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Project Report

On

Computer Networking Tactical


Communication System
At

Larsen and Toubro


Strategic Electronics Center
Bangalore

Presented by:R Adhithya


1041310443
ECE
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
This project required huge amounts of research, dedication and effort. Still, implementation
would not have been possible if I did not have the support of many individuals and the
organization itself. Therefore I would like to extend my sincere gratitude to all of them.
In particular, I would like to thank Mr. Alan Shaji Idicula, engineer at LnT SEC for taking me
under his wing and tutoring me for the duration of the internship.
I would like to extend my heartiest thanks to Mrs. T Thersal for providing me with the necessary
resources and guidance for the paper without which I may not have been able to complete this
report.
Finally I express my sincere thanks and gratitude to L&T authorities for allowing me to undergo
the training in this prestigious organization. I will always remain indebted to them for their
constant interest and excellent guidance in my training work, moreover for providing me with an
opportunity to work and gain experience.

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Abstract
A computer

network or data

network is

a telecommunications

network which

allows computers to exchange data. In computer networks, networked computing devices


exchange data with each other along network links (data connections). The connections between
nodes are established using either cable media or wireless media. The best-known computer
network is the Internet.
Network computer devices that originate, route and terminate the data are called network
nodes. Nodes

can

include hosts such

as

personal

computers, phones, servers as

well

as networking hardware. Two such devices can be said to be networked together when one
device is able to exchange information with the other device, whether or not they have a direct
connection to each other.
Tactical Communication System is a digital wireless network will interlink soldiers and
battlefield sensors through voice and data channels, providing a common battle picture to each
jawan.
LnT is one of the two companies in India (the other being BEL) to be contracted by the
government to implement the TCS.

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Contents
Part I...............................................................................................................................................................................7
Industry Profile...............................................................................................................................................................7
BACKGROUND:-.....................................................................................................................................................7
COMPANYS RELATIVE POSITION IN THAT INDUSTRY:-.........................................................................8
L&T - Achievements:-..............................................................................................................................................9
Part II...........................................................................................................................................................................10
CHAPTER 1- Introduction to Cisco Systems......................................................................................................10
Internetworking Basics-........................................................................................................................................11
Internetworking Devices-......................................................................................................................................13
CHAPTER 2- Networking Protocols and Subnetting.........................................................................................15
TCP-IP Model.......................................................................................................................................................15
TCP-IP Protocols..................................................................................................................................................16
IP Addressing Basics.............................................................................................................................................16
IP Classes..............................................................................................................................................................17
Network Address Translation................................................................................................................................18
IP Subnetting.........................................................................................................................................................19
Variable Length Subnet Masking..........................................................................................................................20
CHAPTER 3- IP Routing.......................................................................................................................................22
Definition..............................................................................................................................................................22
Routed and Routing Protocols..............................................................................................................................22
Types of Routing...................................................................................................................................................23
The Various Routing Protocols.............................................................................................................................24
CHAPTER 4 - Virtual LANs.................................................................................................................................27
Definition..............................................................................................................................................................27
Why Vlans?...........................................................................................................................................................27
Implementation.....................................................................................................................................................28
Vlan Protocols.......................................................................................................................................................29
Vlan Membership..................................................................................................................................................30
Dynamic Vlans......................................................................................................................................................30
CHAPTER 5 Summary of Duties.......................................................................................................................32
Description of the Training...................................................................................................................................32
Work Experience...................................................................................................................................................33
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CHAPTER 6 Conclusion.....................................................................................................................................34
Experience Gained................................................................................................................................................34
Final Words...........................................................................................................................................................34
References.............................................................................................................................................................35

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Part I
Industry Profile
Computer Networking:-

Telecom is one of the fastest-growing industries in India. Today India stands as the secondlargest telecommunications market in the world. The mobile phone industry in India would
contribute US$ 400 billion in terms of gross domestic product (GDP) of the country in 2014.
This sector which is growing exponentially is expected to generate about 4.1 million additional
jobs by 2020, as per Groupe Speciale Mobile Association (GSMA).

In the period April 2000 to January 2014, the telecom industry has got in foreign direct
investments (FDI) of about US$ 59,796 million, which is an increase of 6 per cent to the total
FDI inflows in terms of US$, as per report published by Department of Industrial Policy and
Promotion (DIPP).

BACKGROUND:India's telecommunication network is the second largest in the world based on the total number
of telephone users (both fixed and mobile phone). It has one of the lowest call tariffs in the world
enabled by the mega telephone networks and hyper-competition among them. It has the world's
third-largest Internet user-base. According to the Internet and Mobile Association of India
(IAMAI), the Internet user base in the country stood at 190 million at the end of June,
2013.] Major sectors of the Indian telecommunication industry are telephony, internet and
television broadcast Industry in the country which is in an ongoing process of transforming
into next generation network, employs an extensive system of modern network elements such as
digital telephone exchanges, mobile switching centers, media gateways and signaling at the core,
interconnected by a wide variety of transmission systems using fiber or Microwave radio
relay networks. The access network, which connects the subscriber to the core, is highly
diversified with different copper-pair, optic-fibre and wireless technologies. DTH, a relatively
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new broadcasting technology has attained significant popularity in the Television segment. The
introduction of private FM has given a fillip to the radio broadcasting in India.
Telecommunication in India has greatly been supported by the INSAT system of the country, one
of the largest domestic satellite systems in the world. India possesses a diversified
communications system, which links all parts of the country by telephone, Internet, radio,
television and satellite.

Larsen and Toubro


Company background:Larsen
and
Toubro
is
an
Indian multinational conglomerate headquartered
in Mumbai, Maharashtra, India. It was founded by Danish engineers taking refuge in India, as
well as an Indian financing partner. The company has business interests in engineering,
construction, manufacturing goods, information technology, and financial services, and also has
an office in the Middle East and other parts of Asia.
L&T is India's largest engineering and construction company. Considered to be the
"bellwether of India's engineering & construction sector", L&T was recognized as the Company
of the Year in Economic Times 2010 awards.

COMPANYS RELATIVE POSITION IN THAT INDUSTRY:L&T is one of the oldest and largest engineering and manufacturing enterprise of India. L&T
Technology Services has strong domain expertise in end-to-end product development,
maintenance & sustenance, Testing & Implementation engagements across various areas of
technology and innovation with top notch Telecom customers worldwide. L&T Technology
Services has over 14+ years of lineage in serving top tier Telecom customers - chipset vendors,
NEM/OEMs, Operators and ISVs leading to vast domain knowledge in network services. L&T
Technology Services has acquired domain expertise over years of running successful
engagements with various OEMs. The journey has had many notable achievements leading to
significant benefits for the Telecom industry.

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L&T - Achievements:

In 1997, the Bangalore Works division was awarded the "Best of all" Rajiv Gandhi
National Quality Award.

In 2014 Larsen & Toubro ranked 500 on Forbes list of 2000 worlds largest and most
powerful public companies based on revenues, profits, assets and market value.54 Indian
companies made it to the prestigious list, and L&T is the highest ranked company in the
engineering and construction section and 10th among all Indian public and private sectors.

According to the Brand Trust Report 2012 published by Trust Research Advisory, a brand
analytics company, L&T was positioned 47th among India's most trusted brands.
Subsequently, in Brand Trust Report 2013, L&T was ranked 127th among the most trusted
brands in India while according to the Brand Trust Report 2014, L&T was elevated to the
38th position among India's most trusted brands.

In 2013, L&T Power received 'Golden Peacock National Quality Award 2012' at the
23rd World Congress on 'Leadership & Quality of Governance.

In 2012, Forbes ranked L&T as 9th most innovative company in the world. L&T was also
featured in the Forbes Asia's annual 'Fabulous 50' list in 2010, for the fifth time in a row.

In 2012, L&T was ranked 4th by Newsweek in the global list of green companies in the
industrial sector.

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Part II
CHAPTER 1- Introduction to Cisco Systems
In the early 1980s, Len and Sandy Bosack, a married couple who worked in different computer
departments at Stanford University, were having trouble getting their individual systems to
communicate (like many married people). So in their living room they created a gateway server
that made it easier for their disparate computers in two different departments to communicate
using the IP protocol. In 1984, they founded cisco Systems with a small commercial gateway
server product that changed networking forever. Some people think the name was intended to be
San Francisco Systems but the paper got ripped on the way to the incorporation lawyerswho
knows? In 1992, the company name was changed to Cisco Systems, Inc.
The first product the company marketed was called the Advanced Gateway Server (AGS).
Then came the Mid-Range Gateway Server (MGS), the Compact Gateway Server (CGS), the
Integrated Gateway Server (IGS), and the AGS+. Cisco calls these the old alphabet soup
products.
In 1993, Cisco came out with the amazing 4000 router and then created the even more amazing
7000, 2000, and 3000 series routers. These are still around and evolving (almost daily, it seems).
Cisco has since become an unrivaled worldwide leader in networking for the Internet. Its
networking solutions can easily connect users who work from diverse devices on disparate

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networks. Cisco products make it simple for people to access and transfer information without
regard to differences in time, place, or platform.
In the big picture, Cisco provides end-to-end networking solutions that customers can use to
build an efficient, unified information infrastructure of their own or to connect to someone elses.
This is an important piece in the Internet/networkingindustry puzzle because a common
architecture that delivers consistent network services to all users is now a functional imperative.
Because Cisco Systems offers such a broad range of networking and Internet services and
capabilities, users who need to regularly access their local network or the Internet can do so
unhindered, making Ciscos wares indispensable.
Cisco answers this need with a wide range of hardware products that form information networks
using the Cisco Internetwork Operating System (IOS) software. This software provides network
services, paving the way for networked

Internetworking BasicsNetworks and networking have grown exponentially over the last 15 yearsunderstandably so.
Theyve had to evolve at light speed just to keep up with huge increases in basic mission-critical
user needs such as sharing data and printers, as well as more advanced demands such as video
conferencing. Unless everyone who needs to share network resources is located in the same
office area (an increasingly uncommon situation), the challenge is to connect the sometimes
many relevant networks together so all users can share the networks wealth.
Its also likely that at some point, youll have to break up one large network into a number of
smaller ones because user response has dwindled to a trickle as the network grew and grew and
LAN traffic congestion reached overwhelming proportions. Breaking up a larger network into a
number of smaller ones is called network segmentation, and its accomplished using routers,
switches and bridges.

Internetworking Models When networks first came into being, computers could typically
communicate only with computers from the same manufacturer. For example, companies ran
either a complete DECnet solution or an IBM solutionnot both together. In the late 1970s, the
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Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference model was created by the International
Organization for Standardization (ISO) to break this barrier.
The OSI model was meant to help vendors create interoperable network devices and software in
the form of protocols so that different vendor networks could work with each other.
Like world peace, itll probably never happen completely, but its still a great goal.
The OSI model is the primary architectural model for networks. It describes how data and
network information are communicated from an application on one computer, through the
network media, to an application on another computer. The OSI reference model breaks this
approach into layers.
One of the greatest functions of the OSI specifications is to assist in data transfer between
disparate hostsmeaning, for example, that they enable us to transfer data between a UNIX host
and a PC or a Mac.

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Internetworking Devices-

1. Repeater - A repeater extends the length of a network cabling system by amplifying


the signal and then re-transmitting it. Repeaters operate at Physical Layer 1. As a
result, they do not look at the data at all. Any information coming into one port is
simply repeated out all other ports.
2. Hubs - A hub is another Layer 1 device that is typically used as a central point for
connecting segments in a LAN. While passive hubs simply pass packets from one
port to another, the signal may be regenerated in active hubs called multi-port
repeaters. Hubs are becoming increasingly intelligent, enabling them to support
network management and minimal path selection functions.
3. Bridges - As networks grow larger, they are often divided into smaller LANs to
reduce traffic drain on the network. A bridge is a Data Link Layer 2 device that
provides a connection between separate LAN segments. The bridge monitors packets
as they move between segments, keeping track of the MAC addresses that are
associated with various ports. As they gain more knowledge of the nodes connected to
each network, they are better able to manage traffic flow.
4. Switches - Switches are becoming a more common way to connect networks together
because they are simply faster and more intelligent than bridges. Advances in
technology spawned a new generation of networking devices known as LAN
switches, which included bridging as one of several functions. Switches have
replaced bridges for two reasons: superior performance and lower price per port.

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5. Routers - Routers were originally invented to solve some of the problems that
weren't addressed by bridges. Like bridges, routers are used to segment a LAN in
order to reduce excess broadcast traffic and latency. In addition, routers make
internetworking possible by interconnecting both local and wide area networks. The
function of a router is to direct data along the most efficient and economical route to
the destination device. Routers operate at Network Layer 3, which means they
examine the logical network address (for example, 191.29.21.100) and not the
physical hardware address (MAC). Routers are smarter than bridges because they
know about routing protocols, different address schemes, different frame sizes and
different data rates in order to make the best decision on which path to choose. The
best path is determined by using routing tables and algorithms.
6. Network Interface Card - The Network Interface Card (NIC) is a circuit board that
is physically installed within an active network node, such as a computer, server, or
printer. The NIC is an adapter that controls the exchange of information between the
network and the user.

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CHAPTER 2- Networking Protocols and Subnetting


TCP-IP Model
The Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) suite was created by the
Department of Defense (DoD) to ensure and preserve data integrity, as well as maintain
communications in the event of catastrophic war. So it follows that if designed and implemented
correctly, a TCP/IP network can be a truly dependable and resilient one.
The DoD model is basically a condensed version of the OSI modelits composed of four,
instead of seven, layers:
*Process/Application layer
*Host-to-Host layer
*Internet layer
*Network Access layer

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TCP-IP Protocols
Application Layer Telnet, FTP, TFTP, NFS, SMTP, LPD, DNS, DHCP
Host to Host Layer Transmission Control Protocol, User Datagram Protocol

Internet Layer Internet Protocol, ICMP, ARP, RARP, Proxy ARP


Network Layer Ethernet, Token Ring, Frame Relay, ATM

IP Addressing Basics
In order for systems to locate each other in a distributed environment, nodes are given explicit
addresses that uniquely identify the particular network the system is on and uniquely identify the
system to that particular network. When these two identifiers are combined, the result is a
globally-unique address.
This address, known as IP address, as IP number, or merely as IP is a code made up of
numbers separated by three dots that identifies a particular computer on the Internet. These
addresses are actually 32-bit binary numbers, consisting of the two sub addresses (identifiers)
mentioned above which, respectively, identify the network and the host to the network, with an

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imaginary boundary separating the two. An IP address is, as such, generally shown as 4 octets of
numbers from 0-255 represented in decimal form instead of binary form.
For example, the address 168.212.226.204 represents the 32-bit binary number
10101000.11010100.11100010.11001100.
The binary number is important because that will determine which class of network the IP
address belongs to. The Class of the address determines which part belongs to the network
address and which part belongs to the node address (see IP address Classes further on).
The location of the boundary between the network and host portions of an IP address is
determined through the use of a subnet mask. This is another 32-bit binary number which acts
like a filter when it is applied to the 32-bit IP address. By comparing a subnet mask with an IP
address, systems can determine which portion of the IP address relates to the network and which
portion relates to the host. Anywhere the subnet mask has a bit set to 1, the underlying bit in
the IP address is part of the network address. Anywhere the subnet mask is set to 0, the related
bit in the IP address is part of the host address.
An Internet Service Provider (ISP) will generally assign either a static IP address (always the
same) or a dynamic address (changes every time one logs on).
ISPs and organizations usually apply to the InterNIC for a range of IP addresses so that all clients
have similar addresses.
There are about 4.3 billion IP addresses. The class-based, legacy addressing scheme places heavy
restrictions on the distribution of these addresses.
TCP/IP networks are inherently router-based, and it takes much less overhead to keep track of a
few networks than millions of them.

IP Classes
Class A addresses always have the first bit of their IP addresses set to 0. Since Class A
networks have an 8-bit network mask, the use of a leading zero leaves only 7 bits for the network
portion of the address, allowing for a maximum of 128 possible network numbers, ranging from
0.0.0.0 127.0.0.0. Number 127.x.x.x is reserved for loopback, used for internal testing on the
local machine.
Class B addresses always have the first bit set to 1 and their second bit set to 0. Since Class
B addresses have a 16-bit network mask, the use of a leading 10 bit-pattern leaves 14 bits for
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the network portion of the address, allowing for a maximum of 16,384 networks, ranging from
128.0.0.0 181.255.0.0.
Class C addresses have their first two bits set to 1 and their third bit set to 0. Since Class C
addresses have a 24-bit network mask, this leaves 21 bits for the network portion of the address,
allowing for a maximum of 2,097,152 network addresses, ranging from 192.0.0.0
223.255.255.0.
Class D addresses are used for multicasting applications. Class D addresses have their first three
bits set to 1 and their fourth bit set to 0. Class D addresses are 32-bit network addresses,
meaning that all the values within the range of 224.0.0.0 239.255.255.255 are used to uniquely
identify multicast groups. There are no host addresses within the Class D address space, since all
the hosts within a group share the groups IP address for receiver purposes.
Class E addresses are defined as experimental and are reserved for future testing purposes. They
have never been documented or utilized in a standard way.

Network Address Translation


Whether your network is the home or the corporate type, if it uses the private IP addresses that I
just talked about, you have to translate your private inside addresses to a global outside address
by using NAT. The main idea is to conserve Internet global address space, but it also increases
network security by hiding internal IP addresses from external networks. In NAT terminology,
the inside network is the set of networks that are subject to translation. The outside network
refers to all other addressesusually those located on the Internet. However, just to help confuse
you, its important to understand that you can translate packets coming into the private network
as well.
NAT operates on a Cisco routergenerally only connecting two networks togetherand
translates your private (inside local) addresses within the internal network, into public (inside
global) addresses before any packets are forwarded to another network. This functionality gives
you the option to configure NAT so that it will advertise only a single address for your entire
network to the outside world. Doing this effectively hides the internal network from the whole
world really well, giving you some much-needed additional security.

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IP Subnetting
Subnetting enables the network administrator to further divide the host part of the address into
two or more subnets. In this case, a part of the host address is reserved to identify the particular
subnet. This is easier to see if we show the IP address in binary format.
The full address is:
10010110.11010111.00010001.00001001
The Class B network part is:
10010110.11010111
The host address is:
00010001.00001001
If this network is divided into 14 subnets, however, then the first 4 bits of the host address (0001)
are reserved for identifying the subnet.
The subnet mask is the network address plus the bits reserved for identifying the subnetwork -by convention, the bits for the network address are all set to 1, though it would also work if the
bits were set exactly as in the network address. In this case, therefore, the subnet mask would be
11111111.11111111.11110000.00000000. It's called a mask because it can be used to identify the
subnet to which an IP address belongs by performing bitwise AND operation on the mask and
the IP address. The result is the subnetwork address:
Subnet Mask
255.255.240.000
11111111.11111111.11110000.00000000
IP Address
150.215.017.009
10010110.11010111.00010001.00001001
Subnet Address
150.215.016.000
10010110.11010111.00010000.00000000
The subnet address, therefore, is 150.215.016.000.
For the subnet address scheme to work, every machine on the network must know which part of
the host address will be used as the subnet address. This is accomplished by assigning a subnet
mask to each machine. A subnet mask is a 32-bit value that allows the recipient of IP packets to
distinguish the network ID portion of the IP address from the host ID portion of the IP address.

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The network administrator creates a 32-bit subnet mask composed of 1s and 0s. The 1s in the
subnet mask represent the positions that refer to the network or subnet addresses.
Not all networks need subnets, meaning they use the default subnet mask. This is basically the
same as saying that a network doesnt have a subnet address. Table 3.1 shows the default subnet
masks for Classes A, B, and C. These default masks cannot change. In other words, you cant
make a Class B subnet mask read 255.0.0.0. If you try, the host will read that address as invalid
and usually wont even let you type it in. For a Class A network, you cant change the
irst byte in a subnet mask; it must read 255.0.0.0 at a minimum. Similarly, you cannot assign
255.255.255.255, as this is all 1sa broadcast address. A Class B address must start with
255.255.0.0, and a Class C has to start with 255.255.255.0

Variable Length Subnet Masking


Variable-Length Subnet Masking (VLSM) amounts to "subnetting subnets," which means that
VLSM allows network engineers to divide an IP address space into a hierarchy of subnets of

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different sizes, making it possible to create subnets with very different host counts without
wasting large numbers of addresses.
For example, consider a traditional Class C address space like 192.168.1.0 and an organization
with four groups of computers: the data center with 75 hosts; the call center with 50; the
operations floor with 25; and the executive floor with 20. Under fixed subnetting, dividing the
255 host addresses available into four subnets would support only 62 hosts each, not meeting the
needs of the data center and vastly oversupplying addresses for operations and the execs. Using
VLSM, the space is first split in 2, with each subnet able to address 126 hosts. One subnet
covers the data center. The other is split in two, supplying two sub-subnets of 62 hosts. One
covers the contact center, the other is split in two once more, creating two 30-host sub-subsubnets, to cover operations and executives.
In order to use VLSM, a network administrator must use a routing protocol that supports it, such
as Routing Information Protocol v2 (RIPv2), Open Shortest Path First (OSPF),Intermediate
System-to-Intermediate System (IS-IS), Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP)
and Border Gateway Protocol (BGP).

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CHAPTER 3- IP Routing
Definition
Once you create an internetwork by connecting your WANs and LANs to a router, youll need to
configure logical network addresses, such as IP addresses, to all hosts on the internetwork so that
they can communicate across that internetwork.
The term routing is used for taking a packet from one device and sending it through the network
to another device on a different network. Routers dont really care about hoststhey only care
about networks and the best path to each network. The logical network address of the destination
host is used to get packets to a network through a routed network, then the hardware address of
the host is used to deliver the packet from a router to the correct destination host.
When an IP packet is to be forwarded, a router uses its forwarding table to determine the next
hop for the packet's destination (based on the destination IP address in the IP packet header), and
forwards the packet appropriately. The next router then repeats this process using its own
forwarding table, and so on until the packet reaches its destination. At each stage, the IP address
in the packet header is sufficient information to determine the next hop; no additional protocol
headers are required.
The Internet, for the purpose of routing, is divided into Autonomous Systems (ASs). An AS is a
group of routers that are under the control of a single administration and exchange routing
information using a common routing protocol. For example, a corporate intranet or an ISP
network can usually be regarded as an individual AS.

Routed and Routing Protocols


Routed protocols can be sent over a routed network. Today, with IP (think ofTCP/IP) being the
predominate protocol in use on the Internet and in most networks, we don't often think about
routed versus unrouted protocols. That is because IP is a routed protocol. Meaning, IP is
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designed to be routed over and through different networks. This is because the IP address is
broken up into network and node (host) by the subnet mask. An example of a protocol that is not
routed (unroutable) would be NetBIOS. It works great on a small local network (in your house)
but wouldn't work well over a large network connected by dedicated network circuits or the
Internet.
Routing protocols distribute routing information throughout all routers on a network. By
knowing about all other routers connected to the network, each router can determine the best
path to use to deliver your traffic. Examples of routing protocol would
be OSPF, RIP, EIGRP or BGP.

Types of Routing

*Static Routing
Manually configuring routes on your router can be both beneficial and disadvantageous. Static
routing has the following benefits:

No extra processing and added resources as in the case of dynamic routing protocols
No extra bandwidth requirement caused by the transmission of excessive packets for the
routing table update process
Extra security by manually admitting or rejecting routing to certain networks
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Disadvantages of static routing include the following:

Network Administrators need to know the complete network topology very well in order
to configure routes correctly
Topology changes need manual adjustment to all routers something which is very time
consuming
*Dynamic Routing
Dynamic routing is a networking technique that provides optimal data routing. Unlike static
routing, dynamic routing enables routers to select paths according to real-time logical network
layout changes. In dynamic routing, the routing protocol operating on the router is responsible
for the creation, maintenance and updating of the dynamic routing table. In static routing, all
these jobs are manually done by the system administrator. Dynamic routing uses multiple
algorithms and protocols.

*Default Routing
Default route is a setting on a computer defining the packet forwarding rule to use when no
specific route can be determined for a given Internet Protocol (IP) destination address. All
packets for destinations not established in the routing table are sent via the default route.

The Various Routing Protocols


1. RIP - The Routing Information Protocol (RIP) is one of the oldest distance-vector routing

protocols which employ the hop count as a routing metric. RIP prevents routing loops by
implementing a limit on the number of hops allowed in a path from source to destination.
The maximum number of hops allowed for RIP is 15, which limits the size of networks
that RIP can support. A hop count of 16 is considered an infinite distance and the route is
considered unreachable. RIP implements the split horizon, poisoning and hold
down mechanisms to prevent incorrect routing information from being propagated.
2. IGRP - Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) is a distance vector interior routing

protocol (IGP) developed by Cisco. It is used by routers to exchange routing data within
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an autonomous system. IGRP is a proprietary protocol. IGRP was created in part to


overcome the limitations of RIP (maximum hop count of only 15, and a single routing
metric) when used within large networks. IGRP supports multiple metrics for each route,
including bandwidth, delay, load, MTU, and reliability; to compare two routes these
metrics are combined together into a single metric, using a formula which can be adjusted
through the use of pre-set constants. By default, the IGRP composite metric is a sum of
the segment delays and the lowest segment bandwidth. The maximum configurable hop
count of IGRP-routed packets is 255 (default 100), and routing updates
are broadcast every 90 seconds (by default). IGRP uses protocol number 9 for
communication.
3. OSPF - Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is a routing protocol for Internet Protocol (IP)
networks. It uses a link state routing algorithm and falls into the group of interior routing
protocols, operating within a single autonomous system (AS). It is defined as OSPF
Version 2 in RFC 2328 (1998) for IPv4. The updates for IPv6 are specified as OSPF
Version 3 in RFC 5340 (2008).OSPF is perhaps the most widely used interior gateway
protocol (IGP) in large enterprise networks. Intermediate System to Intermediate
System (IS-IS), another link-state dynamic routing protocol, is more common in large
service provider networks. The most widely used exterior gateway protocol is the Border
Gateway Protocol (BGP), the principal routing protocol between autonomous systems on
the Internet.
4. BGP - Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is a standardized exterior gateway
protocol designed to exchange routing and reachability information between autonomous
systems (AS) on the Internet. The protocol is often classified as a path vector protocol but
is sometimes also classed as a distance-vector routing protocol. The Border Gateway
Protocol makes routing decisions based on paths, network policies, or rule-sets
configured by a network administrator and is involved in making core routing decisions.
BGP may be used for routing within an AS. In this application it is referred to as Interior
Border Gateway Protocol, Internal BGP, or iBGP. In contrast, the Internet application of
the protocol may be referred to as Exterior Border Gateway Protocol, External BGP, or
EBGP.

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5. IS-IS - Intermediate System to Intermediate System (IS-IS) is a routing protocol designed


to move information efficiently within a computer network, a group of physically
connected computers or similar devices. It accomplishes this by determining the
best route for datagrams through a packet-switched network. The protocol was defined in
ISO/IEC 10589:2002 as an international standard within the Open Systems
Interconnection (OSI) reference design. Though originally an ISO standard, the IETF
republished the protocol as an Internet Standard in RFC 1142. IS-IS has been called
"the de facto standard for large service provider network backbones."

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CHAPTER 4 - Virtual LANs


Definition
A virtual LAN (VLAN) is any broadcast domain that is partitioned and isolated in a computer
network at the data link layer (OSI layer 2). LAN is an abbreviation of local area network.
To subdivide a network into virtual LANs, one configures a network switch or router.
Simpler network devices can only partition per physical port (if at all), in which case each VLAN
is connected with a dedicated network cable (and VLAN connectivity is limited by the number of
hardware ports available). More sophisticated devices can mark packets through tagging, so that
a single interconnect (trunk) may be used to transport data for multiple VLANs. Since VLANs
share bandwidth, a VLAN trunk might use link aggregation and/or quality of
service prioritization to route data efficiently.
VLANs allow network administrators to group hosts together even if the hosts are not on the
same network switch. This can greatly simplify network design and deployment, because VLAN
membership can be configured through software. Without VLANs, grouping hosts according to
their resource needs necessitates the labour of relocating nodes or rewiring data links.

Why Vlans?
Network architects set up VLANs to provide the network segmentation services traditionally
provided only by routers in LAN configurations. VLANs address issues such as scalability,
security, and network management. Routers in VLAN topologies filter broadcast traffic,
enhance network security, perform address summarization, and mitigate network congestion.
Switches may not bridge network traffic between VLANs, as doing so would violate the integrity
of the VLAN broadcast domain.
VLANs can also help create multiple layer 3 networks on a single physical infrastructure. For
example, if a DHCP server is plugged into a switch it will serve any host on that switch that is
configured for DHCP. By using VLANs, the network can be easily split up so some hosts will
not use that DHCP server and will obtain link-local addresses, or obtain an address from a
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different DHCP server. VLANs are data link layer (OSI layer 2) constructs, analogous to
IP subnets, which are network layer (OSI layer 3) constructs. In an environment employing
VLANs, a one-to-one relationship often exists between VLANs and IP subnets, although it is
possible to have multiple subnets on one VLAN.
By using VLANs, one can control traffic patterns and react quickly to relocations. VLANs
provide the flexibility to adapt to changes in network requirements and allow for simplified
administration.
VLANs can be used to partition a local network into several distinctive segments, for example:

Production

Voice over IP

Network management

Storage area network (SAN)

Guest network

Demilitarized zone (DMZ)

Client separation (ISP, in a large facility, or in a datacenter)

A common infrastructure shared across VLAN trunks can provide a very high level of security
with great flexibility for a comparatively low cost. Quality of service schemes can optimize
traffic on trunk links for real-time (e.g. VoIP) or low-latency requirements (e.g. SAN).
In cloud computing VLANs, IP addresses, and MAC addresses on them are resources which end
users can manage. Placing cloud-based virtual machines on VLANs may be preferable to placing
them directly on the Internet to avoid security issues.

Implementation
A basic switch not configured for VLANs has VLAN functionality disabled or permanently
enabled with a default VLAN that contains all ports on the device as members.[2] Every device
connected to one of its ports can send packets to any of the others. Separating ports by VLAN

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groups separates their traffic very much like connecting the devices to another, distinct switch of
their own.
Configuration of the first custom VLAN port group usually involves removing ports from the
default VLAN, such that the first custom group of VLAN ports is actually the second VLAN on
the device, in addition to the default VLAN. The default VLAN typically has an ID of 1.
If a VLAN port group were to exist only on one device, no ports that are members of the VLAN
group would need to be tagged. These ports would hence be considered "untagged". It is only
when the VLAN port group is to extend to another device that tagging is used. Since
communications between ports on two different switches travel via the uplink ports of each
switch involved, every VLAN containing such ports must also contain the uplink port of each
switch involved, and these ports must be tagged. This also applies to the default VLAN.
Where a VLAN group is to simply pass through an intermediate switch via two pass-through
ports, only the two ports must be a member of the VLAN, and are tagged to pass both the
required VLAN and the default VLAN on the intermediate switch.
Management of the switch requires that the administrative functions be associated with one of
the configured VLANs. If the default VLAN were deleted or renumbered without first moving
the management connection to a different VLAN, it is possible for the administrator to be locked
out of the switch configuration, requiring a forced clearing of the device configuration (possibly
to the factory default) to regain access or physical access to the switch if it has a console port or
other means of direct management. Remote configuration of VLANs involves the risk for the
administrator to cut off communications accidentally and lose connectivity to the devices she is
attempting to configure. Actions such as subdividing the default VLAN by moving the switch
uplink ports into a separate new VLAN can suddenly terminate all remote connectivity, requiring
the device to be physically accessed at the distant location to continue the configuration process.
Generally, VLANs within the same organization will be assigned different non-overlapping
network addresses. This is not a requirement of VLANs. There is no issue with separate VLANs
using identical overlapping address ranges (e.g. two VLANs each use the private
network 192.168.0.0 / CIDR 16). However, it is generally not possible to route data between two
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networks with overlapping addresses, so if the goal of VLANs is segmentation of a larger overall
organizational network, non-overlapping addresses must be used in each separate VLAN.

Vlan Protocols
1.
2.
3.
4.

IEEE 802.1Q
VLAN Trunking Protocol
Multiple VLAN Registration Protocol
Shortest Path Bridging

Vlan Membership
The two common approaches to assigning VLAN membership are as follows:

Static VLANs

Dynamic VLANs

Static VLANs are also referred to as port-based VLANs. Static VLAN assignments are created
by assigning ports to a VLAN. As a device enters the network, the device automatically assumes
the VLAN of the port. If the user changes ports and needs access to the same VLAN, the
network administrator must manually make a port-to-VLAN assignment for the new connection.
Dynamic VLANs are created using software. With a VLAN Management Policy Server (VMPS),
an administrator can assign switch ports to VLANs dynamically based on information such as
the source MAC address of the device connected to the port or the username used to log onto that
device. As a device enters the network, the switch queries a database for the VLAN membership
of the port that device is connected to.

Dynamic Vlans

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Dynamic VLANs were introduced to grant the flexibility and complexity(!) that Static VLANs
did not provide. Dynamic VLANs are quite rare because of their requirements and initial
administrative overhead. As such, most administrators and network engineers tend to prefer
Static VLANs.
Dynamic VLANs, as opposed to Static VLANs, do not require the administrator to individually
configure each port, but instead, a central server called the VMPS (VLAN Member Policy
Server). The VMPS is used to handle the on-the-spot port configuration of every switch
participating on the VLAN network.
The VMPS server contains a database of all workstation MAC addresses, along with the
associated VLAN the MAC address belongs to. This way, we essentially have a VLAN-to-MAC
address mapping:

If you use an efficient management software, then it is possible to enable hardware (MAC)
addresses, applications, protocols in order to build dynamic VLANs. The choice is simply yours!
For instance, we enter the MAC addresses into the application of centralized VLAN
management. Now if a node is connected to switch port, that is not assigned then the database of
the VLAN management can check out the hardware address configure as we assign the switch
port to the relevant VLAN. This has made things easier as when the user is on the move then the
management and configuration becomes easy because the switch will automatically assign them
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to the right VLAN. But in order to enjoy this benefit it requires a lot more work at an early stage
when the database is being set up. With the use of VLAN Management Policy Server (VMPS)
service the cisco administrators can easily set up a MAC addresses database which in turn can be
utilized for dynamic VLANs addressing. The mapping of MAC addresses to VLANs is done by
VMPS database.

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CHAPTER 5 Summary of Duties

Description of the Training


The L&T office is situated in Old Madras Road in Bangalore. I worked five days a week from 9
to 6pm. Regularity and punctuality was given very high importance. I worked in the networking
lab. For the first two weeks of my internship, I was made to study up the theoretical part since
this was a subject I was unfamiliar with. I also was thoroughly trained in the Cisco Packet Tracer
Software. My guide helped me a lot during this time. After that I was assigned to a team working
on the L&T Tactical Communication System, a huge project for the Indian Army.
The TCS is a mobile communications grid that is rolled out across the battlefield, even deep
inside enemy territory, for advancing tank formations. Each TCS provides an army corps (some
60,000 soldiers) with the frequencies and bandwidth needed for its communications, including
voice, data and video.
It operates like a cellular phone network, but with three major differences. First, the TCS is
mobile, its exchanges and switches installed in high-mobility vehicles that can transport and
install these anywhere, including mountains and deserts. Second, the TCS transmits enormous
volumes of data, such as map overlays, video conferencing or streaming video from unmanned
aerial vehicles. Finally, the TCS maintains secrecy, forestalling enemy eavesdropping by rapidly
hopping frequencies, hundreds of times a second, in a coded sequence.
Given the importance of secrecy, the MoD ruled that the TCS must be built in India. It is the first
project being taken up under the Make category of the Defence Procurement Policy of 2008
(DPP-2008). This mandates that an Indian company, or consortium, must develop the TCS, with
a minimum 30 per cent indigenization at the prototype stage.

Work Experience

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My main role was configuring routers (both real and virtual) and configuring VLANs. Real
battlefield scenarios were simulated in the lab and the product was tested for these conditions.
Rugged routers, rugged laptops and high precision satellite receivers were used. Connectivity
between army outposts shouldnt be lost under any circumstance. When the magnitude of
simulation was very large, the simulation was performed virtually using VMware. I was taught to
efficiently configure routers, switches and to set up VLANs using the Cisco Internetwork
Operating System. Various encryption schemes were also used. The goal is to provide a unified
picture of the battle for every soldier. Configuring some 100 routers at the same time and setting
up the routing protocols is a tedious job and I learnt a lot from it. Some of the equipment I
worked with are shown below. They are a rugged router, a bulk encryption unit and an IP nano
radio.

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CHAPTER 6 Conclusion
Experience Gained
I am sure the experience I gained over the duration of my training will enhance my academic,
career and personal development. I am now well versed with the basics of internetworking and
am poised to attempt the Cisco Certified Networking Engineer certification exam. I took on the
duties of an entry level networking technician and working in a competitive result based
environment which Im sure will benefit me a lot in the long run. I got an opportunity to work
alongside professionals in the field and also to observe the workings of a large organization from
the inside. I also met new people and practiced my social networking skills while establishing a
network of professional contacts, mentors and references. It also opened the door to advice for
the next steps to take on my career path.

Final Words
In review this internship has been an excellent and rewarding experience. I have been able to
meet and network with so many people that I am sure will be able to help me with opportunities
in the future.
One main thing that I have learned through this internship is time management skills as well as
self-motivation. When I first started I did not think that I was going to be able to make myself sit
in an office for eight hours a day, five days a week. Once I realized what I had to do I organized
my day and work so that I was not overlapping or wasting my hours. I learned that I needed to b
organized and have questions ready for when it was the correct time to get feedback. From this
internship and time management I had to learn how to motivate myself through being in the
office for so many hours.
Finally I would once again like to extend my gratitude to the L&T SEC and everybody who
helped me successfully complete this industrial training.

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References

CCNA Study Guide Todd Lammle


http://www.cisco.com/
https://en.wikipedia.org/
Report materials provided by Larsen and Toubro Strategic Electronics Center
http://blogs.cisco.com/
http://etherealmind.com/

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