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1-Information technology (IT) is a combination of hardware and

software products and services that companies use to manage,

access, communicate, and share information. More than ever,
business success depends on information technology. According to a
Department of Commerce report, the IT industry has created a new
economy, where advances in hardware, software, and connectivity
provide unprecedented benefits to businesses and individuals around
the world (page4). How to protect yourself from DDOS! Apple is
sharing your information with the NSA! Google Glass explodes on
man's face!
2- When they describe business processes to programmers, they
must speak a language that programmers will understand clearly.
Translation of all needs such as, cost analysis, supporting
3- As a franchise restaurant, Firehouse subs is one of the fastest
growing restaurant chains in the nation and is headquartered in
Jacksonville, Florida. Although the company is newly established, but
it is a different experience in the restaurant system. Firehouse Subs
operates 286 restaurants in 18 states. The company established the
first steam franchise system. The menu features beef, chicken, and
pork items as well as burgers that cooked by a steamer. Also, 100%
of Firehouse Subs restaurants are franchised.
4- Have expanded their Web-based marketing channels to increase
sales and serve customers better. This strategy combines the
convenience of online shopping and the alternative of hands-on
purchasing for those who prefer that option. Wal-Mart offers many
shopping and pickup options, so customers can choose the method
they prefer.

5- The five key components of an information system are hardware,

software, data, processes, and people. Mission-critical system An
information system that is vital to a companys operations.
6- Enterprise Computing Systems are company wide systems that
take into account all data from each location while transaction
processing systems are operations that receive data day-to-day
based on how its generated. TP systems are normally single entities
and do not finish the entire process if a single task has been missed.
Enterprise Computing System - Wal-Marts inventory control system,
Boeings production control system, and Hilton Hotels reservation
system Transaction Computing System - Wal-Mart sells a candy bar, it
marks one off the inventory list. Boeing sells 1000 pieces of product,
they update the workload. Hilton Hotel has a guest stay a night in a
suite, they verify all information and charge them when they leave.
7- Operational Employees, Supervisors & Team Leaders, Middle
Managers and Knowledge Workers, Top Managers. Top Managers
typically need data that supports long-term strategic planning.
Operational Employees are the workers that most likely deal with TP
8- Systems Development Tools:
Modeling - produces a graphical representation of a concept or
process that systems developers can analyze, test, and modify.
Prototyping - tests system concepts and provides an opportunity to
examine input, output, and user interfaces before final decisions are
Computer-Aided systems engineering (CASE) tools - provide an
overall framework for systems development and support a wide
variety of design methodologies, including structured analysis and
object-oriented analysis.

Systems Development Methods:

Structured analysis - uses a series of phases to plan, analyze, design,
implement, and support an information system.
Object Oriented Analysis - combines data and the processes that act
on the data into things called objects.
Agile Methods - Attempt to develop a system incrementally, by
building a series of prototypes and constantly adjusting them to user
9-To plan, analyze, design, implement, and support an information
system. Spiral models initially were suggested in the 1990s by Barry
Boehm, a noted software engineering professor. He stated that each
iteration, or phase, of the model must have a specific goal that is
accepted, rejected, or changed by the user, or client. Thus, each
iteration produces feedback and enhancements, which enable the
team to reach the overall project goal. Typically, each iteration in a
spiral model includes planning, risk analysis, engineering, and
evaluation. The repeated iterations produce a series of prototypes,
which evolve into the finished system. Notice that these phases
resemble SDLC tasks, which also can be iterative.
10- I think there is a connection between the two. It is referring to
how Herman Hollerith changed the business world with his punch
card technology. He did that alone but now his company offers the
brains of many other intelligent workers to all collaborate with one
another so that any employee may flourish.

A. Computer systems analysts study an organizations current

computer systems and procedures and design information systems
solutions to help the organization operate more efficiently and

effectively. They bring business and information technology (IT)

together by understanding the needs and limitations of both.
Computer systems analysts typically do the following:

Consult with managers to determine the role of the IT system in

an organization

Research emerging technologies to decide if installing them can

increase the organizations efficiency and effectiveness

Prepare an analysis of costs and benefits so that management

can decide if information systems and computing infrastructure
upgrades are financially worthwhile

Devise ways to add new functionality to existing computer


Design and develop new systems by choosing and configuring

hardware and software

Oversee the installation and configuration of new systems to

customize them for the organization

Conduct testing to ensure that the systems work as expected

Train the systems end users and write instruction manuals

B. According to the, there are close to 520,600

people working as systems analyst with a mean hourly wage of
$38.31. The hourly wages for this position range from $22.66 up to
$57.29. The states with the highest number of people working in this
job are Virginia, Delaware, New Jersey, Georgia, and District of
Columbia. The states with the top pay for this position are Virginia,
Rhode Island, New Jersey, Massachusetts, and Maryland.


UnitedHealth Group, Plymouth, MN


Bachelor's Degree required2+ years of administration experience

with Red Hat Linux (or certification)

2+ years MS Access or SQL queries experience with the ability to

find and
resolve data integrity issues Preferred

Requirements: Windows server administration experience C#,

power shell, or
other scripting experience Bash shell, sed/awk, perl, python, C
and other
languages are a plus. VMWare experience a plus
UnitedHealth Group is a
company that's on the rise.

Medica Inc, Minneapolis, MN


Bachelor's degree in Computer Science or related field of study

6+ years minimum experience in software development with

emphasis on SOA, distributed and event-driven computing with
a majority of this experience in integration, and architecture

Strong foundation in Core Java and Object Oriented

Programming and Design Concepts

Strong problem solving and analytical skills

Must have experience with documenting business processes

and integration models.

Clear understanding of Web services approach including Web

service protocols such as SOAP and REST.

RDBMS knowledge (SQL Server, Oracle etc)

Xcel Energy, Minneapolis, MN
- High school diploma or equivalent
- Bachelor's degree in Management, Information Systems, or
Computer Science (6 years related experience may substitute for the
- 5 years of enterprise wide system implementation related
maintenance or development experience
- In-depth knowledge of development technology as well as industry's
business and operational software
- In-depth understanding of how all Information technologies can be
used and applied to the business unit
- Ability to understand changes in technology in detail, and determine
how best to source technology to meet the clients needs
- In-depth knowledge of object-oriented technology and
implementation techniques Ability to understand business processes
and coordinate with other developers in system deployment
- Ensures that all technology projects are prioritized and properly
planned within the business unit, and that all relevant factors and
issues have been considered and resolved

D. According to the, I found too much kind of job

positions in the IT positions, and it caused me to be more intersted in
the studing:
The Job Positions:
Senior Information Assurance / Security Specialist, One Source Inc
Multiple Data warehouse and Network Positions, Optima Global
Information Technology Positions, Troy University
Information Systems/IT positions, IT KeySource Inc
IT Contractors Needed - Multiple Positions, Executive Resourcing
IT PM/Analyst with retail exp - Boston-MA, Acnovate Corporation

Practice Tasks and Answers

1- Project Management Concepts: This consists of Project planning,

Project monitoring and control, Risk Management, Process and
product quality assurance, Configuration management, Supplier
agreement management, integrated supplier management,
Measurement analysis,
Concepts of Project Management During Planning :

Defining the work that must be done

Defining inter-dependencies between the elements of work

Estimating the resources needed to do the work

Estimating the time these resources need to perform the work

Developing a schedule and budget to do the work

Concepts of Project Management During Execution:

Tracking progress of work, schedule and budget

Analyzing variances between the plan and the work completed

Forecasting future status

Taking action to get back on plan

2- A task, or activity, is any work that has a beginning and an end and

requires the use of company resources such as people, time, or

An event is a recognizable reference point that you can use to
monitor progress.
A milestone is a timestamp in the project marking the end of a major
project goal or phase. It is always at the end of something. A
milestone marks the completion of an event.
3- information is needed for work break down structure:
- Listing all the tasks
- Estimating task duration: Task duration depends on project size,
human resources, experience with similar projects and constraints.
- Creating logical sequence of the tasks Dependent tasks Successor
and predecessor tasks
- Identifying critical paths
What are the three main task patterns? Provide an example of each.
Dependent tasks. For example, In a relay race, each runner is
dependent on the preceding runner and cannot start until the earlier
runner finishes.
Multiple successor tasks. . For example, A software that when the
time is on 12 P.M every day, then start to 1- send the employees daily
working to a server 2- receive any update information from a server.
multiple predecessor tasks. For example, a coin-washing device
when will start to work: 1- you must put the coin inside the device, 2you have to press the start button.
Q. Explain the differences between a Gantt chart and a PERT/CPM

A Gantt chart and a PERT/CPM chart both provide essentially the

same information about project activities and tasks, but each chart
has unique strengths and weaknesses. The differencesare mainly that
PERT/CPM has the ability to consider precedence relationships and
interdependence of activities. Gantt charts offer a valuable snapshot
of the project, but PERT charts are more useful for scheduling,
monitoring, and controlling the actual work. A PERT chart also
displays complex task patterns and relationships.
Q. What formula can a project manager use to estimate task
duration? Provide an example.
It involves using a best-case estimate, a probable-case estimate, and
a worst-case estimate. It looks like this: (B+4P+W)/6

Q. What is a common problem in calculating start and finish times?

Provide an example.
I think the common problem is to determinate the finish time. For
example, When For example, if a task starts on Day 5 and has a
duration of 6 days, then
the finish would be Day 10, not Day 11
Q. Why is the critical path important? Why would a task be on the
critical path?
A critical path is a series of tasks which if delayed would affect the
completion date of the overall project. If any task on the critical path
falls behind schedule the entire project will be delayed. Some tasks
should be on critical path so that project managers can shorten or at
the least control a project's schedule by focusing on critical path
tasks. Understanding the critical path sequence provides project
manager with information on where a project manager have flexibility

and where not. For the successful and timely completion of the
project a project manager needs to have some critical paths to
ensure that the project is going in the right direction with right pace.
Q. Why is it important to deliver effective project reports and
A successful systems analyst who wants to report a project must
have good written and oral communication skills to perform his or her
job effectively. Never underestimate the importance of effective
communication, whether you are using a memo, e-mail, an oral
presentation, or a social networking site to convey your ideas.
Q. What is risk management, and why is it important? Provide an
Risk management is the process of identifying, analyzing,
anticipating, and monitoring risks to minimize the impact on the
project. It is important because if any problem arises, a project
manager must be able to react fast enough to prevent further delay
of the project