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ANSWER

(a)

(b)

(i) Initial mass = 50 g


(ii)
Concentration of sucrose Final mass of potato strip after 30
solution (M)
minutes (g)
0.2
58
0.4
52
0.6
46
0.8
42
(i) In 0.2 M sucrose solution, the final mass of the potato strips is 58 g.
In 0.8 M sucrose solution, the final mass of the potato strips is 42 g.
(ii) At concentration of 0.2 M, the increase in the mass is caused by the
diffusion/ movement of water molecules in to the cell sap by osmosis.

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At concentration of 0.8 M, the decrease in the mass is caused by the


diffusion/ movement of water molecules out of the cell sap by osmosis.
(c)

Variables
Manipulated variable
Concentration of sucrose
solution

Responding variable
1. Final mass of potato
strips
2. Percentage change in
mass of potato strips

Method to handle variables


Use different concentration of sucrose
solutions: 0.2 M, 0.4 M, 0.6 M and 0.8 M

1. Measure the final mass of potato strips


by using triple beam balance/ electronic
balance
2. Calculate the percentage change in
mass of potato strips by using formula:

1. Fix the time (30 min) duration for the


immersion of the potato strips
2. Fix the diameter of the potato strips by
using the same cork borer for all the
strips/ fix the mass at 50 g
3. Measure the same volume of sucrose
solutions using a measuring cylinder.
1. The concentration of an external solution which is isotonic to the cell sap is
the concentration of the sucrose solution that does not change the length of
the potato strip.
Constant variable
1. Duration of immersion
2. Size/ length/ mass of
potato strips
3. Volume of sucrose
solution

(d)

2. As the concentration of sucrose solution increases/ decreases, the final mass


of the potato strip decreases/ increases // the percentage change in mass
decreases/ increases.

(e)

(i)
Concentratio
n of sucrose
solution (M)

(f)

(g)
(h)

(i)

Initial
mass
(g)

Final
mass
(g)

Percentage change in
mass :

100
(%)
0.2
50
58
16.0
0.4
50
52
4.0
0.6
50
46
-8.0
0.8
50
42
-16.0
(ii) Axes (A) both axis are labeled with units and uniform scales
Point (T) all points are correctly plotted/ transferred correctly
Shape (S) able to join the points to form a smooth graph/ line
Concentration of sucrose solution which is isotonic to the cell sap is (based on
graph) // 0.44 M/ 0.45 M/ 0.46 M/ 0.47 M
E: From the graph the point where the graph cuts the x-axis indicates the
concentration f the sucrose solution that does not cause any changes to the
length of the potato strips.
The mass of the potato strip is more than 46 g because distilled water is
hypotonic compare to cell sap so more water molecules diffuse into potato
strips.
A process in which water molecules diffuse into or out of the potato strip across
the plasma membranes of the potato cells occur when there is a difference in
concentration gradient between the cell sap and the sucrose solution that cause
the change in mass of potato strip.
Types of solution compared to the
Solution concentration (%)
osmotic concentration of the cell sap
0.25 % sodium chloride solution
Hypotonic
0.65 % sodium chloride solution
Hypotonic
1.10 % sodium chloride solution
Hypertonic

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TOTAL 33
2

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

1. How does pH affect the activity of yeast? //


2. What is the effect of pH on the activity of yeast?
To study/ investigate the effect of pH on the activity of yeast
1. The activity of yeast is optimal in an acidic medium. //
2. The activity of yeast is optimal in hydrochloric acid solution.
Manipulated variable
pH value
Responding variable
Height of the coloured liquid in the manometer
Control variable

(e)

(f)
(g)

Volume of yeast suspension // temperature // light intensity


Materials
Yeast suspension, coloured liquid, distilled water, hydrochloric acid solution,
sodium hydroxide solution and pH paper.
Apparatus
Boling tubes, beakers, glass tubes, clips, rubber stoppers, rubber tubing, retort stand,
manometer tubes, strings, measuring cylinders, stopwatches
Measure and record the height of the coloured liquid in the manometer using a ruler.

Clip
rubber stopper
glass tube
boiling tube containing
yeast suspension

rubber tubing
manometer
with coloured
liquid
initial height
of coloured liquid

1. Label five boiling tubes A, B, C, D and E.


2. Fill all the boiling tubes with 15 cm3 of yeast suspension.
3. Add the following contents into boiling tubes A, B, C, D and E respectively.
A: 4 drops of 0.1 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid solution
B: 4 drops of 0.01 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid solution
C: 4 drops of distilled water.
D: 4 drops of 0.01 mol dm-3 sodium hydroxide solution
E: 4 drops of 0.1 mol dm-3 sodium hydroxide solution
4. Shake the content in boiling tube A, B, C, D and E. determine the pH of the
solution using pH paper.
5. Set up five sets of apparatus as shown in the figure above.
6. Start the stopwatch and observe the activity of the yeast. Then note the level of
coloured liquid in the manometer after ten minutes. Record the height of the
coloured liquid in the manometer.
7. Record the results in the table below.
(h)

(i)

Precaution: ensure that apparatus set up is air tight.


Height of the coloured liquid in the
Boiling tube
pH
manometer (cm)
A
5
B
6
C
7
D
8
E
9
The activity of yeast is optimal in an acidic medium.

TOTAL

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