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Drive Control

Evolution of Drives

1997 ACS 600 for System Solutions


IGBT technology
(1990)

1995 DTC control technology (ACS 600)


1993 ACV 700 drive system

Fully digital

1985 PWM based flux vector control (SAMI STAR)


1975 PWM based V/f-control (SAMI A)
1969 research started
Time

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basic3e.ppt 1

Variable speed AC drives


kW
32000

CYCLO
24000
16000

8000

CYCLO

3000
1500

ACS 600
1000

SAMI MEGASTAR

315

7,5
2,2
208

220

380

415

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460

480

500

575

660

690

1000 1200

basic3e.ppt 2

2400

3300

6000

7000 V

AC-drive features
1. High total efficiency (up to 0,94 over 100 kW)
2. Low need for maintenance
3. Use in critical environments
4. Large power and speed ranges
5. No acceleration problems
6. Optimized drive packages for each need
7. Modular construction
8. Driving and braking in both directions
9. Constructions for in- or out mounting
10. High reliability
11. Converter-/motor-voltage 0,2 - 3,3 kV
12. Converter-/motor-current 3 - 3000 A
13. Frequency 0...50...400 Hz
14. Cooling: air, water or air/water

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basic3e.ppt 3

Frequency converter with intermediate DC-circuit

Line converter
Rectifier
Line

Intermediate circuit
Energy storage
L

L1
L2
L3

Motor converter
Inverter
Motor

V1

V3

Ud
V4

Monitoring
Control

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V5

Control electronics
control/monitoring/communication

basic3e.ppt 4

V6

V2

U1
V1
W1

M3

Power semiconductors

THYRISTOR

GTO

BIPOLAR
TRANSISTOR

IGBT

FET

MCT

FETh

voltage

6000

4500

1600

1600

1000

3500

4500

current

5000

4000

1200

400

10

50

50

frequency

400

1000

2000

20000

100000

5000

10000

Hz

power

104

104

103

103

101

102

102

kW

chip size

80

80

>10

>10

cm2

year

1960

1977

1985

1991

1980/90

1993

1995

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basic3e.ppt 5

Pulse width modulation = PWM

U2

Uline
Ud

Uline

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Ud

U2 at 1/2 fmax

basic3e.ppt 6

M3

U2 at fmax

Six-step inverter switching


V1

V3

V5

V
V4

V6

UUV 0o

V2

UVW

V1
V2
V3
V4
V5
V6

UWU
180o
360o

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basic3e.ppt 7

180o
120o

300o
360o

Sinus-triangle modulation
switching point

Usinus
Utriangle

U1

U2

U3
fundamental wave
U12 =
U1-U2

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basic3e.ppt 8

Scalar control voltage-frequency diagram


Field weakening

Constant torque
range
U/f = constant or
programmed
application

U
UN

range

U = konstant
U = voltage
f = frequency
= flux
I = current
R = stator resistance

= ca. 1/f

= N = constant

= (f/fN)2

IR-comp
0

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fN

basic3e.ppt 10

Voltage source and current source inverters


L

VSI:
Constant
DC-bus
voltage

+
V1

V3

V5
U1

L1
L2

Ud

V1

L3

W1

V4

V6

V2

V1

V3

V5

CSI:
Constant
DC-bus
current

L1

U1

L2

V1

L3

W1

V4
L

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basic3e.ppt 11

V6

V2

Block Diagram of DTC


Line
Rectifier

DTC core
Internal torque reference
Torque reference
controller

Torque reference

Torque
comparator

Speed
controller
Speed reference

Flux
comparator

Torque
status
Control
signals
Flux
status

DC bus
Optimum
pulse
selector

Switch
position
commands

Inverter

PID
-

+ acceleration
compensator

Flux optimizing
On/Off

Flux reference
controller

Actual torque
Actual flux

Adaptive
motor model

Flux braking
On/Off

U
f

Internal flux
reference

Actual speed

Switch positions
DC bus voltage
Motor current
Motor current

3~

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basic3e.ppt 12

Torque Response
With Pulse Encoder:
DTC
Flux Vector

1..5 msec
10 - 20 msec

Torque
Open Loop
DTC
Closed Loop Flux
vector

Without Pulse Encoder:


DTC
V/f Control

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1..5 msec
100..150 msec

basic3e.ppt 14

150 rpm*

2.33%

9.00%

6.20%

1.66%

ABB ACS 600

Telemechanique Altivar 66

slipN =60 rpm

Mitsubishi A240

nN = 1440 rpm

Allen-Bradley 1336 Plus

Motor:

Control Techniques CDE

Sensorless Drives

Siemens MasterDrive

Speed Accuracy Comparison

4.00%

3.00%

750 rpm*

0.53%

0.33%

1.57%

0.66%

0.46%

0.37%

1500 rpm*

0.20%

0.10%

1.05%

0.50%

0.25%

0.19%

*Average values of 4 different tests

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basic3e.ppt 16

Multi Motor Applications


z

Voltage, Frequency and Number of Pole Pairs have to be the same


-

Preferably similar type motors are used

Greater variance allowed if mechanical connection among motors

Load of all motors have to be the same


- Problems with rolling tables where the load varies among the motors

Fixed set of motor


- Motors cannot be added or removed without new identification run
- Less than 20% variance in cumulative nom. current

User macros allow two motor set-ups

--> Otherwise scalar control

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basic3e.ppt 18

DTC Benefits

Fast torque step rise time


10 times faster torque response than any open loop drive
No feedback device required for most applications

Dynamic speed accuracy


8 times better dynamic speed accuracy than any open loop drive
Better static speed accuracy than any open loop drive
Closed loop static speed accuracy is 0.01%

Reliability
Calculates motor state every 25 s with a powerful digital signal processor
(DSP)
Immediate response to power loss situations and load impacts
Adaptive motor model automatically used if feedback device breaks in
closed loop speed control

Low audible noise

Each phase voltage constructed by switching between + and - DC voltage


Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBT) & high switching frequency
Optimized switching - no predetermined switching pattern is followed
Heating of the motor is lower compared to PWM

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basic3e.ppt 19

Summary
Closed loop control

Open loop control

1:10000
1 %*
0.7 %*
1 to 5 ms

1:10000
4 %*
1.0 %*
1 to 5 ms

1:20000
1:6000
0.01 %
0.2 %s

1:20000
1:3000
0.10 %**
0.4 %s

Torque Control
Resolution
Non-linearity
Repeatability
Torque step rise time

Speed Control
Resolution
Speed range
Static accuracy
Dynamic accuracy

* Nominal torque
** 10 % of nominal slip

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basic3e.ppt 20