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Nadia Eliora
Elisabeth Pristiwi
Civics 10
12 October 2015
Civics Essay
By definition, a state is an internationally recognized country, equipped with political
borders, common languages, and an official population. A nation, by contrast, is a group of
people with similar heritage inherited cultures, languages, religions, etc. and are not
confined by political borders, but recognized internationally. After first declaring
independence on the 17th of August 1945 and being recognized for it on the 27th of December
1949, Indonesia became internationally acclaimed as a sovereign state, where the populations
under the geographic expanse function other one government. However, Indonesia also
classifies as a nation; people who share the identity of being independent from a shared
colonialism, who take pride in the diversity of cultures. Historically and legislatively,
Indonesia conforms as a combination between state and a nation
According to the Friedrich Hertz, states are built on the intent of on uniting a national
entity based on social, economical, political, religious, cultural, and communicative goal to
achieve national independence free of foreign involvement. When proclaiming independence,
Indonesia became a state formed under these circumstances. After the founding fathers of
Indonesia decided to unite against colonizers, they fulfilled Oppenheimers criteria of a state,
as a body that is brought together by mens instinctive impulse to end the war of all against
all and maintain peace (Oppenheimer). Thomas Hobbes also clarifies that a state is also
based on peoples State of Nature, otherwise concluded that a state is an agreement
between people to live together under the same laws (State of Nature). When they were
politically recognized, Indonesia became a state under international law. Historically so,

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Indonesia is built on the pretense that it is a state, as the forefathers goal in uniting the
country was to have internationally acclaimed independence with an agreed cooperation to
establish itself under the same government. However, Indonesia cannot be solely defined as a
state, as the uniting goal also confirms it as a nation. According to Ernest Renan, a nation is
formed based on common solidarity, history, and goals (What is a Nation?). So, regardless of
the archipelagic stature and social diversity, the common goal Indonesia for independence
makes it a nation. Therefore, historically, Indonesia classifies both as a state and nation.
Legislatively, Indonesias law classifies itself as both a state and the nation. The
original intent of uniting Indonesia and scribed in the Youth Pledge was to adopt three
ideals into Indonesian law; one fatherland, Indonesia, one nation, Indonesia, and one
language, Bahasa Indonesia. On this basis alone, it is evident that Indonesia is a nation built
under purpose for shared culture. The preamble of 1945 Constitution of the Republic of
Indonesia also opens with the confirmation that Indonesias goal as a nation is to promote
liberty, unity, humanity, and justice for all, which falls inline with John Lockes classification
that a state is a place where all people are equal and independent (John Locke). The
Theocracy Theory claims that the existence of a state is by the will of God, which is affirmed
in the preamble, where it mentions that Indonesias independence is by the grace of God
Almighty (berkat rahmat Allah Yang Maha Kuasa). The preamble as the pre-text for law in
Indonesia also classifies Indonesia under the same government, which confirms is presence
as a state. The preamble itself regularly switches between calling Indonesia a state (negara)
and a nation (bangsa). The Indonesian motto Bhinneka Tunggal Ika (Unity in Diversity) is
also an example of how Indonesia conforms as both a state and nation, as promotes the
equality of cultural differences in Indonesia as a nation, and emphasizes the unity of a state.
Indonesia, therefore, is legislatively both a nation and a state.

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Holistically, Indonesia is both a state and a nation. On a pretense of history, the
formation of Indonesia under a proclamation of Independence classifies it into both
categories; by state, Indonesias now recognized political presence confirms it, and by nation,
the common goal of eradicating itself of colonizers confirms it. Legislatively, the Indonesian
1945 preamble confirms Indonesia both as a state and nation, which promotes the stately
independence where people abide to the same law, and the nations intent on uniting cultures.
It is therefore concluded that Indonesia is both a state as a nation, both in self-identity and as
politically acclaimed.

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Works Cited
"John Locke." Infoplease. Infoplease, 2015. Web. 17 Sept. 2015.
<http://www.infoplease.com/encyclopedia/people/locke-john-political-theory.html>.
Oppenheimer, Franz. "The State." Franz-oppenheimer.de. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Sept. 2015.
<http://www.franz-oppenheimer.de/state0.htm#Introduction_a>
State of Nature. Sandy, England: RSPB, 2013. Web. 17 Sept. 2015.
<http://cw.routledge.com/textbooks/alevelphilosophy/data/AS/WhyShouldIBeGovern
ed/Stateofnature.pdf>
What is a Nation? UC Paris. Web. 12 October 2015.
<http://ucparis.fr/files/9313/6549/9943/What_is_a_Nation.pdf>

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