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JANUARY JANUARY 2015 2015 www.teaandcoffee.net www.teaandcoffee.net The The International International &
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JANUARY JANUARY 2015 2015

www.teaandcoffee.net www.teaandcoffee.net

The The International International & & Trusted Trusted Voice Voice of of

& & Trusted Trusted Voice Voice of of The The Tea Tea & & Coffee Coffee

The The Tea Tea & & Coffee Coffee Industries Industries Since Since 1901 1901

Ethiopia: Production is Growing Again in the Birthplace of Coffee

• Finding Imperfections in Tea

• Special Report: Cuba

• The Basics of Coffee Certification

• Origin Highlight: Korea

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COVER STORY Contents features January 2015 Vol. 187/No. 1 20 Ethiopia: Production is Growing Again
COVER
STORY
Contents
features
January 2015 Vol. 187/No. 1
20
Ethiopia: Production is
Growing Again in the
Birthplace of Coffee
By Maja Wallengren
28
Determining Flaws &
Imperfections in Tea
Reprinted with permission of TeaCourse.com
30
20
Special Report: Cuba
By Donald Schoenholt
30
36
Origin Highlight: Korea
By Barbara Dufrêne
40
The Basics of Organic Coffee Certification
By Pieter Koerts
departments
40
8
Editor’s Letter
10
New & Notable
16
Sustaining the Chain
18
Calendar of Events
44
Company News
46
People News
48
Advertisers Index/Marketplace
50
Straight from the Cup:
Gail Gastelu
36
ISSN 0040-0343 (Print), ISSN 2331-8546 (Online)

from the

Editor-in-Chief

Vanessa L. Facenda

Editors Desk

Specialties Editor

Donald N. Schoenholt

 

Art Directors

Lily Lee

 

YiLing Yen

 

Production Coordinator

Melinda Ayala

 
 

Contributing Editor

Aaron Kiel

New Year, New Plans and New Opportunities

Contributing Writers

Barbara Dufrêne

 

Anne-Marie Hardie

Happy New Year! I find it hard to believe that it is already 2015 since I’m still finalizing my personal resolutions…but not Tea & Coffee Trade Journal, we have new resolutions and plenty of exciting plans for this year already “in the works!” We will attend and distribute maga- zines at new shows, conferences and con- ventions (like Pack Expo East in Philadelphia in February) in addition to the ones in which we typically participate every year. Our writers will continue globe-trotting so we will again have a bevy of new Special Reports (such as what I believe is T&C’s first feature on Cuba, but if there was one it was many years ago), Origin Highlights and Spotlights (in this

issue we have a cover story on Ethiopia, the

first in a four-part series and a feature on Korea) throughout the year, as well as new topics, profiles and new writers.

the year, as well as new topics, profiles and new writers. More visits to producing countries:

More visits to producing countries:

UTZ trip to Nicaragua that will be

covered in a later issue this year.

 

Rachel Northrop

Maja Wallengren

Founding Editor

William H. Ukers (1873 – 1954)

 

Editorial Advisory Board Lon LaFlamme & Phil Beattie, Dillanos Coffee Roasters; Michael Cramer, Adagio Teas; Daniel Ephraim, Modern Process Equipment; Stephen Hurst, Mercanta; Stephen Schulman, S&D Coffee; Melissa J. Pugash, U.S. Tea Council/ Specialty Tea Institute; Christian Wolthers, Wolthers America

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But perhaps the biggest “new” for T&C this year is the change in frequen- cy. Rather than the typical twelve issues per year, there will be thirteen! We are combining the July and August issues, and publishing two special editions:

one that is being created specifically for Tea & Coffee World Cup Vietnam in June (10 th to 12 th ) and a Spanish-language issue. The TC World Cup issue will have stories in English and Vietnamese, and will be mailed to subscribers with a later issue. The Spanish language edition will be distributed at Latin American shows in the fall. When discussing “new,” people cannot be forgotten. T&C has been pub- lished continuously since 1901 and we are proud to have many decades-long loyal readers—I’ve met someone who actually has the first printed copy of T&C (I’m quite envious)! However, for every long-term reader–the executive who has been in the coffee or tea industry for 10, 20 or 30-plus years, there are those who are new to both industries–someone new is entering nearly every day–and may need to learn the basics. For that reason, we will periodi- cally have “introductory” articles. This month, for example, we are featuring two; one discussing detecting imperfections in tea and the other is a guide to organic coffee certification. So much more to talk about, but so little space! There will be lots of “new” in the New Year for T&C so stay tuned. Of course, nothing can be new with- out fresh concepts, so I welcome editorial ideas, suggestions on how to improve content in the magazine or TC World Cup, and/or new partner-

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ships—please don’t hesitate to contact me. Cheers to a collaborative, productive and prosperous New Year!

 

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New&Notable

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tea & coffee reports brewing worldwide

 

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Known in Australia and Europe, the Flat White Makes Its Move to NA North Americans have been introduced to a specialty coffee eagerly embraced by Australians and Europeans alike: the flat white. The exact origin of the bev- erage is uncertain, with links both to Australia and New Zealand. What we do know is that the drink was designed for those espresso lovers who wanted a bolder taste of coffee while still indulging in the creamy texture of milk. Originally developed over three decades ago, the flat white has been popping up throughout Europe in the last decade and has finally crossed the ocean arriving on North American soil this month. Similar to other specialty coffee beverages, milk and espresso are the core ingredients. However, a flat white is not a cappuccino with less foam nor a latte with more coffee. It is much more. Created to allow coffee to take center stage, the flat white merges rich espresso flavor with creamy, velvety milk. Some barista’s intermingle the froth with the coffee offering a drink that seamlessly entwines the two ingredients. Others create their flat white by topping one or two shots of espresso with the micro froth. The non-frothy, velvety texture of the milk is created by allowing air to pass through the steamed milk. “The growing sophistication of coffee drinkers around the world makes the flat white a perfect beverage for coffee lovers,” said Christine Barone, vice president, Espresso and Brewed, Starbucks Coffee Company, Seattle, Wash. Starbucks and Canada-based Second Cup are two coffee shop chains that have recently added the flat white to their espresso line up. However, if North America mirrors the trends in Australia and Europe, soon flat white will be everywhere.—AMH

 

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The flat white debuted in Starbucks stores in North America in January.
The flat white
debuted in
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in January.

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New&Notable

Mars Drinks Brings the Barista to Work Mars Drinks is bringing the barista to the workplace for the first time. The work- place-dedicated segment of Mars, Inc., McLean, Va., has unveiled the FLAVIA Barista, a single-serve brewer that is designed to brew premium, coffeehouse- style hot beverages in individual servings. The FLAVIA Barista offers coffee, tea,

individual servings. The FLAVIA Barista offers coffee, tea, hot chocolate, lattes, cappuccinos, and authentic-style

hot chocolate, lattes, cappuccinos, and authentic-style espresso. The brewing sys- tem offers five full-bodied, Italian espresso blends including Segafredo Zanetti espres- so in Intenso, Delicato and Cafesenza (decaffeinated) and Alterra espresso and decaf—all complete with “crema” in 30- 40 seconds. Other hot beverage brands offered include 100 percent Arabica Alterra coffee (light, medium and dark roasts), The Bright Tea Co. tea, and Dove/Galaxy hot chocolate. The hot beverages are available in 5.4- oz. to 9-oz. cups and 1.35-oz. cups for espresso, while the iced beverages are available in 3-oz. cups. Replicating an actual barista, the FLAVIA brewer calibrates pressure, tamp- ing and temperature to consistently deliv- er high quality drinks. The brewing method has been designed to ensure that there is no flavor cross-contamination between drinks. At the launch event in New York City in the fall, Xavier Unkovic, global president, Mars Drinks, West Chester, Pa., told Tea & Coffee Trade Journal that people are the most important asset to any business, noting that the FLAVIA Barista was specifically designed with the workplace in mind, to create moments of engagement, collaboration, productivity and well being. “Productivity is about caring and

inspiring. “[We believe] that [our new system] will inspire senior managers and interns alike to communicate, collabo- rate and share ideas over a fresh, premi- um hot beverage,” Unkovic said. The FLAVIA Barista, which rolled out in the fourth quarter of 2014, is currently available for U.S. offices, and available for international workplaces in March

2015.—VLF

World of Coffee Launches Symposium The Specialty Coffee Association of Europe (SCAE), London, UK, is intro- ducing Re:co, a specialty coffee sympo- sium that will be held prior to the World of Coffee event in June in Gothenburg, Sweden. Re:co, which will take place June 15 th to 16 th at Eriksbergshallen and the adja- cent Quality 11 Hotel, will feature presen-

and the adja- cent Quality 11 Hotel, will feature presen- tations from leading industry profession- als,

tations from leading industry profession- als, scientists and renown global figures in the fields of sustainability, business and politics. The content for Re:co will prima- rily explore the specialty coffee market in Europe and the challenges faced, as well as possible solutions. Re:co registration includes entrance to the exhibit hall for the World of Coffee, which runs June 16 th to 18 th . For more information about Re:co, email:

reco@worldcoffeeevents.org.—VLF

KGM & SUPERVALU Debut Java Delight Keurig Green Mountain, Inc., Waterbury, Vt., and SUPERVALU, Minneapolis, Mn., have partnered to offer affordable Java Delight brand coffee products in K- Cup packs for the Keurig brewing system. “Java Delight is a welcome addition to our Keurig brand family,” said John

Whoriskey, president of U.S. sales and marketing at Keurig, in a statement. “By working with SUPERVALU, we can offer shoppers across the country the value pric- ing and rich flavors they expect from their favorite SUPERVALU brand, all with the added convenience of the Keurig Brewed seal, ensuring premium quality with each and every cup.” The newly licensed Java Delight coffee brand K-Cup packs will be offered in SUPERVALU’s company stores, which operate under the Cub Foods, Hornbacher’s, Shop ’n Save, SHOPPERS Food & Pharmacy, and Farm Fresh ban- ners, as well as the more than 1,800 inde- pendent stores the company serves. The Java Delight brand K-Cup packs, which became available this month, bring together the quality and value of the Java Delight brand with the consistency and integrity of Keurig Brewed beverages. “At SUPERVALU, we work hard to give our customers a great experience by offering a wide assortment of quality products, including thousands of afford- able private brand items,” said David Young, vp of private brands at SUPER- VALU. “With the introduction of these new K-Cup pack varieties, shoppers can enjoy the great value and delicious taste of Java Delight coffees with the convenience that Keurig delivers.” SUPERVALU is one of the largest gro- cery wholesalers and retailers in the U.S. with annual sales of approximately $17 billion. SUPERVALU serves customers

of approximately $17 billion. SUPERVALU serves customers nationwide through a network of 3,336 stores (including the

nationwide through a network of 3,336 stores (including the aforementioned independent stores); 1,332 Save-A-Lot stores, of which 928 are operated by licensee owners; and 190-plus traditional retail grocery stores.—AML

MARCH 12–14, 2015 | Charleston, South Carolina The NCA Convention 2015 Speakers and Topics include:

MARCH 12–14, 2015

|

Charleston, South Carolina

MARCH 12–14, 2015 | Charleston, South Carolina The NCA Convention 2015 Speakers and Topics include: Business
MARCH 12–14, 2015 | Charleston, South Carolina The NCA Convention 2015 Speakers and Topics include: Business

The NCA Convention 2015 Speakers and Topics include:

The NCA Convention 2015 Speakers and Topics include: Business Luncheon Speaker Todd Carmichael CEO &
The NCA Convention 2015 Speakers and Topics include: Business Luncheon Speaker Todd Carmichael CEO &
The NCA Convention 2015 Speakers and Topics include: Business Luncheon Speaker Todd Carmichael CEO &

Business Luncheon Speaker

Todd Carmichael

CEO & Co-Founder La Colombe Torrefaction & Host of Dangerous Grounds

The Loyalty Switch

James Kane

Behavioral Scientist

Communicating Health Messages to the Public

Dr. Nancy Snyderman

Chief Medical Editor, NBC News

REGISTER NOW!

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www.ncausa.org/convention2015

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Hotel Information Belmont Charleston Place, 205 Meeting Street, Charleston, South Carolina 29401 www.charlestonplace.com

New Room Block Open:

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New&Notable

New & Notable Starbucks Coffee Co. opened its Reserve Roastery and Tasting Room in December in

Starbucks Coffee Co. opened its Reserve Roastery and Tasting Room in December in the Capitol Hill neighborhood of Seattle, Wash. The interactive Reserve Roastery is dedicated to roasting, coffee education, increasing availability of Starbucks’ small-lot Reserve coffees, and creating an immersive, sensory experience for consumers. All Reserve coffee beans sold to customers will be roasted in this facility.

mailto:heid@cimbria.at www.cimbria.com www.cimbriakaack.com
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The IWCA Luncheon NCA ANNUAL CONVENTION CHARLESTON PLACE HOTEL Charleston, S.C. • March 13th •
The IWCA Luncheon NCA ANNUAL CONVENTION CHARLESTON PLACE HOTEL Charleston, S.C. • March 13th •
The IWCA Luncheon NCA ANNUAL CONVENTION CHARLESTON PLACE HOTEL Charleston, S.C. • March 13th •

The IWCA Luncheon

NCA ANNUAL CONVENTION CHARLESTON PLACE HOTEL

Charleston, S.C. • March 13th • 12:15 PM

Tickets may be purchased at the door or online at www.ncausa.org

sustainingsustaining thethe chainchain

Pollination May Yield Better–and More–Coffee

 

That biological technology has been pioneered mostly in Canada. The control agents used there against insect pests and

fungus diseases are well proven for protec- tion of greenhouse crops and open-grown soft fruit and sunflowers. For example,

Beauveria bassiana and Bacillus thuringenis

A new study by researchers at the Arthur Dobbs Institute finds that adding and encouraging pollinators to coffee production can boost yields and help augment biodiversity.

Coffee is the second most traded com- modity, after petroleum, in the world. Vast areas of tropical landscapes are devoted to coffee production. A coffee bean starts its journey to our table as a flower on a shrub. Flowers require polli- nation for seeds and fruits to form, but for coffee it is widely believed that either self-pollination or pollination by wind is enough. “Not so!” says the research of crop pollination biologists. Pollination is the transfer of pollen grains from the anthers (the male repro- ductive organs of flowers) to the stigmas (the female reproductive organs) to start the process of sexual reproduction. For many plants, including coffee, the anthers and stigmas are within the same flower. To produce beans of Arabica coffee, pollen must move between plants: self- fertilization is not effective. In Robusta, though, pollen can move within the same flower and result in self-fertilization. For Arabica, it has been assumed that the wind carried the pollen between plants, and for Robusta wind and automatic self- pollination sufficed. That is all true, but what happens if pollinating insects are included? More pollination occurs, more coffee berries are set, and perhaps the quality of the beans is higher. Managed pollinators, like honey- bees, are now being introduced in coffee plantations to increase production and to make honey from the nectar secreted by coffee flowers. Landscape management for coffee production is changing to encour- age eco-friendly practices for shade-grown coffee, tropical forest conservation and restoration of heterogeneous rural envi- ronments. Ecological research from around the world shows that the closer to forests coffee is grown, and the more diverse the landscape in which coffee is grown, the greater the coffee crop and the better the berries. In general, coffee growers can expect crop yields to be boosted by about 10 per-

cent to 20 percent by insect pollinators coming from nearby forest, or by use of managed pollinators. Those benefits apply not just to coffee, but also to the local environment. Other farm and garden crops are serviced by the greater numbers and diversity pollinators. Similarly wild plants, including forest trees, which pro-

are serviced by the greater numbers and diversity pollinators. Similarly wild plants, including forest trees, which

are insect pathogens, one a fungus, the other a bacterium and registered for pest control in organic agriculture. Clonostachys rosea, itself a fungus, suppresses a wide vari- ety of plant pathogenic fungi. Although those beneficial agents can be sprayed, the technology we will use on coffee also deliv- ers them to the flowering crop. The technology can be thought of as managed pollinator biocontrol agent vec- toring. Special dispensers are placed at the exit/entrance of hives of managed pollina- tors. Honeybees and bumblebees have both been used successfully but, for coffee, we are using the former. The dispensers contain specially formulated, naturally- occurring, biological control agents that the pollinators carry out of their hives to the flowers they visit. For our trials on cof-

fee we are using B. bassiana and C. rosea.

Honeybees can increase production and make honey from the nectar secreted by coffee flowers.

When the pollinators return to their hives, they go inside by a different route so as to not become re-dusted with biocontrol agent. Research by V. Ureña in Ecuador indicates that honeybee-vectored B. bassiana can suppress coffee berry borer. A small grant from the International Union of Biological Sciences (IUBS) has allowed joint work to be planned and to start through the Arthur Dobbs Institute (ADI). The International Coffee Organization (ICO), London, helped by holding a workshop on the technology at its meeting in Belo Horizonte in 2013. Technical documents and the workshop with the ICO are available through the authors at ADI.

duce fruit and seeds eaten by wildlife, are more productive, as are those valued by local people for medicinal and traditional use. Adding and encouraging pollinators to coffee production boosts yields and reverses trends in agricultural intensifica- tion that erode biodiversity.

Utilizing Biological Technology

Coffee production has ongoing problems with insect pests and diseases. The coffee borer beetle is highly destructive. The female beetles lay eggs in developing berries and the grubs destroy them. Insecticides are often sprayed to contain the damage.

Fungus diseases, such as Botrytis Flower Blight, Colletrichum Berry Disease, and the infamous coffee leaf rust take their tolls and are difficult to control with costly fungi- cides. Our team has initiated projects in Latin America and Africa using natural bio- logical agents to counter some of that destruction while improving pollination.

The project needs support from the coffee industry and invites contributions through ADI and/or ICO. For more information, authors Peter G. Kevan (Canada), Breno M. Freitas (Brazil), Carlos H. Vergara and Rémy Vandame (Mexico) may be reached at: arthur- dobbsinstitute@gmail.com.

www.scaa.org

calendar of events

2015

February 6 – 7 Tea Course Fast Track at Coffee Fest Atlanta

February 26 – March 1 India International Tea & Coffee Expo

April 22 – 24 NAMA One Show

Las Vegas, Nev. Web: www.namaoneshow.org

Atlanta, Ga. Web: www.teacoursefasttrack.com

February 6 – 8 Coffee Fest Atlanta

Kolkatta, India Web: www.teacoffeeexpo.in

February 27 UK Coffee Leader Summit

May 5 – 8 World Tea Expo

Long Beach, Calif. Web: www.worldteaexpo.com

Atlanta, Ga. Web: www.coffeefest.com

London, UK Web: www.ukcoffeeleadersummit.com

May 13 – 14 Caffe Culture Show

February 8 – 12 Gulfood

Dubai, United Arab Emirates Web: www.gulfood.com

March 3 – 6 Foodex

Makuhari, Japan Web: www3.ima.or.jp/foodex/en

London, UK Web: www.caffecultureshow.com

May 16 – 19 NRA Show

February 11 – 14 BIOFACH

Nuremburg, Germany Web: www.biofach.de

March 12 – 14 NCA Convention

Charleston, S.C. Web: www.ncausa.org

Chicago, Ill. Web: www.restaurant.org/show

May 19 – 20 PLMA International

February 12 – 14 African Fine Coffee Conf. & Exhibition (AFCA)

March 13 – 15 Melbourne International Coffee Expo

Melbourne, Australia Web: www.internationalcoffeeexpo.com

Amsterdam, The Netherlands Web: www.plmainternational.com

Nairobi, Kenya

May 28

Web: www.afca.org

 

Cecafe Dinner

February 13 – 17 Ambiente

March 21 – 22 Tea Course Fast Track at NY Coffee & Tea Festival

São Paulo, BR Web: www.cecafe.com.br

Frankfurt, Germany Web: www.ambiente.messefrankfurt.com

Brooklyn, N.Y. Web: www.teacoursefasttrack.com

June 10 – 12 Tea & Coffee World Cup Asia

February 16 – 18 Pack Expo East

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ethiopia

Ethiopia:

Production is Growing Again in the Birthplace of Coffee

COVER STORY
COVER
STORY

It’s hard to imagine a world without coffee. But had it not been for the Ethiopians at some point over 1000 years ago deciding that they actually liked this stuff, coffee as we know it might never have reached the world market. Even more exciting to cof- fee lovers and industry stakeholders today is that in the last five years Africa’s biggest coffee producer has gotten even bigger and the volumes reaching export markets across the world are steadily expanding. In the first of a special new four-part series by Tea & Coffee Trade Journal’s veteran coffee writer, Maja Wallengren, takes an in- depth look at the growth of Ethiopia’s coffee industry and what the latest efforts from new market policies and an ambitious renovation plan mean for its future. Yet, it’s all good news as production from the “origin of all origins of coffee” is on the path to reach between 9 and 10 million bags in coming years. By Maja Wallengren

All photos and images courtesy of Maja Wallengren unless otherwise noted.

I n coffee, it’s really all about Ethiopia. This is where the story of coffee starts after the Coffea Arabica plant was first

discovered growing in the wild some time between the 6 th and 8 th centuries, most historians agree. And it is from Ethiopia that the production and trade of coffee spread throughout the world. From indus- try officials to coffee enthusiasts, the story and history of Ethiopia is one that contin- ues to fascinate coffee lovers. Thanks to the discovery of coffee in Ethiopia in what was then known as Abyssinia, coffee was brought to the world and as such the trade

of coffee might even be considered the foundation of the earliest interaction of what today constitutes globalization. Since the earliest beginnings of coffee production, and spanning through what might be as much as 16 centuries of histo- ry, few products have travelled through the changing times of world history and evolving drinking habits as extensively as the sacred little coffee bean. Throughout all these years of a constantly shifting cof- fee trade, the Ethiopian coffee industry has similarly continued to transform. And the sheer volume of unexplored botanical material still available in Ethiopia makes it all the more fascinating. “There is a reason why Ethiopia became the birthplace of coffee, why coffee started growing here in the wild in the first place,” said Taye Kufa, senior coffee researcher and director of the Jimma Agricultural Research Center, located in the town of the same name. Having

Center, located in the town of the same name. Having The Ethiopian coffee industry continues to

The Ethiopian coffee industry continues to transform amid the constantly changing coffee trade.

COVER STORY ethiopia already tracked down about 6,000 differ- ent Arabica varieties within the boundaries
COVER
STORY
ethiopia
already tracked down about 6,000 differ-
ent Arabica varieties within the boundaries
of Ethiopia alone, Kufa said the research
center “still has so many uncovered areas,
like in Harar where coffee plant material
collected have yet to be catalogued” and
studied in detail. And all along the contin-
uing discovery, coffee growing is now
reaching what might be considered the
third significant boom in Ethiopia.
The first surge in global coffee pro-
duction took place between the 10 th and
12 th centuries when Arab traders based in
and around the Red Sea strait near the
port of Mocha initiated the pioneering
major commercial plantings of coffee in
southern Yemen. It was with this new line
of supply that coffee started forming into
a global commodity and what by the 16 th
century would develop into the world’s
first coffee houses under the Ottoman
Empire in Istanbul.
The second boom in production start-
ed in the 1950s when a combination of
political incentives toward renovating
farms, supported by foreign development
agencies and together with the promotion
of the establishment of cooperative cul-
ture, sparked renewed interest into coffee
growing. Beginning about five years ago,
reforms were introduced by the
Ethiopian government. Even though
many challenges remain for the world’s
oldest coffee industry, there is no denying
“Few products have traveled through the changing
times of world history and evolving drinking habits
as extensively as the sacred little coffee bean.”
the world was again able to witness a
boom in coffee production from Ethiopia.
Investment in Production
“Coffee production is definitively increas-
ing, that is unquestionable,” said Yilma
Gebrekidan, the general manager of the
Ethiopian Coffee Growers Association in
the capital of Addis Ababa. “Our growers
have really done a fantastic job in the last
few years and one cannot ignore all the
new coffee that is starting to come into
production. Everywhere you go today you
will see new trees,” said Gebrekidan.
A little over 10 years ago a series of
ambitious economic policies and market
of the sweeping and positive changes these
new investment friendly policies have had
for the overall growth of the sector and
that of the country.
In 2008, the reforms led to the cre-
ation of the Ethiopia Commodity
Exchange (ECX) where coffee for the
export market is traded in the afternoon
and coffee for the local market is sold
through morning sessions. The opening
up to a more modern trading format seeks
to both guarantee a higher level of trans-
parency in the Ethiopian coffee market,
while at the same time also helps establish
more direct lines of trade for the produc-
ing sector, analysts said.
Although production figures are difficult to verify, officials agree that Ethiopia’s coffee crop is set to become even bigger in the next 5 to 10 years.

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ethiopia

The trade and market policies aside, most industry stakeholders believe that the perhaps greatest benefit of the market reforms is that new private investment is starting to find its way back into the sector’s both small holder and large privately held estates. This is injecting some much-needed cash into what less than a decade ago was an ailing industry at the brink of collapse. Since the renovation efforts and expansion of area started in earnest between 2008 and 2009, production from Ethiopia has slowly but steadily been growing and the results are starting to show up in export figures as well. In the new 2014-15 crop cycle, Ethiopia’s coffee harvest is forecast to yield up to 7.5 mil- lion 60-kilogram bags, according to the Ethiopian Agriculture Ministry. This is flat (production) to the year-ago period but compares to average output between four million and five million bags in the 10 years prior to the renovation starting. “We are really excited about this because there has always been a huge demand for coffee from Ethiopia thanks to the unique history of Ethiopia being the birthplace of coffee, and now we can start offer more of this coffee on a much more consistent basis,” Hussein Agraw, President of Ethiopia’s Coffee Exporters Association (ECEA), Addis Ababa. The ECEA has pegged total exports in the new 2014-15 cycle to reach a record

of at least 3.9 million bags, up from the close to 3.2 million bags exported in the last 2013-14 cycle, said Agraw. Production figures in Ethiopia remain difficult to verify as Ethiopians are known to drink up to as much as 60 percent of their own coffee crop at home and a detailed household survey of consumption habits has never been carried out. The London-based International Coffee Organization reported a total crop of 8.1 million bags in the 2012-13 cycle, but pri- vate sources in Ethiopia generally agree that this figure is too high and was based on government figures projecting desired cof- fee earnings rather than actual production. Regardless, coffee production is growing, and based on the known figures for new plantings, trees per hectares and the actual area under cultivation, indus- try officials agree that Ethiopia’s coffee crop is set to become even bigger in the next 5 to 10 years. “When we look at what has been planted, both through the renovation of existing coffee farms and new areas, Ethiopia should increase its annual coffee production to between at least 9 or 10 million bags in the next five years,” said Gebrekidan.

From Kaffa to Coffee

No more is the Ethiopian coffee boom visible than at the very source of coffee in the Southeastern province of Kaffa, the

Renovation efforts are tak- ing place in most of the famous Ethiopian coffee regions including
Renovation efforts are tak-
ing place in most of the
famous Ethiopian coffee
regions including Sidamo,
Yirgacheffe, Harar, Jimma
and Limmu.
including Sidamo, Yirgacheffe, Harar, Jimma and Limmu. Most historians agree the Coffea Arabica plant was

Most historians agree the Coffea Arabica plant

was discovered growing in the wild in Ethiopia

between the 6 th & 8 th centuries. Production

first surged between the 10 th & 12 th centuries.

province that lent its name to coffee. Here, deep into the dense forests in the province on the border just north of Kenya and with South Sudan to the west, the region is famously home to coffee still growing in the wild, just as it was when according to legend coffee was first dis- covered more than 1,000 years ago. Different variations of the story exist, but most agree that a young goat herder by the name of Kaldi after many sleepless nights watching out over his master’s goats, one day noticed that the goats turned unusually upbeat and active after eating the red fruits off some nearby trees. Hence, the first meeting between man and coffee took place and the epic tale of Kaldi and the dancing goats started to spread throughout the world, along with the craving for the beans to brew it. Known as “forest coffee” the trees here grow up to 15 meters tall, have long ultra- narrow leaves and are nothing like the commercially developed Arabica varieties that produce most of the world’s Arabica coffee today. Cuppers agree that the flavor is among the richest in the world with a powerful body, balanced acidity, extraor- dinary smooth aroma and a plethora of flavor attributes that explode across the palate and leaves a long-lasting aftertaste. “In 2008, production in the Kaffa Zone was only about 400,000 bags but at the time a political decision was taken to turn this area into a market center and the government has been providing training to farmers on how to implement new technology in addition to providing seeds

and extension services on farming prac- tices,” said Kassahun Taye, manager at the Kaffa Regional Agriculture Office in the town of Bonga. In the last three years, the land cultivated with coffee has been expanded and is on target to reach the project goal of 260,346 hectares [of cof- fee] by the end of 2015, up 45 percent from the 2012 number of 179,202 hectares, he said. With vast areas of undeveloped agri- cultural land still available for farming, Kaffa province is leading the production boom in Ethiopia. But today, renovation efforts are reported out of most of the

today, renovation efforts are reported out of most of the Ethiopians are known to drink up

Ethiopians are known to drink up to as much as 60 percent of their own coffee crop at home. Coffee drinking continues to be considered one of the ultimate pleasures of daily life.

equally famous Ethiopian coffee regions including Sidamo, Yirgacheffe, Harar, Jimma and Limmu. At the heart of the Ethiopian coffee scene for years, Jimma and close-by Limmu have long been known as home to some of the flavors considered the most traditional among Ethiopian coffees, mostly processed as natural or semi- washed Arabicas which leaves a natural touch of sweetness from the pulp and mucilage in the final cup flavor. Located some 350 kilometers south-west of Ethiopia’s capital Addis Ababa, the mas- sive Limmu Coffee Farm is at the center of the renovation efforts that today are sweeping Ethiopia as part of the wave of privatization which has helped move Ethiopia up the rank of developing coun- tries and out of the bottom-10, according to World Bank figures.

COVER STORY
COVER
STORY

Dating back almost 40 years the Limmu Coffee Farm was originally estab- lished as the first modern coffee planta- tion in Ethiopia in the early 1970s but went into decay after years of socialist inspired policies. That is until it was pur- chased in November 2013 by Horizon Plantations Plc., which is owned by Ethiopian born Saudi billionaire Mohammed Al Amoudi, who has invest- ed hundreds of millions of dollars in Ethiopia from agriculture to car tires. “The Limmu Coffee Farm is made up of six farms that in total have over 12,000 hectares of land of which almost 8,000

farm population of 38,000 people,

so through this project we can make

a really important contribution to the socio-economic development of Ethiopia,” said Mohammed. From the rural hills of Jimma and

Kaffa to the middle of the streets in the bustling capital of Addis Ababa, coffee culture as well as economic development

is growing fast. For a country that less

than 10 years ago was still rated among the world’s two to five poorest, the visi- ble improvement of real social develop- ment and economic progress is a wel- come sign of development starting to

progress is a wel- come sign of development starting to hectares are cultivated with coffee and

hectares are cultivated with coffee and in production,” said Kemal Mohammed, operations manager for Horizon Plantations. “When we took over the farm a little over a year ago total produc- tion was only around 83,000 bags of cof- fee but we expect production to at least double in the next five years thanks to the inputs, renovation and agricultural prac- tices we are applying,” Mohammed told

Tea & Coffee Trade Journal during a visit

to Limmu. He added that the social importance of the Limmu farm, which Horizon bought together with the Bebeka farm in Kaffa for about $80 million, were a big part of the decision to buy the farms and get involved in coffee production. “Coffee has always been at the center of development in Ethiopia and when you look at the Limmu farm alone we have 7,100 permanent workers and a total

take hold in Ethiopia. And just as it was in the earliest beginnings, coffee drink- ing continues to be regarded as one of the ultimate pleasures of daily life. Villagers in Ethiopia say the act of drinking coffee is transformational “as each cup changes the inner persona of the one who drinks it.” The world of coffee will be happy to watch as Ethiopian pro- ducers continue to increase production of some of the world’s most famous and finest beans. Amesege’nallo EthiopiaThanks for bringing coffee to the world!

Ethiopia — Thanks for bringing coffee to the world! Maja Wallengren has been writing about coffee

Maja Wallengren has been writing about coffee for more than 20 years from over 40 coffee producing countries across South-East Asia, East and West Africa and across Latin America. She can be reached at: mwallengren@outlook.com.

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tea brewing

Determining Flaws and Imperfections in Tea

Detecting defects in tea is not easy, but there are elements tea buyers and customers can look for when buying tea. There are also things to avoid while preparing tea in order to brew the perfect cup. Reprinted with permission of TeaCourse.com

A professional tea taster may be able to determine in an

instant if a tea is flawed. The professional tastes tea so

many times over and over again that he/she becomes

accustomed to the quality of each and every type of tea from each location, time of year, etc. Professional tasters can pinpoint a defect to any point in the growing and manufacturing process. Many tea industry buyers wonder how they too can deter- mine flaws, imperfections, defects, or damages to their tea. It is not easy to learn how to do. This is why it is important to find a trusted, high quality tea supplier who can ensure the tea they sell to you is of the utmost quality and dependably consistent. To understand why a tea can taste different from season to season or for any other reason such as possible defects in manu- facturing and handling, we will explain how defects can some- times be introduced. This is not something the average consumer will detect, but your best customers can and will know when their favorite tea “just does not taste right.” They too become accus- tomed to how a certain tea from a certain place should taste. Terroir comes into play. If you are unfamiliar with the term,

terroir is a French word most often used to describe wine but applies to any product that derives its uniqueness of taste from

to any product that derives its uniqueness of taste from the place where it is made.

the place where it is made. Roughly translated terroir is a sense of place. It is the place on earth the tea has come from and what the tea has become. The term specifically denotes characteristics obtained geographically by the effects of the local environment during manufacture including climate, soil type, and topogra- phy. You will notice when tasting teas from different regions, each possesses special qualities specific to each region. Taste will differ from different regions and also tea gardens or sections of tea gardens depending upon conditions. Terroir is what gives tea its character and the reason not all teas taste the same. Weather conditions may cause flaws. Weather has an effect on all types of plant growth—tea is no different. Depending on the weather, there may be a great or not-so-great-crop. Season to sea- son, the quality and quantity of tea will vary greatly based on many conditions starting with terroir. Depending on the pluck used for certain teas, the time the tea is left on the bush will also determine the intended quality of a specific tea. Timing of tea leaf plucking during certain weather conditions also comes into play. After Mother Nature takes its course, the manufacturing process will also determine the quality of the final tea product. Any mishandling of the tea through the various steps of manu- facturing will determine quality or possible imperfections and flaws as well. It is important that the tea is handled properly through each step including proper withering, crushing/rolling, oxidation, heating/drying, etc. Over- or under-withering is not good—it must be just right! The timing of oxidation must be carefully timed for the final intended tea product to be perfect. Incomplete or under oxidation as well as excessive oxidation will flaw the intended process. The same goes with firing; over- or under-firing will change the intended outcome. To avoid any direct contamination of tea or the condition of the tea, it is important that the processing equipment and packaging equip- ment be clean as well. Even rolling can be a defect if done improperly or not as intended for the tea in process.

Defects in Preparation Start with Water

Moving on from the manufacturing and production facility, fur- ther flaws or defects in tea may arise through improper handling, packaging, storage and shipping. Mishandling the tea during preparation is a common mis- take. This can be an individual customer enjoying tea in their own home, or a shop owner mishandling the preparation in their place of business. For this reason, it is very important that all tea suppliers take time to educate their buyers so they in turn may properly educate their customers/consumers. Defects in preparation start immediately with water. The

Photo courtesy of Barbara Dufrêne

water must be high quality, preferably fil- tered to remove any possible contami- nants or treated by a professional water treatment company that provides perfect water for preparing tea. Remember that water will vary greatly from city to city. Be sure to start with the best water possible. Next, determine what type of tea you are making and learn the proper water temperature used to prepare it. A general rule of thumb is under-boiling for white and green teas, just-boiling for oolong, and full-boil for black or tisanes. If the water is too hot for your chosen tea, it will be bitter and undrinkable. In preparing tea it is also important to use the proper amount of tea in relation to the amount of water used for either a teacup or a teapot. Steeping time will vary depending on the tea you have chosen and most manufacturers will make recommenda- tions on appropriate steeping times and water temperatures as well. Be sure to use a timer. Over-steeped tea is just as undrink- able as tea prepared with the wrong temperature water. Other flaws in tea preparation include using a strainer that is not tight enough to keep the tea from flowing through and spilling out into the liquid. Always use a strainer that is fine enough to keep the loose tea from getting into the pot or cup.

to keep the loose tea from getting into the pot or cup. Finding the Proper Storage
to keep the loose tea from getting into the pot or cup. Finding the Proper Storage

Finding the Proper Storage Area for Tea

An important aspect of educating the customer includes the proper storage of tea at home, and yet it is perhaps one of the most overlooked elements of tea preparation. Any extreme of temperature will flaw tea. It should not be kept in the freezer and tea should not be kept in any place that will expose it to heat, light or air. These mistakes will all shorten the shelf life of tea, causing it to become stale more quickly—it will lose aroma and flavor. Freezing or refrigeration should also be avoided since these storage methods introduce moisture, which could ruin the tea. Tea should be stored in a place away from other spices or heavy odors. It should also not be stored near coffee as the odor is too strong and will permeate tea. If it is possible to store tea in its own cabinet away from other products, the result will be a bet- ter tea experience all around. If you are a tea buyer, you will quickly learn through taste if the tea you are receiving is of high and consistent quality. Work with your supplier to ensure quality and freshness. And remember to educate yourself first and your employees and customers as well.

yourself first and your employees and customers as well. TeaCourse.com© is online, continuing education for the

TeaCourse.com© is online, continuing education for the tea indus- try. TeaCourse provides more than 200 tea topics from Tea 101 to Tea Business and Beyond. Education updates and tea market reports are added each week to help tea businesses stay in business. Learn more at http://www.teacourse.com.

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special report: cuba

A New Opportunity with Cuban Coffee?

Restrictions between the U.S. and Cuba may be easing, and diplomatic relations thawing, but access to Cuban markets for their coffee won’t be easy for U.S. roasters. By Donald N. Schoenholt

C offee was introduced to Cuba from Hispaniola (today Haiti and the Dominican Republic) in

C offee was introduced to Cuba from Hispaniola (today Haiti and the Dominican Republic) in

1748, by Jose Antonio Gilabert. It took about 40 years for coffee cultivation to become an economic factor in the island’s economy, but in 1790 Cuba shipped the equivalent of 140,000 60-kg sacks of green coffee, mostly to Spain. In that generation Haiti was the great coffee producer of the America’s, but in 1791 Haitian society, and her economy was destroyed in a revolu- tion. With Haiti removed as a competitor Cuba’s coffee thrived. The island’s coffee culture was reinforced with the arrival of French Planter-refugees fleeing Haiti. In Cuba, they planted and prospered. In 1840, Cuba exported 530,300/60-kg bags of coffee. As a measure of coffee’s success, an 1856 book, The Island of Cuba, by Alexander Humboldt estimated that there were about 28,000 slaves engaged as labor- ers in the island’s coffee trade. In 2000, UNESCO (United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Paris, France) recognized the remains of the 19 th century French (formerly Haitian planters’) plantations in Cuba as, “Unique evidence of a pioneer form of agriculture in a different terrain,” casting “considerable light on the eco- nomic, social and technological history of the Caribbean and Latin American region.” The organization designated the Archeological Landscape of the First Coffee Plantations in the Southeast of Cuba as a World Heritage site. Cuba’s coffee industry declined in mid-19 th century because of a dramatic increase in the world supply coming from Brazil, and Central America. These new origins coming online put pressure on prices making coffee less profitable than its great island rivals tobacco and sugar. The increasing cost of labor, as well as bid- ding against more successful tobacco and sugar plantation managers for slaves, also put a strain on Cuba’s coffee economy. The 10 Years War (Cuba’s first war of independence from Spain) 1868 to 1878 left the island’s coffee culture in ruins with less than 10 percent of the number of cof- fee farms in production than there were a

half-century earlier. A positive result of the war was The Pact of Zanjón, in 1878, which ended slavery for any enslaved per- sons who had fought on either side in the conflict. In 1886, slavery was ended on the island by royal decree. One might have supposed that the loss of enslaved labor would have hurt an industry come- back, but in less than 20 years production had rebounded to 116,500/60-kg bags. The 20 th century was a rough one for Cuban coffee. In 1902, four years after the signing of the Treaty of Paris ending the Spanish American War, Cuban patriot Jose Marti, declared Cuban independence from Spain. By then coffee production in Cuba had been under domestic pressure from its larger rivals, tobacco and sugar, for a long time. A.G. Robinson, in his 1916, Cuba Old and New, noted that from the mid-19 th century forward coffee production had declined due to increased world-supply, larger profits available from growing sugar, and concluded, “for many years Cuba has imported most of its coffee supply, the larger share being purchased from Porto Rico.” Protective tariffs passed in 1927 and 1930 in defense of local cof- fee, against Puerto Rican imports, sup- ported local production through the 1930s, and by 1956 Cuba was exporting about 334,000/60-kg bags per year, most- ly to Europe, at an inflation-adjusted 2014 price of USD $4.74/lb. The sustain- ability supporting U.S. specialty trade would not emerge for another 20 years, and things were about to get dicey between Cuba and its largest North American neighbor. On July 8, 1963, Cuban coffee, along with everything else produced on the island became contraband in the U.S. Cuban nationalization brought on anoth- er decline in coffee production and exports. The Soviet Union purchased Cuban coffee at a supported price level as an economic support for their Caribbean satellite, but the end of the Soviet Block in 1990 caused the collapse of Cuba’s cof- fee economy, which was already under great stress. Coffee farming areas lost population, as the crop became unsus- tainable, and workers sought economic

special report: cuba

sustenance in the cities. By the end of the 1990s, coffee revenues represented less than 1 percent of Cuban exports. Increased coffee production is need- ed, unfortunately efforts to interest an urbanized population to move back to the farms, have been unsuccessful. Cuba does not produce enough coffee for home use, and export. Hard currency produced by exports is desperately need- ed, but domestic consumption must be curtailed through rationing. It has been reported that Cuba imports 19,000 tons of coffee, at just under USD $50 million (about USD $1.12/lb) of Robusta and low-grade Arabica coffee for domestic consumption to free its own better grade coffee for export. In recent years, Robusta coffee for was introduced to the island domestic con- sumption. In May, 2011, the British news- paper, The Guardian, reported: “It has been decided to once again produce coffee mixed with peas for the rationed quota,” a trade ministry note said in the communist party newspaper Granma. In the past year, Robusta coffee prices had jumped 69 per- cent to (USD) $2,904 a tonne, it said, while peas had climbed merely 30 percent, to (USD) $500 a tonne.” Cuba rests directly in the middle of Hurricane Alley, an area of warm water in the Atlantic Ocean, which spawns many mad tropical storms. Because the climate is getting warmer in that part of the ocean, there are more frequent storms, making the climatic conditions for coffee growing in Cuba perilous. Antiquated methods, and equipment, the loss of experienced coffee farm workers to the

Lively square near a church in Havana, Cuba.
Lively square near a church
in Havana, Cuba.

cities, and deteriorated infrastructure from a half-century of neglect, have all

aggravated Cuban coffee’s efforts to hold its own against adverse conditions. The

reported,

Latin

American

Herald

“Statistics provided by the Cuban Agricultural Ministry says Cuba used to produce 60,000 tons of coffee per year.” The Cuban government, which publishes Trabajadores (Workers) monthly said, “but now it scarcely reached 10 percent of that quantity.” In 2012, Hurricane Sandy threw 20-30 percent of the beans to the ground, and Reuters estimated the 2012 post Sandy crop to be 4,000 tons—the lowest in more than 100 years. There are three primary growing areas on the island, with the main Cuban cof- fee-producing region being Oriente

(Eastern) Province, formerly called

Santiago de Cuba. In 1976, the political map of Cuba was redrawn and Oriente province was subdivided into the new provinces of Las Tunas, Granma, Holguin, Santiago de Cuba, and Guantánamo. The name Oriente is still the general reference for eastern Cuba where the coffee economy is strongest. The provincial capital remains the island’s second largest city, and the major coffee exporting center, Santiago de Cuba. The primary coffee districts in Cuba are:

• Eastern Region–Sierra Maestra (2 percent of production) These mountains are on an east-west axis across the southern part of Guantanamo and Granma Provinces. The average alti- tude is about 1500m (about 4,921 ft) including the highest elevation in Cuba

(about 4,921 ft) including the highest elevation in Cuba 32 T EA & C OFFEE T
being Turquino Royal Peak at 1,974m (about 6,476 ft). The cultivation of coffee tion are:
being Turquino Royal Peak at 1,974m
(about 6,476 ft). The cultivation of coffee
tion are: Santiago De Cuba (Sierra
Maestra), Guantanamo (Sierra Maestra),
in
this area over the course of more than a
century has, “resulted in the creation of a
unique cultural landscape, illustrating a
significant stage in the development of
this form of agriculture,” according to
UNESCO in naming Santiago and
Guantanamo Provinces, South-Eastern
Region as a World Heritage Site in 2000.
The soil is reddish brown and rich with
humas. Over 90 percent of the coffee pro-
duced on the island is grown in the Sierra
Maestra Mountains where the Fidelistas
took, literally, to-the-hills in the 1950’s to
avoid the Cuban army.
Granma (Sierra Maestra), Holguin (Sierra
Maestra), Villa Clara (Sierra Del
Escombray) and Pinar del Rio (Cordillera
de
Guaniguanico).
Most of the coffee grows at 300-600
m
(1,000-2,000 ft). The produce grown
for export are Arabica varieties: Typica,
Bourbon, Caturra and Catuai. According
to
the Cuban government the 1999 crop
was to be produced on 119,700 hectares
or about 2 percent of the island’s arable
land. Per the International Coffee
Association (ICO), London, Cuban pro-
duction in 2011 was 9,755/60-kg bags.
The Food and Agricultural
Organization of the United Nations
(FAO) reported that the total number of
hectares (about 10,000 square
meters/2.47 acres) where green coffee is
harvested in Cuba has fallen from
170,000 in 1961 to 26,935 in 2011,
decline of 84 percent.
www.mpecoffee.com
Central Region–Sierra Del Escambray
(6 percent of production)
Located in the South-Central provinces of
Villa Clara, Cienfuegos and Sancti
Spíritus. The mountains are divided
east/west by the Agabama River. The
Guamuhaya are on the West, and the
Sierra de Sancti Spiritus in the East. Pico
San Juan reaches 1140m (about 3,740 ft ).
At altitude the rainforest is cool and wet,
while below in the valley, the tropical sun
bakes. Coffee here, as in much of Cuba’s
higher elevations, is grown on small farms
where the trees have the benefit of grow-
ing among the moist undergrowth of the
high forest canopy.
Western Region–Cordillera de
Guaniguanico (92 percent of production)
A
low sharply ridged mountain range that
is
the east-west spine of Cuba’s western
province, Pinar del Rio. The ridges divide
into two ranges, Sierra de los Organos in
the west, and the Sierra del Rosarios in the
East where a large number of remains of
the original French-Haitian plantations
have been discovered. The highest eleva-
tion is the twin-peaked Pan de Guajaibon
about 700m (about 2,297 ft).
The Cuban coffee harvest is still very
much a matter of hand picking, and the
fruit is carried to the processing stations
on human and mule backs.
Approximately 92 percent of the Arabica
coffee is grown in the Sierra Maestra
Mountains. The highest volume coffee
producing provinces in order of produc-
at
www.mpecoffee.com
mailto:solution@mpechicago.com

special report: cuba

Cuban Coffee Trade

The Cuban regulatory agency is the Ministry of Agriculture Cuba-Café-Cacao Agrabusiness Group. The coffee is shipped in 60-kg (132 lbs) burlap sacks. The harvest begins in July and runs through February, with the first ship dates being in November. Cuba exports about two-thirds of its coffee harvest and imports low grade Arabicas and Robustas for home con- sumption. The largest importers of Cuban coffee are Japan, France and the other EU nations, and Canada. Exports are con- trolled by a governmental agency, Cubaexport. In addition to Cubaexport, there are two other entities engaged in the coffee business on the island, Kave-Cuba, which markets Cubita brand coffee to tourists, hard currency stores, and the Hola brand coffee. Japan and France are the top importers of Cuban coffee, accounting for roughly 5,000 and 2,500 tons respective- ly. Japan’s Meiwa Corp. and France’s Café Legal are the chief importers in those countries, buying 75-80 percent of Cuba’s total coffee exports which were 8,240 bags during April 2007-March 2008, down from 18,333 bags during the previous 12- month period a decrease of 45 percent. There are issues with the marketing of the Cuban Coffee persona. In protection of geographic indication, only coffee

In protection of geographic indication, only coffee Cuban coffee is more than a geographic place of

Cuban coffee is more than a geographic place of origin for coffee; it is also a coffee culture.

grown in Cuba is Cuban Coffee. Still, Cuban Coffee is more than just a geo- graphic place of origin for coffee. It is also a coffee culture and a beverage, a file cab- inet of cultural coffee recipes, and the emotional and romantic pause that Cubans, wherever they find themselves, take to refresh every day. Café Pillon, a pre-Castro brand of Cuban coffee, moved to Miami after the 1959 revolution and began again. In 2011, The J.M. Smucker Co., Orrville, Ohio, purchased Pilon’s corporate owner, Rowland Coffee Roasters, the largest U.S. manufacturer of coffees for the domestic Hispanic market

whose brands include Bustelo, and El Pico, and whose sales in the year prior to acquisition were USD $115-million. There are scores of other Cuban style brands offering whole beans and ground to communities throughout the U.S. Major U.S. retailers as such as Walmart Stores, which features Café La Caretta,

Miami’s famous Cuban espresso,” and

Café La Llave with, “…a long reputation

for the highest quality 100 percent pure

Cuban coffee,” at Sam’s Club big box stores, offer U.S. brands of Cuban coffee. U.S. roasters will have an interest in exporting their goods to Cuba. The ques- tion of labeling coffee as Cuban when it is not grown in Cuba, but is manufactured and packaged in a Cuban style, and pre- pared following traditional Cuban brew- ing methods and recipes for U.S. con- sumers will become one of more interest as relations between the U.S. and Cuba are normalized. The political parties will have to work together to satisfy each other’s commercial and intellectual property needs before U.S. roasters are given access to Cuban markets for their roasted goods. Crystal Mountain, harvested in the Escambray region, aspires to compete with Jamaica’s Blue Mountain as a coffee of excellent preparation, pedigree, and cup. Presently, Japan is the primary inter- national customer for this coffee. Fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides cost money, and that is scarce commodity

and herbicides cost money, and that is scarce commodity Antiquated methods and equipment, the loss of

Antiquated methods and equipment, the loss of experienced coffee farm workers to the cities, and a deteriorated infrastructure have all hindered Cuba’s coffee production.

on the island, and so much of the coffee is grown by traditional time honored meth- ods, which means, as a practical matter, that the coffee is organically grown. More than 4,000 hectares of coffee have been Certified Organic. Certification helps the crop bring a substantial premium in inter- national sales. It is sometimes labeled Altura Organic. The German, BCS Oko- Garantie and Swiss Bio-Inspecta are among the third-party certifying agencies operating in Cuba. Cuba divides its Arabica beans into nine grades coffee. The quality scale is based on bean size and number of defects per measured sample. Cuban export cof- fee is declared to be free of ferment and black beans. The low altitude of the terrain, the North-easterly trade winds, and the prox- imity of the sea produce a sweet, mellow cup of familiar “Island” character with a delicate brightness, similar to the High Mountain, and Prime Washed coffees of Jamaica, grown just about 135 miles SSW. As with all origins cup quality varies from district to district, and as we learn more in the coming years, we will discov- er Cuban microclimates within which are small lots being grown that make us giggle with joy. For now we must settle for more general items, and their descriptions. Cuban export coffees are Arabica, of which the best have a fragrant, fine and fragile aroma and a full body. They are fla- vory, delicate, and soft on the palate, with a lingering aftertaste. The legendary power of Cuban coffee in the cup isn’t a fiction, but it is more a function of dark roasting, intensity of cof- fee/water ratios, brewing traditions and recipes that create beverages and olfactory taste sensations than of cultivation. What makes cafecito a legendary part of Cuban cultural life? Cuban coffee moves the cof- fee lover’s soul. It’s a Rumba in a cup that conjures dreams of Havana.

It’s a Rumba in a cup that conjures dreams of Havana. Coffee Pathfinder, and Tea &

Coffee Pathfinder, and Tea & Coffee Trade Journal Contributing Editor, Donald Schoenholt accompanied his family to Cuba in 1958-59. He is looking forward to revisit- ing this famous origin soon. Mr. Schoenholt can be reached at coffeeman@gilliescoffee.com.

to revisit- ing this famous origin soon. Mr. Schoenholt can be reached at coffeeman@gilliescoffee.com. J ANUARY
origin highlight: korea Daehan Tea Garden in Boseong. The Awakening of the Korean Tea Market
origin highlight: korea
Daehan Tea Garden
in Boseong.
The Awakening of the
Korean Tea Market
There’s no doubt South Koreans like their tea, but
they have also recently become avid coffee drinkers.
Award winning baristas on one side and temple stays
with tea rituals on the other side, a striking contrast
or a millennium complexity? By Barbara Dufrêne
Photos courtesy of Barbara Dufrêne
W ith a population of over 50
million, huge urban agglom-
erations, growing income and
an ever-increasing high tech environment
the South Koreans are keen on Western
consumption habits that go with their
hectic lifestyle, whilst rediscovering their
ancestral traditions of meditation, Zen
Buddhism and quiet tea rituals.
It was during the ancient Goryo
Kingdom that both, Buddhism and tea,
arrived from the court of the Chinese Tang
Dynasty emperors in the mid-7 th century
AD. Both immediately took root in the
peninsula and became part of life at court
and with the monastic communities. The
monks and the royals grew tea and their
courtiers used it for the purification rituals
and as a beneficial drink. This lasted for
about seven centuries and came abruptly to
an end with the arrival of the Joseon
Dynasty (1392 to 1910), which intro-
duced Taoism as the court religion. The
monks went into hiding in the south, tak-
ing their tea with them, and lived quietly
far away from the throne for more than
400 years. It was a monk, Cho-ui (1786 to
1866), however, who appealed to his coun-
trymen, strongly pleading for the revival of
tea drinking and tea rituals.
Another strong impulse came with the
Japanese occupation of the peninsula,
from 1910 until 1945, they restored and
increased tea production, picking up from
the monasteries and opening large new tea
cultivation areas in the southern regions.
More political turmoil–the Korean War
and the military rule in the Republic of
South Korea until 1987–hampered the
further development of tea growing for
decades. With civilian rule restored and
incredible stamina invested by the popu-
lation into the newly recovered free mar-
ket economy the country started to thrive,
making South Korea today one of the
wealthiest nations in Asia.
As one of the world’s ancient green tea
producers, this traditional production has
always been rooted in the Buddhist cul-
ture in Korea, the same as in Japan. Both
countries have their tea traditions linked
to eastern ways, whilst the young genera-
tions are keen to adopt western lifestyle
with coffee as the iconic cup.
Fortunately, however, as soon as peace
was restored and the path for market
growth open again, the ancient Buddhist
tea traditions were revived in South Korea,
through the strong will and focused action
of KIM Mi Hee, who started her cultural
revival mission in the 1950s. This resulted
in the establishment of MyungWon foun-
dation in 1995, and it is her daughter,
KIM Eui Jung, who is carrying the banner

origin highlight: korea

for Korean tea traditions and the Korean tea way of life. The involvement of the Buddhist community is intense, and several venerable teas are part of the everyday Korean tea environment. “Tea culture and tea traditions are part of our national identity and have been an important support for recovering from the wars and political hardships Korea has suffered throughout the past century,” said Fred Yoo, professor at Seoul’s Kookmin University and author of The Book of Korean Tea.

Korea’s Traditional Tea-Growing Areas

Whilst the longstanding tea-growing areas in the Peninsula’s southern regions of Boseong, Hadong and Jirisan currently remain traditional, new and fully industrial tea production was launched on the island of Jeju in the late 1990s. Seo Sung Hwan, CEO and founder of a local leading agro-business company, decided to buy land for planting tea. He set up a substantial tea production area, a tea museum, and also developed premium quality tea cosmetics. Sold in beautiful packaging under the well- known O’Sulloc brand, the loose leaf tea sold for export is branded “Seo Kwang Tea Garden.” Located half way between Korea and Japan, the volcanic plateau emerging at the west end of the Korea Strait has a hot and humid climate, where tea thrives at about 500m above sea level on flat land, thus allowing to mechanically harvest the rich- ly flushing leaf. The estimated share out of the current Korean tea production today is half on the island of Jeju fields, half on the continental fields. In order to promote the traditional premium quality conti- nental teas, the local Boseong county government organized its first professional Tea Expo that took place in Seoul’s trade cen- tre, COEX, in September 2014. With more than 120 booths it drew thousands of visitors and generated high profile visibility for green, black and compressed teas. Returning from Korea, Salvatore Nicchi, founder and CEO of Importea Srl., Torino, Italy said his impression was that cur- rently there are two tea worlds in Korea, “one made up by medi- um and big size companies well versed in international trade and export, the other made up by smaller operators very closely linked to the local consumers with rather limited production volumes and not yet really familiar with the export market.” He pointed out that in Jeju Island, it is easier for importers to do business, as there is an English-speaking team that is familiar with interna- tional trade and market dynamics. On the mainland it is more difficult, as the smaller local structures are trying hard but so far neither have the know how nor the right price level. “In any case

have the know how nor the right price level. “In any case Green tea powders and

Green tea powders and RTD (Ready-to-Drink) green tea at the Tea Expo.

powders and RTD (Ready-to-Drink) green tea at the Tea Expo. Korean Peninsula and Jeju Island—key tea-growing

Korean Peninsula and Jeju Island—key tea-growing areas.

these mainland producers are so committed to reaching out to the Western consumers and so devoted to quality, that they are bound to achieve their goal in due time,” said Nicchi. Hence, with teas from Korea becoming a real fashion in the West over the past two or three years, a closer look will show, that the vast majority comes from the new gardens in Jeju Island. Clearly the mainland tea growers will want to structure their set up to give their tea terroirs and regional fine teas more visibility and profile, to attract the international tea trade community. The many mainland tea booths at the Tea Expo offered plen- ty of tastings and clarified some important aspects: it appeared in particular that often the small producers will process only their first spring teas, incredibly tasty soft spring buds that yield exqui- site cups, which are very highly priced. The following harvests will then be sold to the county’s bought leaf factory, to be processed into green or black tea. Other small operators will make their own black tea with the later crops or will produce some of the traditional compressed teacakes, called “ddok cha,” with summer and autumn grown coarser pickings. There is a lot of passionate attachment to the manufacturing traditions, most- ly by hand and requiring many processing steps, yielding small and exquisite batches of some tens of kilograms—it is impossi- ble to be competitive with such premium hand-made tea prod- ucts in the West today. Although the Boseong county teas obtained PGI–Protected Geographical Indication–status in 2005, and are considered a heritage product, more visibility, transparency and traceability may be necessary in order to meet Western importers’ require- ments. Another issue is the labeling, which most of the artfully designed packs provide in Korean only. Some of the bigger oper-

ators are now planning to exhibit in foreign trade fairs. For example, Daehan, the leading Boseong Tea Company was plan- ning to attend the Dubai tea event, and Bohyang Company, a big family tea plantation, now training the 5 th generation, was planning to attend the Moscow Tea and Coffee Trade fair; both were keen to learn more about foreign markets and the means to meet the desires of these new customers. One striking feature at the Tea Expo was the important pres- ence of Japanese style green tea powders. Some of them are called matcha but most of them are marketed as green tea powder, all are made with ground green tea leaf, either genuine or blended with sugar and milk powder, ready to be served with hot or cold water as an instantly ready but freshly prepared tea beverage. There was also an abundant choice of RTD bottled teas, green tea ice cream and all sorts of green tea candy and other sweets. Although the Korean black teas displayed and brewed at several expo booths were fragrant, mellow and richly textured cups, very close to premium Chinese Gong Fu teas, these teas seemed to get less limelight than the green cups, which seem to be much higher in demand. Another interesting aspect of the Korean home market is the fast developing preference for Western style teas, i.e. black teas, tea blends and scented teas. The trend to buy the most expensive and the most foreign looking teas have been attracting European brands. For two years in a row it was the French company Mariage Frères, which was ranked first in a consumer preference competition concerning imported tea brands.

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There is a growing share of tea land that is meeting the requirements for organic certification, which is in line with the country’s high awareness of the need to preserve nature and to protect the forests, rivers and farm- land. The input made by the monasteries in pre- serving tea culture and in promoting healthy, most-

ly vegetarian food is considerable and helps many to balance the pressure of the urban frenzy. Tea retreats and tea teachings in the monasteries have become a standard feature for young Koreans and for the many foreigners involved in the Korean convention and incentive travel business. The increasing production will more than likely be able to meet the growing domestic demand, whilst more promotion and improved company trade logistics will also allow for more fine teas from Korea to be made available in the West.

more fine teas from Korea to be made available in the West. The O’Sulloc brand is

The O’Sulloc brand is exported under the name “Seo Kwang Tea Garden.”

is exported under the name “Seo Kwang Tea Garden.” Barbara Dufrêne is the former Secretary General

Barbara Dufrêne is the former Secretary General of the European Tea Committee and editor of La Nouvelle Presse du Thé. She may be reached at: b-dufrêne@orange.fr.

Tea Committee and editor of La Nouvelle Presse du Thé. She may be reached at: b-dufrêne@orange.fr.

guest column: organic coffee certification

 
The Basics of Organic Coffee Certification

The Basics of Organic Coffee Certification

Movements, Bonn, Germany) survey found that the area on which organic cof- fee is grown increased from 180,000 ha in 2004 to 610,000 ha (hectares) in 2011 and is expected to increase moderately. This (organic) area represents 6 percent of the total area where coffee is produced (10.2 million ha). The actual organic share of coffee production in volume is much lower. Reasons mentioned in the survey: organic yield/ha is less than aver- age and organic coffee production often shares land with other crops. Data on the actual share of organic coffee in production and exports vary and are not easy to verify. A good estimate is

found in Chapter 8: Coffee Market of the State of Sustainable Initiative 2014 that

was published by the International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD), Winnipeg, Canada. It noted that in 2012 about 249,000 mt was organical- ly produced. Of that amount, 133,000 mt or 53 percent was actually sold under organic label (hopefully the farmer received his premium)—this just is 2 per- cent of all coffee exports of the 6.80 mil- lion mt in 2012 per the International Coffee Organization, London. Although its market share is smaller than other popular certifications, true organic certification is concrete and tangi- ble and refers actually to the product itself: the coffee bean. It addresses a gen- uine preference of the end user who is pre- pared to pay a premium. The ISSD pub- lication presented a table and comparison of production and sales of all coffees pro- duced under sustainable implementation including organic of the 4C Association, C.A.F.E. Practices (Starbucks), AAA (Nestlé), UTZ, Rainforest Alliance, Fair Trade Organic. It showed that together this amounted to 3.3 million mt or 40 percent of global production. Of which only 840,000 mt was actually sold under a label or 10 percent of global production. This stresses the fact that far less is sold under labels than produced, which raises the question, do the costs that are made to produce sustainable coffee outweigh the benefits, which were only received from a fraction of the amount produced?

Certification and labeling have become big business in many industries. This article concentrates on organic and sustainable certification of coffee as part of the food and beverages chain. Hundreds of organizations, certification bodies and agencies form a vast bureaucracy creating and inventing numerous standards and procedures. By Pieter Koerts

O rganic coffee must be safely and responsibly grown on erosion free and healthy soil, without

applies to production as well as the rest of the supply chain. It is important to har- monize standards and compliance throughout the supply chain. The actual labeling of organic coffee for export today is dominated by the norms and standards of USDA Organic, the EU–Eco regula- tions, (since 1992 mandatory in EU countries and nationally executed), Japan (JAS) and Canada Organic. Organic cof- fee certification originated mainly in the importing countries and carried over to producing countries through (semi) gov- ernment regulation and NGO’s (Non- government organizations). A recent IFOAM (International Federation of Organic Agricultural

the input of hazardous chemical sub- stances (fertilizers, additives, pesticides). The farmer should apply certain cultiva- tion practices such as proper soil- and water management, disease prevention and promote a biological friendly habitat. The coffee must be properly harvested

and processed. Contamination, with non- organic residues, should be prevented. Without getting into the details of norms, standards and organization, it is good to know “Who” is setting and implementing the norms and standards for organic coffee. Coffee certification

guest column: organic coffee certification

Coffee is mostly grown by millions of small farmers. There is much debate about the net benefits of producing organic coffee for the small marginal cof- fee grower. As already mentioned, yields are lower and there are definitely higher cost/investments involved due to organic inputs and- management. Estimated organic premiums paid to producers on top of conventional coffee prices range from USD $0.20-$0.30 per pound. The excess supply of organic coffee could erode the amount of premiums received.

Sustainability Certification

Although organic certification partly cov- ers environmental- and some social issues, there are other certifications that primari- ly address the environment, social- and labor issues, small holders and workers conditions. All exist under the broad and flexible term: sustainability. Choosing one of several definitions, “Sustainability refers to voluntary, usually third party assessed, norms and standards relating to environmental, social, ethical and food safety issues adopted by produc- ers, processors and retailers.” This defini- tion is so wide and extensive, that it resulted in a great variety of initiatives, standards and norms. Two NGO’s active on the coffee scene, offering this type of certification and label- ing, are Rainforest Alliance and UTZ Certified. UTZ reports that premiums for their certificates received by growers go up to maximum USD $0.05/lb—much lower than organic premiums and social premi- ums offered by Fair Trade. The Smithsonian Migratory Bird Center is offering a specific certification. Their main criteria: the farm must be bird-friendly and the coffee shade-grown. The certified volume is small. Two large coffee companies have “internalized” their certification and exe- cute it in-house. Starbucks Coffee Co. has its C.A.F.E. Practices (and buys RA Certified and Fair Trade coffee as well) and Nestlé its own AAA certification. There is also 4C (Common Code for

own AAA certification. There is also 4C (Common Code for Coffee Certification). It is not a

Coffee Certification). It is not a labeling organization, but a verification and com- pliance system for sustainability of coffee production and processing. 4C is an inter- national platform that involves farmers, traders, processors, retailers and civil soci- eties working together to make coffee more sustainable. There is no label, but coffee that is produced, handled and verified by 4C standards can be declared as such.

Fair Trade Coffee: A Special Case

One other important certification entity

is Fair Trade. It started in the 80s and their

inspiration came from a novel written as far back as 1860: Max Havelaar: Or the Coffee Auctions of the Dutch Trading Company. This best-selling Dutch novel, which had quite a social impact, describes the

(bad) colonial policies resulting in abusive treatment of the native sugar and coffee growers in the Dutch East Indies. Former colonies are now politically independent but are still growing and exporting the same tropical crops. Driven by the idea of fair treatment and fair trade this NGO did a terrific job creating public awareness for the cause. It made the fair trade logo known worldwide. Later Fair Trade organized a new body: FLO Fairtrade Labeling Organization, (FLO-Cert GmbH), Bonn, Germany. This certification addresses social, environmental and economic topics. The economic element is that the small farm- ers should organize themselves in cooper- atives and can sell their coffee at least around cost price. To receive the FLO label as produc- er and buyer the farmer must be guaran- teed a minimum price. When the mar- ket price drops under the minimum price the consumer of the labeled coffee pays the difference. On top of the min- imum price, the grower/coop is also paid a (social) premium for convention- al coffee (USD $0.20/lb) and if organic,

a premium of USD $0.30/lb. Help with

trade financing is also offered. The Fair Trade concept is a good example of international solidarity.

Trade concept is a good example of international solidarity. Like RA, UTZ, 4C and FLO also

Like RA, UTZ, 4C and FLO also cov- ers several other tropical products.

The Impact of Coffee Certification

Coffee quality: The certifications men- tioned (except to a certain degree for organic) have hardly anything to do with the actual quality of the coffee bean. Coffee flavor and quality is not deter- mined by sustainability but by other fac- tors such as (micro) climate, weather, soil type, the variety of the coffee tree, eleva- tion, full sun or shade, picking of the cof- fee cherry, type of processing of the cher- ry, screening, selection of the beans and cupping. High quality, specialty coffee is a separate niche next to the mainstream cof- fee, with its own characteristics and pric- ing mechanism. Net benefits for the producer: Until now, there were no clear answers to the question as to whether or not certification gives improved market access and in par- ticular sufficient price premiums. Certification and compliance incur costs, additional investments and sometimes, reduced yields. There is a high degree of uncertainty if benefits compensate for all the cost. There is a larger supply of certified coffee than actual consumption. Over supply will cause dilution and erosion of premiums compared with conventional (non certi- fied) coffee prices. Market share of certified organic/sustainable coffee: Organic cof- fee sold in importing countries has a modest market share of about 2 percent, which represents about 53 percent of cof- fee organically pro- duced. For sustain- able coffee public awareness, industry discussion and NGO activities related to certification is more intense and wide- spread than its actual market share in sales. We have to distinguish the produc- tion of certified coffees versus the actual consumption. 4C’s Annual Report 2012 provides the following data that refer to metric tons of green coffee:

• Production of certified coffees under RA, UTZ, FLO labels and 4C in

of certified coffees under RA, UTZ, FLO labels and 4C in 42 T EA & C

2012: 3.30 million mt. • Consumption of certified coffees under RA/SAN, UTZ, FLO labels and 4C in 2012: 607,952 mt.

Of available certified coffee produced, only 18.4 percent reaches the consumer under a label. Not included are the vol- umes “certified” internally by Nescafe and Starbucks, which could be substantial. Per the ICO, world coffee exports in 2012 amounted to 6.80 million mt. The market share of certified sustainable coffee sold in importing coun- tries was 9 percent. Sustainable production is far ahead of actual consumption of coffee under these labels. There is a certain dou- ble-counting between organic and sus- tainable in the data. In particular FLO has partly doubled labeling: Fair Trade and Organic. Its annual report states that 44 percent of the FLO certified sustainable coffee also has an organic label.

FLO certified sustainable coffee also has an organic label. Home markets in coffee producing countries: Of
FLO certified sustainable coffee also has an organic label. Home markets in coffee producing countries: Of

Home markets in coffee producing countries: Of the total coffee production 31 percent is consumed in the home mar- kets of the producing countries. The mar- ket share of organic/sustainability labels in those markets is growing but could not be established in the context of this article. Probably a part of the oversupply of certi- fied coffee is sold locally in these markets and is not (yet) registered. Confusion and dilution: Competition is good. However, the offering of that many different standards and certifications to reach similar commendable objectives is confusing and not very transparent. Who has the overview and can meas- ure or judge the overall effectiveness and benefits of those activities? There is no market mechanism or “invisible hand” available to match supply and demand. Who bears the cost of the large certifica- tion bureaucracy including standards,

verification, inspection and overhead? It must be in part the society through gov- ernments, donors, NGO’s, and partly the coffee industry (producer, supplier and consumer). The over-supply of certified coffee is a sign that certifiers have been very active and successful on the production side. However, they booked a relative modest result in promoting demand and sales under label by the coffee com- panies to the public. The oversupply dilutes the effectiveness of labeling in the end market. Overall and for the time being, the producer only gets a small part of its certification costs back through sales at better prices.

its certification costs back through sales at better prices. Pieter J. Koerts has a Master of

Pieter J. Koerts has a Master of Economic Sciences and worked in an array of manage- rial positions in the marketing, distribution and trading of energy products in Europe before retiring in 2013. He became interest- ed in the economics of the coffee market and has been studying it for some time. He is based in Amsterdam, Netherlands.

it for some time. He is based in Amsterdam, Netherlands. The name says it all! •
The name says it all! • QUALITY • DEPENDABILITY • RELIABILITY The industry standard and
The name says it all!
• QUALITY
• DEPENDABILITY
• RELIABILITY
The industry standard
and the preferred faucet for
coffee and beverage dispensing.
Tomlinson Industries
Tel: 216/587-3400 or 800/945-4589
(U.S. & Canada)
Fax: 216/587-6192 or 800/945-9869
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company news

Au Bon Pain Introduces Lighter Roast Coffees

BOSTON, MASS. – In response to customer feedback, Au Bon Pain has launched a new lighter French Roast and Morning Blend in an effort to improve its coffee. The same beans are being used, but are being roasted differently. Au Bon Pain believes the new lighter roasting will allow the full flavor to come through. Au Bon Pain has been selling special- ty coffee for more than 20 years, offering quality conscious, envi- ronmentally friendly coffee directly from Hacienda La Minita farms in Costa Rica. The French Roast is a dark, bold and rich roast that has a creamy body and hint of bittersweet chocolate. The Morning Blend is a medium body coffee that has a sweet, smooth finish. The new coffees rolled out in the late fourth quarter of 2014.

new coffees rolled out in the late fourth quarter of 2014. Gillies Coffee Celebrates 175 t

Gillies Coffee Celebrates 175 th Anniversary

BROOKLYN, N.Y. – Gillies Coffee Company, the nation’s oldest coffee products company, is celebrating its 175 th Anniversary in 2015. Founded in New York in 1840, Gillies has made its home in Brooklyn for more than a generation, serving coffee bars, restaurants, hotels and specialty retailers with fresh hand-crafted aromatic coffee specialties. Gillies promises to make its mark on the future, while honor- ing its long heritage, with its uncommonly high quality and diverse custom-grade and custom-made coffee products. Recently honored–for the fourth consecutive year–as Best of Brooklyn, Gillies remains a leader in the specialty coffee category that it helped to birth and define, offer- ing a portfolio coffees of extraordinary merit and depth of variety. SCAA Charter Member Gillies was also among the first roasters to be envi- ronmentally sensitive (smoke controls, 1952) and led the way with certified organic (first in NY), Fair Trade (first in NY), Rainforest Alliance Certified and Kosher products; both green or roasted, packaged and bulk. Gillies’ portfolio also includes free trade and direct trade coffee, as well as tea. Still a family-run business, Gillies has a customer concentra- tion in metropolitan New York with clients throughout the U.S.

in metropolitan New York with clients throughout the U.S. McCafés in Brazil Serving 100% RA Certified

McCafés in Brazil Serving 100% RA Certified Coffee

BUENOS AIRES, ARGENTINA – McCafés in Brazil are focusing on sustainability with every cup they pour. Arcos Dorados, which franchises McDonald’s restaurants in 20 Latin American and Caribbean countries, announced that its McCafés in Brazil will serve only 100 percent Rainforest Alliance certified coffee. Brazil is home to a large percentage of the world’s remaining rainforests and is by far the world’s largest coffee producer. Brazilians rank tenth among the world’s most prolific coffee drinkers, consuming the equivalent of 4.87 kg per person annu-

consuming the equivalent of 4.87 kg per person annu- ally, per ABIC, the Brazilian Coffee Industry

ally, per ABIC, the Brazilian Coffee Industry Association. “McCafé customers in Brazil want a great tasting cup of coffee, but they also care about the world around them. By choosing a supplier that not only delivers a delicious product but also harvest coffee in a way that protects Brazil’s magnificent rainforests, McCafé customers can enjoy their daily cup and know they’ve taken a step to help protect the environment,” said Celso Cruz, supply chain director for Arcos Dorados Brazil. Arcos Dorados selected Rainforest Alliance certified Café do Centro, Brazil’s premier gourmet coffee company, as its supplier, based on quality and its record of sustainability, fulfilling the most stringent worldwide certification for responsible forest management. Farms and forest qualifying for the Rainforest Alliance seal are managed according to rigorous environmental, social and economic criteria. McCafés are a coffee space within McDonald’s restaurants serving 100 percent Arabica beans in gourmet hot and cold bev- erages, as well as sweet and savory pastries, including Brazilian cheese breads, pão de queijo. The first McCafé in Brazil opened in 2000 in São Paulo. Currently, there are 90 McCafés in Brazil.

Coffee Kids Ceases Programming After 26 Years

CHICAGO, ILL. – The Coffee Kids Board of Directors decided to suspend programming at the end of 2014. “We have made this decision in light of long-standing financial challenges that have led us to examine how we as an organization have been imple- menting our mission,” said Mike Ebert, president of Coffee Kids. The Board determined that while Coffee Kids’ partner organ- izations at origin are implementing projects that have a transfor- mative impact on coffee-producing communities, it is clear that its current business model is no longer sustainable and will not allow it to adequately support these projects moving forward. Coffee Kids Board, staff and project partners are grateful for the support they have received over the past 26 years. To contin- ue to be good stewards of donor money while supporting impactful projects at origin, the Board will explore options for merging with another organization working with, or interested in working with, coffee-growing communities. Per a statement released by Coffee Kids, “The need in coffee- farming communities is great. The Board hopes that our donors continue to support innovative projects designed and imple- mented by the coffee-producing communities themselves. By merging with another organization dedicated to meeting the needs of communities as they define them, we hope to honor the 26-year legacy of Coffee Kids.”

FFS Receives Top Scores on Level 2 SQF Audit

MAHWAH, N.J. – Flavor & Fragrance Specialties, Inc. (FFS) has scored 98 percent out of 100 percent on their recent Level 2 Safe Quality Foods (SQF) Audit. This is the second year in a row the company has received this high score. Level 2 SQF Certification

is globally recognized by the Global Food Safety Initiative (GFSI) as exceeding their strin- gent

is globally recognized by the Global Food Safety Initiative (GFSI) as exceeding their strin- gent requirements for the highest of safety models. FFS has always maintained a platform for consistent quality/safety improvements and a streamlined risk and process management.

Las Lajas Takes Top Honors at PCCA Cupping Comp.

MARTINEZ, CALIF. – The tradition of fantastic coffee and rich edu- cation continued this year at the PCCA’s 14 th Annual Pete McLaughlin Cupping Competition. The chosen origin was Colombia. Many exceptional coffees were submitted by importers and exporters worldwide for judgment, but the PCCA Coffee of the Year 2014 was Miriam Adriana Briñez Coffee, Las Lajas Farm. The coffee (Competition Coffee Sample #8) was submitted by Walker Coffee Trading. Miriam Adriana Briñez bought Las Lajas farm 9 years ago. She manages the farm with her father, Jose Briñez, who acts as the farm administrator. When Miriam acquired the farm, condi- tions were poor: the coffee trees were very old and had been planted without any apparent thought to planning. The Briñez family has been hard at work to improve conditions of the farm ever since. New farming techniques and technologies have been utilized to improve the quality and quantity of harvest, and the impact of the farm on the native environment has driven the implementation of sustainable practices. The farm Las Lajas is located in the Tena municipality of Colombia in the department of Cundinamarca. This coffee is a mixture of the Castillo, Colombia and Typica varietals. Produced on 1.8 hectares of land at roughly 6,000 ft, Las Lajas coffee’s main harvest goes from spring through early summer.

Choice Organic Teas Updates Packaging

SEATTLE, WASH. – Choice Organic Teas, the first exclusively organic tea crafter in the U.S. and first in the country to introduce Fair Trade Certified teas, has updated its original line packaging to showcase logos for its certification and verification in the areas of Fair Trade, non- GMO, gluten-free and Kosher. The compa- ny’s commitment to not only manufactur- ing and selling the highest quality teas but also enhancing transparency through third- party verification, is evidenced in the array of logos visible on the front and side panels. “We want our customers and retail partners to know that, as a leader in the natural foods and tea industry, we share their desire for greater transparency and third-party verification,” said Anne-Marie Phillips, head of sales and marketing. “The Fair Trade logo actually shows the total percentage of ingredients that are Fair Trade. This is not required by Fair Trade USA, however, we view it as a further demonstration of our commitment to Fair

view it as a further demonstration of our commitment to Fair Trade and transparency with our

Trade and transparency with our ingredients and products.” The company has also added its own 100 percent Certified Organic logo to 25 of the Original Teas, representing the largest selection of 100 percent organic teas available in the U.S. Choice Organic also recently received its gluten-free certification, and has been non-GMO verified since 2010. Transparency in the food chain is one of the most highly pub- licized and most talked about issues currently, with consumers wanting to know what is in the foods and beverages they con- sume. In 2000, Choice Organic Teas became the first tea crafter in the U.S. to offer Fair Trade Certified tea.

Aiya Expands Its Matcha Zen Café Blend Collection

TORRANCE, CALIF. – Aiya America has expanded its Zen Café Blend tea with the addition of Rooibos and Black Tea varieties. These new flavors join Aiya’s original, signature Zen Café Blend Matcha flavor. The tea powders are blended with pure cane sugar, and when added directly to hot or cold milk, create a smooth, creamy, delicious and healthful latte or smoothie. “Americans’ love affair with specialty drinks on-the-go con- tinues to rise, and our blended tea powders offer an easy way to whip up artfully crafted hot or cold beverages at home in just minutes,” says Fumi Sugita, Aiya America’s general manager. Rooibos tea powder, also known as the “Red Tea,” is made from the South African Rooibos plant’s leaves and is prized for its low caffeine and high antioxidant count. It is an ideal ingredient for healthy and relaxing beverages. The Black Tea Zen Café Blend is a sweet marriage of the exotic premium Indian Darjeeling and Assam black teas and lends a flavorful sweet taste to hot or cold beverages. Aiya’s Zen Café Blend bags contain 180 grams of powder and retail for USD $9.80 per bag. Aiya America is the U.S. branch of Aiya Co. Ltd., the world’s leading producer of Matcha, Japan’s most premium tea variety and a major ingredient for the food and beverage industry. Founded in 1888, Aiya is headquartered in Nishio city, Japan’s largest Matcha producing region.

Since 1998 Green Coffee Importers 800-745-8738 www.thetaridgecoffee.com
Since 1998
Green Coffee Importers
800-745-8738
www.thetaridgecoffee.com

people news

Conti Named 2014 NAMA Coffee Legend

John Conti, founder of the john conti Coffee Company in Louisville, Ky., was elected NAMA’s Coffee Legend 2014. “A NAMA Coffee Legend is a pioneer, an innovator, a leader and a vision- ary in the industry. They are passionate about coffee and are willing to share that passion to educate and help others suc- ceed,” said Dean Gilland, vp of sales and coffee service, NAMA, Chicago. The recently retired Conti started his business in 1962 with a single cigarette vending machine, and his early years were marked by working out of his garage and making deliveries in his 1949 Chevrolet. Fifty-two years later, the john conti Coffee Co. has grown immensely to become one of the region’s largest roaster of specialty high-grown Arabica coffee, serving cus- tomers in 11 states. Conti sold his compa- ny to Canteen in late 2014. Today, the company roasts more than 1.5 million pounds of coffee annually and serves more than one million cups of cof- fee every day. Conti’s business has expand- ed its service over the years to include pre- mium tea and water products as well. He developed the Conti College of Coffee

products as well. He developed the Conti College of Coffee Knowledge, which all new hires must

Knowledge, which all new hires must attend, and says it has truly paid off, mak- ing his staff “the reason for my success.” “John is an excellent choice for this year’s Coffee Legend award,” said Gilland. “He embodies all the pillars of this award and has made tremendous contributions to this industry during his exceptional career.” Conti and his company have received numerous accolades over the years, including being named “Operator of the Year” in 1985 by the National Coffee Service Association (NCSA) and “The Best Coffee in Louisville” award presented

by Louisville Magazine. Conti was also

inducted into the “Coffee Hall of Fame” in 2003. An active member of the coffee industry, he served as chairman of the NCSA from 1976 to 1978, prior to its merge into NAMA. “I am humbled and honored to be included into such a distinguished group of entrepreneurs,” Conti said of the Coffee Legend Award. “I am grateful for the opportunity that I have had in work- ing with some of the best in the business. My life has been enriched by the people I have met working in the vending and cof- fee fields, and will be eternally thankful for the knowledge and opportunities that this industry has blessed me with.” Founded in 1936, NAMA represents the $42 billion U.S. vending and refresh- ment service industry.

S&D Taps Piza to Support Operations in the Americas

S&D Coffee & Tea, Concord, N.C., has appointed Colombian consultant David Piza to support the company’s presence throughout the Americas. Piza, who will be based in Medellin, Colombia, brings expertise in value chain analysis and sus- tainable supply chains and will cultivate relationships with trading partners, coffee producers and communities from which S&D coffees are sourced. Piza will monitor and evalu- ate S&D’s sustain- able sourcing pro- grams and capacity-building investments, ensuring maximum benefit to farmers, and will implement several key elements of S&D’s sustainable sourcing strategy, with a primary focus of improving eco- nomic sustainability at the farm level. “We’ve intentionally approached sus-

tainability in a flexible way, knowing there

is no one-size-fits-all solution and there is

a tremendous amount of knowledge and

resources at origin that can be leveraged,”

said Tracy Ging, S&D’s vp, of sustainabil- ity & strategic initiatives. “We’re not interested in checking boxes; we want meaningful, sustainable solutions that work for the farmer and for all of the actors along the value chain. That simply

and for all of the actors along the value chain. That simply 46 T EA &
and for all of the actors along the value chain. That simply 46 T EA &

can’t be done from a desk in the U.S. We have to be much closer to the source, and David will fulfill a critical role ensuring a strong local understanding.” A trained cupper who worked previ- ously at Sustainable Harvest Coffee Importers as a relationship coffee manag- er, as an economic advisor for the public sector, as a project coordinator for the Coffee Quality Institute (CQI) and as a volunteer at the Specialty Coffee Association of America (SCAA), Piza will help origin partners understand S&D’s quality standards and needs. “David’s role reflects an evolution of S&D’s sourcing strategy toward a relation- ship-based model of trade and emphasis on sustainability,” says Carlos Palacios, S&D’s director of purchasing for sustain- able and specialty coffees. “The closer we are to local conditions and the more we understand what is happening on the ground, the better we will uncover oppor- tunities for innovation and prepare S&D’s business for the future.” S&D Coffee & Tea is the nation’s largest custom coffee roaster and supplier of iced tea to the foodservice industry. S&D is also a leading producer of liquid

extracts. In continuous operation since 1927, the company serves over 90,000 customers through national distribution and direct store delivery.

ACE Board Appoints Hill New Executive Director of ACE & COE

The Alliance for Coffee Excellence Board of Directors appointed Debbie Hill, J.D., as the non-profit’s new executive director. Debbie Hill, a former lawyer and con- sultant, joins ACE with an extensive background in non- profit and commu- nity leadership. Her work as a consultant for the last four years has been focused on building community partnerships and public poli- cy advocacy, including work on econom- ic development efforts in the Democratic Republic of Congo, building a school in Mali, and serving as a development offi- cer for Arizona State University College of Technology and Innovation. As a part- ner in a large Phoenix, Ariz., law firm for more than 20 years, Debbie focused her

Ariz., law firm for more than 20 years, Debbie focused her litigation practice on complex commer-

litigation practice on complex commer- cial litigation, civil rights and criminal defense. In a statement, ACE welcomed Debbie’s expertise, leadership and passion into the specialty coffee world. Hill succeeds founder Susie Spindler, who retired at the end of 2014. She will serve as an advisor to ACE’s board of directors for the next few years and will work on various special projects. Jason Long, ACE Board of Directors Chair stated, “Replacing the founder of any organization is a large task, and in the case of Cup of Excellence and Susie Spindler, the task was even larger, but we are thrilled to find someone like Debbie to continue the organization and expand ACE’s role and outreach into the future.” ACE is a Portland, Ore.-based non- profit global membership organization that advances excellence in coffee through its flagship Cup of Excellence (COE) competition and auction, cutting edge training, and quality research. COE, held in 10 countries, is the most stringent selection process for exemplary coffee and its effect on the specialty coffee industry is unmatched.

Retail - Wholesale Tel: 212-348-5400 Fax: 212 348-6292 wholesale@orensdailyroast.com sales@orensdailyroast.com
Retail - Wholesale
Tel: 212-348-5400
Fax: 212 348-6292
wholesale@orensdailyroast.com
sales@orensdailyroast.com
Roasted to perfection, not beyond recognition.

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upcoming TEA ASSOCIATION OF THE USA EVENTS & CLASSES • STI Classes, Levels 1 & 2
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advertiser index

Advertiser

Page

Advertiser

Page

Buencafe

11

Buhler Sortex

23

Cablevey Conveyors

7

Cimbria Heid

14

Coffee Fest

19

Coffee Holding

5

Cup for Education

4

Curt Georgi

29

Descafeinadores Mexicanos (Descamex)

43

Euromonitor International

49

Flexicon

C2

Fresco System USA

3

Gehaka

48

Haelssen & Lyon

C4

Henry P. Thomson

29

International Womens Coffee Alliance (IWCA)

15

Kloth and Kohnken

46

LPD Agency, LLP

39

Modern Process Equiment

33

National Coffee Association of America (NCA)

13

Oren’s Daily Roast

47

Rekredres and Son’s

32

Rubén GandÌa Hilados

18

Shanghai UBM Sinoexpo

41

Specialty Coffee Association of America (SCAA)

17

SSP PVT Ltd

35

Tea & Coffee World Cup

26,

27

Teamac

9

Theta Ridge

45

Tomlinson Industries

43

Tsubakimoto Kogyo Co.

C3

World Tea Academy

39

World Tea Expo

37

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Straight from

THE CUP

Coffee Shops Step Up Their Tea Efforts

I f your coffee shop is already serving tea, congratulations, you are on trend, or leading the way! The U.S. beverage market- place is making great strides all around as tearooms, coffee

shops, cafés, restaurants, and hotels begin to focus on the finer qualities of all or most of the beverages they serve. From my experience in talking to people in the coffee business, they are quite ready to step up their tea service or at least step into it for the first time. What has sparked a greater interest in tea in the United States? Can it be attributed to all of the recent attention to Starbucks and Teavana? Or

are coffee shops seeing the growth in tea as the next logical profit center to add to their business? Think of it. For every specialty coffee offered and all of the wonderful accoutrements for brewing and enjoying, the same holds true for tea. It is a wondrous world full of exploration to discover the many regions of tea and taste attributes thanks to terroir, the sense of place, climate, and conditions of growth and manufac- turing. Not so different from wine or coffee. At the 2014 Coffee Fest in New York City, I was asked to present three introductory sessions about tea. One presentation covered the basics of tea. Two others were panel discussions I led with a group of tea and coffee business owners. We discussed both successes and challenges posed by offering tea in the same environment as coffee, storage concerns, serving suggestions and more. After three days presenting and exhibiting, and despite having been to this show many times before, this time was quite different. For the first time, people came straight up to me to ask questions about tea and to tell me they had been reluctant but are now ready to go—full steam ahead to serve and sell tea! And they were hungry for more information to be sure they do it right from the beginning. Because of the increased interest in tea, I have been asked to run a half-day Tea Course Fast Track for anyone ready to incorporate tea into their business at the next Coffee Fest, which takes place in Atlanta, Ga., in February.

selling it in loose-leaf form, bagged, or sold in elegant tins. And the variety of steeping methods, tea balls, strainers, tea cups and teapots or offering any of these as part of a gift bas-

ket of any kind, are all winners. The first step to success in tea is learning about the different types of tea and times and temperatures for brewing and training your staff to prepare it cor- rectly every time. An over-steeped or under-steeped tea or a tea steeped at the wrong temperature will not make cus- tomers happy. A good supplier will be able to explain this to you when you

make choices of what teas to carry. They will also be able to recommend the best teas to start with. You should limit it at first and introduce new teas as you begin to understand the needs of your customers. The best part of tea is finding a unique way to make it yours. That may be the way you decide to serve it. What type of drinking vessels you choose to have and use to match your atmosphere and décor will also be unique to you. If your estab- lishment offers table service, you might even decide to bring the tea to the table on a special tray or cart and prepare the tea in front of the guest, wait for the brewing process to complete, then strain and serve for them. Serving styles will differ greatly and will depend on the environment and speed of service expected. Make it your own signature style to keep customers coming back for more. Tea is my passion, but I fully admit to enjoying a fine cup of coffee. I’ve recently placed myself into a coffee shop owner’s shoes for a behind the scenes learning experience, and I assure you that tea and coffee can reside happily side-by-side. Please contact me for assistance and let’s chat some more at any upcoming coffee or tea trade show.

chat some more at any upcoming coffee or tea trade show. Gail Gastelu is publisher of
chat some more at any upcoming coffee or tea trade show. Gail Gastelu is publisher of

Gail Gastelu is publisher of The Tea House Times and also produces tea indus- try education at TeaCourse.com and TeaCourseFastTrack.com. For more information on the upcoming Tea Course Fast Track or other tea industry education courses, contact Gail at: info@thetea- housetimes.com.

courses, contact Gail at: info@thetea- housetimes.com. A Profitable Addition Tea may be added to just about

A Profitable Addition

Tea may be added to just about any type of business as an additional profit center. It is an elegant, affordable luxury and may be masculine or feminine and a little romantic too. Tea is very adaptable to most environments for serving or

Views expressed in Straight from the Cup (SFTC) are not necessarily those of Tea & Coffee Trade Journal or Lockwood Publications. If interested in authoring an SFTC column, please contact Vanessa L. Facenda for full details or questions concerning submissions: v.facenda@teaandcoffee.net. Articles must discuss or analyze a relevant issue, trend or event within the coffee or tea industry, not solely promote a company or its products.

business: dynamics.

Something special we can

add to your tea

business: dynamics. Something special we can add to your tea www.haelssen-lyon.com Over 135 years ago, we

www.haelssen-lyon.com

Over 135 years ago, we set ourselves on an ever accelerating course that has kept us at the forefront of the global marketplace. We have continually delivered a vast diversity of teas, fruits, herbs and their extracts, produced and refined in-house. Offering our customers the convenience of a one-stop-shop broadens our scope of innovative product development and turnkey manufacturing, from customized recipes to the package on store shelves.

The sound base of all our activities is the safe and reliable sourcing of raw materials. We set the bar no lower than the very highest quality control standards, supervised by the most experienced tea experts. Thanks to all this, we have become what we’ve always endeavored to be: the leading quality partner for quality brands.

to be: the leading quality partner for quality brands. The world of tea under one roof

The world of tea under one roof

Tea . Specialty Tea . Herbs . Fruits . Tea Extracts . Flavouring . Blending . Packaging . Private Label . Quality Management