You are on page 1of 21

1

Why?
Why AC and not DC ?
Where AC comes from ?
Why 60 Hz (or 50 Hz) ?
Why three-phase systems ?

Why do we use AC and not DC ?


Construction of Generators: Key component is
the 3 generator
Simple in raising and lowering voltages:
Generators limited to about 25kV
Transmission at 230, 345, 500 and 765kV (low
losses)
Subtransmission at 138, 69, 34.5kV
Distribution at 13.8, 4.16kV
Key component: power transformer

Why do we use AC and not DC ? (contd)


Break-even distance for HVDC

Key component: power transmission


4

Where does AC come from?


AC voltages and currents are usually produced
by rotating generators in a power system and
are represented by sine waves.
Three phase is generated by a generator with
three sets of independent windings which are
physically spaced 120 degrees around the
stator.
AC voltages and currents can also be produced
by electronics.
5

The choice of Frequency


60 Hz and 50 Hz
Nowadays:
60 Hz in Ecuador, North America, Brazil and Japan
(has also 50 Hz!)
50 Hz in other countries (China)
25 Hz, 16 Hz Railways
400 Hz Oil rigs, ships and airplanes

The choice of Frequency (contd)


A too low frequency, like 10 or 20 Hz causes
flicker
A too high frequency:
Increases the hysteresis losses
Increases the eddy current losses
Increases the cable and line impedance

Why use 3 phases?


Smooth torque on generator shaft
Delivery of constant power to a 3 phase load
3 Wires and not 6

Balanced three phase system


Voltages in the 3 phases have the same amplitude,
but differ 120 electrical degrees in phase
Vc

I n = I a + Ib + Ic = 0

Ic
0
120

Ic

Ia

Va

120

Ib
Ib
Vb

Ia
120

Balanced system -> Single phase calculation


Equal impedances in the 3 phases

10

Simple Power System


Every power system has three major
components
generation: source of power, ideally with
a specified voltage and frequency
transmission system: transmits power;
ideally as a perfect conductor
load: consumes power; ideally with a
constant resistive value

11

Complications
No ideal voltage sources exist
Transmission system has resistance, inductance,
capacitance and flow limitations
Loads are seldom constant
Simple system has no redundancy so power system will
not work if any component fails

12

The BIG picture


Generation (11 36 kV)
Transmission and
distribution (110 765
kV)
Load (0.12 138 kV)
Industrial customer,
23 138 kV
Commercial
customer, 4.16
34.5 kV
Residential
customer , 120 240
V
13

Power
Generation
Mechanical System
Fossil-fuel
(coal/NG),
Nuclear,
Biomass

High
Pressure &
Temp. steam
or hot air
Wind,
Tidal,
Hydro

Prime
MoverTurbine

Electrical System

Generator

Electricity

14

Transmission
&
Distribution
Network
Ring (mesh/loop)
network topology

Radial or weakly
mesh network
topology
Source: FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRIC
POWER SYSTEMS by Xiao - Ping Zhang

15

Electric Load
Ecuadorian Load at a 69kV Bus
in 2013

Varies with time


Moment-to-moment
fluctuations
Hour-to-hour changes
Daily
Weekly
Seasonal
Base load counts for
almost half of peak load.
16

US Electric Power Grid

17

European Electric Power Grid

18

Brief History of Electric Power


Early 1880s Edison introduced Pearl Street dc system
in Manhattan supplying 59 customers
1884 Sprague produces practical dc motor
1885 William Stanleys development of a
commercially practical transformer
Mid 1880s Westinghouse/Tesla introduce rival ac
system
Late 1880s Tesla invents ac induction motor
1893 First 3 phase transmission line operating at 2.3
kV
1896 ac lines deliver electricity from hydro
generation at Niagara Falls to Buffalo, 20 miles away 19

History (contd)

20

References
Burn: An Energy Project, How the grid works ||
BURN Radio. Available at:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1dZjohZPIqE
Follow Electricity's Journey Through the
Transmission System. Available at:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TQg2Y0kp2vI
J.D. Glover, M.S. Sarma, T.J. Overbye, Power
System Analysis and Design, 5th Edition, CENGAGE
Learning, 2012.
J. Casazza, F. Delea, Understanding Electric Power
Systems, John Wiley, 2003.
21