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In traditional education methodologies, teachers direct the learning process and students
assume a receptive role in their education. Armstrong (2012) claimed that "traditional
education ignores or suppresses learner responsibility". With the advent of progressive
education in the 19th century, and the influence of psychologists, some educators have largely
replaced traditional curriculum approaches with "hands-on" activities and "group work", in
which a child determines on their own what they want to do in class. Key amongst these
changes is the premise that students actively construct their own learning. Theorists likeJohn
Dewey, Jean Piaget, andLev Vygotsky, whose collective work focused on how students learn,
is primarily responsible for the move to student-centred learning. Car Rogersideas about the
formation of the individual also contributed to student-centred learning. Student-centred
learning means inverting the traditional teacher-centred understanding of the learning process
and putting students at the centre of the learning process. Maruia Montessori was also an
influence in centre-based learning, where the children learn through play.
Student-centred learning allows students to actively participate in discovery learning
processes from an autonomous viewpoint. Students spend the entire class time constructing a
new understanding of the material being learned in a proactive way. A variety of hands-on
activities are administered in order to promote successful learning. Unique, yet distinctive
learning styles are encouraged in a student-centred classroom, and provide students with
varied tools, such as task- and learning-conscious methodologies, creating a better
environment for students to learn.

Student-centered learning has been defined most simply as an approach to learning in which
learners choose not only what to study but also how and why that topic might be of interest
(Rogers, 1983). In other words, the learning environment has learner responsibility and
activity at its heart, in contrast to the emphasis on instructor control and the coverage of
academic content found in much conventional, didactic teaching (Cannon, 2000).
Additionally, learners find the learning process more meaningful when topics are relevant to
their lives, needs, and interests, and when they are actively engaged in creating,
understanding, and connecting to knowledge (McCombs & Whistler, 1997).
There has been increasing emphasis in recent years on moving away from traditional
teaching toward student-centered learning. This paradigm shift has encouraged moving power
from the instructor to the learner, treating the learner as a co-creator in the teaching and
learning process (Barr & Tagg, 1995). Instructors who deliver student-centered instruction
include the learner in decisions about how and what they learn and how that learning is
assessed, and they respect and accommodate individual differences in learners backgrounds,
interests, abilities, and experiences (McCombs & Whistler, 1997). The role of the instructor
in student-centered classrooms is to encourage learners to do more discovery learning and to
learn from each other; the instructor focuses on constructing authentic, real-life tasks that
motivate learner involvement and participation (Weimer, 2002).
Characteristics of Student-Centered Learning
Among the characteristics of student-centered teaching is:

Students are not overly dependent on teacher instruction solely in the learning
process. This means that the students themselves will move with the guidance and
advice given by the teacher.

Pupils not isolate themselves from friends. In fact they require cooperation between
each other to solve any problems learning. They appreciate each other, work together,
help each other and often exchange ideas in a fun and enjoyable atmosphere.

This method will enhance the interpersonal skills among students through
collaborative processes that they follow in implementing learning activities.

Teachers act as facilitators and mentors in the teaching and learning process. Teachers to
design lessons that serve to determine the direction of learning so that the learning outcomes
achieved, managing student activities so that the interaction went well, and the design
approach and evaluation of measurement for the purpose of seeing the progress and
performance of students from time to time.
Student-Centered Teaching Strategies
Student-centered learning is an educational approach in which students plan learning
activities, self-assessment and learning rate. In the context of outcome-based learning,
achievement of learning outcomes is the responsibility of the student. Students determine
strategies to achieve the learning outcomes and demonstrate its performance with the consent
of the teacher. Teachers provide an environment, space and opportunities for students facing
their own learning and experience among peers and to guide students to master the skills for
independent learning effectively.
Student-centered strategies for teachers and students to learn something new every day.
Student-centered learning is training students to take responsibility for their learning. This is
because they are directly involved in discovering knowledge, using materials that challenge
existing knowledge and deep understanding of new concepts. This method also involves
social interaction using the high school, work, home and the community as a source of
reference and the use of outdoor activities to enhance learning. Strategy for this method
known as indirect teaching strategies. Unlike the teacher-centered strategies, student-centered
strategy to shift the role of teacher to facilitator trainer or facilitator. During the learning
process in the classroom, students will participate actively and fully in the activities of
thinking, searching for information, formulate, present, evaluate, collaborate, cooperate and
make learning reflection. Automatically, students will develop an understanding of the use of
resources are provided as basic (scaffolding techniques) are hands-on and minds-on and
Some formulas may be peeled from the student-centered teaching strategies namely:

Learning is more active and not passive

Emphasis to learning and deeper understanding

Increase student responsibility

Increasing student autonomy

Mutually dependent between teacher and pupil

Mutual respect between teachers and pupils


P&P approach is more reflection for teachers and students.
This student-centered strategy is widely used in schools throughout Malaysia. All teachers
shall be trained to know the principle matters are used solely to ensure that teaching method
used in the classroom is student-centered teaching. Most of the information that the average
dismiss the teacher-centered teaching methods considered outdated and is only used by
teachers who are not able to attract the attention of students. This method allows the students
actively involved in their education. Learning processes and activities undertaken by the
students and not imposed by the pupils. Teacher acts as a facilitator or facilitators. This
strategy encourages the student creativity build problem-solving skills. Learning this way
enables the learning experience become more deeper and wider. The weakness of this
strategy or method is it more of a focus on learning. Thus, the optimal learning occurs will
take a long time when compared with direct instruction. As a facilitator, the teacher must be
able to control his students learning and this possibility may cause some discomfort among
students. In addition, more challenges will be faced during implementation to enable students
to achieve the learning objectives that have been set.
Creating A Student Centered Classroom
Instructors must be willing to emphasize learning while sharing power with learners in the
classroom (Barr & Tagg, 1995). This can be done in a thoughtful way through planning and
the use of incremental steps.

Instructors can help learners set goals for themselves and can offer self-directed
activities through which learners can build both their self-confidence and their
learning skills. As a result, learn-ers become motivated to take greater control of their
learning, and instructors gain confidence in managing the new environment.

Instructors can encourage learners to discover how they learn best and they can apply
different strat-egies suitable for each learner. Sharing decision-making with learners
helps them become more self-directed. When the learner is self-directed, i.e., setting
his or her own goals and standards, the instructor be-comes a facilitator who reviews
learner-set criteria, timelines, lists of resources, collaborations, etc. In the studentcentered classroom, the learners have choic-es in their education, they are responsible

for their learning, they measure their own achievement, and they have power in the

The instructor role changes from sage on the stage to guide on the side.
Instructors lead less and facilitate more, with learners taking on the responsibility for
organizing content, generating examples, posing and answering questions, and solving
problems. The instructor does more design work, constructing real-life, authentic
tasks that encourage learner involvement and participation. Instructors model or
demonstrate how to approach learning tasks, and they encourage learners to learn
from and with each other. The instructor retains responsibility for maintaining a
climate of learning.

Benefit from Student-Centered Learning

Benefits of the student-centered model are often cited in the literature. Every learner benefits
from effective instruction, no matter how diverse their learning needs (Stuart, 1997). Learner
motivation and actual learning increase when learners have a stake in their own learning and
are treated as co-creators in the learning process (McCombs & Whistler, 1997). In addition,
learners who meet with success in assuming new responsibilities gain self confidence and
feel good about themselves (Aaronsohn, 1996), and learners demonstrate higher achievement
when they can attribute success to their own abilities and effort instead of luck (North Central
Regional Laboratory, 2000).
The process of moving to student-centered learning, however, is not always easy for adult
learners. Many initially resist what they perceive as the instructors abdication of his or her
responsibility to manage instruction; knowing that this may happen can help spark a
discussion of the changes openly and nego-tiate new roles for learners and instructors.
Instructors who implement the student-centered model move from whole-class instruction to
small-group and individual inquiry. These groupings are heterogeneous and require
differentiated instruction Rather than keeping learners busy with individual work, the
instructor focuses on topics of interest to small groups and creates inquiry into those areas.
Learners also benefit from reading and using authentic materials rather than textbooks and
basal readers. Time that was spent entirely on content and memorization now balances with
time spent learning how to learn and how to understand content. Assessment in the student5

centered classroom relies on portfolios that include both instructor-developed and selfassessments.


The ultimate goal for student centered learning classrooms is for students to gain independent
minds and the capacity to make decisions about their lifelong learning (Brown,2008). What
makes learner centered education transformative is that meaning is constructed and that self
regulation occurs through interdependence, with a focus on being and becoming fully
functioning (McCombs, 2009, p. 7). Student centered learning relies heavily on expert
instructors though in roles that teachers familiar with direct instruction may find novel. While
it may produce some hesitation, the novelty of new forms of teacher student interaction need
not be unfulfilling for teachers. Student centered learning allows teachers to work more one
on one with students who need just in time instructional guidance as well as guide whole
classes toward deep and relevant understanding of subject material.

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