-2894,

Tunnel

March

for Transition

1975, pp. 300-306.

Northrop

LFC Research

compiled

Between

1949 and

by C. T. D'Aiutolo,

NASA

1976, pp. 14-50.


B. J.: Comrutational
Zonal

T.: Compressible

Wings.

of Concepts

Number

Control,

Apr. 6-7,

T. L.; and Cantwell,

F. M.: Viscous

NASA

Design.

as Applied

for Future

an Euler/Navier-Stokes

Prediction
in Three
CR- 165925, 1982.
13.

of High

and Navy

K.; and Cebeci,


and Tapered

L.: A General

on Laminar

Research

U.; Hoist,

Flow

by Suction

J., vol. 13, no. 3, March

W.: USAF

Langley

of Parallel

Recommendations

I. E.: Development
AIAA

Shear Layer
(available
as

1965, pp. 384--390.

M. C.; and Ash, Robert

Beckwith,

in Astronautics

on Attainment

and Suction.

for LFC Wing

Control

Fischer,

Progress

from Laminar to Turbulent


Bodies. AFFDL-TR-68-149

and Bibliography
Gradient

Kosin,

1967. Workshop

10.

Pressure

W. O.: Stability

Research.
.

M. H.: Survey

Betchov,
R.; and Criminale,
1967.

Friction,
1974.

of Transition
Traveling

Flow Requirement

vol. 2, Sept.-Oct.

Design.

1969.

in Air Using

R. E.: Laminar

Control

123, 1990, pp. 3---46.

D. M.; and Tuttle,

Flow Control
1979.

vol.

for Laminar Flow

Morkovin,
M. V.: Critical Evaluation
with Emphasis
on Hypersonically
NTIS

Theory

Laminar
vol.

of Transonic

Approach.

NASA

F;oundary

Separated

TM-88311,

Layers

July

with Suction

Wing
1986.

on Swept

14, no. 7, July 1977, pp. 661-667.

Compressible
Boundary

Stability
Layers.

2nd ed., Mc Graw-Hill

28

Analysis

High

Code

Technology

Series

in Mech.

for Transition
Corp.,

NASA

Engineering.

14.

Malik, M. R.: Efficient Computationof the Stabilityof Three-DimensionalCompressible


BoundaryLayers.AIAA Paper81-1277,PaloAlto, Calif., June1981.

15.

Gaster,M.: A Note onthe RelationBetweenTemporally-IncreasingandSpatially-Increasing


Disturbancesin HydrodynamicStability.J. Fluid Mechanics,vol. 14,Oct. 1962,
pp. 222-224.

16.

Hefner,J. N.; andBushnell,D. M.: Applicationof StabilityTheoryto LaminarFlow Control.


AIAA Paper79-1493,July 1979.

17.

Cebeci,T.; Chen,H. H.; andArnal, D.: A Three-DimensionalLinear Stability Approachto


Transitionon Wingsat Incidence.AGARD CP-438,Oct. 1988,pp. 17-1-17-13.

18.

Beam,R.; andWarming,R.F.: An Implicit Finite-DifferenceAlgorithm for Hyperbolic


Systemsin Conservation-LawForm.J. Comp.Physics,vol. 22, Sept.1976,pp. 87-110.

19.

Pulliam,T. H.: EulerandThin-LayerNavierStokesCodes:ARC2D, andARC3D.


ComputationalFluid DynamicsUsers'Workshop,The Univ. of Tenn.SpaceInst.,
Tullahoma,Tenn.,March 12-16, 1984

20.

Keller, H. B.: A New DifferenceSchemefor ParabolicProblems.NumericalSolutionsof


PartialDifferential Equations,vol. II, ed. by J. Bramble,AcademicPress,New York,
1970.

21.

Cebeci,T.; andBradshaw,P.:MomentumTransferin BoundaryLayers.Hemisphereand


McGraw Hill, 1977.

22.

Keller, H. B.; andCebeci,T.: AccurateNumericalMethodsfor BoundaryLayers.II. TwoDimensionalTurbulentFlows.AIAA J.,vol. 10,Sept.1972,pp. 1197-1200.

23.

Cebeci,T.; andSmith,A. M. O.: Analysisof TurbulentBoundaryLayers.AcademicPress,


New York, 1974.

24.

Ladson,CharlesL.; andBrooks,CuylerW., Jr.: Developmentof a ComputerProgramto


ObtainOrdinatesfor NACA 6- and6A-SeriesAirfoils. NASA LangleyResearch
Center,June25, 1974.

25.

Luh, R. C.; Pierce,L. E.; andYip, D." InteractiveSurfaceGrid Generation.AIAA


Paper91-0796,Reno,Nev.,Jan. 1991.

26.

Cordova,J. Q.: Visual Grid, A SoftwarePackagefor InteractiveGrid Generation.AIAA


Paper90-1607,Seattle,Wash.,June18, 1990.

27.

Chan,W. M.; andSteger,J. L.: A GeneralizedSchemeForThree-DimensionalHyperbolic


Grid Generation.AIAA Paper91-1588,Proceedingsof the AIAA 10thComputational
Fluid DynamicsConference,Honolulu,Hawaii, 1991.
29

28.

Vinokur, M.: On One-DimensionalStretchingFunctionfor Finite-DifferenceCalculations.


J. ComputationalPhys.,vol. 50, no.2, May 1983.

29.

Buning, P.G.; Chan,W. M.; Renze,K. J.; Sondak,D.; Chiu,I. T.; andSlotnick, J. P.:
OVERFLOW User'sManual,Version1.6.NASA AmesRes.Ctr., Moffett Field,
Calif., 1991.

30.

Gray,W. E.: The Effect of Wing Sweepon LaminarFlow. RAE TM Aero 255, 1952.

31.

Flores,J.; Tu, E. L.; Anderson,B.; andLanders,S.: A ParametricStudyof the LeadingEdge


AttachmentLine for the F-16XL. AIAA Paper91-1621,Proceedingsof the AIAA 22nd
Fluid Dynamics,PlasmaDynamicsandLaserConference,Honolulu,Hawaii,
June24-26, 1991.

3O

External

Disturbances

Freestream
Freestream
Freestream

Velocity
Sound

Entropy

Spots

Particulates
Surface

Roughness

Vibrations

Receptivity

Control

Parameters

Pressure
"Slow"

Linear

Amplification

TS Instability

I
___

Crossflow
Instability
GSrtler Instability

/
/

Gradient

Wall Temp.
Mach #
Angle

of Attack

Sweep
Geometry/Curvature

IN

Bypass

3-D

"_

onlinear
Space /
ime Disturbance.,/

"Fast"

Secondary

Tertiary

I
Figure

TURBULENCE

1.1. Transition

3]

and

Instabilities

flow chart.

= _ (xoy,z,t)
= _ (x,y,z,t)

= _"(x,y,z,t)

PHYSICAL
DOMAIN

Y
COMPUTATIONAL
DOMAIN

Figure

2. 1. General

coordinate

transformation

from physical

32

to computational

space

(ref.

10).

9\

\
\

Figure 2.2. Boundary-layer

code's coordinate system.

33

Free

Stream

C,

Z,w,p
Vg

P
k

= Disturbance

= Magnitude

of the Disturbance

in the X direction.

= Magnitude

of the Disturbance

in the Y direction.

Up=

Potential

Vg=

Group
wave

= Phase

Yg = Angle

Wave

Vector.

flow velocity.

velocity

(direction

and speed

of Disturbance

energy).
Angle

k makes

w/r to the potential

flow Up.

Vg make w/r to the X directicn.

Figure 2.3. Disturbance

wave orientation

34

on the swept coordinate

system.

NACA64A010

_R

S3D or VG

Point
edistribution

._

g check

sf
Geometry Inputs
Aspect Ratio or Taper
Ratio
LE or 1/4 Chord
sweep
Desired number of
spanwise cuts.
Final & intial spacing
in the span dir.

I Wing Surface Grid l


HYPGEN (_ol Grid_Gen)._ q--

Volume
Grid
Parameters

Wing 3D Volume Grid

Figure

4.1. Grid generation

35

process.

I Mean Flow Solution _- ......


/
!
!
/

_I Cp Data

!
I
I

Co e" io )"

I
/
/
I

I B.L Param./Profiles

p'

_" _ Linear Stability of BL "COSAL"_)_


L_

0
u_

l Stability

} STAB'OUTt

JTransition

Parameters

0) = 0 to 40 KHz

Report per Span I


l lf Span = Span @ Tip

I TRANSITION
RESULTSFRONT

Figure 5.1. Automated

stability analysis process.

36

F16-XL

Crossflow

Stability

Calculated

with Autom
_r_i

.........
_:,,_,_i_!iiiiiii_i',ii!_ii!!iii'_iilg
i_gi_.:._i_!_i_iiigii_i{i_i_i_i_i_iigi_i!i_
:.'.:_:
:._i":_!"_
*
::_:_::_.:g_

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

!3_,'.'_

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
==========================================================================

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

::i;_i::i:@i_::_!_ii::::::_i
ii!::::
::::iiii::i!ii._ii_:::_iii;ii_!_i
iii_i!
!i!_
i!!!ii::
::!_ili!_
_i_i;ii_i!i
.>-:8 ::2: :_'_:: _:::: 3 8._ 8._ _.::::: :;:_.:::::;
_:_::::::::_ &':::::::_i:::::: :::.:::
_::_i:: ;_::_
!.!.__i.i,.%!.i._.i.i,
i._.!-_.--:.
!.!.%_ .!-_.
i.i-.:-!4!:_.%!_.i_.i._._.i-!.!.!._-!.iJ-!-_ ._$_..i-i..::!
.:_._;.!.!.i.._

Laminar Flow in Dark Gray


M=1.6

Transition

CC = 2.0 deg.
H = 44000 ft.

F16-XL

Crossflow

Front in Black

Non-Laminar

Stability

Figure

Flow in _ _;_,::_._,_
::y':
.........

Calcul

6. 1. Stability

automation

37

validation.

Re = 6.34 Million

Laminar Row in Dark Gray


Transition Front in Black
Non-Laminar Flow in Li_!i,ililili
_;iil;:
,_ii_ii,i;_
_;_,j

Re = 12.68 Million

Figure

6,2.

Transition

front result

38

due to Reynolds

number.

Stability

Figure

Analysis

6.3.

Boundary-layer

Region

stability

39

analysis

in _ii_,_
_ij,

region.

0.3
0.2
0.1
0
Q,.

--x-

-0.1

ii

-0.2

-0.3

- q=13%

--

q=19%

--_--

q=33%

_--

q=48%

----'--

q=61%
q=72%

-0.4

....

q=80%

.....

n=87%

-0.5
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

_c

0.8

RE = 12.68 Million

0.3

T:......

0.2

0.1

0
Q" -0.1
0
!

-0.2

-0.3
-0.4

-0.5

Figure

6.4.

Chordwise

pressure

40

distribution

(a = 0).

RE= 6.34 Million


--LP-.-RE=

BOUNDARY

LAYER

PROFILE

X/C

12.68 Million

0%

BOUNDARY

0.006

LAYER

PROFILE

X/C

1%

' ' ' I ...............

0.006
0.005

........................
i.............
!.............
:_
.............
i...........

0.004

,_..

0.004

0,003

0.003

0.002

0.002

0.001

0.001

0
-0.1

-0.08

-0.06
-0.04
-0.02
0
W/Uo_ (Crossflow component)

BOUNDARY

LAYER

PROFILE

0.02

X/C

-0.1

5%

0.006

i i! !ii! !ili

0.004

>-

0.003

-0.06
-0.04
-0.02
o
W/U =o(Crossflow component)

BOUNDARY

0.0o6
0.005

-0.08

=,
;>-

LAYER

PROFILE

0.02

X/C

' ' ' i ...............

=10%
.

0.003

0.002
0.001
0

0
-0.1

-0.08

-0.06
-0.04
-0.02
W/U_ (Crossflow component)

BOUNDARY
0.006

LAYER

PROFILE

, ............

0.02

X/C

-0.1

=16%

-0.08

BOUNDARY

-0.06
-0.04
-0.02
W/Uoo (Crossflow component)

LAYER

PROFILE

XJC

0.02

=21%

0.006

_ , , , _ , , ,

0.005
0.004
=
>-

0.003
0.002
0.001

-0.1

-0.08

-0.06
-0.04
W/Uoo (Crossflow

-0.02
component)

0.02

-0.1

-0.08

-0.06
-0.04
WAJ_ (Crossflow

-0.02
component)

Figure 6.5. Effect of Reynolds number on crossflow at 48% semispan.

41

0.02

1.2
:

RE= 6.34 Million


RE= 12.68 Million

0.8

_0

0.6

0.4

0.2

0
-0.1

-0.08
W/Uoo

-0.06

-0.04

(Crossflow

-0.02

0.02

component)

Figure 6.6. Effect of Reynolds number on crossflow at 48% semispan for x/c = 10%.

42

1.2

0.8

_0

>-

0.6

0.4

0.2

0
0

0.1

0.2
Shear Stress

0.3

0.5

[Ibf/ft 2]

Figure 6. 7. Effect of Reynolds number on shear stress in the boundary-layer

43

0.4

at 48% semispan for x/c = 10%.

Stability Transition

Curves

0.2
i

:
i

:
:

JI,

RE=
RE=

6.34
12.68 Million
Million

0.15

C)
_0.1
X

Transition

Critical

Predicion

Frequency

0.05

0
5000

10000

15000
Frequency

Figure

6.8. Effect

of Reynolds

number

44

20000

25000

[Hz]

on transition

at 48% semispan.

, , Stability,

Transition

Curves,
,
,

0.25 i
.!

4
0.2

0.15_

X
0.1

Angle

of _.ttack

--"*---

0.05 '

Oi

deg.

"_Sideg.

......
I........

-----,0,eg.I

-i

6000

9000

12000

Frequency

Figure

6.9. Effect

of angle

of attack

on transition

prediction

sweep.

45

15000

18000

[Hz]

at 48% semispan

for Re = 6.34 million

and 45"

1] = 48%

0.5

'lJl,lllllltlt,ll,I

I
I

o.. 0

I i,

Angle of Attack

O
_5

deg.
deg.
10 deg.

-1
0

0.2

0.4
0.6
X/C

0.8

Figure 6.10. Chordwise pressure distribution effects at 48% semispan due to angle of attack at
Re = 6.34 million.

46

LRE 45WING

a=.O.deg.

c_=.5.deg.

.(z=.10 deg.

Figure

6.11.

Effect

of angle

of attack

4?

on surface

flow patterns.

(Z = 0 deg.
._
_- ___.___::..:_..:..,

_"
--'_

48%S

an
Flow

__

hment

O_- 5 deg.
48% Span

Flow
.=nt

O_-- 10 deg.
48% Span

Flow

Figure

6.12.

Effect

of angle

of attack

on leading

48

edge flow attachment

at 48% semispan.

Angle of Attack
O deg.
-.-e--- 5 deg.
----=--- 10 deg.
BOUNDARY

LAYER

PROFILE

oooo
i

@ X/C

= 0%

.........

BOUNDARY

LAYER

_"_ ooooi

PROFILE

@ X/C

o,oo5

_L..........................................................................................
_

o.oo5

...........

0.004

_ .....................................................................................

0.004

................................................................................

E o.oo3_

_ E 0.003

>-

.i>

_................ i................ ',......................

0.001

= 1%

0.001

......

-0.16

-0.12
W/U_o

BOUNDARY

-0.08

-0.04

(Crossfiow

component)

LAYER

PROFILE

= 5%

,
_" ...................................................................................

0.004

"- ............................................................................

BOUNDARY

_
"_

I
0.005

-0.12

-0.08

W/U_

@ X/C

0.006

---_

-0.16

0.006

0.005

0.004

'_
_

-0.04

(Crossflow

LAYER

component)

PROFILE

@ X/C

= 10%

.............

ii i

iiiii

ii

ooo3
oooOOO
OOOoooO
0

-0.16

',

-0.12
W/Uoo

BOUNDARY

.AYER

'

-0.08

-0.04

(Crossflow

component)

PROFILE

d i

'-'

-0.16

"-

0.003

!.

X/C

16%

BOUNDARY

....i

_i
0.001

PROFILE

-_'>- 0.003

X/C

21%

--

0.002

0.001
0

-0.12
W/U_o

Effect

LAYER

........
i
i

6.13.

-0.04
component)

0.004

Figure

-0.08
(Crossflow

......
i o.oo_
....... J

::

-0.16

-0.12
W/U_

_
i
0.004

"

of angle

-0.08

-0.04

(Crossflow

component)

of attack

on crossflow

-0.16

i
-0.12
W/U=

profiles

at 48% semispan

49

_
-0.08
(Crossflow

_
-0.04

,
0

component)

for Re = 6.34 million

and 45" sweep.

0.15

0.1

E
0.05

I--*-o
I------s

-0.05

J_lJl]l]l

-0.05

ir]J

0.05

O.1

deg.I
deg. !

O.15

0.2

0.25

X/C
Figure 6.14.
sweep.

Maximum

crossflow

effect due to angle

of attack

5O

at 48% semispan

for Re = 6.34 million

and 45"

Angle

of Attack

_O

BOUNDARY

LAYER

PROFILE

o.oo8_
0.007

deg.

---e--

---s-.--

10 deg.

XIC

0%

deg.

BOUNDARY
0.008

, , , _ ,

_-................. _................... ;.......................................

:....... q

LAYER
--_,

PROFILE

X/C

1%

i--..........................................................................
!.......

0.007
4

0.006
0.006 F.............................................................................
_.......
0.005

0.005
,.-:.
0.004

__-

r;1

1"

0.003_.................
:...................
_...................
_..................
_......
4
0.002 iE......i..................
_
o.oo1

0.003

0.001

-0.16

-0.12
W/U=,

BOUNDARY
0.008
,.
.......

-0.08
(Crossflow

LAYER

-0.04
component)

PROFILE

X/C

-0.16

5%

_ o.oo5_

-0,12
W/Uoo

BOUNDARY
0.008

._

--_, 0.004
>-

"'

>-

-0.08
(Orossflow

LAYER

-0,04
component)

PROFILE

X/C

10%

0.004
0.003

0.003

0.001

!...

::

:.1

-0.16

-0.12
-0.08
W/Uo_ (Crossflow

BOUNDARY
0.008

o.oo o.oo

LAYER

......

-0.04
component)

PROFILE
!

@
,

X/C

-0.16

16%

BOUNDARY
0.008
b
i

....

-0.12
-0.08
W/Uoo (Crossflow
LAYER
.

PROFILE

-0.04
component)
@
,

X/C
l

=
,

21%

.................
..........................................................
i
0.007

0.006_.................
_...................
!...................
_...............
........
-_
0.005

::

0.004

i .................
i...................
i...................
i..................... ._

0.005
0.004

0.003

,. ................. _...................

..................................

0.003

i .......

0.002

o.oo
...................
:.............
!_ l.........
0

-0.16

Figure

0.006

-0.12
-0.08
W/Uoo (Crossflow

6. 15. Effect

of angle

-0.04
component)

of attack

on crossflow

0.002
0.001
0
-0.16

at 48%

51

semispan

-0.12
W/U_

for Re

-0.08
(Crossflow

= 12.68

milfion

-0.04
component)

and

45 sweep.

Angle of Attack
O deg.
5 deg.

0
.........

-0.05

' '

_'

-0.05

0.05

10 deg.

O.1

O.15

0.2

0.25

X/C

Figure
45"

6.16.

Maximum

crossflow

effect

due

to angle

of attack

sweep.

52

at 48%

semispan

for

Re = 12.68

milfion

and

0.05

0.04

0.03
F

0
X

0.02

Angle

0.01

of Attack

.........................................................................
5

-'-'_--0

deg.
deg.
10 deg.

I ...............

F
E

5000

IIIll,l

II1[

12000

19000

6. 17. Higher

Reynolds

number

effect

with

angle

of attack

53

il,!

26000

Frequency

Figure

33000

40000

[Hz]

on transition

for the

45"

sweep.

45WING

Leading

Aspect

Edge Sweep

,, 45 deg.

Ratio - 1.45

60WING
Leading

Edge

Sweep

Trailing

Edge Sweep

Aspect

Ratio - 1.45

- 60 deg.
= 36.2 deg.

Figure

6.18. Swept

geometry

.54

surface

grids.

Figure

6. 19. Effect

Leading

Edge

Sweep

= 45 deg.

Leading

Edge

Sweep

= 60 deg.

of sweep

on surface

flow patterns

at the lower

55

Reynolds

number

and 0 angle of attack

case.

Sweep
45 deg.
----K--BOUNDARY

LAYER

PROFILE

0.006

L ' ' ' F ............

0"005

_ .........................................................................

X/C

60 deg.

0%

BOUNDARY
LAYER
0.006
..................

! , . .

L
L

PROFILE

X/C

1%

; ............

0"C105

.......................................................................................

0.004b...................................................................................
-J o.oo4 ...........................................
,--:.

= 0.003 _..................................................................................
4 -_ 0.003 .....................................................
:........................
>-

;-

L ...........................
k
_

0.002

:..............
!

:.......................................
i
i

>.

_
..

1 F............
!............................................
T.............
i ...........
i
I
o_,,,i
.........
......
L

-0.1

-0.08

BOUNDARY
0006

-0.06
-0.04
-0.02
W/U_
(Crossflow component)
LAYER

PROFILE

X/C

O.C

-0.1

-0.06
-0.04
W/U=o (Crossflow

-0.02
component)

PROFILE

XlC

0.0:

10%

i,

0.004 _............
i ..............
t..............
i..............
i..........................
_
i

-0.08

BOUNDARY
LAYER
0.006
..................

5%

I ....................

t"

o
0.002

o.oo_
_............
i..............
i..............
i...............

0.004

4 .-_

_ o.oo_

0.002

0.002

ooo,
............ ............
................
0

-0.1

-0.08

BOUNDARY

0.006 i

-0.06
-0.04
-0.02
W/Uoo (Crossflow component)
LAYER

PROFILE

X/C

0.0

16%

-0.1

-0.08

BOUNDARY

0.006

'

-0.06
-0.04
W_J=o (Crossflow
LAYER

-0.02
component)

PROFILE

X/C

0.0;

...................

2i%

J
0.003
>-

;
_

0.002

!
;

:"
;

..........................

!
;

::

::
':

i ...............................................

0.004

"

0.001

-0.02
component)

6.20.

0.C04...........................
0.C01
0

'
-0.1

Effect

-0.08

-0.06
-0.04
W/Uo_ (Crossllow

of leading

edge

sweep

0.003
0.002

Figure

4 '-_
-_ _.

on crossflow

O.C

profiles

56

l`
o0.1

at 48%

' ' E ' ' ' i '


-0.08

' ' i

-0.06
-0.04
W/Uoo (Crossflow

semispan

(Re

= 6.34

-' '_-_"_=_'''"

:'' ' '

-0.02
component)

million

and

0.0_

a = 0).

i
0.08

..................
_..............................
;..............................
'-..............................
_............................

E
r-

iiiiI

0.04

....................................................................................................................................................

-m

Sweep

0.02

,..-._.........

.--&.--45

deg.

_60

deg.

0
0

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

x/c
Figure

6.21. Maximum

crossflow

effect due to leading edge sweep

and a = 0".

5?

at 48% semispan

for Re = 12.68

million

Stability Transition
0.2

Curves
I

0.15

0.1

Sweep

0.05

45 deg.
60 deg.

..................

J
1

....... L____L

5000

___L_J

....

10000

!..............

15000
Frequency

Figure

6.22.

Effect

of leading

edge

sweep

L__J......_L_
.....

JL__[

on transition

at 48%

58

20000

L__

25000

[Hz]

semispan

for Re

= 12.68

milfion

and

a -- O"

APPENDIX

59

WING

NACA

The following
6- or 6a-series

SURFACE
will describe
airfoil.

GRID

CREATION

the process

PROCEDURE

used to generate

a surface

grid for any

Steps

output

GOING

I. Run the 6-series code "sixsefies.f"


(ref. 18) with the proper
file called "fort. 10" containing
the airfoil ordinates.
NOTE: THE FOLLOWING
STEPS WILL
TO USE VG OR S3D TO REDISTRIBUTE

input

file to get an

DEPEND
ON WHETHER
THE POINTS:

YOU

ARE

II. FOR VG:


1) Use the program
"airf_2dsurf.f',
which will take the sixseries
airfoil
ordinates
output and create a file with just the upper surface ordinates
of the
airfoil. The output file will be called "airf.crv".
2) Now run the code Visual Grid on the "airf.crv" file to cluster points at the
L.E. and T.E. Note, every time you redistribute
the point write an output file
called "
.cry" and check to see that the stretching
factor is less than 1.3
[sf < 1.3]. This is done by editing the
.crv file so only the newly
redistributed
points are in the file and then running the program
"sf.f", which
read the "
.crv" file and checks each point to see if it meets the criteria of
sf < 1.3. Once the point distribution
meets the criteria you now have the
output file "
.crv" which is the correctly
distributed
upper surface airfoil
ordinates.
THINGS

3)

TO REMEMBER

ABOUT

REDISTRIBUTING

ON VG:

Specify control points at the LE and TE

Set the "SUBSET"


number of points to that desired

Set the "SUBSET"


point spacing to that desired
Now mna program
called "conv.f" which will mirror the
ordinates
from the "
.crv" file as well as supply the
program
with the needed parameters
to create the surface
file name to this program is "airfXXX.ord"
(Note: XXX
points describing
the airfoil)

upper surface
wing surface grid
grid. The output
is the number
of

117. FOR S3D:


1) If this is the first time redistributing
the airfoil points from sixseries.f
put the output sixseries file in the same format as the "airfXXX.ord"
above.

then
file

2) Once this is done mn the surface grid program


"WingSurf_.f
which will give
a first cut to the surface grid generation.
Note, use the option of MG (multigrid) when running the surface grid program, it will ask for this.
3) Now use the "Wingsurf_S3d.f"
program which will take the upper surface of
the wing only so that it can be read into S3d.
4) Its time to use S3d to redistribute
the points at LE and TE. Note the
following
steps:

61

PRI__

PAC, I_I_.AN_ NOT

FILMED

Read

Swap indices
to[PGA] and
To select the
in the PICK

in the file as unformatted

MG Plot3d

so you can cluster at LE & TE Which can be done by going


selecting[SWAP
INDICES]
section to be redistribute
with the mouse making sure to be
MODE. Note, the mouse buttons give the following
options:

<PICK
PICK

A SECTION

A POINT>

^PICK

Select

the entire

wing patch

by using

the right mouse

Now redistribute
the points by going
select "REDISTRIBUTE
SECTION".

A LINE

to "GDP"

button.

and under

this menu

Specify the 1st and last spacing


Specify the # of points
Write out a file with the new distribution

Remember
now to swap back the indices
5) Now to put the new airfoil distribution
in the proper format to read into the
surface grid generator use the prograta
"S3d_airf.f".
6) Finally, check the spacing with the program
"sf.f' to make sure the
stretching
condition
of sf=l.3 is met.
IV. GENERATING

THE

SURFACE

GRID

Execute the surface grid generating


program
output file which generates
the wing surface.
NOTE:

The following

Finally,

are inputs

for the Surface

"WingSurf_new.f"

Grid Generator:

Taper Ratio or Aspect Ratio


Leading Edge or Quarter chord sweep
Number of spanwise points (cuts) o11 the wing
Initial spacing in the spanwise direction
at the tip chord.
Final spacing in the spanwise direction
at the root chord.
Airfoil ordinate input file created from the above.
this will give an output

file for the surface

62

grid.

to generate

an

APPENDIX B

63

program

WingSurf_new

C
C
C

Joseph

Date:

Jan.

A.

Garcia

This

program

13,

1992

C
C
C

PROGRAM:

clipped

using

will

delta
an

generate

wing

with

Airfoil

surface

grid

64A010

sections

NACA

Potential

Analytical

for

Description

C
C
C

MODIFICATIONS:
To

no

MODI:

an

input

longer

use

normalized

has

been

the

desired

wise

point

name

span_dist2.f

desired

from

the

Airfoil

another

airfoil

called

using

for

Visual

chordwise

and

again

NACA

use

64A010,

(VG)

is

to

now

which

an

by

by

be

as

have

Also

develop

modified

will

to
the

destribution.
which

spacing

Grid

point

distribution

but

sixseries.f

coordinates

modified

point

Description

code

VG

span-

program

to

have

the

to

this

code.

input

C
C

MOD2:

THIS

IS

TIP

MOD

SHAPE

[10/5/91]

PORTION

TO

OF

THE

EXTEND

THE

SWEEP

INTO

THE

WING

C
c

MOD3:

This

one

that

modifies

the

with

equal

will

code

to

leading

now

allow

edge

require

for

and

taper

trailing

Aspect

ratio
edge

Ratio

(AR)

of

sweeps

input.

c
c

MOD4:

This

mod

to

be

out

each

stretching

distribution.

will

allow

able

to

input

having

create

1/4

this

to

sweep

surface

any
a

and

grid

sweep

spanwise

taper

subroutine

generation

clipped
point

ratio,
will

wing

with

destribution

instead

be

code

delta

used

for

the

Vinokur

to

determine

either

input

the

c
c

MOD5:

This
as

mod

is

either

to

allow

LE

the

sweep

or

user

1/4

to

chord

sweep

sweep.

C
c

This

mod

MOD6:

code

to

assigned

edge

of

This

mod

will

allow

be

able

this

to

aspect

ratio

the

wing

surface

create

as

wing

any
"AR"

grid

sweep

which

wing
will

generation
with

an

sweep

the

trailing

necessary.

c
c

MOD7:

TE_sweep

the

done

for

all

span,

was

A_R,

to
the

TR,

have

the

"WingSurf_gen"

various

wing

LE_sweep,

give

inputs

Qrt

sweep

along
as

the
with

necessary.

C
C

MODS:

This

mod

of

the

was
wing

done

to

with

the

sweep

all

of

the

tip

zero

section

LE_sweep.

c
c

MOD9:

This

mod

points

will
to

cluster

match

the

those

of

zero
the

thickness
swept

trailing

edge

wing.

c
c

MODI0:

This
section
mirroring

mod

will
using
the

cluster
the
points

the
Vinokur
off

zero

thickness

streching
the

wing.

Wint-Tip
routine

and

not

just

c
c

INPUTS:

Quarter-chord

sweep

surface

grid

airfoil

ordinates

or

angle

(GAMMA),

dimensions

(jmax,

file

taper

lmax),

named

ratio

and

(lamda)

normalized

"airfXXX.ord"

(airf127.ord

airf200.ord).

c
c

OUTPUT:

PLOT3D-format

surface

grid

of

the

wing

c
*W*WW*W*WW****WW*WW*WW****WWWWWWWWW*WWWWW*WWWWWWWWWWWWW**WW**W**WW

parameter

(jdim=500,kdim=100,1dim=10,idim=500)

dimension

x(jdim,

+
+

ldim),y(jdim,kdim,
z_U(idim),

s(150),
CHARACTER*30

i000

kdim,

x_U(idim),

ldim),z(jdim,

x_L(idim),

kdim,

z_L(idim),

ldim),

yy(kdim),

t(100),w(50),IDM(jdim),JDM(kdim),KDM(idim)

OUTFILE,name,INFILE

FORMAT(A)
REAL

GAMA,

lambda,

X,

dely,

yspan,

Qrt_sweep,

dw0w,

+
INTEGER

t_22,

t_10,

t_ll,

t_12,

t_13,

t_23,

t_24,

t_25,

Chord,

delx,

dely_t,

dl,

d2,

stotin,

dtl,
dwlw,

jmax,

delx_te,

counter,

imax,

llmax,

jmax_te,
kk,

tmax,

jj,MG,

IGRID,

LE_length,

dely_wt,

kmax_w,

jmax_te_U,

y_edg

TE_sweep

delwk

deltp2,

thrdspan,

kmax_t,

npts_U,

sw_type,

t_21

sweep,

TE_length,Chord_t

AR,

dt2t,

jmax_u,

Chord_r,

dtlt,

dw3w,

count,

t_15,

span,

LE_sweep,

dt2,

dw2w,

kmax,

t_14,

AR_type,

sf

jmax_t

npts_L,tr_testl
tr_test2,

cont_testl

wmax

c
c

c
c

Taper

ratio

lambda

SS$$$$$$SS$$$SS$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
SSSS$$$SSSS$$SSSSSSSSS$$$S$$$$$SSSSSS$$$SSSS$$$$$

Qrt_sweep

1/4

chord

sweep

in

DEGREES

GAMA

1/4

chord

sweep

in

RADS

sweep

Leading

Edge

sweep

in

RADS

LE_sweep

Leading

Edge

sweep

in

DEGREES

TE_sweep

Trailing

Edge

sweep

in

DEGREES

sweep_te

Trailing

Edge

sweep

in

RADS

dtlt

Initial

dt2t

Final

c
c

sf

TE
TE

Strecthing

Wake

Wake

spacing

spacing

factor

tip

tip

(1.3)

$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$S$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$

c
c

set
sf

1.3

I. 0

dl

0.3

d2

0.005

0.5*Chord_r

ngrid
Chord_r

TE_length
c

default

parameters

---

..............................................

c
WRITE(*,
+type

' (a,$)
"i"

read

if

')'If

NOT

you

type

"0":

.eq.

i)

KNOW

what

you

want

your

TAPER

RATIO

to

taper

was

be

'

(*,*)tr_testl
if(tr_testl

then

continue
else
WRITE(*,'
+ecified

(a,$)')'You
(.84):

must

now

specify

'

66

span

since

no

sp

read

(*,*)span
goto
1
endif

WRITE(*,'(a,$)')'If
read
(*,*)tr
test2
if(tr_test2

the

.eq.

goto
else

taper

I)

ratio

is

1 type

"I"

or

"0"

if

not:'

then

continue
endif
WRITE(*,
read

' (a,$)

(*,*)

')

' INPUT

taper

rat{o:

'

Aspect

Ratio

lambda

c
1

PRINT*,'If
you
plan
read
(*,*)AR_type
IF(AR_type

.eq.

to

specify

i)

THEN

WRITE(*,'(a,$)')'INPUT
+rd:
'
read

Aspect

Ratio

type

desired

or

normalized

if

by

not:'

root

cho

(*,*)AR
if(tr_testl
lambda

.ne.

) then

(2*span/AR
else

- 1.0

continue
endif

WRITE(*,'(a,$)')
read
(*,*)sw_type

'If

if(sw_type

.eq.

WRITE(*,'(a,$)')
read

(*,*)

sweep=

Sweep
i)

is

based

on

LE

type

"I"

or

I/4C:'

then

' INPUT

LE

Sweep

[deg]:

'

LE_sweep

= AR*(l+lambda)/2

GAMA
= ATAN(
(span*TAN(sweep)
Qrt_sweep
= GAMA*(180/3.141592654)
TE_sweep=
TE_sweep=

.25*(lambda

ATAN(
(span*TAN(sweep)
TE_sweep*(180/3.141592654)

if(TE_sweep
PRINT*,

.it.

'YOUR

CHOICE

PRINT*,'AND

THE

PRINT*,'SO

IF

read(*,*)

0.0
OF

BL

WANT

- Chord_r))/span

lambda)/span

..... TE_SWEEP'

YEILDS

"WING"
TO

DOES

CONTINUE

NOT
ANYWAYS

TAKE

THIS'
TYPE

cont_testl
.eq.
continue

) then

else
PRINT*,'

OK

!!!!!!

TRY

AGAIN

!!!!!!!![!'

STOP
endif
else
continue
endif
else
WRITE(*,

' (a,$)

(*,*)

')

' INPUT

) then

INPUT

CODE

YOU

if(cont_testl

GAMA

if

LE_sweep*(3.141592654/180)

span

read

"0"

1/4

Chord

Qrt_sweep

= Qrt_sweep*(3.141592654/180)

67

Sweep

[deg]

'

else

0:'

span

= AR*(l+lambda)/2

sweep

= ATAN(

(span*TAN(GAMA)

LE_sweep=

sweep*(180/3.141592654)

TE_sweep=

ATAN(

TE_sweep=

TE_sweep*(!80/3.141592654)
endif

.25*(lambda

(span*TAN(sweep)

1 +

- Chord_r))/span

lambda)/span

ELSE
WRITE(*,'(a,$)')'If
read

Sweep

is

based

on

LE

type

"i"

or

"0"

if

i/4C:'

(*,*)sw_type
if(sw_type

WRITE(*,'
read

.eq.

(a,$)')

(*,*)

sweep=

i)

then

' INPUT

Sweep

[deg]:

'

LE_sweep*(3.141592654/180)

WRITE(*,'(a,$)')'INPUT
read

LE

LE_sweep

(*,*)

TE_sweep=

TE_sweep

if

Delta

wing

then

use

deg:

'

TE_sweep
TE_sweep*(3.141592654/180)

c
if(tr_testl

.ne.

lambda
= span*(
if(lambda
.it.
PRINT*,'YOU
span

) then
TAN(TE_sweep>
0.0)
then

CHOSEN

TO

- Chord_r)/(TAN(TE_sweep)
TAN(sweep)

(0.0

+
PRINT*,'SPAN
PRINT*,'

MUST

LARGE

BE =
!!!!!!

- TAN(sweep)

SPAN

FOR

or > ',span
TRY AGAIN

THESE

+ Chord_r

SWEEPS'
)

!!!!!!!!!!'

STOP
else
continue
endif
else
continue
endif
c
span

GAMA

= ATAN(

(lambda

- Chord_r)/(TAN(TE
(span*TAN(sweep)

sweep)
+

- TAN(sweep))

.25*(lambda

- Chord_r))/span

Qrt_sweep=
GAMA*(180/3.141592654)
AR
= 2*span/(l+lambda)
TE_sweep=

TE_sweep*(180/3.141592654)
else

WRITE(*,'(a,$)')
read

(*,*)

GAMA
=
WRITE(*,'
read

' INPUT

1/4

Chord

Qrt_sweep*(3.141592654/180_
(a,$) ') 'INPUT
TE_sweep

(*,*)

TE_sweep=

Sweep

[deg]:

'

Qrt_sweep
if

Delta

wing

then

use

TE_sweep*(180/3.141592654)

if(tr_testl
lambda

.ne.
=

) then

span*(TAN(TE_sweep)
else

- TAN(sweep)

) +

Chord_r

continue
endif
if(
span

TE_sweep
=

sweep=

deg:

TE_sweep

(0.75"(1
ATAN(

.eq.
-

0.0)

then

lambda))/TAN(G_A)

(span*TAN(TE_sweep)

LE_sweep=

sweep*(180/3.141592654)

TE_sweep=

TE_sweep*(180/3.141592654)

68

lambda)/span

'

AR

2*span/(l+lambda)
else

sweep

span=

(0.25*(lambda

(.25*TAN(TE_sweep)

sweep=ATAN(

- Chord

TAN(GAMA))/(-.75)
r)

(span*TAN(GAMA)

LE_sweep=

sweep*(180/3.141592654)

TE_sweep=

TE_sweep*(180/3.141592654)

AR

)/(

(TAN(GAMA)

.25*(lambda

- TAN(sweep))

- Chord_r))/span)

2*span/(l+lambda)
endif
endif
ENDIF

PRINT

'span=

PRINT

'LE_sweep=

' , LE_sweep

PRINT

'TE_sweep=

' , TE_sweep

PRINT

'Qrt_sweep=

PRINT

'AR=

PRINT

'Taper

' , span

',

' , Qrt_sweep

AR
ratio=

' , lambda

WRITE

*,'(a,$)')'INPUT

read

*,*)kmax_w

WRITE

*, '(a,$)')'INPUT
* t *)dl

initial

*, '(a,$)')'INPUT
* t *)d2

final

read
WRITE
read

how

many

point

in

spacing
spacing

the

in
in

spanwise

spanwise

the

[25]:
dir.

spanwise

dir[.005]:

#################################################################
CALL
vinokur
( s, kmax_w,
span, dl, d2 )
#################################################################
i=0
do

yy(i)
k =
4
C

s(i)
+ 1

if(ABS(yy(i)
continue

- span)

.it.

0.001)

kmax_w

= k

#################################################################
This

C
C

i=l, kmax_w
=
k

section

will

set

the

spanwise

outer

boundary

for
the
tip zero
section.
#################################################################

MODIO

C
C

dely_wt
dwlw
Print*,'
dw3w

=
=

dely_wt=
= 0.

wmax

c2/25/93
do
C

15

(yy(kmax_w)

- yy(kmax_w-l)

',dely_wt
1

dw0

dwlw

dw2w

0.

thrdspan

0.3*span

thrdspan

1.0*span

jj

I,i00

deltp2
=
if(dw2w
if(dw3w
dw0
=

.20*thrdspan
.it.
deltp2)
.it.
dw0*sf

wmax
dw3w

- yy(kmax_w-l)

(yy(kmax_w)

then

thrdspan)

= wmax

then

= dw0

69

)*Chord_r
)*Chord_r

[.05]:

'
'

dw2w

= dw3w
else

- dw3w/sf

continue
endif
15

Continue
kmax=

kmax_w

(wmax

-i)

c
c

if(yy(i)
kmax=

c
c

print

c
cc

.le.
.5*span)
then
kmax_w
+ (kmax_w

*, 'kmax=
endif

print

- k)

' ,kmax

*, 'kmax_w=

' ,kmax_w

goto
3
#################################################################

c
c

\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\

c
c

This

and

will

open

then

the

read

it

spanwise

into

an

ordinate

data

file

ceated

array

c
c

open (21, file=


read (21, *)

c
c
c

read(21,*)
k=
0

do

if(ABS(yy(i)

'old'

, form='

formatted'

yy(i)
1
- span)

print
*, kmax_w=
continue

.it.

'

0.001)

kmax_w

kmax_w

goto
3
\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\

status=

i=l,kmax

c4

.crv',

kmax

read(21,*)
k = k +

'span2

\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\

c
c
2

WRITE(*,'(a,$)
read

')

' INPUT

GAMA

Qrt_sweep
TE_sweep
lambda
WRITE(*,
read

LE

TE

'

sweep
=

sweep

= sweep
1.0

'(a,$)')

' INPUT

or

length

[y/Cr]

'

(*,*)LE_length

span

= LE_Iength*COS(GAMA)

WRITE(*,'(a,$)')
read

' INPUT

Aspect

Ratio

normalized

pc.int

in

by

root

Chord:

'

(*,*)AR

span

= AR*(I
=

lambda)/2.0

2*span/(l+lambda)

PRINT

*,

'span=

PRINT

*,

'LE_sweep=

PRINT

*,

'Qrt_sweep=

PRINT

*,

'TE_sweep=

PRINT

*,

'AR=

WRITE(*,
read

[deg]:

sweep*(3.141592654/180)

LE_sweep

AR

Sweep

(*,*)sweep

',

',

span
', LE_sweep
', Qrt_swee_
', TE_sweep

AR

'(a,$)')'INPUT

how

many

the

spanwise

[kmax_w]

'

dir.

'

(*,*)kmax_w

WRITE(*,
' (a,$)
read
(*,*)dl

')

' INPUT

initial

70

spacing

in

the

spanwise

WRITE(*,'
(a,$)')
read
(*,*)d2

' INPUT

final

spacing

in

the

spanwise

dir.

#################################################################
CALL
vinokur(s,kmax_w,
span,dl,d2)
#################################################################
k
do

=
6

0
i=l,kmax_w

yy(i)
= s(i)
k = k + 1
if(ABS(yy(i)

- span)

if(yy(i)

.le.

kmax
print
endif
c

kmax_w

*, 'kmax=

0.001)

kmax_w

then

(kmax_w

- k)

' ,kmax

print
*,'k max_w=
continue

6
c

.!t.

.5*span)

' ,kmax_w

#################################################################

kmax_w

yspan
do 2

c
c

=
=
i

0.75*kmax

span/(kmax_w-l)
=l,kmax

yy(i)

c2

: yspan*(i-l)

continue

c
c

\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\

This

by

will
the

open

the

SIXSERIES

airfoil

code

ordinate

ref

__

and

data
then

file
read

ceated
it

into

an

array

c
c3

open(20,file='airf.ord',status='old',form='formatted')
3

WRITE(*,'(a,$)')'
READ(*,1000)infile

ENTER

grid

AIRFOIL

ORDINATE

open(20,file=infile,status='old',form='formatted')
read(20
i000)
name
read(20

npts_U

read

20

read

20

read

20

read

20

read

20

read

20

(x_U(i),z_U(i),i=l,npts_U)
npts_L
(x_L(i),z_L(i),i=l,npts_L)
jmax
te
delx_te

TE_length

\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\

jmax

= npts_U

(npts_L-l)

PRINT*,'HEY!!!
jmax
jmax_U
= npts_U
llmax
= 1
c

dely

kmax_w

0.6*kmax

kmax_t

kmax

',jmax

span/(.6*kmax-l)
- kmax_w

c
c

kmax

!.2*kmax_w

c
MOD9a

c
c
do

50

k=l,kmax_w

71

INFILE

NAME:

'

PRINT*,'

k=

',k

c
c
c

This

will

add

zero

thick

****

MOD9:

for

Starting

section

behind

upper

surface

the

from

the

Tip

of

the

the

"Wing-Trailing

Edge"

****

wing

c
c
TE_sweep
c

ATAN(

(span*TAN(sweep)-i

PRINT*,'***********

y(j,k,l)=

lambda)/span

',y(j,k,l)

c
MOD9

c
c
Chord

(I

Chord_t

yy(k)*(TAN(TE_sweep)

(i

PRINT*,'

Chord=

PRINT*,'

Chord_t=

delx_te

dtlt

dt0

=
=

dt0

NOTE:

=
j

x_U(npts_U-l)

x_U(npts_U-l)

',delx_te

.eq.
HI

i)

THEN

i!!'

dtlt
0.

i,i00

This

is

sometimes

conditions
the

in

grid

if(

0.12*TE_length

delwk

0.13*TE_length

HI

2!!

.It.

PRINT*,'
=

to

avoid

subroutine

delwk

dt2t

dt0

change
Vinokur

spacing.

PRINT*,'

HI

delwk=
delwk)

',delwk
then

3!!'

dt0*sf

tmax

tmax

dt3t

dt0

dt2t

dt3t

PRINT*,'#1

dt3t/sf

dtlt=',dtlt,

' dt2t=',dt2t

else
continue
endif
7

continue
dt2t

PRINT*,

=
'#I

dt3t

dt3t/sf

dtlt=',dtlt,

'

dt2t=',dt2t

c
ELSE
CONTINUE
ENDIF
c2/93

dt2t
dt2

)*Chord
)*Chord_t

dt2t
do

delx_te

PRINT*,'
tmax

)
TAN(sweep))

dtl

IF
c

',Chord_t

(x_U(npts_U)

delx_te=

dtl

TAN(sweep))

',Chord

(x_U(npts_U)

PRINT*,'

yy(kmax_w)*(TAN(TE_sweep)

PRINT*,'#2

=
=

dt3t

dt3t/sf

dt2t
dtl=',dtl,'

dt2=',dt_

72

certain
that

distorts

jmax

te

tmax

jmax_te
c

PRINT*,'HEY

!!!

',dt3t

PRINT*,

',tmax

1
te

jmax_te=

PRINT*,'dt3t=
'tmax=

2*jmax

',jmax_te

#################################
CALL

vinokur(t,tmax,TE_length,dtl,dt2)

#################################
jj

tmax

if(tr_test2

.eq.

TE_sweep

i)

then

GAMA

else
continue
endif
do

i0

j=

jj

l,jmax
jj

PRINT*,

't(jj)=

y(j,k,l)
x(j,k,l)

',t(jj),
=

PRINT*,'

Chord_r

'

jj=

',jj

yy(k)
+

x(j,k,l)=

z(j,k,l)

i0

te
1

y(j,k,l)*(TAN(TE_sweep))
',x(j,k,l),'

j=

t(jj)

',j

0.0

Continue

c
c
c

This

starting

will

compute
from

****

the

the
for

upper

root
the

surface

trailing

upper

of

the

wing

edge.

surface

****

c
c
c
c
c

MOD9

c
c

do

npts_U

jmax

npts_U

20

j=jmax

te

te

l,jmax_U

jmax

te

c
i

=i

y(j,k,l)

1
=

yy(k)

if(tr_test2

.eq.

Chord
x(j

k,l)

I)

then

1.0
Chord

x_U(i)

(y(j,k,I)*TAN(GAMA))

else
TE_sweep
Chord

=
=

(I

ATAN(
+

(span*TAN(sweep)-I

y(j,k,l)*(TAN(TE_sweep)

x(j,k,l)

=
endif

Chord

x_U(i

\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\
z(j,k,l)
c

Chord

TAN(sweep))

y(j,k,l

*TAN(sweep)

\\\\\\\\\\

\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\

\\\\\\\\\\

\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\

z_U(i)

\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\

2O

lambda)/span
-

continue

c
c

This

starting

will

compute
from

the

the
root

lower
leading

surface
edge

c
count=

73

of

the

wing

MOD9

do

30

j=jmax_U+l,jmax

do

30

j=jmax_U

count
y(j,k,l)

jmax

count

yy(k)

jmax

te

te
+

l,jmax

jmax

te

\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\
if(tr_test2

.eq.

x(j,k,l)

i)

Chord

then

x_L(count)

(y(j,k,I)*TAN(GAMA))

else
TE_sweep

Chord

ATAN(

(I

(span*TAN(sweep)-i

y(j,k,l)*(TAN(TE_sweep)

x(j,k,l)

Chord

x_L(count)

lambda)/span

TAN(sweep))

y(j,k,l)*TAN(sweep)

endif
c

\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\

This

convert

section

will

it

to

read

the

in

proper

the

ordinate

values

to

of
define

the

airfiol

the

wing

\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\

\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\

z(j,k,l)

30

Chord

and

z_L(count)

continue

c
c
This

will
add
****

a
for

zero
the

thick
lower

section
surface

behind
****

the

"Wing

Trailing

Edge"

MOD9

jj

= 1

do

40

j=

jmax

jmax

do

40

j=

jmax

jmax_te_U

jj

y(j,k,l)

jj

yy(k)
.eq.

=
else

t(jj)

TE_sweep

ATAN(

x(j,k,l)

Chord_r

z(j,k,l
Continue

4O

l,jmax

i,jmax

I)
+

2*jmax

te

then

y(j,k,I)*TAN(GAMA)

(span*TAN(sweep)-I
+
endif

if(tr_test2
x(j,k,l)

te

lambda)/span

y(j,k,l)*TAN(TE_sweep)

)
t(jj)

0.0

c
c

5O

contlnue

c
c
c

do

This

i00

will

kk

kmax_w

kk

k=

kmax_w+l,

add

****

for

zero
the

***

MODI0

***

kmax

thick

section

cff

upper

surface

****

c
c

MODI0

kk

kk

-i

74

the

"Wing

Tip-Trailing

Edge"

dely_wt
dwlw
Print*,'

- y(l,kmax_w-l,l)

)*Chord_r

- y(l,kmax_w-l,l)

)*Chord_r

',dely_wt

= dwlw

dw3w

0.

dw2w

0.

thrdspan

thrdspan
55 jj =

do

(y(l,kmax_w,l)

(y(l,kmax_w,l)

dely_wt=
wmax
= 1
dw0

c2/25/93

=
=

0.3*span

= 1.0*span
i,i00

deltp2
=
if(dw2w
if(dw3w
dw0
=

.2*thrdspan
.it.
deltp2)
.it.
dw0*sf

wmax

= wmax

dw3w

dw0

dw2w

dw3w

then

thrdspan)
+

then

- dw3w/sf

else
continue
endif
55

Continue
dw2w

dw3w

- dw3w/sf

dtl

= dely_wt

dt2
dt2

= deltp2
= dw2w

#################################
CALL
vinokur(w,wmax,thrdspan,dtl,dt2)
#################################
kk

kk

C
C
C

MOD9

C
C
C

jj

= npts_U

tmax

do

60
jj

j=
=

+++++++++++++++
y(j,k,l)

l,jmax
jj MODI0

te

1
++++++++++++++++++

= yy(kmax__w)

(yy(kmax_w)

- yy(kk))

y(j,k,l)
= w(kk)
+ yy(kmax_w)
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
IF(tr_test2

.eq.

I)

THEN

MOD9
x(j,k,l)=x_U(i)

+ y(j,k,I)*TAN(GAMA)

x(j,k,l)=x(j,kmax_w,l)

(y(j,k,l)

-y(j,kmax_w,I))*TAN(GAMA)

ELSE
TE_sweep
Chord_t

= ATAN(
:

(i

(span*TAN(sweep)

lambda)/span

+ y(j,k_max_w+l,l)*(TAN(TE_sweep)

C
C
C
C

******************************************************************
THIS

IS A MOD
TO EXTEND
THIS
ZERO
THICKNESS

75

THE
LE_SWEEP
SECITON

INTO

TAN(sweep))

C
C

MOD9

C
C

x(j,k,l)=Chord_t

x(j,k,l)=t(jj)

x_U(i)

+ y(j,k,l)*TAN(sweep)

Chord_t*x_U(npts_U)

Chord_r

+ y(j,k,l)*TAN(sweep)

C
ENDIF
C

z(j,k,l)
Continue

60

0.0

This

will

add

********

zero

thickness

For

the

Upper

i=

npts_U

section

surface

off

the

"Wing

Tip"

chord

*******

MOD9

i
do
do

70
70

npts_U

j=
j=
i

jmax
te
jmax_te_U
=

+++++++++++++++

jmax

te

+
+

l,jmax
l,jmax_U

1
U

U
+

jmax

te

1
MODI0

++++++++++++++++++

y(j,k,l)

= yy(kmax_w)

y(j,k,l)

= w(kk)

(yy(kmax_w)

- yy(kk))

+ yy(kmax_w)

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
IF(tr_test2

.eq.

Chord

x(j,k,l)
TE_sweep

Chord_t

= Chord_t
ELSE

ATAN(

i)

(i

THEN

1.0
* x_U(i)

(y(j,k,I)*TAN(GAMA))

(span*TAN(sweep)-i

lambda)/span

+ y(j,kmax_w+l,l)*(T_(TE_sweep)

- TAN(sweep))

C
******************************************************************

THIS

IS

MOD

THIS

TO

ZERO

EXTEND

THE

THICKNESS

LE_SWEEP

INTO

SECITON

*W**W**W*W******W**WWW*W*W*WW***W_*WW*WWWWWWWW*WWWWWW**WW**W*WWWW*

x(j,k,l)=

Chord_t

* x_U(i)

y(j,k,l)*TAN(sweep)

ENDIF

$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$SSSSSSSSSSSSSSSS_:SSSSSS$$SSSSSSSSSSSSSSS$$SSS$SS$
z(j,k,l)

0.0

$$$$$$$$$$$SSSSSSSSSSS$$SSSSSSS$_$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$

C
7O

continue

C
C

This

will

add

********

For

zero
the

thickness
Lower

sect:.on

surface

counter

76

off

_'******

the

"Wing

tip"

chord

MOD9

C
C
C

do

80

j=

jmax_U

do

80

j=

jmax

l,jmax

jmax

te

jmax
U

te

l,jmax

jmax

te

counter

counter

+++++++++++++++

MODI0

++++++++++++++++++

y(j,k,l)

= yy(kmax_w)

y(j,k,l)

= w(kk)

(yy(kmax_w)

- yy(kk))

+ yy(kmax_w)

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

IF(tr_test2

.eq.

Chord_t
x(j,k,l)
TE_sweep

= Chord_t

= ATAN(

Chord_t

(i

i)

THEN

1.0
* x_L(counter)
ELSE

(span*TAN(sweep)-i

(y(j,k,I)*TAN(GAMA))

lambda)/span

+ y(j,kmax_w+l,l)*(TAN(TE_sweep)

)
TAN(sweep))

******************************************************************
THIS

IS

MOD

THIS

TO

ZERO

EXTEND

THE

THICKNESS

LE_SWEEP

INTO

SECITON

**WWWWWW*WWW***W*WWWW*WW**WWWWW**W*WWWWW***WWWWWW**W***WW*WW*WW***

x(j,k,l)=

Chord_t

* x_L(counter)

+ y(j,k,l)*TAN(sweep)

ENDIF

$$$$SSSSSSSSSSSS$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
z(j,k,l)
80

= 0.0
continue

C
C

This

will

add

****

zero

for

thick

the

lower

section

off

surface

the

"Wing

Tip-

Trailing

Edge"

****

MOD9
i

= npts_L

do

90

jj = 1
j= jmax

do

90

j=

jj
y(j,k,l)
y(j,k,l)

te

jmax

te

i,

jmax

+
+

jmax
1

te

I,

jmax

jmax
i = i

+++++++++++++++

- jmax

= jj
MODI0

jmax_te

1
++++++++++++++++++

= yy(kmax_w)
+ (yy(kmax_w)
= w(kk)
+ yy(kmax_w)

- yy(kk))

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

IF(tr_test2
x(j,k,l)=x_L(i)
x(j,k,l)=x(j,kmax
TE_sweep
Chord_t

w,l)
+
ELSE

= ATAN(
=

.eq.

i)

THEN

+ y(j,k,I)*TAN(GAMA)

(I

(y(j,k,l)

-y(j,kmax_w,I))*TAN(GAMA)

(span*TAN(sweep)-i

lambda)/span

+ y(j,kmax_w+l,l)*(TAN(TE_sweep)

C
C
C

******************************************************************
THIS

IS

A MOD

TO

EXTEND

THE

77

LE_SWEEP

- TAN(sweep))

INTO

THIS

ZERO

x(j,k,1)=Chord_t

x(j,k,1)=t(jj)

THICKNESS

x_L(i)

SECITON

y(j,k,1)*T__,l(sweep)

Chord_t*x_U(npts_U)

Chord_r

y(j,k,1)*TAN(sweep)

C
ENDIF
z(j,k,l)
Continue

9O

0.0

i00

continue

C
C

write

grid

WRITE(*,'(a,$)')'
READ(*,1000)outfile

ENTER

WRITE(*,'(a,$)')'

IF

grid

YOU

FILE

WANT

NAME:
b_LTI

'
GRID

OUTPUT

TYPE

i:

READ(*,*)MG
C
C

change

'binary'

to

'unformatted'

to

run

on

CRAY

or

VAX

OPEN(UNIT=7,FILE=outfile,STATUS='new',
form='unformatted')

MOD9

C
C

PRINT*,'HEY
jmax
= jmax

2
+

!!! jmax_te=
jmax_te

PRINT*,'HEY

!!!

jmax

IDM(1)
JDM(1)
KDM(1)
IF(MG

kmax

llmax

.ne.

WRITE

(7)

i)

jmax,

WRITE(7)

jmax=

',jmax_te
',jmax

THEN
kmax,

llmax

(((X(J,K,L),

J=jmax,

l,--l),

K=l,kmax),

L=l,llmax),

(((Y(J,K,L),

J=jmax,

l,-l),

K=l,kmax),

L=l,llmax),

(((Z(J,K,L),

J=jmax,

l,-l),

K=l,kmax),

L=l,llmax)

ELSE
NGRID
WRITE(7)

WRITE(7)
DO

110

NGRID
(IDM(IGRID),JDM(IGRID),}_M(IGRID),IGRID=I,NGRID)
IGRID=

I,NGRID

WRITE(7)
(((X(I,J,K),
I=IDM(IGRID),I,-I),J=I,JDM(IGP.ID)),K=I,KDM(IGRID)),
(((Y(I,J,K),
I=IDM(IGRID),I,-I),J=I,JDM(IGkID)),K=I,KDM(IGRID)),
(((Z(I,J,K),
ii0

I=IDM(IGRID),I,-I),J=I,JDM(IGLID)),K=I,KDM(IGRID))
CONTINUE

ENDIF
stop

78

end

subroutine

vinokur(s,lmax,smax,dsle,ds2e)

c
c

stretches

at

Vinokur

points

the

on

boundaries

surface

is

so

satisfied.

that

Taken

specified

from

spacing

NASA

CR

3313

by

made

to

better

(1980).

c
c

In

this

version,

match

The

four

i.

delta-s

is

2.

delta-s

from

the

distinct

resulting

iterations

delta-s

iterations

are

values

are
to

summarized

the

requested

values.

below:

series

3.

set

equal
the

to

last

the

desired

iteration

value.

is

corrected

from

Taylor

expansion.

delta-s

is

calculated

is

calculated

from

linear

fit

quadratic

between

the

first

two

guesses.

4.

delta-s

three

desired

after

guesses,

if

value.
three

from
indeed

If

it

quadratic

doesn't,

it

fit

between

will
takes

pass
the

the

through

value

first
the

calculated

swipes.

c
c

Additionally,

for

approximate

this

y=sin(x)/x

and

version

uses

y=sinh(x)/x

solution

was

also

the

approximate

rather

than

taken

from

inverse
a

NASA

Newton
CR

3313.

c
c
common

/io/

dimension

input,kopy,
s(200),

default

dl(4,2),d2(4,2)

c
C

......

for

an

IRIS

2500,

emax=87.0
c-

dsavg=smax/float(imax-l)
c

21

write(*,103)dsavg

PRINT*,

'dsle=

',dsle

PRINT*,

'ds2e=

',ds2e

PRINT*,

'smax=

',smax

21
c
c

dsavg=0.001
dsle=dsavg
call

realval(l,l,dsle,q,q,*21,*101)

if(dsle.ge,
22

dsavg=0.01

c22

write(*,104)dsavg

c
c

smax.or.dsle.lt.

0.0)go

to

21

0.0)go

to

21

ds2e=dsavg
call

realval(l,l,ds2e,q,q,*22,*101)

if(ds2e.ge.(smax-dsle).or.ds2e.lt.
if(dsle.eq.0.0.and.ds2e.eq.0.0)then
kase=0
dsle=dsavg
ds2e=dsavg
nlast=4
else

if(dsle.eq.0.0)then
kase=l

79

solution

iteration.

The

nlast=l
c

23

write(6,106)
continue

23

call

realval(0,l,slop,no,no,*23,*101)

if(slop.lt.0.0.or.slop.gt.l.0)go

to

23

to

24

dsle=-slop
else

if(ds2e.eq.0.0)then
kase=2
nlast=l

c 24
24

write(6,106)
continue
call

realval(0,l,slop,no,no,*24,*101)

if(slop.lt.0.0.or.slop.gt.l.0)go
ds2e=-slop
else
kase=0
nlast=4
end

if

dssl=0.0
dss2=0.0
do

6 n=l,nlast

if(n.le.2)then
dsl=dsle-0.5*dssl
ds2=ds2e+0.5*dss2
dl(n,l)=dsl
d2(n,l)=ds2
PRINT*,'dI(I,I)=
PRINT*,'dI(I,2)=

',dl(l,l)
',dl(l,2)

PRINT*,'dI(2,1)=

',dl(2,1)

PRINT*,'dI(2,2)=

',di(2,2)

else

if(n.eq.3)then

dsl=-dl(l,2)*(dl(2,1)-dl(l,l))/(dl(2,2)-dl(l,2))+dl(l,l)
PRINT*,'d2(I,I)=
',d2(l,l)

PRINT*,'d2(I,2)=

',d2(i,2)

PRINT*,'d2(2,!)=

',d2(2,1)

PRINT*,'d2(2,2)=

',d2(2,2)

ds2=-d2(l,2)*(d2(2,1)-d2(l,l))/(d2(2,2)-d2(l,2))+d2(l,l)
C

PRINT*,'dsI=

',dsl

PRINT*,'ds2=

',ds2

PRINT*,'nlast=

PRINT*,'HELP!!!'
if(dsl.lt.0.0)dsl=0.5*aminl(dl(l,l),dl(2,1))

',nlast

if(ds2.1t.0.0)ds2=0.5*aminl(d2(l,l),d2(2,1))
dl(n,l)=dsl
d2(n,l)=ds2
else

if(n.eq.4)then
denom=-(dl(l,l)-dl(2,1))*(dl(2,1)-dl(3,1))*(dl(3,1)-dl(l,l))
all=dl(2,1)-dl(3,1)
a21=dl(3,1)**2-dl(2,1)**2
a31=dl(2,1)*dl(3,1)*(dl(2,1)-dl(3,1))
al2=dl(3,1)-dl(l,l)
a22=dl(l,l)**2-dl(3,1)**2
a32=dl(3,1)*dl(l,l)*(dl(3,1)-dl(l,l))
al3=dl(l,l)-dl(2,1)
a23=dl(2,1)**2-dl(l,l)**2
a33=dl(l,l)*dl(2,1)*(dl(l,l)-dl(2,1))
bl=(all*dl(l,2)+al2*dl(2,2)+al3*dl(3,2))/denom

8O

b2=(a21*dl(l,2)+a22*dl(2,2)+a23*dl(3,2))/denom
b3=(a31*dl(l,2)+a32*dl(2,2)+a33*dl(3,2))/denom
disc=(b2*b2-4.*bl*b3)
if(disc.lt.0.0)go

to

ddl=(-b2+sqrt(disc))/(2.*bl)
dd2=(-b2-sqrt(disc))/(2.*bl)
dd3=dl(3,1)
if(abs(ddi-dd3).it.abs(dd2-dd3))then
dsl=ddl
else
dsl=dd2
end

if

denom=-(d2(l,l)-d2(2,1))*(d2(2,1)-d2

3,!))*(d2(3,1)-d2(l,l))

all=d2

(2, i) -d2 (3, i)

a21=d2

(3, i) *'2-d2

a31=d2

(2, i) *d2 (3, i) * (d2 (2, i) -d2 (3, I)

a12=d2

(3, i) -d2 (i, i)

(2, i) **2

a22=d2(l,l)**2-d2(3,1)**2
a32=d2(3,1)*d2(l,l)*(d2(3,1)-d2(l,l)
a13=d2(l,l)-d2(2,1)
a23=d2(2,1)**2-d2(l,l)**2
a33=d2(l,l)*d2(2,1)*(d2(l,l)-d2(2,1)
bl=(ail*d2(l,2)+a12*d2(2,2)+a13*d2(3

2))/denom

b2=(a21*d2(l,2)+a22*d2(2,2)+a23*d2(3

2))/denom

b3=(a31*d2(l,2)+a32*d2(2,2)+a33*d2(3,2))/denom
disc=(b2*b2-4.*bl*b3)
if(disc.le.0.0)go

to

ddl=(-b2+sqrt(disc))/(2.*bl)
dd2=(-b2-sqrt(disc))/(2.*bl)
dd3=d2(3,1)
if(abs(ddl-dd3).it.abs(dd2-dd3))then
ds2=ddl
else
ds2=dd2
end

if

if(dsl.lt.0.0.or.ds2.1t.0.0)go
end
if
calculate

to

constants

s0=smax/float(imax-l)/dsl
sl=smax/float(Imax-l)/ds2
b=sqrt(s0*sl)
a=sqrt(s0/sl)
if(kase.eq.l)then
b=sl
else

if(kase.eq.2)then
b=s0

end

if

calculate

based

on

value

of

if(b-l.)i,2,3
C

is

real

if(b.lt.0.26938972)then
pi=4.*atan(l.)
x=pi*(l.
-b
+ 6.794732"b*'4

+
b**2
-13.205501"b*'5

else

81

(l.+pi**2/6.)*b**3
+ ii.726095"b*'6)

c=l.
x=

-b
sqrt

*
*

(6.*c)*
+0.15"c

(i.

-0. 053337753"c*'4
end

0.057321429"c*'2

0.07584513_*c*'5)

0.057321429"c*'2

+0.048774238"c*'3

if

go

to

c
x

is

zero

x=O.
go

to

c
c

is

imaginary

if(b.lt.2.7829681)then
c=b-l.
*

x=

sqrt(6.*c)*(l.
-0.15"c

+0.0077424461"c*'4

-0.024907295"c*'3

-0.0010794123"c*'5)

else
v=alog(b)
w=l./b

0.028527431

x= v + (l.+l./v)*alog(2.*v)
+ 0.24902722"w
+

*
*

end

2.6294547"w*'3

-0.02041793
1.9496443"w*'2
8.56795911"w*'4

if

c
c

distribute

points

along

boundary

c
4

continue
if(kase.eq.l.or.kase.eq.2)then
s(l
) = 0.0
s(imax)
do

smax

i=2,1max-i

j= imax+l-i
xi=float(i-l)/(imax-l)
if(b.gt.l.
ul=l.
else

OOOl)then
tanh(x/2.*(xi-l.))/tanh(x/2.)

if(b.lt.O.9999)then
ul=l.

tan

(x/2.*(xi-l.))/tan

(x/2.)

else
end

ul=
if

xi*(l.-.5*(b-l.)*(l.-xi)

_(2.-xi))

u2=sinh(xi*x)/sinh(x)
if(kase.eq.l)then
fact=abs(dsle)
else

s(j)
= ( (l.-fact)*(l.-ul)
if(kase.eq.2)then

fact*(l.-u2)

fact*

) *smax

fact=abs(ds2e)
s(i)

(l.-fact)*

ul

end
if
continue
else
do

i=l,lmax

xi=float(i-!)/float(Imax-l)
cnum=x*(xi-0.5)
cden=x/2.
if(b.lt.O.9999)then
cc=tan(cnum)/tan(cden)
u=0.5*(l.+cc)

82

u2

*smax

else

if(b.ge.O.9999.and.b.le.l.

OOOl)then

u=xi*(l.+2.*(b-l.)*(xi-O.5)*(l.-xi))
else

if(b.gt.l.

OOOl)then

cc=tanh(cnum)/tanh(cden)
u=0.5*(l.+cc)
end

if

s(i)=u*smax/(a+(l.-a)*u)
end

if

c
if(imax.ge.4)then
dssl=(

-s(4)

+4.*s(3)

-5.*s(2)

+2.*s(1))

dss2=(2.*s(imax)-5.*s(imax-l)+4.*s(imax-2)
end

-s(imax-3))/2.

if

c
esl=s(2)-s(1)
es2=s(imax)-s(imax-l)
if(n.ne.4)then
dl(n,2)=esl-dsle
d2(n,2)=es2-ds2e
end

if

continue

esmin=

c
l.Oe+08

esmax=-l.Oe+08
do

j=2,1max

stmp=s

(j) -s (j-l)

if(stmp.lt.esmin)then
jnj

=j

esmin=stmp
if

end

if(stmp.gt.esmax)then
jxj

=j

esmax=stmp
end
7

if

continue

write(6,105)esl,es2,jnj-i

jnj,esmin,

jxj-l,jxj,esmax

c
i01

return

103

format(/,6x,
*

104

'enter

/,6x,'(default
format(/,6x,

*
105

/,6x,

delta
=

'enter
'(default

format(/,6x,

'

*6x,

'minimum

*6x,

'
6x,

'

at
'

spacing

beginning
0.=

of

arclength',

auto-spacing)',t59,'>',$)

end
0.=

of

arclength',

auto-spacing)',t59,'>',$)

at

beginning:',gl2.5,/,
end:',gl2.5,/,

'maximum

format(6x,

',g12.5

'computed

at
'

delta
=

*6x,

106

',g12.5

enter
(between

spacing

(i=',i3,',',i3,'):',g12.5,/,

spacing
the

(i=',i3,',

degree
O.

of

(tanh)

end

83

',i3,'):',g12.5)

stretching',/,
and

I.

(sinh)

)'t59,'>',$)

APPENDIX

PAO_
85

_f

_.D,N_

NOT

FILMED

program

Joseph
Date:

sf

A. Garcia
Jan
1993

**********************W**WWWWW**WWWW*****W**WW**********

This

program

input

of
then

will

check

points
and
the
critical

the

streching

factor

flag
the user
when
value
of 1.3
in

the
this

(sf)

for

"sf"
case.

is

parameter(ii=201,jj=201,kk=3)
dimension
character*20
common
c
c ....
i000

read

xx(ii),yy(ii),del_x(ii),del__v(ii),del_r(ii)
ident

/corner/

in

xl,yll,ylu,xi,yil,yiu,x4,y41,y4u,x5,y51,y5u

locals

format(A)
CHARACTER*30
WRITE(*,'

infile

(a,$)')'

ENTER

FILE

NAME

'

READ(*,1000)infile
open(30,file=infile,
read(30,1000)
ident
read(30,*)

idim

write(*,*)

'idim

read(30,*)

(xx(i),yy(i),i=l,idim)

write(*,*)

xx(1)

write(*,*)

xx(2)

do

20
c

20

',idim

i=l,idim
del_x(i)

= xx(i)

del__y(i)
del_r(i)

= yy(i)
- yy(i-l)
= sqrt((del_x(i))**2

- xx(i-l)

continue
do

25

sf

sf

= del_r(i)/del_r(i-l)

if

i=3,idim
(xx(i)-xx(i-l))/(xx(i-l)-xx(i-2))

(sf.lt.l.0)
sf =
endif
if

i,sf,xx(i)

(sf.gt.l.3)

write(*,*)
endif
continue
stop
end

then

1.0/sf

write(*,*)

25

status='old',form='formatted')

then
.....

(del__v(i))**2)

given

larger

Programairf_2dsurf
Joseph A. Garcia
Date: Jan 1993
This program will read the output of the sixseries code
and then create an upper surface curve of the airfoil
with a zero thickness trailing edge section to be
used as the 2d surface grid on VISUAL GRID for
redistribution.
parameter(idim=200,jdim=200,kdim=5)
dimension

x_U(idim),z_U(jdim),x_te(100),z_te(100)

integer
real

npts,

npts_0

delx_te

character*20

I000

FORMAT

name,

WRITE(*,'(a,$)')
READ(*,1000)

airfoil,wing

READ(*,1000)
WRITE(*,

'Enter

the

input

'Enter

the

airfoil

the

number

file

name

:'

infile

WRITE(*,'(a,$)')

in

consideration:

' (a,$)')

'Enter

pts

in

the

zero

npts_0

format(I3)
open(25,file=infile,status='old',form='formatted')
read(25,1000)

name

read(25,*)

npts

read(25,*)

(x_U(i),z_U(i),i=l,npts)

c
delx_te

c
c
c

.5/npts_0

WRITE(*,'(a,$)')

'Enter

READ(*,1000)

an

output

file

wing

open(26,file='airf.crv',status='old',form='formatted')
WRITE(26,1000)

name

WRITE(26,40)

npts

WRITE(26,50)
do

2O

20

+ npts_0+l

(x_U(i),z_U(i),i=l,npts)

i=l,npts_0

x_te(i)

z_te(i)
continue

0.0

WRITE(26,50)

40
5O

'

airfoil

READ(*,10)

i0

infile,

(A)

delx_te*(i-l)

(x_te(i),z_te(i),i=i,npts_0+l)

format(I4,1x,'Upper
format(el4.8,3x,

Coordinates:)
el4.8)

stop
END

88

name

'

section:'

Program

S3d_airf

c
c

By:

Joseph

A.

Garcia

c
c

This

"airf.ord"

program

cut

will

create

WingSurf

WingSurf

airfoil

generator

surface

grid

ordinate
from

file

the

modified

first

on

S3d

c
c

Date:

Jan

22,

1993

c
parameter(idim=200,jdim=200,kdim=5)
dimension

x_U(idim),z_U(jdim),

x_te(20),

,IDM(5),JDM(5),KDM(5),X(idim,
,Y(idim,
jdim, kdim),Z(idim,
INTEGER
REAL

npts,

npts_0,

delx_te,

ii,IGRID,

TE_Ingth,

character*20

te(20)

form_test

delwk

name,wing,
Defaults

jdim, kdim)
jdim, kdim)

infile,airfoil,outfile,

formm

c
npts_0

25

i000

FORMAT(A)
WRITE(*,'(a,$)
READ(*,1000)

') 'Enter
infile

WRITE(*,'(a,$)')'If
READ(*,*)form_test
if

the

file

( form_test
.eq.
formm
= 'formatted'

input

is

file

fomatted

name
type

:'
1

or

if

unform.:'

l)then

else
formm

'unformatted'

endif
WRITE(*,

'(a,$)')

READ(*,1000)
WRITE(*,

' (a,$)

READ(*,10)
FORMAT(f3.1)

i0

'Enter

the

airfoil

in

consideration:

') 'What

do

you

want

to

use

as

TE_ingth

PRINT*,'formm=

',formm

open(7,file=infile,status='old',form=for_)
IF
( form_test
PRINT*,'FORMATTED'
READ(7,*)
15

.eq.

l)then

NGRID

READ(7,*)
DO

(IDM(IGRID),JDM(IGRID),KDM(IGRID),IGRID=I,NGRID)

IGRID=

I,NGRID

READ(7,*)
+

(((X(I,J,K),

+
+

I=I,IDM(IGRID)),J=I,JDM(IGRID)),K=I,KDM(IGRID)),
(((Y(I,J,K),

+
+
+
15

I=I,IDM(IGRID)),J=I,JDM(IGRID)),K=I,KDM(IGRID)),
(((Z(I,J,K),
I=I,IDM(IGRID)),J=I,JDM(IGRID)),K=I,KDM(IGRID))
CONTINUE
ELSE
PRINT*,'UNFORMATTED'
READ(7)
READ(7)
DO

20

'

airfoil

NGRID
(IDM(IGRID),JDM(IGRID),KDM(IGRID),IGRID=I,NGRID)
IGRID=

I,NGRID

READ(7)

89

the

TE

sec

ingth:'

(((X(I,J,K),

+
+

I=I,IDM(IGRID)),J=I,JDM(IGRID)),K=I,KDM(IGRID)),
(((Y(I,J,K),

+
+

I=I,IDM(IGRID)),J=I,JDM(IGRID)),K=I,KDM(IGRID)),
(((Z(I,J,K),

I=I,IDM(IGRID)),J=I,JDM(IGRID)),K=I,KDM(IGRID))
CONTINUE

20

ENDIF
C

WRITE(*,'
(a,$)')
'Enter
READ(*,1000)
outfile

the

output

file

name

open(26,file=outfile,status='new',form='formatted')
WRITE(26,1000)
airfoil
C
C

This
section
into
the

C
C

id

will
put
airfoil

the plot3d
mg coordinates
ordinate
format

C
C

npts
ii
do

30
ii

IDM(1)

= npts

i=l,npts
= ii - 1
j=l
k=l

3O

x_U(i)

=X(ii,j,k)

z_U(i)
continue

=Z(ii,j,k)

Writing

out

the

WRITE
(26,40)
WRITE(26,50)

ordinates

npts
(x_U(i),z_U(i)

WRITE(26,50)
WRITE

airfoil

,i=l,npts)

(x_U(i),-z_U(i),i=l,npts)

(25,50)

(((X(I,J,K),
I=I,IDM(1)),J=I,JDM(1)),K=I,KDM(1)),
(((Z(I,J,K),
I=I,IDM(1)),J=I,JDM(1)),K=I,KD_4(1))

WRITE(26,55)

(x_te(i),z_te(i)

,i=l,npts_0)

WRITE

(26,45)

npts

WRITE

(26,55)

(x_U(i),-z_U(i),i=l,npts)

WRITE

(26,55)

(x_U(i)

WRITE

(26,55)

(x_te

,z_U(i),i=l,:]pts)
(i) , -z_te

(i) , i=l,npts_0)

delx_te

= x_U(npts)

- x_U(npts-l)

C
C

This

section

wing

wake
npts_0

C
C

will

estimate

# pts

= NINT(TE_ingth/delx

te)

AAA^AA_AAA^AAA_A^AAAA_AAAA^A^AA^AA

npts_0
= 0
dt0
= delx_te
dt2t
do

35

needed

section

0.

delwk

0.1*TE_ingth

i,I00

9O

in

the

-'

dr0

if(
dt2t
= dt0*l.2

.it.

npts_0
=
dt3t
= dt0
dt2t

dt3t
else

delwk)

npts_0
-

then
1

dt3t/l.2

continue
endif
35

continue
A_AAAA_A_A_A_A_AAAAA_A_AA_

WRITE(26,60)

npts_0

WRITE(26,65)

delx_te

WRITE(26,70)

TE_ingth

40

format(I4,1x,

45

format(I4,1x,'Lower

50

format(el4.8,3x,el4.8)

55

format(el4.8,3x,el5.8)

60

format(I4,1x,

65

format(el4.8,1x,

70

format(f3.1,1x,

'Upper

Coordinates')
Coordinates')

'= Number
'= Delta
'= Length

of

pionts
X
of

stop
END

9!

in

in

the

the

TE

the

TE

zero

zero

TE

zero

section')

section')
section')

APPENDIX

PAGE
93

BLANK

NOT

FILME_

#!

/bin/sh

JN='LRE60WINGI_caseI'
SN:'COSAL_iI8000'
MK='make4.eagle'
#
COMPILE
THE
CODES
#
if test
then
mv
fi

Tran_rpt_n8.p3d.old

Tran_rpt_n8.p3d.old

if test
then
mv
fi

-s

-s

Tran_rpt_n8.p3d.older

Tran_rpt_n8.p3d.new

Tran_rpt_nS.p3d.new

Tran_rpt_n8.p3d.old

cd
/uO/rfa/jgarcia/stab_src_dir
make
-f SMK
cp
mv
mv

cosal_4.exe
wing.exe
stabin.exe

/uO/rfa/jgarcia/$JN/$SN
/uO/rfa/jgarcia/$JN/$SN
/u0/rfa/jgarcia/$JN/$SN

mv
getstab.exe
/uO/rfa/jgarcia/$JN/$SN
cp
interp_n5_8_p3d.exe
/u0/rfa/jgarcia/$JN/$SN
mv plot3d_tran.exec
/u0/rfa/jgarcia/$JN/$SN
cd
/u0/rfa/jgarcia/$JN/$SN
chmod
+x
*.exe
mkdir
jobl
cd jobl
#cp
/u0/rfa/jgarcia/stab_run_dir/run*
cp
/uO/rfa/jgarcia/stab_run_dir/run*
/uO/rfa/jgarcia/$JN/$SN/jobl
if test
-s Tran_frnt.p3d.old
then
mv
fi

Tran_frnt.p3d.old

if test
then
mv
fi

-s

-s

Tran_frnt.p3d.old

Tran_rpt_n8.p3d.old

Tran_rpt_n8.p3d.old

if test
then

Tran_frnt.p3d.older

Tran_frnt.p3d.new

Tran_frnt.p3d.new

if test
then
mv
fi

-s

/u0/rfa/jgarcia/$JN/$SN

Tran_rpt_n8.p3d.older

Tran_rpt_n8.p3d.new

mv
Tran_rpt_nS.p3d.new
Tran_rpt_n8.p3d.old
fi
mv
cosal.time
cosal.time.old
#
#
THIS
IS WHERE
THE
LOOP
FOR
THE
SPECIFIED
SPAN
STATION
STARTS
#
#for
case
in fort.73
fort.74
fort.75
fort.76
fort.77
fort.78
fort.79
fort.80
fort.81
fort.82
fort.83
fort.84
fort.85

95

fort.86
fort.87
fort.88
fort.89
fort.90
fort.91
fort.93
fort.94
fort.95
fort.96
#
#for case in fort.74
fort.75
fort.77
fort.79

fort.92

#
for

case

fort.85
#
do
# CLEAN

in

fort.74

fort.75

fort.77

fort.79

fort.81

fort.83

fort.87

UP

THE

OUTPUT

FILES

#
rm
rm
rm

stab.out
fort.7
cosal.out

rm
rm
rm
rm

int_nl0.out
int_n8.out
wing.out
fort.2

#
#

EXECUTE

THE

INPUT

FILE

#
nice

../stabin.exe<../$case

#
#

EXECUTE

THE

B.L.

CODE

#
nice

../wing.exe<

fort.2

>

wing.out:

#
#
#

THIS

IS

THE

START

OF

THE

STAB

CODE

ANALYSIS

LOOP

#
#for
run
in runl
run25
#
for
run
in runl
run2
run3
run4
runll
runl2
runl3
runl4
runl5
run21
run22
run23

run5
runl6

run6
runl7

run7
run8
run9
runl0
runl8
runl9
run20

#
#for
runl0

run
in
runll

run0
runl2

runl
run2
run3
run4
runl3
runl4
runl5

run5
runl6

run6
runl7

run7
run8
runl8

run9

#
do
#
touch

cosal.time

echo
"Timing
information
for
running
cosal_4.exe:"
>>
cosal.time
date
>> cosal.time
##
/bin/time
nice
../cosal_4.exe
< ../$run
> cosal.out
cosal.time
/bin/time
nice
../cosal_4.exe
< _run
> cosal.out
2>>
cosal.time
date
>> cosal.time

2>>

#
#

APPEND

THE

STAB.OUT

INFO,

cosal.out

>>

T_KEN

#
../getstab.exe

<

stab.out

96

FROM

THE

COSAL.OUT

FILE

mv
cosal.out
done
#
#

THIS

cosal.out.bak

IS

THE

END

OF

THE

LOOP

#
nice

../interp_n5

8 93d.exe<../$case

#
if test
then

"$case"

"fort.73"

mkdir
stat_c3al
cp stab.out
stat_c3al/stab_sl.out
cp
int_n8.out
stat_c3al/int_nS.sl
cp
fi

int_nl0.out

stat_c3al/int_nl0.sl

#
if test
then
mkdir
cp
cp
cp
fi

"$case"

"fort.74"

stat_c3a2

stab.out
int_n8.out
int_nl0.out

stat_c3a2/stab_s2.out
stat_c3a2/int_n8.s2
stat_c3a2/int_nl0.s2

#
if test
then
mkdir
cp
cp
cp
fi

"$case"

"fort.75"

stat_c3a3

stab.out
int_nS.out
int_nl0.out

stat_c3a3/stab_s3.out
stat_c3a3/int_n8.s3
stat_c3a3/int_nl0.s3

#
if test
then
mkdir
cp
cp
cp
fi

"$case"

"fort.76"

stat_c3a4

stab.out
int_n8.out
int_nl0.out

stat_c3a4/stab_s4.out
stat_c3a4/int_nS.s4
stat_c3a4/int_nl0.s4

#
if test
then

"$case"

"fort.77"

mkdir
stat_c3a5
cp
stab.out
stat_c3a5/stab_s5.out
cp
int_nS.out
stat_c3a5/int_n8.s5
cp
int_nl0.out
stat_c3a5/int_nl0.s5
fi

#
if test
then

"$case"

"fort.78"

mkdir
stat_c3a6
cp stab.out
stat_c3a6/stab_s6.out
cp
int_n8.out
stat_c3a6/int_n8.s6
cp
int_nl0.out
stat_c3a6/int_nl0.s6
fi

97

#
if test
then

"$case"

"fort.79"

mkdir
stat_c3a7
cp stab.out
stat_c3a7/stab_s7.out
cp int_n8.out
stat_c3a7/int_n8.s7
cp
int_nlO.out
stat_c3a7/int_nlO.s7
fl
#
if test
then

"$case"

"fort.80"

mkdir
stat_c3a8
cp stab.out
stat_c3a8/stab_s8.out
cp
int_n8
out
stat_c3a8/int_n8.s8
cp
int_nlO.out
stat_c3a8/int_nlO.s8
fi
#
if test
then

"$case"

"fort.81"

mkdir
stat_c3a9
cp
stab.out
stat_c3a9/stab_s9.out
cp
int_n8
out
stat_c3a9/int_n8.s9
cp
int_nlO.out
stat_c3a9/int_nlO.s9
fi
#
if test
"$case"
= "fort.82"
then
mkdir
stat_c3alO
cp stab.out
stat_c3alO/stab_slO.out
cp int_n8
out
stat_c3alO/int_n8.slO
cp int_nlO.out
stat_c3alO/int_nlO.slO
fi
#
if test
"$case"
then
mkdir
stat_c3all
cp
cp
cp
fi
#

"fort.83"

stab.out
stat_c3all/stab_sll.out
int_n8
out
stat_c3all/int_n8.sll
int_nlO.out
stat_c3all/int_nlO._ll

if test
"$case"
then
mkdir
stat_c3al2
cp
cp
cp
fi
#

"fort.84"

stab.out
stat_c3al2/stab_sl2.out
int_n8
out
stat_c3al2/int_nS.sl2
int_nlO.out
stat_c3al2/int_nlO.sl2

if test
then

"$case"

"fort.85"

mkdir
stat_c3al3
cp
stab.out
stat_c3al3/stab_sl3.out
cp
int_n8
out
stat_c3al3/int_n8.sl3

98

cp
fi

int_nlO.out

stat_c3al3/int_nlO.sl3

#
if test
"$case"
then
mkdir
stat_c3al4
cp
cp
cp
fi

"fort

86"

stab.out
stat
c3al4/stab_sl4.out
int
n8.out
stat_c3al4/int_n8.sl4
int_nlO.out
stat_c3al4/int_nlO.sl4

#
if test
"$case"
then
mkdir
stat_c3al5
cp
cp
cp
fi

stab.out
int_n8.out
int_nlO.out

"fort

87"

stat_c3al5/stab_sl5.out
stat
c3al5/int_n8.sl5
stat_c3al5/int_nlO.sl5

#
if test
then
mkdir
cp
cp
cp
fi

"$case"

"fort

88"

stat_c3al6

stab.out
int_n8.out
int_nlO.out

stat_c3al6/stab_sl6.out
stat_c3al61int_n8.sl6
stat_c3al6/int_nlO.sl6

#
if test
then

"$case"

"fort

89"

mkdir
stat_c3al7
cp stab.out
stat
c3al7/stab_sl7.out
cp
int_n8.out
stat_c3al71int_n8.sl7
cp
int
nlO.out
stat_c3al7/int
nlO.sl7
fi

#
if test
then

"$case"

"fort

90"

mkdir
stat_c3al8
cp stab.out
stat_c3al8/stab_sl8.out
cp
int_n8.out
star
c3al81int_n8.sl8
cp
int
nlO.out
stat_c3al8/int_nlO.sl8
fi

#
if test
then

"$case"

"fort

91"

mkdir
stat_c3al9
cp stab.out
stat_c3al9/stab_sl9.out
cp
int
n8.out
stat_c3al91int
n8.s19
cp int_nlO.out
stat_c3al9/int_nlO.sl9
fi

#
if test
then
mkdir

"$case"

"fort

92"

stat_c3a20

99

cp
cp
cp
fi

stab.out
int_n8.out
int_nlO.out

stat_c3a20/stab_s20.out
stat_c3a20/int_n8.s20
stat_c3a20/int_nlO.s20

#
if test
then

"$case"

"fort.93"

mkdir
stat_c3a21/
cp stab.out
stat_c3a21/stab_s21.out
cp
int_n8.out
stat
c3a21/int_n8.s21
cp
int_nlO.out
stat_c3a21/int_nlO.s21
fi

#
if test
then

"$case"

"fort.94"

mkdir
test_stat_c3a22/
cp
stab.out
test_stat
c3a22/stab_s22.out
cp
int_n8.out
test_stat_c3a22/int_n8.s22
cp
int_nlO.out
test_stat_c3a22/int_nlO.s22
fi
#
if test
"$case"
= "fort.95"
then
mkdir
stat_c3a23/
cp stab.out
stat_c3a23/stab_s23.out
cp int_n8.out
stat_c3a23/int_n8.s23
cp
int_nlO.out
stat_c3a23/int_nlO.s23
fi
#
if test
"$case"
= "fort.96"
then
mkdir
stat
c3a24/
cp
cp
cp
fi

stab.out
stat_c3a24/stab_s24.out
int_n8.out
stat_c3a24/int_n8.s24
int
nlO.out
stat
c3a24/int_nlO.s24

#
done
rm cosal.out
rm
int
nlO.out
rm
int_n8.out
rm
stab.out
rm
rm
rm

wing.out
fort.2
fort.7

100

Form

REPORT

DOCUMENTATION

PAGE

Approved

oue No ozo4-olee

Public reporling burden for this collection of information is estimated to average I hour per response, including the time for rewewing instructions, searching existing data sources,
gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this
collection of information, including suggestions for reducing this burden, to Washington Headquarters
Services, Directorate for information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson
Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302,
and to the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188),
Washington. DC 20503.
1.

AGENCY

USE

ONLY

(Leave

blank)

2.

REPORT

DATE

December
4.

TITLE

AND

3.

REPORT

1994

TYPE

Technical

SUBTITLE

Parametric

AND

DATES

:5.

Study on Laminar

FUNDING

NUMBERS

Flow for Finite Wings at Supersonic

Speeds
6.

COVERED

Memorandum

537-07

AUTHOR(S)

Joseph Avila Garcia


7.

PERFORMING

ORGANIZATION

NAME(S)

AND

8o

ADDRESS(ES)

PERFORMING
REPORT

Ames Research

Center

Moffett Field, CA 94035-1000

9.

ORGANIZATION
NUMBER

SPONSORING/MONITORING

AGENCY

A-94146

NAME(S)

AND

10.

ADDRESS(ES)

SPONSORING/MONITORING
AGENCY

National Aeronautics
and Space Administration
Washington, DC 20546-0001

11.

SUPPLEMENTARY

Unclassified

13.

Joseph Avila Garcia, Ames Research


(415) 604-0614

DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY

Subject

NASA TM-108852

Center, MS 258-1, Moffett

STATEMENT

12b.

Field, CA 94035-1000;

DISTRIBUTION

CODE

-- Unlimited

Category

ABSTRACT

NUMBER

NOTES

Point of Contact:

12a.

REPORT

(Maximum

02
200

words)

Laminar flow control has been identified as a key element in the development of the next generation of High
Speed Transports. Extending the amount of laminar flow over an aircraft will increase range, payload, and altitude
capabilities as well as lower fuel requirements,
skin temperature,
and therefore the overall cost. A parametric
study to predict the extent of laminar flow for finite wings at supersonic
speeds was conducted using a
computational
fluid dynamics (CFD) code coupled with a boundary layer stability code. The parameters
investigated in this study were Reynolds number, angle of attack, and sweep. The results showed that an increase
in angle of attack for specific Reynolds numbers can actually delay transition. Therefore, higher lift capability,
caused by the increased angle of attack, as well as a reduction in viscous drag, due to the delay in transition, can
be expected simultaneously.
This results in larger payload and range.

14.

SUBJECT

Laminar,

15.

TERMS

Supersonic,

NUMBER

OF

PAGES

11l

Wings
16.

PRICE

CODE

20.

LIMITATION

A06
17.

SECURITY
OF

CLASSIFICATION

REPORT

Unclassified
NSN

7540-01-280-5500

18.

SECURITY
OF

THIS

CLASSIFICATION
PAGE

19.

SECURITY
OF

CLASSIFICATION

OF

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT

Unclassified
Standard
Prescribed

Form
by

ANSI

298
Std.

(Rev.
Z39-18

2-89)